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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


when neither name for the object to be designated. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. name of the cow. in language of the present day. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. and where we are seeking. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. but nothing she herself knows the animals. to the syllables which are significant to the child. or. the baaing of the sheep. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. Molli. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. by whom the be understood. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. or Mollein. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. and. is given to a cow or calf. The syllables moo (mu. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. in other words. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. the closer we shall approach to the . and mully or mully cow is the .NURSERY IMITATIONS. come Moolls. when we is represent to our children of the cow. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. muK) and mae (rfie. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. persons of different tongues at the present day. mind of the of the animal. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). with an initial m or I. the present day.

for everything fit to eat. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. to eat. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. fiafifi&v (Hesych. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. . to work over with the mouth. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed.' In ordinary speech mump. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. to For instance.). On one occasion he said^e nim. nineteen years old. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. schipp. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. 72). and some were very clear and distinct.' he says. his nurse adopting the word with him. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. Gr. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. p. family. We have. when hungry. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer.. analogous to Magyar mammogni. He would now say good. as well as the mind of the utterer. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. partly from sounds which the child caught. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. hm. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. Finally an n was placed before it. by the natural humming sound. I had watched the growth of this word. had nim. mumm. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. nim. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. Gradually. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. repulsive to eat. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. then. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. . and nim came to signify everything edible. for things.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. A member of my own new sfop. Heinicke. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. for bad. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. &c. became more perfect. and which we might express thus. in children's language. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. he called to to drink. First.

to eat. ' id est. lita. Africa) nimi. nyam nyam. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. nam. j ing . it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim.).' White man eat [or steal] the crab.' — Lersch. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. A negro proOr. Gothic niman. iii. and thence to be tasteful. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. crab nam buckra man. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab.' says Quintilian. jumla. we can call them so. Vei (W. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. The Chinese child uses nam for eat.ONOMATOPCEIA. i. nvrnma. and the fizzing (and Series. as well as the Sw. oves lalare.minis. mumble. mujnpa. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. jamsa (yamsa). djamdjamgoda (to say djam. yamming. ut tinnitus aeris. to Sw. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. aptantes adfectibus vocem. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). 1 86).' says the author of Modern Slang. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. p. on. namnam. aves tinnire. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL).' And Diomedes. to smack in eat. 130-1. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. greedy . taken up hastily on the sly. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. to chew laboriously. (in chil- dren's language). at hiamske i sig. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. palatable. Nimm'd up. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. i8o. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. eating. to taste . tidbits nama . Wolof nahenahe. Africa) nimnim. to take. South Jutland hiamsk. food (Tylor. to fill the mouth. clangorqae tubarum. ' Motherwell. jammla. the Scotch poet. or word-making. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . mumpfeln. memmexen. snatched (Whitby Gl. Swedish dialect gamsa. stolen. nobis vix permittitur. mumpfen. to move the lips in continued chewing. delicacies. . Primitive Culture. make djamdjam). to be pleamind . and some of them . of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. Soosoo (W. Galla djam djeda. dial. and the crab — p. buckra man's language the white man. sweet (Koelle). Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. to mump. voracious. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. agreeing with Ein. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. to eat mampfen. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. savory. as to . In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat .

quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. und growling. Yet we ing. baaing or maeing of lambs. for the purpose of bringing the animal. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. cooing or crooing of doves. bumping of bitterns. ^6^. yelping.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. snarling of dogs. Indeed. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. grunting or squealing of hogs. gobbling of a turkey-cock. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. do not speak of a bowwow. between dog and harking. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. yelping. might be used. sparrow and chirping. whether it deserves the name of language. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound.' he says.' — We speak of a cow. bellowing of bulls. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. dove and cooing. anything connected with it. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . or thoughts of our hearer. before the in other words. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. when circumstances required. hooting of owls. barking. might be used as the designation of it. p. 'I doubt. a lamb. snarling. twittering of swallows. howling. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. or.' And elsevs^here (p. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. not of a moo of Lect. neighing or whinnying of horses. intended in the instance to represent the cry. cackling or gaggling of geese. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. that there is When Man. but of a dog. chirping of sparrows or crickets. croaking of frogs or ravens. bleating of sheep. We .' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. lowing of oxen. chattering of pies or monkeys. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. not of a baa. purring or mewing of cats. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. 89) with less hesitation. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance.

kae. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. We imitate the sound with a modulated. Malay gdgak. Picard cau. Columbia kahkah. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. crow. according to Durga). to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. 'Kdka. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. 349. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. Barabra koka. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among.). and Bavaria respectively. ist ed. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. a bird that is be driven away. Kdrava. crow. Sometimes the hoarse i . He to is therefore derives kdka. ghak. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. coccolare. caller. Hungary. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. In Lat.). But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock.' common sense. having a general predicative power. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. 380. in is Gr. whose sound (Pictet. 4th ed. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. fi-om apakd- i. layitavya . Sauscr. KOKKvi.. is kuM) for the cuckoo. gackem. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. Bav. or quawk. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. and means a shouter. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. sound). The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. Georgian quaki. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). caw kuhii-rava (rava. in g. kauwe. a crow (Pictet). Aoo-Aoo.' kd). so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. a a crier (p. kdka. it announces (Salaberry). derived fi-om a root ru or kru. Origines Indo-Europeennes). and gaggele or gagkelein. a daw. In Basque. lion. birds. e. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. and the sound of that direction. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. Arabic kdk. Manchu The kaha. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. a crow. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. kuho.IMITATIVE NAMES.

a crow. and sometimes both together. either in the same or in related dialects. another. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. or Gr. while crouk.. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. cock. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . k. korren. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. tor. kurre. turtle) as the Lat. coucouva. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. as well as of Sanscr. kraukti. the name for a crow. It. tuquheit. tbrtora. p. German luhu. the name of an animal will gen- . to croak. "Welsh hwan from hwa. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. Walachian coucouveike. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. Malay kukuk. Ibo akoka. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. to howl or Lat. tbrtola. Pers. giving turtur (and thence It. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. Da. Du. a crow . xi. Lettish kiekuts. and e. hibou. Du. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. Arabic tdtwit. libufs. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. tur. to hoot. teewhoop. kruk. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. kukko. Hindi. krauklys. Swedish kowipa. to crow. gufo. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. 219. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. krahe.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. to cry loudly.. a crow lish Lith. Albacuculi a dove. Fr. tortbla. Scotch peeweip. synonymous forms of similar structure). in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. The consonants p. Heb. name of its is the bird. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. name. kuku. kirren. uhu. coqueri- Languedoc. coccovaec. by the verbs gurren or girren. kraeyen. great variety of oKokv^uv. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . The crowing of cot in Fr. to crow. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. are represented. in the North of England. and e. to croak. Dutch kievit. koeren. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. gugu. So we have Polish krukac. 6. lilits. Zulu kuku. t. Magy. German kielitz. Esthonian kikkas. Sp. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. kraeye. girre. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. Yoruba koklo. French dishuit. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. lulo. German and Eng- krahen. reduplicate form. kukhuta. Mod. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. yell. lUyrian kukurekati. ghughu.Gr. wood-pigeon.

humming. i. North of England. 'The natives call it tanand. to shrill sound sharp. Northern Farmer. and yelping cry. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. The name of the cricket indeed. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. give a faint sound. schrecke. and he kong-ko-rong. dhran. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. to sound. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . schirke. a bee. a beetle druna. bambhara. of England it is to the b 2 . which they make in their flight very . kong-kong. The Welsh chwyrnu. Lithuanian tranas. a fly (Tylor) . grylhis. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. Corean sirsor. growling. to grumble. g. a sharp sound as of a 6. thunder. The drone peal. loud rumour. or a gnat fly. German drohne.' Amazons. from the humming. hollow noise.' — i. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. glass cracking (Schmeller). ajo. schrickel. Australian bumberoo. skryle. 337. horniss and from the buzzing The. The Arabic sarsor. skirl. flight its sting considered as a horn. shrill. German hummel. grille. as . chirk. Speaking of a cricket he says. from schrick. booming. Sanscr. with or Fr. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. to hum. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. common. knetta.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. swirplys with 6.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. in allusion to its music. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. the humble. g. grillen.' —Tennyson. skril with n. pip-pi-ta. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. ta-na-nd. and probably indicates that g. e. a small as hawk is . Gaelic dranndan. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. Albanian tsentsir.vf3. Fin. to chirp J may be compared with . — Catafogo. succeeding each other — with noise. Lith. schwirren. buzzing. In the N. German dronen. Arabic tantanat. buzzing. PofijivXwg. droning is . to creak Bret. sound. We may cite Gr. the drone or non-working bee .or bumble-bee. to chirp . Danish dron. whirr). gives rise to chwymores. resound. a drone. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. oE. bee. a hornet. cricket is from crick. g. resounding of musical instruments. there are infinite varieties. and not from E. bamba. zirken. sirkka. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. (Jieuschrecke) . 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. words imitative of humming . little intermission. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. to rustle. ' Sanscr. Naturalist on the tocano. din. to be compared with Sanscr. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. representing a short sharp sound. Sc. ' — Pictet .IMITATIVE NAMES. Lat. Danish gnaddre.

to . and djeda. from the imitative moo instead of boo. ox. Da. is inadmissible. w. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. to shout. the animal. bucula. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. or moo. btibleti. to from bau. make poo. Hottentot bou (Dapper). p. bae. biibnas. to shout. bubenti. baula. Piedmontese fi bau. a drum . the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. Manx booa. are (with a subsidiary k). bolt. bubati. or a z to the imitative syllable. verb is evidently identical with our shout. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah.XX called booing. to mew. a buffalo. to bump as a bittern Illyr. bull. cattle. to sound. and thence Lat. or formed Lat. It. mamoo-heeheek. that the imitative syllable are Lith. From baa. muJiati. k or g. and from to ring. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. a cow. a bullock. mugler. grumble as distant thunder . to beat hard. to low or bellow. to make a loud deep sound. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. His analysis leads cow. Zulu lulula. — ^Tylor. lulauti (to hoo-loo). miau-l-er. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. bukati. in same way. Lat. bugler. to make. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. mae. to boohoo. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). fivKaofiai. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. to low. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. as that of the cow by boo. Norse bu. forms a. make to it laugh. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. to make a noise. shoot . Cult. to the uses goda. bauli. Fr. buculus. or bau-l-i. Illyr. Galla boa. Thus from miau. or with on. a Geiger. bwla. bue. Fr. in a imitation of a ringing sound. With these analogies. Lat. to or bark. From the same lioao). bullock. mugire. and in Hottentot baa was the . a bull. whence baula. w. (iove. 167. be-l-er. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. to bellow like a bull. bu. bos. The Piedm. loge. a heifer. bugle. agreeing exactly with Lith. On the same principle. bullus and e. the Fr. say. bovis. to ba-L-are. boo. has bilbilgoda. maukati. amuse. to weep. The Galla lilbil. Gael. as the Illyr. to low . bo. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. Lat. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. verbal form given to the say. representmake bow. representing the mew of a cat. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. OFr. to make. bae. to bow- own bawl.

he would hardly. /xijeao/iat. G.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. from hundama. may be identical with Esthon. meckern. a sheep. as the proper name of a tame sheep. sound. cite as by grunt. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation.). as lou of an ox. a. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. groin. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. Gr. a sow. meil. Moreover. and thence groin. corresponding to ohg. to grunt. grunt. goats. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. lek-eg-ni. menAda (ndda. with the root ypaipm. hadg- Magy. the snout of a pig. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. /xj/caScj. It is probable also that e. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. (iriKov of forms like Sw. a (Hesych. and snorke. sus-sus. With gen. name. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. mekegni. this obstinate race. hunt (gen. From the imitative mae. purr). 6. lekavica. Gael. grumble. a goat firixal^ta. sheep or goat. kurre.' Moor's Suffolk words. Fr. meigeal. grunlike a pig in eating. a hog. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. does not produce a e. from knurre. may with to snarl. a sheep or a goat. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. hwch. to themselves. Welsh and Breton). hundi). meugler. Da. to grunt. cry). Fr. leg-et-ni. karra. mutter. ^. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). and of (maelon). knurfisk. it and e. Gr. a goat. a pig. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. And it is true there between hog and grunt. smack and naski. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. a grunt. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. curmurring. hound. . a pig Fin. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. Hence Breton hoc ha. grogner. we have Sanscr. oe. a sow. . or in any ! way ! persuading. Illyr. to bleat. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. name of a sheep. a wolf. and Circassian maylley. . for the voice of the ox). lambs. grumbhng. Kurren und murren. Idgge (Rietz). the designations of a dog the term cur. It. and hoc'h. and grumphie. to growl. signifying a snarling. a sheep or ewe. growl. to bleat . guttural tone. mecati. — . to rumble. by which the shingle gives rise to It. naskia. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. to bleat. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. grumpf. Illyr. Gr. although the imitation embodied in Lat. and with the subsidiary k or g. a sheep (Lowe). rumbling. Manx meilee. grunny. grumble. kurren. grugno. nire. hunon. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. lecco. The g.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. to howl. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. ' In driving. meketati. / The same Gr. houch. Magy. a goat. name of the animal itself. a dog. Among dog. undoubtedly imitative. Illyr. in Wolof bae. Africa laa. leknuti. hund. in v.

and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). Esthonian hoibo. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. ^6<. to go backwards. But words of this kind are. a horse. of the character in question. without a — we root.). In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. 91.' ticular bird. to the left. such as cuckoo. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. So Sanscr.' — ist Series. like artificial flowers. hiine. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. If onomatopoeias can . g. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. as in Yorkshire highly right. a little am- bling horse. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. when he found peculiarity. p. hoppe. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. turn a horse to the is In Finland. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. hobin. hobby. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. p. There are of course some names. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. e. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. animal. the cry to stop or back a horse. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. Thus we are led to the Fr. (Craven Gloss. . to whine. coquette.). The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold.. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). hottihuh.root. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. . as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. hobben. a mare. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. M). and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. cockade. humma. Sc. houpy in Craven. xxii MULLER ANSWERED..' 2nd Series. coquelicot. from the cry animal.

hross. Sanscr. moan. e. cough. wrena. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. nounced with a guttural). runniken. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. Bohem. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. hikkd. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. wiehern. animals or certain kinds of sound. hukkup. horse. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. hresh. sol. Irieschen. redpole. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. nitrire. whitename in in- throat. to Sanscr. hresh. swift. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. command of language was attained. Sw. wagtail. fehtati. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. Fr. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. hennir. diver. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. as sigh. lapwing. titter. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. Pl. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. Du. ance or habits of the animal. to neigh. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. groan. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost.D.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. than to the sounds represented. little speak for themselves. woodpecker. . a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. creeper. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . Sp. xxiii ginal object. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. form corresponding hresh. signified It. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. rinchar. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. g. Lettish sweegt. wrenska. but whether there kind between them and other words. frenschen. giggle. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. goatsucker. ginniken. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility.

— Sanders. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. pump. hang. to drive on. snort.' ! ! ! ! — dong. dong Read. to hammer . snukkup). tisio (tisho). plitsch-platsch. root kshu. for that of breaking. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . haw. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. banga. Vei gbangba. klatsch. DingBang. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. lumm. bangas. are familiar in ' to every one. Wtb. went the cannon. mer. to throw violently down. in a nail Let. an attempt would be made to by the voice. Zulu bongo. —Brem. or the w. on the chops is represented also by pratx. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. the dashing of the sea . haitshu. to beat. hoo. for the creaking of a wheel. ting-ting. for a small one. &c. for the for the sound of . to sneeze. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound.' 'Haw.' it both sides went. pit-a-pat. White Lies. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. banke. for in such sound of blows. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. a large bell. &c. aritischane. to ham. knack. Australian bungbung ween. wheeze. for the sound of a fall. Of a like forma- drum . fitsche-falsche. knarr. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . heaven). a more expressive than the e. clap ! A smack Puff. scream. 1865.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. snore. bang ' ! trenches. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. to knock. atchian. atchini. oren : Klapp. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. heart tick-tack. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. Da. for blows with a rod. thunder (Tylor) . debhes-lungotais (deifies. It is represented in e. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. ping came the bullets about their ears. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. a kind of drum. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. for the sound of a blow. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. the God of thunder . tlirob.' So imac. beat.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. ding. strippstrapp-stroll. bang. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . Mei gbengben.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. beat of a clock child . hoo ping ping. shriek. or tliat is accomit. . for the sound of milking.

laugh. Magyar pip. is pfeife. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. pipio. part of the What consciousness has the child. a chicken or gosling. pigione. far pipi. pule. pipare. of a word will appear supposed to represent. calls S. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. the voice of chickens (Cot. Lat. —Lyndsay. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. or the uneducated different consonants are man. chickens (Tylor). had been used laugh ? two. Fr. a or cheep. peep. — . piou. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. to squeak. and whimper. G. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. piou. pigiolare. or a piailler. young child . doubtless. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. Florio. It seems to him that the teeth t. scream. pipelni. and their relations. He Yet asks.) a chick. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. pippione. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. pipe. and so forth. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. The pi. as in other subjects of study. is of expression. Mantuan pipiare. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. used as a call to . pipe. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. pigolare. ducing the sound. pipilo. child. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. e. as k. De Brosses. cry of young birds . .sc. to cry pi. cry. young bird. Gr. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. as the simplest implement for proFr. In cases such as these. a whelp. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. piauler. pipegni. which he added to intensify the expression. pu. a fife or musical pipe. bleat. piccione. has been un- employed to designate fixity.' instead. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. a (young) pigeon. pipio. not- . mobility excavation and hollow ^. a fowler's bird call is lost. pi. peep. to cry like imrli^u). to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. Lat. to peep It. to cheep like a bird or a young It. to designate cavity and hollow.

like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. &c. . rumble. a prolonged sharp sound. or springing back. to pant bejii- zela. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. tontonare. lachachen. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . Pacific aka-aka. make wood a clinking noise. tintino. gurren. where the variation. of a loud strong sound. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. murren. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. a closed or obscure sound. some small vowel or consonantal sound. and lugh.. bubble. lachen. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). chack. or kaka-faka. as the click of a latch or a trigger. kniks. Pefuxela. tonare. It. along with Du. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). to pant violently (Colenso). to creak knirren. garren. turtur. murmur (by . to clack. to bubble. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. {to It.. i. to grumble). The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. to cry pi. laqfF. crack. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . be cate to go on laughing loud . the clucking of a j hen . To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. to laugh. to ring pipio. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. kniks. a drum W. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. grumble. of something fine and thin. to gorgogHare rattle. . borrelen. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. to fizz like fat in frying. cricli. coo. Hindustani karak is rendered. to be compared with Sc. a short sharp sound. to gurgle.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. to rattle. Manchu kaka-kiki. u. Zulu raraza. to gargle . creak. knaks. Poppopvi^to. to grumble. cluck. to cluck. thunder oil . loud laughter. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. to crackle like in boiling . girren. along with tinnio. to thunder. karkarana. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. sound of dry breaking. kirkirdnd. ioriogliare (to make borbor). sound). and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. preserved by Kilian. Hindoo tomtom. Indian chack-chack. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. in German. crash. a sharp short one. kuruk. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. like the noise of a glass breaking . as representing the sound made when something breaks. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. rumble. to growl. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g.Gr. pi .) Mod. knuks. to grate the teeth . to hawhaw or laugh loud. is very common. a. vaake gorgor) . brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . when it force than biscuit. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. to jar. the side of g. rumble (Fl. knurren.

368). chinking of coin. is based on the same imitation as the e. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. for the sound of privy whispering. uproar. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. muro and e. tumwata. at an accelerated note. tumult. spring of water in the a bell. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. disturbance (F. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. to knock. to beat. Sanscr. brings us to Fr. quarren. to be compared with g. tup. Calt. halaidlac'h. tubh. Tiie Galla gigiteka. to ring or jingle. The whispering of the wind I. Magyar csamm-ogni. . simmer. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. awater* ' The Mme P. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. E. to giggle. bent her head. especially one who beats. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. The syllables lil-bil. klirren. kiling-kalang. a nightingale. are applied to the is excrements of children. or of bells ringing. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang.' Member for Paris. rain (Tylor. the sound of a stringed instrument. to strike. to the purling of a brook. KaKog. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. and her heart went thump. and e. a workman. koXiw. a boy's whistle. and Gr. and Gr. e. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . identical with g. ding-dong. for chut-chiit-er. sound. croaking of frogs. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. the gingling of glasses. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. is Manchu tang-tang. as of Tamil muromurmur. the tingling Ming-Hang. 192). and bilhila. caca and Finnish adkkd. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. djeda (to say tub). for the clinking Lat. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. to say chut. bad. clango.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. Fr. Maori pata. or the bubbling up of to a spring. wail. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. fumtu. bubble up. for the ringing of illustrate bells. or to Du. borrelen. and the imitative nature of tivgle. clash of arms. Newman). agrees with g. clank. as Fr. Turk. correspond to e. Prim. while cacd / used in e. chut. rvir (in tvittio. rifiirayov. word. a drum . shout. kl'mg-kling. 1871. a nightingale. chuchoter. drops of i. jangle. for a tTviror). hala-hald-faMa (falda. of keys or tinkling of bells. call.and e. corresponding in e. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. coughing or clearing the throat. csam-csogni. compared with Gr. champ. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). thump. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. clink. sound).* the heart. cry. Scotch sough or sooch. noise. a smith. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. jingle. bulbiil. make djamdjam). to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. Galla tuma. Manchu kaka. box on the ear imitation of the . indicating the origin of Gr. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . . to whisper.

rap. clang. bubble. report of a gun. and Fr. chatter. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. clack. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. whine. souse. w. thump. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. and Grimm. douse. smack. squall. So in Fr. dabble. Humboldt. by rubadub. murmur. hum. a applied as well to the force of the bang. clash. blow. whack. while e. according to the strictest phonetic rules. hiss. answering to g. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. clap. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. plump. tingle. to fall. it is fallj AS. tinkle. pop. chink. gargle. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. splash. squeak. rumble. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. tomber. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. to is blow..' — Nohden. parapatapan. or v^hether jectional. crack. din. splutter. craunch. ' Der puff. thump. mutter. brumberum. rattle. gurgle. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. clink. It. snap. for (Sanders). sputter. 'pat. crunch. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. Nevertheless. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. and soufflet. smash. paddle.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. blubber. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. lash. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. fizz. swash. whizz. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. The use of g. ring. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. tymmesll. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. squeal. Fr. slash. flop. dash. the Germans puff. at a door tarapatan. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. tumbian (to beat the ground). boom. thump. puff. tap. in e. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. creak. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. thwack. rataplan or rantanplan. whirr. flap. without the intervention of orthodox roots. clank. we have buffet or cuff. tum-ultus. clatter. patter. bang. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. crash. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. to dance. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. twang. The beating of drum is represented in e. disturbance. jingle. and the French pouf. But although and also found in Lat. guggle.

If. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. wringing the hands.' . and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . in the rushing waters. p. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. Grimm or Bopp. hay. every little pain. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. is Thus ah!. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. without a thought of symbolising to them. At the first beginning of life. are made known by an instinctive cry. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. xxix on the contrary. stractions. the kind of action that is desired of them. but if we must not complain on the beach. or stubble is meaner name. or of any if wood. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. the interj. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . knows them. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. that he has taken the step in rational speech. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother.' If chaos. and found in the building of be burnt up. in the case of the animal or of the infant. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. little who has time to want of her nurseling. formerly cited. because they are spontaneous. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. or any unsatisfied want. and uttering plaintive sounds. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. and thus they become signs of despair. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. of horror. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. by the nature of the cry. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. the inteij. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. ugh .'. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. an imitation of a sigh . of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. grief. 94. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. Crying. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side.

coughing. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. 32. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. ^6g And to the same effect 371. as who them spontaneous utterances.' — ist Series. groaning. and the eye. p.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. sneezing. to solve the I shall call first. more to the point. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. p. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. Language begins where interjections end. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. which are frequently so toned down cance. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. they are involuntary interjections. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. be more powerful. or which is of me as suffering pain. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. he cites from Home Tooke. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. and some of them the composition of words. interjections. 344.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS.. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections.' p. them to exercise it. may become traditional. He says. If I wish to make a person of an . One short interjec- tion may fact. And again. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. more eloquent than a long speech.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. should be remem- . the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. of all the mouth. the lowing of a cow. shrieking. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots].

in Magy. loud laughter. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. and thus. then speech begins. and more or less limited . tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. speaking. but the less am at a loss what to say. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. in Fin. when I arp humming and hawing. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. I am not hearer. it them. hahota. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. and others from interjections. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. hahottaa. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. cachinno. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. he says. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. Kayxa^u). which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. Lat. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. bered. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. for example. interjections. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. Koxafw. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. hohottaa. some kind of language might have been formed. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. demolishing here. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. Gr. kahkahah. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. Tooke in truth.

Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. But here nature soon conies to his help. words receiving the meanings they now bear. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. And so in the case of language. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. like peewit and cuckoo. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. a Picture-language. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. the critical question should be. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. The following account is given by Kruse. a deaf-mute himself. Though. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. if taken as a whole.' he says. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. and not. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. of the nature of this great movement. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. of the world.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. and go where we now say stand. . signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. dumb is the language of signs. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. It as has ing their most striking features. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. What strikes him . than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. makes them stand and walk upon the table. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident.

To seize the is the principal movement of an action. such as than the educated man. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. his action. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. walkest. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. or the verb to be. for child. that. and to taste. as it now opens out. that signifies great . to name.' In the Institutions. signs are taught for yet. he. can do better and more easily abstract terms. and with his thought. and it is flesh or meat. called Gesture-language. thought is already broken. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. but if I depress it instead. particular sense in properly so called. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. it means little. nay. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. he. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. for walk. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. such objects. becomes roast meat. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . for the agent. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. letter To hold the two fingers apart. among themselves.GESTURE most. and we have roast goose. the lan- guage cultivates itself. and forms further and further. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. for single objects. thou. most striking outline of an object. push it towards the person addressed for thou. xxxiii him between one thing and another. the whole secret. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. and gestures. and And thus he makes himself a language. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. it seems. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. walked. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. that air. The of sign for left hand. or To pull and flap with the arms. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. what more. The same sign stands and the act itself. many when or but these. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. the sorecalling them to his memory. like a V.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. And is. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. and fully serves to j . or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. walker.

' dener's knife. and so is an adverb. depend entirely upon the use. as in die it is a noun. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. substantive or adjective. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. it called an interjection. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose.xxxiv asking. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. or a quality. and the as. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. whether by additions or otherwise. . the garden. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. I say. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. a colour red. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. or a passive scene of existence. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. according to the circumstances of the case. and thus performs the part of an adjective. You beaten . when I say. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. a number of alternatives are suggested. in fact. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. qualifies the against the wall. The same word . When I say. Do not bang the it is a verb. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. Who is has beaten you ? would be. putting it into his pocket. would be simply beginning of speech. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. or an act. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. or something of the kind. When a verb. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. or action. He gave door a bang. might be the knife. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. in other instances sentence. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. to indicate the action of a certain person. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. as when Bang ! went the gun. as But when it is meant door. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. the ture of white term pink is and red. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages.

signifying an attribute of this person or of that. middle. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. Thus tafu signifies a great man. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. wherefore. inquiry. coalesces with the personal pronouns. which is an old y ting (use stick). In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence.^ — Miiller I. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. but often self-evident. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. a groan. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. contempt. and may be used language. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. or with elements expressing relations of time. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. in the is indicated by the syllable y. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. verb nor noun has yet been developed. as cung. greatness. wherewith. pain. a noun. some outward display of the affection. &c.. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. grie^ horror. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. wonder. the man is great. that admits itself in of audible representation. whereof. whereto. or nei. and to be great. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. as kuo cung. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. . the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. Latin. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . a sigh of oppression and . Jii ta. inside. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. commencement of speech. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. with a stick. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. or some relation between it and another object.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. that is. in the sense of great. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. wherehy. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. 255. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns.

miau-n-is. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. ohg. has more kopfweh. oval. vaj. g. ! ! Goth. to injure. och.ez. j.. e. guai. Gr. jao. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. g. first person. woe. to chirp. pain. &. to cry n. weinen. It. ochan. Lat. howl. to wail or cry alas . to lament. representing a cry of pain. dchzen. ohi. mostly a ! %. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. 6. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. w. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. ochain. on. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. is w. n. to gargle. och. however. xxxvi grief. jaoh. . I oi[iot. to rriourn. wehen (Schmeller). ai. or r. to cry at. ah. lament from oimi. Fr.-l-are. ui. grief. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. aiai^to. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. oh. Thus from springs otjucifw. ache. In this way from the root guai. to yell formed e. miau-l-is. . Jar lau-lau. wai-l. . the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. ach. Gr. the pangs of childbirth. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. as. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. It. to make). found in g. wAwa. misfortune. misery. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. to hurt Let. hei. and to bark . to do woe. djamdjam goda (goda. weh. as. wai. die wehen. grief. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. to make bow-wow. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. . It. to ache. seen in Gr. mew. Let. Illyr. ah. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. in Gr. waiidt. pain. e. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. ach. oi. to . the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. grief] affliction. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. la. gwae. vce. woe. to ache. gwae. Gael. Illyrian vaj. guajo. to sound yapyap. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. Bret. on. is Ay di me I Gr. och. cece. vei-a. gwe-l-a. oh. to weep. The form corresponding to Lat. to wail. form. w^wa. wd.'). cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . w. to weep. to bewail oneself. vce. a groan or lamentation vir. probably a deeper groan. wehthun. o'i. ach. weh schreien. wai. e. . headache. to lament. al. pain. ocAJ. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. tirr-djeda. 6. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. ing action I. ahi. are ol-ire. axofiai. Lat. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). guaj-ire. guaj- or cry out pitifully. ochan. miau-l-er. lau-l-e. and cacak djeda (to say crack. ace. lament. It. at the close of the radical syllable. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. suffering. representing Illyr. oimare. to groan. achen. Gr. Such are g. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. A widespread It. to cause pain.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. • The child. Sie.' this. child. . or that it is. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. give. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). Phil. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. case. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. or carry me thither. But. ToSe (or in Attic E.' person. In the expression Da. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. a word of many applications in g. The Fr. give me that cheese.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. When we pointing. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. saying : there the ad- Trans. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. and may be rendered. that. or give me it. Diet. 'nay. a specified were by pointing him out. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. Please. ' sees an object. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. I add) . of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. thata (ta-ta). for instance. indeed. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. or wants to name something. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. as. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. is-te). when he wants something. is we I believe. implying the direction of its good will towards them. Bav.' then points to his wife. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. and so on. der da-ige. the nursery da-da. we may translate this by there (it is). da. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. as it Dieser da (as Lat. Sanders (Germ. Thank you. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. that is it. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. to here . When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. but the truth is. says da-da-da. when 1859. well as Goth. da.' all is is — their consent. and by a variety of expressions besides. nurseries. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. more emphatically roSj)j that. Dr Lottner observes. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. this here. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. as to express. that gratifies me. his trowsers' pocket. according to Menage.

in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add.' • liv ANALOGY. to chatter. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. p. to move step by step. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. or dalliance. standing. to tion to another. to beat. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. — Cot. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. make dadada). of which any one may. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. in every mode of expressing the idea. moving. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. tasting. speech. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall.' says Muller.^ its ' utters : a cry. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. which thus exertion. meanings. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. or metaphor. strike. Thus Gr. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. sounds. to walk. reality. . to say to oneself. tattle. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. the original is that which he places first. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. dadee. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. and one in particular must. sinking. then instinctively interest. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. and shapes it into an . its desire. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. beat. thinking. childish toying. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. takes it — as When the soul.' says Lottner interior. stutter. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. to knock. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. The da is dodem. pay.

bright. magnificence. judicious. smell. . ghsten.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. to glitter e. may be it explained . Fr. to tinkle. Heo Du. to shine. extended to the exercise of the understanding. esclat). The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. a ringing . In the case of sparkle. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. scheteren. to 5 ghtter. then to sparkle. to resound. knistre. make a loud noise. taste. bilbil). in popular language. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. splendour. clang. — 1. tinkling. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. Bavarian bracht. knittre. 1654. beorhtian. discreet. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. to crackle gnistre. Again. to shriek with laughter . outcry. and thence e. sprageti. is used in the origin. to glitter. wamara. to crackle. to be wise. firom the Gael. wise. to ring as a glass willata. snotor. signified a clear sound. So firom Lat. as kilind. Lith. from the . in the domain of movement. may be quoted gUt. kimistd. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. (parallel bilbila. to snilF. Finnish. wilistd. sound. In the same way the Goth. prudent. a rustling sound Gr. suspect Bav. Du. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. splendour. unlella. a with kimmaltaa. wilahtaa. to ring. to glitter. to sniff. to have Sapiens. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. the equivalent of g. kiimottaa. snutrs. It is The word bright had a similar In as. sense of brightness. to shine. tumult. beam. . air. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. noise. tintelen. search . pracht. gnittre. and figuratively. a brilliant light kilid. rattle. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. a dis- cernment. brilliancy. scTiateren. schiteren. bilbilgoda (to make . to flash. on. to sparkle. snudra. properly a clap or explosion. think. fiapfiaipw. same imitative root with Sw. to glisten Dan. also wise. &c. which in ohg. to smack or taste. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. to . for example. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. to quiver. iclat (in Old Fr. and schmecker. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. The 6. while sapere itself. smell. spraka. and. snot. as. savour. to sniff out. man of nice taste. sapere (which signifies the nose. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. chime). schmecken. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. snuff the sniiten. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. to glitter. to sound clear In Galla. we have and the and beorht.

whirl. &c. Kpovtiv. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. sharp.' he says. inside. gluey. 1. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. rend. itself letters are felt as sofl. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. ipuKuv. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. v. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. the cross. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. wool. is felt Lana. and vepres. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. oily. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. And observing that n kept the voice within. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. rough to the ear. he says. pleasure soft to the ear . rough both ways. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. accordance with the way in which by touch. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. soft. in of his works. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. Acre. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. in truth. Tpa)(yg. power of the letter-sounds. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. Kep^arl'ieiv. briars. as soft by the ear. discusses the tone of a picture. rough. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. flow and flux. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. the bleating of sheep.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. mel. the clank (stridorem) of chains. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. tremour. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. of dressing loud. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. \nrap6e. 6\tadaveii'. extremely loose. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. fitting the letters to the sense. which The Stoics. then in rpd/xoe. break. smooth. The BpavEiv. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. kvTOQ. we hear of screaming colours. crux. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). within. eo ut res vol. rough. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. shatter. the neighing of horses. he framed the words ivSov. strike. roughness. to slide. KoWiiSije. or . Much of the same has been often quoted. pvfi^Civ. .

but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. for exis ample. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. dig. 138). k. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. sag-oter. stab. a rough and sudden . in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. corresponding to the ineor. p. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. to reel abruptly from side to side). because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. the case of the voice. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. cular effort Again.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. 'and consequently form. Fr. tug. shag. jig. or checks as they are called by Muller. p. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. degree of roughness sound. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. to signify varieties of movement. dag. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. stag (in stagger. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. A greater felt. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. d. rug. ii. shog. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. g. and in the utterance of a high or or low. as when. t. jih. joli. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. jog. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. jag. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. to jogj sac-cade.

that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. to touch. e. The Mipen or pencil. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. &c. to stir. Bolognese tocc.. and e. a cracker. a piece or bit of anything. zigzag. zack. (mitsati). passing to the signification of motion. is so frequent a consequence of movement. chique. a playiug-marble. mot. Then. properly a small lump'of . like English tick. Accordingly the g. to tickle. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. then. tech-tech. cica. Welsh cicio. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. to glitter. schockeln. and It. a jog. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. a crum. not to utter a syllable. foot. toch-toch. sound barely audible. or check. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. also to stir. as tot. sound Fr. lead to Spanish tocar. then. chicoter. to ring a bell. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . tack. to pulses being knock. chiquet. To tick a thing off. a . that we never can be sure. to have it ticked or marked on the score . mie. Mucken. Sukkeln. an infant . so to Italian toccare. a good piece of road . to mark it with a touch of the pen . movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. to say a word . and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. to beat or play on a musical instrument. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. is lanese toch. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. S-panish miga. used interjectionally to represent a . a small bodily object. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. tock. in cases like the foregoing. is made to signify movement. as Italian tocco. it produces Dutch micken. micare. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. however. schuckeln. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. Ene olde suksuk. to strike It. g. to incite by light touches. a stroke with a French toucher. movement. a quid of tobacco. to take a thing on tick. Fr. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. Dutch kicken. The train of . figuratively. Illyrian migati. and analogous movements. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. The production of sound. tecche-tocche. Thus we have B. to mutter. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. Hence Lat.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. chic. Fr. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . The analogy then carried a step further. It. for the sound of knocking at a door. to move rapidly to and fro. mica. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. motion. mik. an old worthless horse or carriage. to utter a slight kick. kuk. to On the same principle j we have g. a little bit. to winkj micati is Lat. The syllable suk is jerk. kik. rough horse. Brescian toch. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds.

to movement of the pen . anything . motte. there (further of!) ao.n. to touch. we have e. small of kind. anything small flax. of movement in totter. tit. chico. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. you. to whisper (Pr. totle. the least visible insect. neither moit nor an atom. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. mutter j dust. ri that. (Halliwell) Da. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. and dot. as in e. not to utter a syllable. tozzo. further off. . not an atom . a small lump or pat. there. little. a lad citta. titter. iki. ticktack. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. that iku. move slightly to .- a jot or little It. tot. and toddle like a child titter. or o toi. here (close hand). a little titty. Malagasy to. Fr. tiny. . sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. and a small lump of something. mutter. tittle. n. gni. to tremble. a whisper. a morsel girl . In a similar the relations of place. the vowel sound. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. gnu. So. . titmouse (Du. a small bird. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . ika. gno. a bit. Pm. small titlark. and out there. 199). e. zitio. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. clay . to jot down or note with a fro. a small horse. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). zitella.) . that. tot. bunch or flock of wool. not because the pendulum makes a different left. a. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. taut. here. mot. for the beating of a clock. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. subdued manner. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. a sparrow). in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. the same organ touched with the man. to e. a bit. or the converse. and mite. seesaw. . mossche. syllable mot. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. mut. tit. . I. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. To jot. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. tot. to make a slight mark. at where the order is inverted. 0. or the like its It. But the same is language has re Javan. a girl. a small quantity. Cult. for the three personal pronouns. titilh. tottle. . mote. this. to dot. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . fait. motta. a morsel. little j to that of a small bodily object. tot. and he. a certain conception. This kind. . but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. i. eo. e. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. jot. corresponding to the personal pronouns. a small kind of lark. is shown in murmur. a tot . lump of earth. citto. often entirely arbitrary. a e. The following table from Tylor (Prim. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. a light quick blow. Du. fragments It. 48) cites from the African Tumale. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. to jog. . lix Sp. there '(at a short distance). Halliwell. Then. this . to touch lightly with a pen.

ni. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. . qu. to. /wo. Chilian tva. uta. that. there. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. Mm. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. there. an old woman chacha. and origin. Abchasian aSn. . usho. here j ka. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. Japan ko.) nna. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. an old . ojOo. ni. here 5 Yoruba na. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. tiiio. you. biii. olo. Magyar ez. as the act of pointing was ta. Guarani nde. me probable that • Vei also little. father. ulri. this . there. this fi. little.. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. that. (tt). here j abe. Dhimas isho. and a for the female.. that (intermediate) j wana. young one. probably initial of distinction that the k.e^. I . Tamul i. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. w. thou ni. . ofj. ukko. as in Italian Fin. . is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. ^. for the male. Carib ne. child. It seems to (fen. that in the distance. small (Pott. there. femina ama. . Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. there. loo). ta to ka. ndi. j Canarese ivanu. this . while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. mas cheche. respectively. km. Fernandian az. here this . . Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. here feraa.. that. is father. thou. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family.) pronunciation of i or e. Tarahumara ibe. Lat. It Carib lala. man erne. is Here. . /e«. there. that. that.araM.. Sahaptin (America) kina. he. there. thou . mother. child. that. that. Botocudo ati. Mutsun ne. that. here . he. this . mother. Ossetic am. akha. ne. no constant rule is observed. as Mr Tylor remarks. Zulu ajoa. father k . nne. here . mother. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. /mya. Then. this . by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. 6. Gr. this ole. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). ita. . this <t. minution further. bi. that.

a child. and in the Pacific dialects. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. for the . trSpigner. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. Thus we have Wolof sopa. don-don. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. is to express simple continuance of action. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. titta. wean. stairs. to teet. as ding-dong. or even. has tittafrem. to tread. to begin to appear . the idea is called. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. whence Fr. i Sw. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. Fr. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. as j money.' making the voice as small as possible. of smaller things. little. Clank represents the sound of something large.) . nab. a little yellow beard. murmur. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. A little wee face with little. trippelen. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. for a succession of light blows low-wow. &c. — Douglas Virgil. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. tion. the principle of reduplication. sound of bells . they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. wenig. pepin. in old e. just beginning to appear. The Sw. nipple. Da. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. nil. fretful. trappen. din-din. From cases like the foregoing. or chink. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. a step. trappa. trap.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. 401. to make its way through the bursting envelope. . The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. trippen. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. for instance. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. the nursery few j Sc. knob. to peep through. looking through between obstacles. the simplest mode by the g. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. Top. to peep. keeh. to feet. lift 8. at pippe frem is to spring forth. A little weeny thing. barking of a dog. little To sup up. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. And perhaps the E. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. to leap. analogous to winy-piny. dance (Kil.' — Merrv Wives. The sound trapp . repetition It. the pip or pippin.

. kamha-gamla. clash of weapons. very great. little child (p. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. to pant. . the lungs. Thus in the Pacific loa.Ixii REPETITION. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. to treat with contempt. keep spots. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. to skip. puka- puka. from Maori muka. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. or a little tee--ny thing. clamito. very bad. The same principle of 196. calling. or very very great. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. tache. the and clique. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). ding-ding. mpolu is uttered. to call frequently from Fr. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. to talk at to walk. if very young. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. Mandingo ding. mawhiti. to rock. a grasshopper. Cult. racket. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. repetition or continsignify long. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. a clattering noise. hardness. child . acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. Again. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. to cover e. 99). to express repetition or continuance in a general way. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. lololoa. ratsi-ratsi. click.. ayunayunan. and the words express a continued sound of rack. mawhitiwhiti. to vi^alk about for flax. &c. rack. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur.' expression is — ^Tylor. sopasopa. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . a cradle. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. (to use a to speak. and Fr. er. is language. Malay ayun. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. And generally. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. serves to show and in this way. are echoed by the rudimentary et. Susa di. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. i. to love. a spot. in familiar use with ourselves. or rdtchi. or el. could readily be conceived. smallness. or in Fr. to say pooh It is ! to. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. rapidity and strength. tach-et-er. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. to to call. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. to or rub. the agent in panting . but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. kendagenda. instead of being actually repeated. 97). the comparative degrees of greatness. rack click. amusement. cliqu-et-is. So from clamo. very long (Pott. puka. bad . and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. kenda. didi. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. loloa. or imitative syllables. random . Thus in E. properly speaking. child .

cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . fickle. rynel. to make bau-bau. to make gug. as to handle. others. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. dabble. it. dab. guggle. to wail woe . to puff. he who rubs. shuffle. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. mew and baa . wankeln. smack. joggle. to rock. to continue dragging. wancol. by the side of wanken. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. miauler andpiauler. or in e. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. to rock or wag. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. or Maori puka-puka. or by association. to hand. syllable clat . way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. rubber. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. to crackle. g. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. bubble. such asjlap. is In e. which. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. kneel. to make a succession of grabs . to move to and fro. jogging. itself. where all direct connection with sound is lost. Piedmontese bau-l-S. are to cry mew and pew . to bark like a dog. draggle. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. wagas ging. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. wavering. or fi bau. The Fr. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. waggle. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . a from ayun. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. a succession of cracks to rattle. miauler and beler correspond to E. in some applications. or omitted. to make a succession of shoves. bub. and in as. in Fr. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I.Jicol. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. Jickfacken. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. to hand-le. Ihre remarks under gncella. the knie-en to E. wankel. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. as mAS. from puka. In cases like these. The contrivance with any particular noise. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. without the intervention of the frequentative element. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. the lungs (the puffers of the body). crack. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. compared with g.

as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. it is obviously a mere chance how long. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. Dupe comes to us from the French. and comparatively few easily deceived. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. the breach. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. although it is not difficult. or in aptness to combine with other elements. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. known in Italian. or in mode of use. moreover. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). will continue to be felt in daily speech. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. Breton. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. There is. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. to cry ugh at. to the separation between the broken parts. Polish. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. by a hard body breaking. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. at was more familiarly known. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. deceit. A gull or a dupe same sense. or how generally. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. which. which is the origin of the word. on a moment's reflection. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown.

The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. founded in manifest blunder. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. however. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. nor any limited of ideas. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. . no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. life. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. Hitl^erto. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. is. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. language is . and the word is used in a secondary sense. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression.

and vescovo. French. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. If English. i. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. hearing. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. 330. out. and 'Russian. evique. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . I think it very probable. change. compared with the duration of man. guages in South America. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). in the course of many years' isolation. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. of material things. Naturalist on the Amazons. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. circle perpetrates a new slang term. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. unintelligible to other hordes. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. episcopus. therefore. Welsh. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who.

as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. 7. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. 6. i. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. Nor is there one of the letters. 8. A key must unlock more doors than this. or whatever the proportion may be. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. is MN. which are idenr Figures 5. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. ao8). tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. it will leave figures 3 and 4. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. Cijlt. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. as shown in the subjoined illustration. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. 9. The combination of the symbols I and 2. . a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. to be taken (Prim. ancient Greek M . and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. and . but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. the actual it which would to represent.

would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. or. in the shape either of direct inspiration. known to us as yet. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought." the use of a change of vowel in as. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. leading him to utterances. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. his fellows. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. for instance. which either by direct resemblance of sound. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. had its origin in imitation of sound. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. and the only safe beneficent Creator. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. what comes to the same thing. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment.' should be discovered.

that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man .COMPLETION OF MAN. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. in the course of generations. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. and sooner or later. race were speaking men or not. the conduct of Ixix life. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. until the progeny. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. or beavers. or else. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . by animal without a trace name of Man. and rose towards a higher state of being. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. for instance. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. that he started from the lowest grade. of using imitative conduct . there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. or of their own reflected thoughts . and when we look back as far as history will reach. or not. as elephants. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events.

E.Nieder. Carpentier. . Dueange. Fin. Provincial dialect. Bavarian. Da. Anglo-Saxon. Douglas' Virgil. Sup. or Dan.V. Romano - Cas- traise. Diet. de la langue Cat. Catalan. Cotgrave. Dueange. Due. Dn. Dutch. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Diet. Dief. Carp. Wtb. 1654. Fr. English. Cimbrisch. Bohemian or Czech. Dief. Teutonico-Lat.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Grammar Boh. dialect of the Sette Commune.. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Diefeiibach. Elfric's Fl. 1737.-Eng. dial. Cot. 1766. Infimse Latini- D. Diefenbaeh. Bav. Supplement to Dueange. Esthonian. Cimbr. 1850. Baile/sEngl. AS. 1857. at the end of Somner's Diet. Bigl. Gr. Diet. Couzinid. Bremisch. ^Ifr. B. Supplement to Bret. Danish. Biglotton seu Diet. Brem. Gothischen 1851. Esth. 1768.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Castr. Finnish.



cruccio deyrie. sveritet Asknace r. r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r.percurrunt kimista^x. woman r. puHti r. haverie crtOT r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r..5 ERRATA. buque 118 brodiquin r. Blob plowied r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr.>. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. alUger ahaverie r. word allagerr. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. willekom Blab r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. r. plowied budowaer. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. r.nokkutama willekem. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . ^i?^i2! r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. Askance woud r. yjnaifia r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. cti.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. kilistaa bugiie r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. (/ijtf r. baltresca nokkutomax. katowai perairrantr.


off. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. compounds. Ab-. downwards. Jvery man shewid baft. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. —Bruce. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. AS. an edict or proclamation. to hold . be-ceftan. In Lat. into the Romance ftrseg . among. this word beand Spanish. us. er. to subdue. to sauff the king or spill. his. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. have entire dominion over. alike. and secondarily in that of command. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. a. Hence on-bceftan. ab. to arise. baftan. ir. Again. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. announcement. on. but now )bsolete). dominion. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation.t G. said. Immediately from Fr. and — Chaucer. of-dune. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. plesyt him. . 843. away from. to awake. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. in. abaft. Dent posture. on-bsec . Thus ip N3S. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. vs. OHG. ur. implying a completion of J. sion of 'an abandoned character. particular 1 . He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. out of. from. 244. Parson's Tale. iway from. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. To abuse is to use iway. power : Than Wallace thing. A. on-lic. in a manner other than it should be ablution. Thou spelds of mychty iction. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. onis aback. Lat. as. bandon in French. a washing off to abstain. literally. in the same sense. dominion. away.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. from a is to wake to abide. state of sleep . Abandon. ibandonner. Abs-. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. as. a/tan. AS. erwachen. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. ifter. until the event jlace . o/j of or . command. whatever he be. K . is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. "rom a height. Passing tongues.he Goth. Abaft. abs. behind.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. rule. The word Ban is common orders. on. the er. orders. ar.

ais. 1520. to The . with or without a final sh. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. Milton. esba. polish. to diminish the force of any. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. On the other in use as well as hand. drink. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash.down. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. Wall. More correctly written abbat. from Lat. and grooms besmeared with gold. beer.fournir. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. an abbey. at his own the lips. overthrow. I was abawid for merveille. abandonly. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. In or.' the surrender of a ' K. esbahir. of wonder. astony.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. merely the terminations ons. abate. Abbess. bawi. abbatia.esbawi. or admiration. his eyen shene. to strike Froiss. esbahissant. Abbot. Fr. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. Hence the OE. to ruin. so common in the found in the OFr. abaundunem-ent. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. son bandon. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. 1 1 8. Custom. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. 364s. Abbey. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. confound. to astonish. R. Hence Lat. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. Baba ! Mod. et prirent terre. vol. baba. abbas. It. Beat. of the Fr. impulse. Originally. R. weaken. A. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. — Neccham. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. burny. ant.Prov.— — . as ravish. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. father. to overthrow. iv. to abaw or astonish. and that from Syrian abba. to strike sail . See Abide. burny was formerly burnish .y^J fusion from any strong emotion. — — . other. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. de. Castrais. to take possession of an estate.polir. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. baer. to bate something of the price abbatersi. abbattre. terminedly. and it that that it — . astonish. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. to hit. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. to happen. impetuously.On princes. to excite admiration. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. to make lower. esbahissais. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. of fear. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. Cotgr. to gape. Bate. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. from ravir. c. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. adverbial expressions at abandon.) . effect of shame. and the verb was written in Eng. . to put to con. And he thereof was all abashed.— R. abbatis. shame. law term abatement. and sets them all agape. castle. ne more vermeille. may be explained. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. Hart in Jamieson. to light upon. or society of abbots or monks. .which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. down. abbatere dal prezzo. d. by Wall. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. uncontroUedly. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. person. his mouth. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. thing abbatere le vela. See . depress. R. to beat furnish. bandon. betrash. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. faire tomber. lish to abaisse orabaish. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. abbatere. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . To Abate. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. where custom (Grandg. in the active form.

songer. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. beijden. or in Fr. 1 • . tenere a bada. a right in suspense . shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. bouche bdante. open the mouth. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. othres abidan' The effacement expect. were called Brothers. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. ceive. speaking of the Holy places. —Raynouard. expectation. Q. to look. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. bida. — II. abiiance. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. to remain or endure. delay. bouche b^ante. ne chastised them. Norm. to expect gabeidan. abSiance. signifies the direction of tend. abidan. John. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. Cat. baier compared with It. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. Abele. white. exciter. to mind. E. . listening. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. de Berri) Prov. deceit. endurance. to ance. Boethius. to wait. Corant sens lui. listen. syllable ba. Du. endurArt thou he that should come. inciter. Ducange. is idenwait. Pol. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. desirer (Roquef. look for another. tical with It. Fabl. abet. expectation. abie. to wait.was formerly used in the sense of look. beguile. says. m Abeyance. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. trick abetar. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. or do we AS. To Abet. baer. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. baier.Fr. to deanimer. bada. guardare. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. abie. to hook. Prov. abbadare. tity of E. The verb atwaiting. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. abeter. gola badada. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. Goth. while the monks under his control ing. the verb of abeyance. take care. tempting. lingering. bhr. bie. delay. badar. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . to attend on . abet. expectfamily. inciting.' is in AS. have seen abide. in Fr. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. — ABELE Epiphanius. attendre avec en^pressement. which the mind to an object. or absorption watching. bida. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. bide of the d endure. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. literally white tree. on the one hand. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. house. to be intent upon. badare. also to OFr. to wait. . to attend to. wait. suffer b. Thus we have It. forms with the d effaced are OFr. incite . to abide . 366. we sceolon ON. to desire earnestly. ne wist what way to chuse. In We . attendre See Bait. bana.— Chaucer. beguiling on the other. qui iaaille. bder. — signifies to suspend action. to open bader. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. Abie. and alluring to his own destruction. to suffer death in Du. ^couter avec dtonnement. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. deceiving. beter.— Roquef. desire.— ^richer. F. to desire. — . gridare. Cat.) abayer. From abahier. . with open mouth . Gloss.to wait. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. in Dan. badare. b^er. baier. to expect. from Halo.. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). . ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. Norm. take notice. bie compared with Dan. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. which is certainly related to It. to be intent upon. abaier. compared with (Bosworth). abayer. intent observation. ' ' . de Champ. covet. and E. beijen. usbeisnei. bocca badata. . See Abide. watch. to gape . abeyance. beidan. Corresponding to keep in suspense. The white poplar. to It. delay. suspense. and Prov. K. with badia. to tarry. regarder. tarrying . Thus G. (Vocab. pense. abetter. Ni engigner ni abiter. to yawn. bialodrze-w. to deceive. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. beijen. Quant voit le serpent. aspirer. forbearance. warten. OFr. verbeijen Sw. waiting. Guernsey beth. bidan. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. Gloss. badare. wait To Abide. a bay or opening in the coast. to stay. to stay. badigliare. to open the mouth. aspire to. us. to In great amaze. and in E. beidan.

Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. For on board. abide. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. Fr. powerful. habile. Dr. use. willing to schewe his wrathe. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. to wear away. though sometimes confounded with it. —Bacon in R. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. as habiller du chanvre. from Lat. without special reference to the notion of retribution. O If tion. 2nd Tale. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. AS. If it badare. bidan. forbid for mother's children should abye. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. Merch. at kasta fyri bord. Chaucer. F. i.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. Spenser. Abie. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. L. within the ship. power. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. abigg. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it.ynes. within the walls of a ship. the Sir Tristrem. was often used in the same sense. strong. fault being simply clothing. abycgan. R. adapted . durance in both applications. habilis (from habeo. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. abolir. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. to . and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. N. on board . and Cr. P. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. God — dear. God. ON.^and to make his power knowne. beidan. In this to erase or annul. the Pardoner In the original. habilis is closely preserved. to dress hemp. suffer the Jul. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. aboleo. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. Wickliff in Richardson. P. — e. Tr. him with che. able. in for any special purpose. being disabled in the highest degree. de la volatile. The —Boucher. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. bord. must suffer for it. Mids. al- be found so some will dear abide it. Boucher. Lat. a board. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. at hand). Cassar. Milton. Prol. Q. . fit. expert. to redeem. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. — Able. abie. It. and the simple buy. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. is the verb abie. She shall abie that trespass dere. Fr. sufficient. have-like. consequences of anything . abilej Prov. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. to pay the purchasemoney. properly abuy. &c. — P. Innan bords. abidge. bide. abie to Goth. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. abilh. 2. when compared with Aboard. or bie. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. atling hem to her proper offices. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . to have . Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. convenient. to draw fowls. abicgan. to pay the penalty. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. the side of a ship. R. purpose. ! ! Cotgr. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. abeye. the Fr. from AS. as E. to perish. and death for handsel pay. while in later examples As I . and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament.

full ofte his words for to Fr.foda signifies to beget. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. abbrechen. gravity. from . vital PI. be-ufan. nurse Lat. abrcBgdan.— Abbreviate. abufan. which may God avert. side. oil. literally. Abundant. ala. break out. abbreviare. Tale. to let sleep. be-utan.ger. — ' — — preceding verb. the idea of breaking about . that greatly agredge their sin. disastrous portent in some passing oc. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). For on broach. Severe the threatened evil. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. to cut short. butan. to break off. d. Above. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. levis to the Romance languages. coalesco. abredan. progeny. agredge. below. . it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. by the to bring up. alere capillos. af-oolden. Thonne Abroach. on high. titan. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. Lat. . Melibaeus. brood. without. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. AS. bufan. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. and alere flammain.ymbutan. to awake. Gael alaich. The primitive idea seems that of beget. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. to snatch. but from Lat. of any kind . agreujar. the OSw. onbutan. while the verb alleThe root el. AS. to fatten. above. nurse. about cockcrow. and also. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. to light a fire the Abraid. to bring up. around on the out. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. The radical idea is to feed the flame. as AS. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. OE. ABOMINABLE adolesco.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. and to do something to avert abbreviate. from Fr. as withotityn and without. OE. ala is made to signify to rear. s —Casdmon. Sc. heavy. to nourish. To Abound. parent. leading immediately to Fr. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. and in-d-oles. — . to feed.' Parson's rence. awaking.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. ol.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. sec seftre — Chaucer. draw out. the vital spark. hard. To abray or abraid. as the duty of nourdisposition. abrdger. AS. Then. motion. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. so that here also we to deprecate the omen.. Virg. a portent). Prov. giving birth to. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. So in Lat.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. snatch In English we speak of away. ufan. OSw. Fr. is not from G. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. to rear. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. the identity of which with ting. abutan.. to grow up. Abrdger itself. alUger. which passed into English under Abominate. en. Abray. and bidden him abregge. Du.' Ymb hancred utan. to grow together. is a ively. or young forth. Finnish stock. to turn. Quod abominor. way Sw. currence. In the same brevis . to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. See -und-. abowen. to start. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. Goth. to progress. Thence to regard greugetat. seems aras.aboon.the older form. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. becomes leu in Prov. greu. to beget or give birth to children. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. outward. his contemporaries. the man dwindles away. Kiittner. boven. natural ed direct from the latter language. or cut short. gravis. to rear. af-oleii.1. life. breaking out in language. alan. the form a&^^. whence the Fr. nourish.) . to produce. pedigree from brevis. kindling. to main. common in Chaucer and Abominable. See To Bray. while the sense of beget. abominor (from ab and omen. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. the hair grow. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. explains soboles Lat. D. abbrechen. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. adolere. abracan. to AS. alan. Of these synonymous adolescere. al is growth. to aggravate. and also to abridge. for ligeth butan. to feed.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


to support. inAgain from the same author cudis. incus. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. and devils. Antick. some one.D. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. ReApe. Fr. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. as from as.made out. Pezron fiUist. bread. post. or in a ridiculous dress. were chiefly of the former class. To go antiquely.. strangle. whence anthem. gabeigs. to display pario. three antike pillers. : . spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. were andouiller the second. Fr. plenteously with red. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. left as the . Prov. from the imitative habits of monkeys. Lat. Gr. in Shakespear. as we call it. anapoz. — — — . what Roman civilisation. AS. like a jack-pudding. from Stephanus. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. to open. and claret wine. AS. panar. from. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. antifena. AS. before.is to be given. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. one having wealth. a few. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. Ful- Apanage. a termination equivalent to Goth. on.th centuries the recognised models of antic. andouillers. part. amboltj Du. Antler. Thus from gabe. Apart. a small quantity. surimitation of the ancient models. from ante. Lat. Percutere. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot.legacy of given against. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. apertum. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. ab. Lat. to strike. from in and cudere. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. from avTiipoiuia). to nourish. Antique. Aperient. the anticks — behind. a puppet or an anti^hona. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. to strike G. swaged. which by anvild. anfilts Pl. separate. trouble. anxi. from eigan. of. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. avri^ava. separate purpose. or antique single chamber. Jorioc. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. Any. all of gold. should be received. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. Ilvtwotov. rich. work. . to go in strange disguises. Apartment. stem. Anxious. white. Antidote. to have. but the expresent day. transferred to the grotesque characters. aside. —Spencer. as posticus. Fr. Gr. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. Lat. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. younger child. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. a block to hammer on. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. Gr. such as savages. wealth. burnished. a definite . So Lat. fauns. set aside. a preventative . As the browcalled antiques. Anvil. one. as the Italians. whence Prov. vex. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. Hence the applica. af. d<popi(xnbs. panis. eigs. E. choke. anticus. from ango. one at the least. press. Aphorism. finally applied to a whether grotesca. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. Hall's Chron. villan Gloss. to imitate gestures. d. Apartment. apatiar. from. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler.— . aperio. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. verberas. ambeld. and ig. from an and — - . But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. to sound in answer. from an. something ler in R. See Cover. antefn. i. G. to strain. before. Otfried. Mannequin. anxius. cenig. a gift. In like manner.—Aperture. to bring forth. apanage. To ape.

properly to join like to like. that it outfit. from paix. to — — . Prov. to be open to view. prover.propius). w. The Fr. to learn. to deem good. peler. to finish a controversy. or E. — Apprise. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. like. Cotgr. in commendation. kind of action. APO sentence opoQ. — Appurtenance. apropid. to — . OFr.his giving evidence against his principal. Gr. to mark to define a bound. Palsgr. jabloko. habiliments. d-n-o. apal. N. From Gr. proper time came. make a composition between parties. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. diroBrjKr}. appellare. diroTrXriaatii. of. to understand. prope (comp. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. To cause to pall (see Pall). to call for judgment. AS. Approach. Fr. —^Apparent. to catch hold of. to come near. habilUr. ar. Gr. horror. Apostle. Ir. apal. apropchar.— . peace. in fact. 'L-zX. to fit. to send to. whether through age or sudden teiTor. — dirondtfiu. plight. ciously than nede is. opportunity. to make a thing Apparel. They werin his approvirs privily. e. . Epistle. Cent Nouv. Fr. D. esteem. They were considered To Appoint. Apoplexy. Apprehend. case. to take away or lose the vital powers.parecchio. to lose one's senses. prohts. appareo. agreeing with "LtA. the good. . or the like. ^wss. a price. to store or put Appal. one is in. To praise. array. And whanne sum men Lat. good. par. pronounce fitting). approcher. poind. ai. obolys. after his mind . Formerly apricock. pragigua or prixcoda. praise. to approach. Apple. laven is used both as E. Mod. off. S^. Appareil. to accord. away. agree. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. known. aptly. It. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. . lAfiaam. To Appear. approcdare. quoth the frere. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. apprentis. apar. Fr. 'LaX. Cotgr. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. diminutive pariculus. mine. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. Apo- good time. one the MLat. in data.parejo. fit- — ness. from aTroorlXXu. seiden of the stones. irpaiKOKiaov. one sent out. to Lat. to rate. A — . From Lat. iwKjToKri. a learner. —Diez. poind. prize. Lith. En peach. landmark. Yr. Prov. For their acquaintance was not come of new . to seize. to assign or grant over unto. 11. and metaphorically to take the meaning. From Lat.probare. Walach. to approve. appris. piteux poind.t. APRICOT off. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. find Then like Fr. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. appartenir. Lat. Hence It. pretium. corresp. probare. pronounce good. to strike down. Appease. Gr. And among other of his famous deeds. decree. a'^opi'Jw. were formed appropiare ejar. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. to send off. Nouv. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. value apprdder. to call. Apotliecary. in good season prendre son d. word was specially applied to clothing. Cotgr. one for his defence. taking. Gr. and in the sense of condition. allow. oVooroXof. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. purpose. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. I prise ware. to disable oftat. Friar's Tale. apparecchiare. and appoinder (to find fitting. To Appraise. H. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. apprendre. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. apprehendere. i. Parson's Tale. rise to \t. ON. and also as appraise. trim. near. manner. despatch on some service. appareiller. xv. : — — speak 'Lz. to set a price on. apin R.prix. to suit. in Chaucer. Fabian in R. ap. Pliny. appaiser. when the . to announce. order. pertain or belong to. from.pareil. an epistle or letter.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order.—Apprentice. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. Fr. Fr. to which it is often referred. — prehendere. (cited by Diez from a late author). 5w. avail. Sp. consent unto. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. — Approve. Hence appoind. whence the e. Fr. 23 . Fr. approver. dress. to commend. to deaden. Fr. preparation. a crime. cepl. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. An old appalled wight. to dress in this fashion. like. set a price on. aparelhar. to learn. The PI. Yr. become dizzy . equal. apprise. to deter- to strike. a thing for one's purpose.

is taken in is a soothsayer. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. grande nappe. arbiter in re censendS. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. tion under trial. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may.shrubs {arbor). and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash.sors. {mies ^=ia3. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. ear. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. Arbitrate. as an eye-witness. a lot. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. a cloth. fastened close. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. This path Aqueous. and taken away before dessert. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. 331. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. She made. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. C. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. to plough. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. Now one of the points — — — .meaning at Shrewsbury. 31. derived. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. and thence fit. Roquefort. P. aqua. la nappe. hariolus arpelen. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. Freshly turnid Arable. the spelland umpire. OHG. 2. short. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. man. a lot. Gr. . is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. . Pr. or barm-cloth. con. J. found in Fin. ahva. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. scr. aestimo. — . originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. Pm. divining rod. auguror. suitable. P.] in the N. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. The loss or addition of n very common. Lat. and a protection of the clothes. Naprun. As is a pretty parlour. OE. A. Beryn. as ihe diminutive. It may be doubted. . — napkin is Naperon. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. quod he. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. of of divination arpa-mies. water Which that benchid was.. Albanian. a pleasure-ground. properly the arwella. Lat. From OE. Aquatic.o. sestimatio arbitraria. account for either of these significations. however. arbitrium. opinio. Maan initial . Alban. naperon. and sortilegus ation. and with turfis new Goth. words derived from arpa. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. arwelo.' —About. Marsh. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. to decide by lot. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. however. doubtless is the origin of E. Thus we have natiger and auger. nawl and awl. a lot. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. Hall. aha. symbol. nected. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit.) E. ap. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. delon. arpa. Arbour. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. intensitive of nape. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. garden. aro. most conspicuous situation in the garden . Now we find in Fin. conjicio. pracoqua was not an adapt. arbitror arwaaja. or eft. to preserve it from stains. aa. be That it inne groweth. sortium ductor. aptus. proper. Prol. Flower and Leaf. . ughe. From OFr. sorcerer. a soothsayer. arwaus. It is certain that the apricot oracle. rofe and all. a river. wata. and the one who gives oracles. herbere. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . shortdr. Lat. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. conjectura conjec^ra. arbiter.

apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. patus). to demonstrate. Arcliives. armee.aioj. arguo. arcA in e. timid. un malin enfant. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. et vulgari verbo. it signifies roguish. ardre. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. to be on fire. erz in G. erz-bischof.' Paul Warnefrid. ^Argument. whence the body of the nobles collectively. adjective. armata. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. stuff. arcus. arrig. sly. an extent of flat surface. to Arch. bad. kpxi- beginning. D. It. earm. ill-tempered. especially shoulder-joint. Du. aridus. the court of a magistrate.— Army. bad. Fr. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. to rule. det arrigste snavs. arrant Arms. receptacle where the public acts were kept. From the verb armare. vocaveris. AS. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. are formed the participial nouns. is essentially the same word. 3340. Lat. Arch in composition. argr. arsum. arma. to be in comp. Alisaunder.4 rir/. G. make clear or prove. raineno.' the Gr. a burning or setting on fire. Ardent. difficult to reach. Gr.In E. an arrant usurer. ruling by the nobles. ancient. arm. while the Fr. Du. From apxeiov was formed Lat. rame. Sax. W. a bare plot of ground. faint-hearted. vescovo. apxri. Perhaps erz-wticherer. G. as in E. i. archangel. the terminaGael. Area. bravest. Lat. to burn . Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. Sp. a rule (princiruler. arduus.is the natural weapon of offence.. armada. apx^iv. bad of its kind. to arm. fabricate). ers-betriiger. Arduous. apxtipfve. . . ramend). * ArchjAiTaxit. malicious. Lat. Uo^a^. taxed with cowardice. Lat. shoulder Boh. TiKToiv. weapon may be simply an application of annus. the most arrant trash. man. fainthearted. an arrant rogue. Gr. and Kpurka. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. and must be identified with Dan. Arcadia in R. ON. Brem. Dan. ein arger knabe. mischievous. arm. and our army. . a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. first. a threshing-floor. Aristocracy. curved. erg. And thou as arwe coward. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. earh. a branch. een erg kind. arwe. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. high. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. a. arg. arga. Lat. by Russ. a chief builder. from nixa. argvitugr. morally bad. the best. burning heat. . Applied in modern E. There can be no doubt that E. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. forearm . particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. signifies chief or principal. a bow. branch. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. ars. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). a court yard.. weapon. Lat.' Lex. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. government. and not with apx. an arch-deceiver . ardIn G. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. to dry. Lat. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. apxtlov. — Wtb. arm'ee. the a brute. as the arch of a bridge. A construct.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. which has been referred to W. mischievous. Langobard. worker. sluggish. . — Architect. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. Cot. sly. Gr. arch-bishop. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . apxh. Ardour. exercise lordship). un petit rusd. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. The . in Due. shoulder. contemptible. Fr. gwyrek. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. wretched OE. Fr. 2. ardeo. Arid. arson. lofty. Arson. earg. gwyro to bend. troublesome. a noble. Lat. aj-f. from areo. Arm. ' — Argue. wanton. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. an arch boy. curved line. Gr. which is derived from it. ramo (pi. ardor. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. area.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

baalien. afbalka. balka. to be ill. bal. a ballad. to ail. destruction.—Ballad. Ballata. a beam. bielke. Wotton. boll. a pill. Gael. Fin. baler. i. a. a water-skin dim. balare. Q. Boll. ballotta. dial. a ball. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. a beam. torment. beaten road. Bohem. The primary sense seems as in G. Du. as in a barn or cow-house. to bale out. a ball balla. to paddle in water .or industriously left untouched by the puzar. stage or scaffold. Du. a dance. a scene acted in dancmg. a division of the old laws. gen. Hence Dan. TtaKKa a pail or tub . * Balk. to be balker. E. as we say. Rouchi ban. whether of wood or stone. a ballot). . Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. Sw. to stir. tum. balle.Lat. balle. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. sickness. bdlkr. bal. bal-daed. e. to grieve . Venet. Russ. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. Fr.of men . Sw. bol. Gr. Sw. ON. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. on. N. balloon. baloier. to speak an un. balken. a partition. ' is a piece or confused talking. palcare. to plank. the object of his expectation. to rock. ball. balk. We have then separate dial. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. to signify washy drink. Sw. weak liquor. a great ball. a wooden partition . blister. floor. trouble. a bubble. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. pallukka. ban. balka hopar. a dance. Ball. uveirs bolk. AS. a clapping or flapping of wings. 2. palloilla. to by beams. to plough for a boundary between lands. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. Bret. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. a ball. similar connection is seen in Sp. a skin. balka bunge. baalie. a ball. Sw. a But making way for death at large to walke. balja. ballare. Fr. bjdlki. It. ball. Balloon. and the dim. dial. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. balle. maan pallikka.Fr. on the shore. malefacGower in R. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. hue et illuc inclinare. In like manner Fr. pallikka. Hence. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. pilula. a pail. to shake or jog. To baulke the Sir H. w. Ball.). to Not sparing wight. bolyaf. from the more general notion of moving up and down. Sw. on. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. balk. a boil. balk. See Gall. . balveins. to dance. Ugutio in Due. sorrow. the beam of a ship. boleii. Fr. bacgtteter. balge. to roll. Goth. . To Bale out water. to partition off . dial. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. dial. Pol. Sw.ing. OSw. a ball or pack. to see-saw. are applied to a From the same analogy. bealwes. pila. I. a balk of foul weather. vcdra bdlkr. bollr. says Ray. bal. ballo. plague. ballet. ball. wickedtorment ON. balken. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). . a globe. a ball. may exhibit the original development of the signification. from bacquet. Da. to move. pallo. ballan. ing. calamity. ball. It. — A — — . balva-vesei.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . bolyatchka. Bale. balk. Da. vacillare. a pestilence. ballar). separaison. heap up. taich. ballare. ill. G. shouting. Grief. the ballet of the theatres. globule. to wave. pallo. wickedness ness . to cause another to miss pustule. balle. Perhaps on. OFr. pain. at giore en balk. Sw. G. with the perhaps from balg. probably Lat. ne leaving any balke. bolawy. 3. hooting. to avoid it. ache. bala. Bowl. bold. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. balkr. cka. . bol. . pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. chapurrar. a together in the form of a ball. ballone. OHG. It. roof. balla (with the augm. a separate portion. Baulke of land. other while. to pack Da. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . It. bbllr bulla J.' speak gibberish champurrar. maleficium. sick. A balk.— Ballet. on. bola. a washing-tub. to ache. a clump . to dance. ballare. Sp. misery Du. lealo. Ballot. mass. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. (Hesych. to on Holmedon's plain. F. and evil in general. palla. the breadth from side to side . a clod of earth water. . Dan. bolker. a continued noise of waves gently beating . package of goods. grieve . Mid. It.

If bambocciolare were child of one. explains ballast. Dan. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. But Fr. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. bertesca. to walk. &c. a young babe. balustrade barandilla. inutile onus. endormir par des contes. ballustre) is a corruption. denounce. R. barauste. because. It is explained back by Adelung.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. railing around altars. a duty on goods last. or ballast of a ship. ^a\Ba\iov. the backload. Fr. Bamour. ^Arbuthnot in R. Du. urtica. enchanter.' And Kil. lest. to enchant. baranda. a rod. more serious objection is . 1. Ballast. 1854. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. an Old dotard or imbambolare. in the first place. balconies. bag-lest. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. astonished. seems the original form of the word. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. but loadage. ranked on the outside of cloisters. a nettle. Fr. Lest. analogous to what is seen in It. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. baltresac. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl.). back of the ship. like Fr. lastagium signified not only ballast. lestage.that the going vessels. The Baltic sea. also with flatteries and . .Lat. It. Bret. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. terraces. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. the flower of the pomegranate. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. the act of walking. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. — — oltriga. Baltic. Mr Marsh whether the a load. Sc. bambocciolo. a false tale or jeer. called Bait. fonts. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. Cotgr. lastre. To proclaim. deceive. by met. To Bamboozle. it is forced to take in stones or sand. In OSw. paid for the right of carriage. lastra. from Lat. little round and short pillars. barandado. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr.000 tons. It. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. a fragrant gum.. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. To deceive. galleries. sorcerer. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. mare Balticun. The Sp. Bret. baUa. 43 — Cot. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. Balluster. curse. To Ban. inutilis sarcina. ballustres. Sp. A — — . ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. &c. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. of balusters. as he says. . dial. To Bam. forbid. a small balustrade. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. small railing. for want of other freight. To make fun of a person. Sept. Venet. bamein. puzzled. make fun of a person. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. Balm. ballast. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. bam. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. bamboccio. last. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. Balsam. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. a battlement . objects to the foregoing derivation. bambolo. age. When a ship discharges. i860. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. a useless load. Gr. or movement of one who walks. balsamum. baume. command. for a load or goods (Roquef. from bara or vara. is in Sweden and Norway. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. bag-las. deceiver. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. Report Pennsylv. Lat. to preserve equilibrium. and Mid. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. bumbazed. This is the backload. Said to be from balaustia. baU. more frequently than outward-bound.

side. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. Goth. Cot. Car. and It.e. Goth. side. the ensign or banner. R- He Translated by Chaucer. bundun. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary.. Fr. bannire in exercitum. also the band or of marriage. 19. in Fr. OE. tener da alcuno.^ bandy. from at the Lord's courts. theodscipe ut abannan. change to the feminine gender in banda. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). In Fr. D. biddal. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. It. he bannede his ferde. The to . bann. then the signification w. Leg. is That with which anything AS. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. says Muratori. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. a coast. to ctide. bando. See Abandon. bannum or bandum.Lat. curse. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. margin. Se il — Romance languages. v. to follow a faction. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. populum. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. In a special sense the term company itself. Band. — To partito d'alcuno. permission. to ban. From the verb to banda. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. It. Thus the word is also used in both senses. bande. to excommunicate {lysa. Sw. sostener Torriano. bandon was used in the same sense. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. 813. Fr. power. R. There is some doubt how Fr. Spebifid. Assises de Jerusalem. etc. Sp. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. those who side together (bande. to . band. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. bande. eiiseigne. banner marked the place of assembly. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. admolendinum. Diss. we constantly find the expression. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. border. . at his own discretion. 2. To Bandy. Commun^ment son bandon. — excommunication bann-lysa. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. Wyntoun. banns pany of footmen serve. . 15. acquired the sense of proclamation. A. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise.is further developed. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. and in E. hoc est vexillo. bandi. flag. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. and thence to any proclamation. Ripuar. to bring corn to be fahne. bandera ground at his mill. Baud. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. to form parties. region. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . to publish) banna. faction. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. ba?idare. G. a company.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. bound.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. to take one to task. &c. 1. ex. bannire exercitum. he assembled his host. It. banda. to unite with a band. to reprove. band. banda. bindan. to side or to bandy (Florio). banda the colour or material.—John Villani in Due. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. E. bande. bandon somewhat party. 26. Bandus. passing on from proclamation to command. Les saiges avait et les fols d. in hostem convocare. Bandear. Mag. — R. Sp. i. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. —R. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. ligue Taboada). whether by way of injunction or for- command. Capitul. 'A son bandon. &c. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. It seems this signification has arisen. summoning to serve So in Swiss. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. parti. authority. fahne.

home — Bandog. banka. banco. to make a stir banke. and bakki. It. hricg. has bang-bang. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. —^Vocab. the back. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish.^ knock. Roquefort. . It. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. a blow. se joindre. rap hatike et som The Susu. AS. panca. bankruptcy. bakke. — — whence E. in the same way that E. See Banish. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. language of W. To Bandy. a i. to join in league with others against Cotgn. — Fr. whence the mod. in the sense of a pirate. a long raised seat. 2. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . Mercutio. beat. forbear this outrage.: . The child cries bang! fire. roupt. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. bank of river. hammering. at canis peciiarius. Mid. band-hond. banc G. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. Milton in R. that the word is used by Romeo. bander. s'associer. to cabal. ON. — . and hence. bana-sott. tumult bangas. bench. and poise Their lighter wings. broken. bannire. for shame. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. The word is in E. bane. bank of Dan. many a bang. a bank. to foment factions. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. Sw. Benchi. Bacon in R. See Balluster. bench. bander. a bench. put under the ban of the law. Goth. &c. a table. desk. ON. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. bank. death-sickness. benk. See Band. a bench. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. a sand-bank. stir. to bend a. . Fr. a de Vaud. band-dog. Hudibras. bander tin arc. shoal. eminence. a counter. to knock. bance. Bantze. ON. canis vinculis assuetus. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. to hammer in a nail. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. banca fallita. From Mid. to beat. Fr. Your stool. A Shipman's Tale. bank. banke. follow a party. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. Bandy legs are crooked legs. With many a stiff thwack. to proclaim. dorsum was applied to ject. — Paulus drive in a nail. g. pastoralis. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. counter. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. banja. &c. among rotta. Diez. Bane. It. a bankrupt merchant. large dog kept for a guatd. Banner. distinguishes bekkr. to publicly order one out of the realm. se reunir.z. standard. back of a knife. Tibalt. — Kil. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. death-wound. bow. bent as a bow. from banc. bana. Bandy. death-blow . Bang. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. a wound OHG. eminence. b'ang. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. E. Dan. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. beating. The ridge of a hill is AS. and OFr. bandire. in the sense of place of business. de- party. bang. Lingua. Fl. ruptus. bandi. banca his creditors. Bank. the former Fr. the slope of a hill.HG. banish. . clouds. Benvoglio. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. Brewer. Africa. From a desk . Banister. bank of a river. . banditti acquired the like signification. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. When a man fails Lat. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. The ing. It is in this sense nounce. bandear. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. and therefore tied up. the same verb the It. Ripuar. a bench. of bandying words. as of an explosion or a blow. seat . But natheless wife at I bank. AS. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. to slay. bana-sdr. Diaconus in Due. Bankrupt. Fr. bana. to work in wood. destruction . To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. bana. outlam came to signify a robber. Draw. to knock. 45 — — Bandit. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. murderer. Lat. disturbance banga. de sable. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). Du. was formed the OFr. a rising bank. banqueroute. N. . banc. Banditti. in R.

of wind. either in the Gr. to dip. and it was accord. from reifa. arineXov. period vexillarii. To mock or jeer one. Sw. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. &c. ingly very generally known by a name branches. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. branch. knight Bardd. men. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. barba. himself in Pontus. to bar or stop the way as with a bar.the analogous syllable viur. of banco. A It. banner. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. barbarus. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. brushwood. wrapped. such as the Roman Eagle. a war-beacon or war-signal. to having that signification. chan. hence a repast. and with an initial s. ON. indeed. ON. a bearded or Cot. Barbe. would rupted from Fr. Barb. jSa'pjSapoc. a ban. a beam or long pole of wood. a bantling.hinder. Bap. sbarra. bandva. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. and he would seem to derive Goth. senh. Fr. banneret. jSdirTO). Leduchat. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. banda hendi. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. BARBAROUS reiflingr. 3. as they call it. Gael. senheira. E. banneret was a higher class of knights.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. It. Lat. Barbar. the word came to signify rude. inur.. barreau.cruel. token. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. ban- Baptise. or of this bantering. inferior to a baron. and even of calling it banter. OFr. that the noise of voices Bantling. speaking of battle. then branches. to wash. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. rarii.aTa Kul nest. Fr. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. 2. . Gr. banda. Barb. to beckon . an intimation made by bending the head or hand. Thus Ovid. an animal a year old. senhal. banniire. ^oTrriKio. The barb of an arrow is the sign . a sign. in Gr. barrou-gwez. then fell among the foot. which is surely in barbed arrow. To Banter. Lat. to wrap. a tree). It may be thing. rod of any rigid substance. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification.. Fr. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. nestling. of a sign in general. — We A . bandiera. barrack. barde. Lat. barrer. It. banne. &c. Hence ner. and from ensign or banner Prov. barbe. According to Diez the It. a bench or table . manu anto make signs nuere. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. iandvo. barbed or trapped as a great horse. merki. OHG. signuin. to bend. E. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. Celtic bar. G. bannereti. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. privileged to raise Barbarous.46 BANNERET . Gr. The original import of their own banner in the field. probably corSymbol. sign. Fr. Duo. top. sparre. out of a wound.8ap6^o)voe. a which the barrister addresses the court. dim. barre. ing term appears in other languages. Bret. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. remarked. bar. by a repetition of the syllable bar. says. Banneret. heri-pau. Flesche barbeUe. In a similar manner are formed yearling. E. The origin is in all probability Goth. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. summit. barriire.— Swift in R. and the work is done. banchetto. from the same source. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. branches of a tree {gwezen. Hence Fr. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. OHG. i. a. sparro. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. a barrier or stoppage. barra. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. Fr. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. uncivilised. benda. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. milites bannarii. Banquet. Fr. senhal. It. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. —Cot. The spar.

Lith. Barbican. the quilted with. skirt. the edge of a shield hval-barct. and foolishly. bardes. Etym. Bargain. tattle. formerly used in the sense of tattle. a jetty or outnook in a building. muttering. i. and flanks. Barberry. to bubble or boil. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. open. speak confusedly. ala. Mod. a shingle or small board. as well as thwcEtta. barbugliare. scouthouse. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. bds. brim. Cot. Cotgr. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. barda. barbulla. upper chamber. Mod. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. Thus the on. to mumble or mutter words. saddle-cloth. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. Bardeau. horse armour covering the front. Bret. barboter. a bardelle. Bare. to boil or bubble up . An outwork for the defence of a gate. to It. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. small pack-saddle. — .— BARBEL merit of water. Barder.— — Pm. also to wallow like a seething pot. Sp. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. Fr. albardilla. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. G.' Cot. baragouin. OFr. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. also to bind or tie across. barbarkama. borbollar. barbacane. to gurgle. dial. a rumbling. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. such as houses are covered Bardelle. skirmish. Hall in R. border. or more properly (says fer. Port.) to wrangle. skola. Hatt-bard. barda. uproar. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. Fl. Festus in Diet. borbotar. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. barefooted Sanscr. Russ. powdered all over. haggle. Cotgr. Barber. to chafbargain. in Fr. Lucan. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. barbeum. Arab. barbel. to stammer. guaszare. — . whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. Diez. /3opj3opwJu. name Fr. barbeau. Sp. bardd. to barbe or trap horses.— Fl. The Pers. used 2. berries. tree. bdla-khaneh.) . g. borborinha. coping. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. It. Fr. unqualified. barz. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. Port. Hindost. as well as the modern twaddle. Gr. boil. border of a garden bed. a pack-saddle. to prattle. and the word was used in OE. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. quarrel . to plash or dabble. and Sc. uncovered. in the sense of fight. a long saddle for an ass or mule. Bard. albarda. baar. Sp. barguigner. . The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. — — Hence. Gr. twcEtta. stutter. /3£pjSepi^w. the nakedness of a woman. bdsiis. It. Barbel. to make an outcry . bare baskojis. barbelin. A shrub bearing acid Diet. is lb. w. grumble (Lowndes. barS. the beard. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . But Sp. to bubble or spring up. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. to rumble. on. . berj G. the flap of a hat. murmur . borbulhar. mutter. to stammer. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. albarda'ah. Etym. barbaris. Exposed to view. to wash. — Cot. bhasad. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. ready money. barbeter. lb. — — — men. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. jargon. a tumultuous assembly. fortia —Strabo. skialldar-bard. baares geld. guazzolare. A7 to the and warlike. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. Lex. twattle. bdsas. Barde. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. Fr. which was of talking. borboglio. to grunt. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. Fr. barbier. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. gibberish. waschen. Applied in E. bar. Pr. barbar. axilla. back. in poetic language Bard for poet. brabble in the making of a bargain. and in Flanders to vociferate.

confusion. astringent. then the bows pectus navis. dispute . berma. wine. —Bark. barii. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. plants). bernac. (Ihre. Gl. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. disorder. a baking place or oven. Alam. adj. ber (ace. barlich. bosom. So ON. hlaSa. Port. corn-shed. bargain. dial. Dan. . husband. Barge. barge. Sp. name being given to spectacles. Isidore in Rayn. See formed Yeast. baron. to skin over barkandi. Vocab. dispute. the rack or manger. am. louzou. was barlic. Cornub. ON. houbartij fsnile. we pass to the vert) barguigner. tumult. border. baralhar. skuta. trouble. and llysiaw. OFr. To Bark.. — Barnacle. Leg. barretor. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. Prov. and 1. a boat. The older form in e. Bemiques. barizeins indicates a noun baris.. dispute barattare. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. baniffa. borkr. W. dispute . bark . barnacles. a lantern. berm hoys. squabble. hladi. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. Ibid.Barum vel feminam. spectacles. . mhg. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. The origin may be throat. barms. bread-corn. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. a cap . from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. and may therefore be an Eastern word. is simply the Bret. baron)^ Fr. OFr. aheap. a receptacle for barley or corn. barki. Leg. bere. prasepe . to wrangle. giving rise to It. berem. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. varen. ON. fray. Lith. and the word. w. baaring. Sp. meta foeni. barmr. Bret. chaffer. Romance barsie. Baron. — Zeuss. As Goth. barafustar. Du. strife. bard). one who stirs up strife. the or prow of a ship. baaren.) lihtes-ern. and hence probably (by a metaphor. a place. Camus. It. kani. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. barn. contest. altercation. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. barja. ThS man was not created for the woman. charlock. baimeach. baralha. a stack. skutr. contest. limpets. the slimy substance brewing of beer. lap. — battle. On the other hand. bcern. dregs of oil. a load. baragouin. then honoured man. Bailey. bosom . v. as in the case of Lat. a beak. Barn. a barn. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. as. baratta. to rout. Antiq. E. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. Swab. beornt.' bardagi. bern. from an imita- Barley. also to exchange. as baces-ern. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. a heap . barlys {bara. Uzen. to cheat. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. bcerme. Garlick. edge. the A — Ihre. limpets . Port. in the Brim. Sw. ON. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald .^Voc^. also a boat . hay-loft. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. barahunda. Ripuar. barafunda. barley. baerm. a heap. at barka. Kil. baratta. tion of the sound. strife. prominent part of a thing. in Nat. Originally man. barley. beer. — de Berri. i. and ern. baarm. barone. barajar. Acervus. to chop. strife. limpet. bamagh. a lap. the fore or after end of a boat . to shufSe. to scold. AS. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. commonly explained from bere. Provj bar (ace. 2. * Barnacles. as well as Scandinavian tongues. 2. From Fr. See Barm. berm. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. It. ON. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. struggle. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. . as. OSw. a. entangle. baarn. Sp. Du. and is probably a true bartig. to all the barca. . Rayn. Bark. quarrel. barnis. barn. hemlock. to strive. barn. the G. bread. So also ON. barlys. Dan. quant a perdu sa barja. bern. berm. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. The Goth. Spectacles. put to confusion. dispute. Gael. beorcan. AS. quarrel Port. herbs. Manx bayrn. Tarn baronem quam feminam. barley. but the woman for the man. brenig. Barbour in Jam.

a horse. from cavallo. then traffick4 Barrow. facture. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. bara. in Nat. or simply bahre. baracca. iver. Formed from Fr. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. breinej Du. to shelter. E. Bargus or moreland. Barren.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. were sometimes confounded.parchanttuech. and not from Fr. beorg. See Barter. qui have not much light on the pre. baragan. mound. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. ^Barrator. rolls of Parliament. G. It was not until the time of James I. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. w. Fr. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. baronetti. a hut or booth. a man. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. and in several instances. a bier. a barrel. baroncelli. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. litter. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. beorgan. Bret. borov'. It should be observed that. the braw. OFr. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. barile. An ing. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice.. from beran. a bar. barraca. AS. bier. baraignej Picard. 2. vel pretiosos burellos. Barratry. ibid.— Gibbon. especially those killed in battle. berwen. semen non accipiens landiEL. Baron andfemme. an obstruction. bera. heap. staves. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. a word is always used in the plural number. ^Vocab. barrique. AS. Russ. to carry. composed of dry branches ofer. berewe. fortification. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. barril. Barricade. bara. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. seem to be radically the same with Lat. StiU he shows conclusively. also termed bannerets. It. a kind of coarse camlet. sterilis. like bargain. Bern. It. beorh. gravis et authenticus vir. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. branches. — A . uncultivated. S. cover. gwr. as cavalcade. barBombicinus. in the first instance. A. booth. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. alongside of barrow. braeck. Antiq. garment still used in Morocco. hut. Sp.. barrila. Nominale of the from braeckland. brushwood. shed. nobles. bahre. barrique. Barrack. bouracan. Joshua vii. barrack. fallow. Bamnculus a baronet. a. Sp. baronculi. fear. barrier. over him. barchent. Goth. a hiU. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. 1. cise formation of the word. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. man. Bohem. — Kil. barre. The Sp.root signifying confused noise. whence Barrow. 26. which would barragdn. boar. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. became bidre. calico. It. baronuU. sepulchre. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad.have been named from the haggling and gant. implement for carryAS. vair. man and wife. On chet — We — — their resemblance. a castrated hog . tomb. todtenbahre. perhaps through Prov. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. dispute. D. Gael. a barrow. habeant.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. (Schmeller). Fr. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. G. Barrister.' Op. barague. change of goods seems. squabble. MHG. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. See Bar. This word introduced into Fr. Sp. a. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart.' that Barrier. from a tree to which a man is hanged. as. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. bark&n. by early examples. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. — — 15th Cent. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. The feudal tenants next Fr. bearg . the two names. strife. whenever Barrow-hog. Gael. bredhan. barri. to * Barragan. OE. Barrel. vir. signifying.

mock not. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. Dan.). Barbara de pictis veni patch. lust. Lap. Fr. preparatory stitching. bast. fornication. from /3aR. ' He was begetin o bast. chasa. which covers the grain Ger. thick. Kil. ing for profit. to Diez. A fabulous serpent. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. Fr. bassin. mean . It. To Baste. cheating. Halliwell. See Brattice. him. berewic.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. a ipgli So Turk. a halter. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. barley. Du. from bere. bran. a bastard. a deceiver. Sw. ' Bosworth. Apparently of Celtic origin. bestcn. Du. inclosure. Sylvester's Dubartas. which sets up its hood when angry. partieren. It is mentioned as . or running away with the ship. Basilisk. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. Bass. PaaiKhms. Arthur and Merlini. submovet omne Lucan. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. bds. baratar. exchange. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. beretun. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . basta. binding. It. . descended of an honorable lineage. — hanging. HaU in HaUiwell. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). — in Rich. basso. . OFr. bass-matting. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. to cheat. Fr. bast-reb. basso. also to Cotgr. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. to bargain. Bass. pdrdt. the manorhousfe itself. baxoj w. a king. Bast. to baste piece of cloth. husk bast van koren. would be. piiiguis. Fris. AS. Pl. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. to bind. exchange. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. It. fornication. — Bassoon. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. bas. beguile. baos.D. i. . foist in bargaining. come near. mavult dicere Roma suam. baste. crassus.' Gl. bark. basgod. ibid. low note. The like property hath the iasilisk. bestan. Bassus. a bass rope. There is not one that. the thin skin Dan. fits de bas. besst. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. aiKcig. baratear. rope for — . shallow. Swed. Dan. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. leviter consuere. court-yard. imbastire. bastear. dwelling. Basket. stitch. beortun. basta. scale in music. baraet (from Fr. a basket masg. low part of the Hickes in Rich. bareter. said Base. to bind hand and foot. bast. unrighteous gain. w. MHG. to deceive. netting.looketh upon his eyes. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. on a. But according And Dan. found in Turkish . baste. as It. Bartizan. BassuS. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. curtus. basg. over-reaching. imbastire. Al is dai. to bind. Sicamb. MS. at basta og binda. lift me above Parnassus. low. Newman. bast-maatte. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . To stitch. Bastard. and Bret. /«r<fSp. peel. 516. Sp. HaUiweU. or wic. flat. also the demesne lands of a manor. Gr. to truck. but he dreth presently. to cheat. of the same sense. the — — to kill those that look upon it. a ftiesh. barter. a tying. It. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. to long — a British word by Martial. barter.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. fhe outhouses and yards. fraud. and tun. MHG. baste. pressed down.' Papias. God it wot. It. Sp. Sp. See Bath. Lend me your hands. truck. It. Sw. chasa ogli a bastard. the a wide open vessel. back. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. plaiting of splinters basged. but born in baste. Barton. bast. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. as the diadem of the basilisk. then cheating. a court-yard. to stitch . he. discourse Nay. ^Is de bast. low. ohg. baraand especially teria. oe. hoops of a cask. The original meaning. tierer. To Bask. besst-u-b£nd&t. humilis. HoUinshed. OFr. embastir. to baste. Isidore. lattice-work. corn-farm. n' is n' is bacino. more noble in blood than notable in learning. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. according from Gael. bdtir. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. G. cog. F. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). commonly A joined with the word binda.

set up. Derived by Diez from iasi. to flap.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. To donjon. Sw. contrive. beating. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. the bat . bastine. the original has corneille. p. . a bastion. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. raise. niammal. e.baste or knock soundly. stryk. Sw. Sc. to build. set up. ment.— Bailey. to belabour. Cot. blakra. a barSp. compared with blakka. in the use of the E. blatta. R. Dieiif. comp. bastonada. iastir.stitching in general. Cot. and Cot. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. bat. a bird which. 2. bak. Sp. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. badger. bastia. victuals. to build. settiilg up. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . blakta. a blow cloth for dinner. That yche blak y dar wel telle. the night-jar or goat-sticker. frotter. blows. Perhaps baska. a pad. Prov. also the ricado. military term of a bat-horse). dial. a packsaddle. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. to teach one before. baston. Pr. bast. It. which to rest the load. worth (Nat. to give him a sound bastingi 3. to devise or begin. a pad or packsaddle. a blockhouse. Supp. devise. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. explains Sp. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. bastir. bakie-bird . to rub gently. bastonFr. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. It. in the Romance languages. 164). contriving. but this is hardly satisfactory. 11864. a with a stick. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. — — Fl. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. the clapper of a bell. which in the E. boste. 2. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . to spread bread and butter. Dan. a things prepared for future use. vespertilio. to cudgel. dial. or implement for 4 * A . SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. to quilt or stitch wool into it. — — — . to Due. packsaddle. Sp. bdion. Dan. 2. pre. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. bastonnir. vledermus. blacta. has bastine. bastida. quelqu'un son roulet. Florio. Fr. baston. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. and Arabs. aftonbakke. to lay the Sp.— . a. Sw. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. from Fr. bladier. I. bastilde. to beat. the E. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. basto. basa. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. iinbastire. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis.'CaB. vespertilio. staff. . Antiq. 'iJipistreUo. E. Bastinado. cudgelling. Fr. disposer.stick. whence ledrblaka. club. translation to a bat. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. like the owl and the bat. batta lucifuga. back. to drub. and ditches bastion. business (Altieri). to rub. Fr. guerra bastir. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. erect. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. bastione.fortress or castle furnished with towers. To baste one's hide . beysta. Rayn. For the origin of baston see Baste. a sconce. Sw. to thrash . frame. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. ON. to beat. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. to stroke. a stick. blakka. ari instruineht for beating. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. liiake. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. bastear. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . nade. the winged . For the loss of the / in back. To beat or bang soundly. put it together. R. flyinge best. blaka. * Bat. BAT neither. Fr. provisions. as weU as besteau. blatta. bastille. passage Imbasto. to pack a saddle i. night-bat. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. to set on foot a war Bastion. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. All from bastir. also to cudgel. bastimento. It seems to me that the sense of stitching.-^ Chaucer. — Bakke. to whip. is explained by Cot. natt-blakka.Lat.. stryka. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. Pm. Mid. bastir. It. basta.

to beath wood Battledoor. bastille. Battalion. better. to beat se battre. Pm. Baka sik vid elld. solbase. battere. batir. batacazo. Holz bdhen. fortress or castle. remit. E. to bathe. term in falconry . gebdcke. Fr. makebate. and as a verb. also a sun badfish.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. From bat in the sense of rod . to heat . to foment. baz. debat. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. also. to beat. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . battre las ailes. then to warm by the application of hot water. from battre. . a blow with a light instrument. a battle. altercation. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. a Baiffi. batna. as E. howis. sich bakern. baeddu. lessen. quell. to be profited. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. to feed. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. beat down.Hence in the augmentative form It. Ayenst the sunne. Fr. Gael. wet linen in washing. G. baka. bdhen.' Palsgr. in the sun. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. buask made like a fortress. to get better. fashes basking in the sun squadron. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. badda. tradire. certain bend. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. To Batten. I baske. Goth. battions. or a dry stick. Hence pro. was formed bastilU. Slav. flour. hot. ON. Du. Jeddris and covering. I. betten. bat-en. a great seems related to baden as Fr. to become fat. Fr. to warm. Hal. bdt. abate. from on. to warm oneself. a washing beetle. a stick. a stirrer-up of strife. oneself at the A into faggots. Bailey. water whether warm or cold. to foment with hot applica. abattre. baquetazo. Sp. bdda vidjor. Sp. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. Battle. whence the sun burns . Florio. bet. adapted for defence. Bate. a band of armed men arranged basa. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. . made of bats. Strife. Jurgor. — Cot. squadron. battre. Barbour in Jam. Battlement. bataille. or make debate. e. bada. beat. w. for biia sik. Chaucer. perhaps first used adjectivally. to beak. on the fire. tagUone. the heat of the It. batte sig. G. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. to foment. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. the root of e. Eggs. Plkkis. PLD. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. or break down. G. is a simple adoption of Fr. trahtr to It. It. Batten. batador. In some parts of England it is striking. to bathe oneself. to flutter with the wings. an arrangement for giving blows. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. as signifying warm baths. quhar he suld assaill. I bathe in water viz. From OFr. — — — ' — . Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. as E. to warm oneself at the fire. battere.Bathe. Bret. to beat. dial. bludgeon. a from ON. to thrive. a battalion. bdda. strife. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. a beating. beat. Pr. signifying to give repeated blows. Pm. gebdck. Battery. to fell. To thrive. badda. battle was used beath wood. to refresh oneself in language. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . in the case of a wall. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. basa. A Bath. of bread is so much baked zX one time. and milk beaten up together. batterie. In OE. Fr. is in falling. and about an inch thick. battre. To Bate. dial.— .— To Bask. by projections or in any licoure. Mgy. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. allay . and with staffslyng. battaglia. to cudgel. Fr. as wood-en. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. The bat with which a brot bdhen. to dial. to toast bread. — To . heat. to become convalescent. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. solen baddar. to fire or in the sun. 2. gabatnan. more. to for fighting. bat. A batch as wood. dial. Battery. to heat. Bat. It. dispute. pak. bake. Batyn. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. badask. baden. Sw. a blow. See Better. to fight. Batter. cudgel. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. Flem. Fr. a main battle. made of — A made by one Batcii. busk. a staff. to beat. . to betake oneself. Pr. Sw. on. dial.

and authorities in note. form with an initial seen in Fr. obstrepere. filth. or Cot. Fr. faisceau. a horse marked with a procession. or sheaf of Bridel. Gael. Cotgr. cluster. s. Zalli. was simply a field gold. balGael. brush faggot. divided between black and white. from Baldacca. It is all bawdy. The It. the face. Fl. bau. ground. whimwham. bausan. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. baula. a dog). also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. A name of the badger. baffe. a white mark Bawdy. Jam. also the canopy carried part of his body.' ' Pegma. E. bouaila. i. bauU. javelle. fields. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. to play the babby. and Sp. dung. Cot. trifle. to me-wl. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. speckled. Descript. a spot. dacchino. nastiness. zano. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. disgusting. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . Pr. to bark. Prov. ballach. baugant. Bawson. Ball-seirc. bow (as in our nursery Diez. librillo. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. to talk Lacombe. baw. —R. Baw — . icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. Pr. bablyn or waveryn. and to-tore also. to trifle away ment. a lump. tab. Fr. a tassel or hanging bunch . Baldrick. fagot. pegma. from Fr. to the same origin. It. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. baban. a plot of Chaucer. E. having a white streak down Bagdad. OFr. The word may perhaps be sticks. ! Bauble. — Pm. guigaw. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. to bark . an object. expressive of disgust. P. excrement. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. the white of his leg or foot. Fr. — — ' Lydgate. baue. Hal. In like manner Grisons filthy. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). b \% bouala.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. an embattled wall. instead oi s. E. dial. It.. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. collar. dirt. c. a horse with white legs. Pm. tille. a lump or cluster babhaid. filth.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. ON.. It. propugnaculum. horse. An analogous noisily. bal. whence the E. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. P. a belt. balderich. bow-wow. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. babsmall toy to play withal. Beaus^ent. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. bad. sorry. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. in OE. rotten. spot. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. Batylment of a wall. as Fr. BAWSON Swiss. to make the noise Baudrick. spotted. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces.guage). lewd . E. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. to vociferate. dente. pie- . to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. toys.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. Formed from baw. bobbin or cluster of thread. mew. baudrdj OHG. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. a zan. Filthy.— P. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. on the face of animals. dirty. scarf. sword-belt. vacillo. to void the bowels. the Swiss baben. is used for a sented by bau. Irel. ball. 8. also more Bawdekin. P. a tassel. babbole. 2. child. represented by the syllable miau. balbob. Sc. Bagdad. R. Piedm. bauch. bobine. baudrat. or toys. OFr. Ball. fe bau. to 53 manure the To baw. exactly corresponds Fr. or the animal so marked. Cot. Cloth of gold. a gavel. W. From Bret. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. fooleries or fond To Bawl. Bavin. to low or bellow as corn. Lat. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. baubare. ish baubles. bal.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. s. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. miauler. an — — — A — g — — — . babiole. whence pouacre. trifles.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. because made of cloth of white. is Bagdad stuff. From ! an interjection of disgust. to cry. Swiss Rom.

baca. It. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. &c. badarc. To Bay. a hole. overture. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. ing-floor. Bay-tree. to gape. from badar. barn of two bays. bayen-stein. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. large window in a handsome . bay. baier. — Schmid. a beast. baga. at his last gasp. It. Q. like a pie. Fr. F. bahia. and zndly. desiring. Bayonet. to betray. Lat. bay. bioth. yellow . bacca. the laurel-bay. and the To bark as a dog. house . to on anything. window-sill. in order to keep the enemy in check.' Bailey. Bay. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. and keeps them in check for a while. or berries. arose two forms of the verb. weary of running. w. waiting . window . batibari. abbabayer. or at bay. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. Sp. a mark. or recess in an apartment in modern times. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. Fr. Earth — By Nature made to till. dividere. baya. bijel. Holland's Pliny in R.— Stalder. beothach. open the mouth. Vielp. baiare. laurel of the ancients. to split. bate. baccello. BE Probably conRuss. . idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. siege of Bayonne in 1665. a'uno. husk. dehiscere . — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. baher. put to his last shifts. See Bawl. white. bahia. — A At Bay. Gael. Fr./^ bau. a dagger. berries. Serv. It has been shown under Abie. * To Be. Swab. . Fr. buidhe- The ruadh. BAY marked with bjly. bajo.—Journal Soc. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. bagaid. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. |8i'os. Fr. grapes or nuts. Gr. From the former verb is the It. as if to signify a window of curved outline. buidhe. BauSfi)/. the cod or husk of beans or the like. the cod of peas. Sp. Piedm. Fr. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. S. 1859. From Cat. living Ir. Mod. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. or window ' (in Fortification). See At Bay. . Arts. baye. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. baie. —Bay-windo'W. to open as a blossom. to keep at a bay. watching intently. It. bde. Feb. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. OSp. Abide. bilyejiti. Swiss beie. It. Lat. to be Bohem. so called from its bearing bays. 1. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. ist. alive. bai. the step is the same as from It. expresr sion tenere a bada. Prov. a berry. badia to Sp. bdcr. from an imitation of the sound. It. The — Fr. living thing . hddhe-dhonn. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr.. when. which however. . tradire to Fr. A stag is said to stand at bay. is perhaps not directly from Lat. badarse. berry. especially beans. the world Gr. aux dehniers abois. to stand watching one. baja. —Diez. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. to open. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. to amuse stare a bada. stood watching him stoop..c. baca. to iiitent nected PoL white. corrupted into Bow-window. stare. Bay. 25. The word bay. or to have been first used at the Cot. by the term rendre les abpis. baionette. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. to mark. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. gate. bayo. &c. a cluster of bacon. Sp. to keep one waiting. badius. as gazing. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. bilyega. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. Drayton in R. that from ba. baer. life. beonj Gael. AS. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. Q. &. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. Gael. A hollow in the 'line of coast. beo. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. —F. life. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. Cot. Such Antaeus seemed to me.' — — 54 bald. bialo. Catalan hadia. he turns and faces his pursuers. See Bald. trahir.

Beacon. a prayer. into a snjall river. atUndre. a tree. beugler. baum. W. G. Goth. stock. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. l^ax. Pardoner's Tale. becco. gebed. Beck. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. beacen. bauhan. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which.to have a French origin. Lat. Bear. beic. not applied to the yelping of dogs. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. Trans. bearti. to beckon. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. fora-bauhan.. beacnian. to bellow. g. however. bank. — bedeau. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. or breathing. To Bear. The immediate shore of the Menage. Goth. Fr. The origin seems preserved in E. — to bow or nod . bob. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem.fuis5e. beic. . Boom. It. signifying individuality. or however. Thus the final en. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. to wait. vol. signifying a point. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. Gr.fui. salve his hurts. The nutu significare. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. It. to nod the head. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. The wild beast. bohne. Beach. pig. an attendant. as. — Bellenden in Jam. a curtsey.ad. Bean. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. rising ground. Q wait upon him. Catalan becar. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. N. as. -phxr. according to of Sanscr. into France. See To Bid. baun. —F. bean. ffci. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us.' Hall's Chron. was introduced from England sea. 54. E. «va\ioQ. bidello. bar. nokkima. bdkna. faba. bek. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. Be. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. bee. ON. Gael. badmr. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. bagms. Du. He says. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. beans. Bret. pierced for hanging on a string. as well as f& or fav. a single bean.from AS. bM. a sign. which is. OSax. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. bead. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. to wait-. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. Farrar. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. Hackluyt in R. Chapters on Lang. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. It is BEAR SI court.' Suetonius in Diez. and Lat. boom. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. AS. post. a presage. bedm. . bairan. bakkje. Beadle. Sw. beck. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. bohnej ON. fero. a beak. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. AS. faba is Kvavoq. fd or faVf beans.fer-re j Gr. A Esthon. support. on. Beckon. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. fromthe danger. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. be. W. to carry. ON. bidan. would say. Fr. to nod . like most nautical terms. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. Slavon. a hill. bydel. Bret.' adheres to the root. . the part overflowed by the tide. tale of prayers or doxologies. a tree. G. It forms a. vii. A two-year old nephew of mine p. ffaen. or any action done with a pointed thing. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. backe. a nod OHG. Beak. Miss Gurney in Philolog. a single bean. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. Gael. Gael. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. Netherlands or North Germany. prodigy bauhnjan. ohg. to produce young. Moreover the name. * Beagle. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. bakke. or beic. — : Beam. bokan.

AS. to fall mode of being. brook. a lip. befall. and Fr. dress with unbecoming richness . to happen. G. bach. whence baveux. to come to or upon. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. obtain. gebank. bestiaj Gael. Lat. riviera. fitly . Beck. when up. but now a river only. bart. border. as the babble of the child. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. to happen. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth.we call the arrangement becoming. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. to fall in with our bavard. To load with ornament. Slav. decorous. perhaps a living thing. bobr. E. G. ON.' ' He became very angry. suitable. Now the Beast. R. the beard. Dan. place to lie down. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. Perhaps from Pol. godum with ON. OSw. timan.AS. suitable. becuman. — . babrad. it is probable that here also the to become. bib or slobbering cloth. bavec. get J ' He got very angry. Bo. AS. edge. or special purpose. bellus. Secondarily applied to a hat. W. R. which.' are equivalent expressions. con. bring forth. baba. judgment. g. i. E. gabaurths. baviire. bekommen. i. Boeth. pens unmixed evU. fitanimal. from baver. ting. to sleep on. agreeable. gelimplic. As rivus. from the same in the sense of bear2. biivre. the latter are derived It. comely. fiber. living. proper. birth. G. bobrowai. He becom on sceathan. bava. a bank.to clothe to slobber. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. bave i. e. opportune. dize or dtzen. to carry. biber. handsome. byrcti. connected with ripa. pleasing. duty. riviire. bur.fit. Lith. Thus OY. receive. Lat. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. Bedizen. decent. G.— Kiittner. Prick of Conscience. to happen. Sp. Beckon. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. or a feeling to be gratified. to the brook itself. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. See becymth anfeald yvel. taste. Fr. to attain to the lot of any one. now confined To Become. Lat. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. the ece thurhwuniath. to fall. brook . gefallen. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. if sound of a sharp blow. On the same principle. a bank. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. limpan. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. It. to bear children. to please. pretty. beauts. chin. Bosworth. an notion of being convenient. ON. bebrus. to be fulfilled. See Bank. or river. beatanj It. to happen. to appertain. Goth. produce. bekkr. covered the face. den. E. and on. to be incumbent upon him. bave. blast. Thcem. o. formerly a happen. to the good hapHalbard. iida. dushmak. convenient. agreeable. Beaver. 2. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2.getiman. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. befit.fair semblant where thou mayest blame.of being very angry. from beau. ON. baurthei.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. Fr. tidy. Beat. to live. burdr is used in the sense of a car. ziemen. . to get. bello. rying. In like manner condition. Prov. bequem. Beck. bearing. talkative. ON. — A — A — . Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. The fitting or suitable. Do no To It fallith favour. and to acquire. to hem. nothing to thy name make. bedr. badi. Fr. slobber. battere. while from Shep. That thou mayest attain Goth. fit. 1. Cal. behkr. to assume a certain form or Turk. The moveable part of a helmet. See Beacon. Lat. to happen. Diez. to those goods which endure for ever. proper . a. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. as. to dabble . bett. barba.S6 fero. brada. to wade through the water like a beaver. Beauty. to arrive at. venient. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. a brook. limplice. name applied originally to the bank then proper . because made of the fur of the beaver. G. to be a part of his to. barf. bcek. to G. nod or sign. beo. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. Chaucer. to shore.' every way suited to a prince. The OFr. I do thee pray. our taste. bel. byw. Russ. Fr. boroda. and also in that of birth. fallinn. It. seemly. The quadruped. limpian. becuman. See Bat. Fr. e. bard. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. happening as it ought. tidig.

a wasp. mars betada. drink. The first milk after a dizen. pital of St Mary. Let. qui de lecto surgere non potest . by the analogy of bedaivb.ing of the word is curdled. from blood.D. the biter. in Schmeller. thick.— B. vaar. to turn. . tree. I A pillow-beer.). AS. as. piwo. G. whence familiar. a cover. a malsense of drink. bedawi. pettiriso. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. boeuf. badigeonner. . biest-milch. sang vermeilh betatz. Bee.^ drink. duplicated form of the root. Beet. biene._t from the root pi. kiissen-biere. in Nat. a bee. water.cz//aj. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. to flatten In OE. bove. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. I put the flax upon it to spin. an inhabitant of the desert. bytl. cited by Diez. de Fierabras in Diez. &c. E. Bethlehem. to fall. may be from K. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. a bed-tick. door. G. buche. biiren. The beer al for te shenche bate. Dan. to parget or rough-cast . briesch-milch. g. which also 2. a agulatum in the original Latin. I dysyn a dystaffe.'— GL ^Ifr. bukva. briest. * Beestings. a drink potus. beta. P1. as the milk of a that purpose in London. beutel. cousin. fagus. erroneously modified in form. a mallet. red curdled Arab . from leberen.' the last word corresponds to cofly . a paviour's beetle batail. kivih. bitel. Pett. buka. . .. /SXirov. bbtel. to rough- cast. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. 'La Gl. byst. beach-each. Lat. a clapper. bletumj Gr.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. In a passage of an Old Fr. Slav. Fr. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. an ox. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. doubtless. a Properly a cover that biiren. a pillow-case. Gr. knock. translation beOj. ' MordiThe Lat. fall. stakes. beach. from the hos. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. 1 to drink. Confined to bed. Beef. to change . of beatmg. a stinging bieUe. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. beost. Rom. i. ir'm. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. Cot. thick.ON. cushion-cover . 1.(paddi. cow has calved. turn. Beetle. to knock. KXlvoTTiT^e. a pad or cushion). to coagulate. garden-herb. a cup or implement for AS. Gael. a wandering Prov. used for boull. beetle also signified the impiti. to beat bossel. the loppered sea. Esthon. Bedouia. bovis. GaeL bior. curded or beesty. a horse-fly . madhouse. D. beest. and in driving piles. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. batAfter mete in sale. bably named from the destructive quali| T. sela que environna la terra. Fr.' So Gr. But possibly bedizen 2. case. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. Fin. a pillow case. to become Beech. . from Lat. as in It. For that was law of lend. Grimm. an Beetle. to and ale. Bed-ridden. on.D. Cot. The meanpainting. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. comb. bibere is a re. Fr.— JI14. buk. clog for a dog b'oteln. woman that is newly delivered. calleBedlam. E. a wasp. from jtst-.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. bette or blettej Lat. turn (a garment). AS. Bernese. bossen. by-flugaj G. 1. drink. ProBeer. pude-vaar.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. also the bite or sting of a bees. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. wedges. Originally. prisons Venet. to curdle or lopper. Fr. the meat of spinach. betel. ris. Fr. The honey-producing insect. bos. from risan. imperative pi. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. . Pl. desert. and lebermer in G. It. may be shpped on and off. Arab. bedskiissen-bUren. bitela. G. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. Horn. the ox. extant in Bohem. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. to drink. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. bedde-redirj ohg. paralyticus. whose face is clotty. cozen. to twist poorma. bet. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. Bav. cugino. AS. poculum. PI. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. beyki. trees in a forest . to colour with lime-wash. speach. waarin. to poordma. also bienst. It. beer. It. Lat. Fr. boytle. cogionare.possible. 57 — Palsgr. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. Ant. blow or thrust. 1156. crespir. ^. prigione. taglio.

To Beg. yivwajcw. & go a begging. Cold-begone. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. as alighting is a momentary operation. ytyvwfT'Kw. iv. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . Fr. The tother seand the dint cum.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. V. the fundamental notion of attaining to. to bear young. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . Of brede full ycrammed. a bag . It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. seizing. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. When Q. Skinner's derivation from bag. P. It. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. ' Begone. air a . and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. 168. also called Bigots. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. capere. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. P. Du. ykvog. to begin. a wedge for cleaving wood. lapidicinus. P. referred gan this Erie alight. viii. Creed. tale. begger. to go a begging. y/yvo/iat. So from Gael. 'Dz. P. whence the E. P. above quoted to get beaten ON. ip AS. From w. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. beissel. origin.D. 'Aboutin undern monly. genus. begging. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. krapszas.bag full of the G. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag.' A. su with gold. and Lat. ken. although it ' the future. a scrip. onginnan.pose. P. 142. OHG. In Luc vi. Si'Xa/coc. a beggar. but in the same language from poc. appears improbable at first. on further examination. 1430. from whete G. a beggar-boy. in E. covered with gold D. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. Beghardus. one after that other. Lith. to cleve. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. Schm. to reduce him to beggary. on the tramp. a beggar . to be acquire. a chisel. chap. to get children . Into the are D. on the bag. ' ' . at a time when all his alms were given in kind. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. a — wedge. 25. P.quently used in OE. ' . be^nnan. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. can. V. Du. kind. He did alight. 'ex quo. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. yivofiai. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. touched with emotion — . beginning. Florio. bertola. gan. ornamented phoc. baigeir.' about undern he got down. bag {baigean. it is both to acquire and to beget. Mod. at geta talad. aginnan. V. sel. a little bag). hags. a wallet. to take.n. 58 BEG BEGONE G. oppressed with woe. gigno. vir mendi. AS. ysgrepan. incipere. 2. beutel. Vocab. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. — yivsaiQ. taking up. beriolare. but probably erroneously. in Lat. not began to alight. Goth. literally.3. a scrip euXaiciJoi.' for ye shall lament and weep. chisel. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. Bruce. It will . beitel. to arise. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. a bag or poke. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. to be able. is com. &c. To Begin. a bag. P. is formed pocair. fangen and Lat. Barbour. P. Lollards. ken. Mundart. steinbosil. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. yivtrri. Political Songs. cans. To produce children is to acquire. word. giving in Gr. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. Nov. 1867. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. &c. ysgrepanu.— . yiyvo/uat. signifying to conceive. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. Ancren Riwle. pose-pilte.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. Du. to beg. in D. 40. two betels —a grete oke. to know. image is cleft out of the trunk. P. duginnan. beitel. — Stillingfleet. Deutsch. anfangen. to begaan. woe-begone. Gr. of Gr. beis- plement driven by blows. can. or Of a pure poor man. to be born. a stone-cutter's chisel. affected. gen.

guardare. heeten willekem. fixed upon any object). to heave. to look. Sw. han- — js Kil. advantage. tail. to keep. to meet. To be expedient. Aan iemand bid one welcome. To Behave. nittaa. ufhaban.the figure of throwing at a mark. to call. to follow. to gehouden. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. bound. keeping. promise or a command. betragen.). hces. ward. is also found in the sense of looking. take heed of. to halten. to take away. seeing to. G. zu etwas gehalten haitan.for throwing it. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. promise. to bers of the body. to behave. laborare. name of the head is used to express what hbva. hofwa. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. behces. to be well pleased out. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. To look steadily upon. hafjan. to turn one out . Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. portarsi. to keen or hold. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. behaviour. when the verb will hoof. G. to be named. solicitum esse. Robert in Warton. servare. on. Sw. se porter) to fare well or ill. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. a follower. take yourself off. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. use. vow. to the equivalent of Du. right. behete. to call. to command. injunccommand. to feed. It. to cast or throw. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. holding is originally derived from that of looking. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. G. Sw. taking notice or care of (Gloss. to hit the mark. to be obliged to one. —Hest. hafwa. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. behatan. to bring forwards. keeping. Kiittn. gehouden. hevja. gehaben. hcef tig bort. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. — Behest. hove. Paladino. to vow. gecall. heave. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. The It. as in the case of E. exhort. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. or purpose. To Behold. hatan. to name. habere. K. beholden to him. G. to be obliged to do a thing. and their senses intermingle. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . premi curi alicujus rei. to look upon it as true . to raise. Plautus. 17. to carry. to lift. hevja.' Richardson. to carry. the distance of anything. at the tail of. AS. tion. healdan. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. have the sense of calling or naming. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. ifl fact. by the compound observare. to hold. behefe. to carry corn into the barn .' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. to keep. to promise.— . N. behold. is supported by many analogies. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. behoof. the two verbs seem radically the same. And so from hania. to regard. to lift. to lead. hafwa. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . or necessary. hcefwa in seed. At the back of The re. habban. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly.to vow. invoke. behat. furtherance. obliged. what is so required. from tragen. heita. commonly expressed. the equivalent of E. and (as Fr. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. the name adapt. AS. to be fit. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. OE. to be suitable or becoming . to have. hantyri. heeten. us-hafjan. to be be named. and the E. Command. to carry. to vow. to R. To place are most naturally ex. The seyn. hovast. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. beperson addressed. R. is on the top of or opposite to. Thus in Finnish the heave. hafwa ram. what he wishes another to do . adjust. behind. AS. ge' hatan. Goth. AS. to hold.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. vow. The Lat. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. promise . G. But. zijn. to fit. or the hence advantage. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. G. to tend. observe. to command. hafwa bort. garder. AS. gehalten seyn. according as the * To Behove. gehat.

to believe. a tower for defence . and Du. to der swaren lave. galaubs.Lat. were civil terms of address. to lay be- around. belja. is an easy progress. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. turris. ley/a. loben. Fair sir and Fair lady. leaf geleafa. and bergan. Fr. reach. To Believe. if a promise. which has been shown to be derived from laudare.D. resonare. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. to give leave.D. ungalaub kas. AS.D. loven. bealcettanj OE. beffroit. aim. In Mid. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. bervrit. OHG. then. Sw. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. bellan. It. to express approval. To Belch. ornament. . it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. precious. —F. overspread.. mark ON. reputation. to be required for a certain purpose. gelyfan. legsel. Goth. and. to a loud noise. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. bolken. giving leave or permission. promiser. laven. berfroi. AS. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. Det er ofwer er hofwa. permitting or giving leave. The word be- Belfry. we have Goth. permission. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. Then. lov. cela est audessus de votre portde. consent. glauben. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . under the forms belfredum. from mhG. lofa. to put a high price or value on. to cry out bell. In the middle voice hofwas. OFr. fringe. to promise. Fr. is (Sternberg). built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. met. Another application of the same word is in Pl. bylja. to befit. to lay the cable round the bits. G. tain a certain end. esteemed . bercvrit. peal. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. beset. to roar. promising. to estimate them at a To believe. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. filu-galaubs. beleggen. to believe. and E. From AS. distance to which a piece will carry. See Gain. praise. then. to hit hafi. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. beffroi. to give leave. or high estimation. P1. to belay.. for purposes of low estimation . stand. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. erlauben. certain rate. garnish. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. behove. beau sire and bel dame. are other modifications of the same imitative root. fitness. satisfaction. esteeming good and valid. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. to believe. — . to praise. to make it fast.alyfan. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. Du. lyfan. and E. battefredum. appearing in Mid. boare. to extol the worth of anything. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. portion. range. orloven. Du. a. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. b'ola. bialla. Pl. galaubjan. a little shed. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. or house. Hence to simple approbation. on. laven. bounds. an implement for making a loud noise. Northamptonshire. or a sconce. properly belonging to the church tower. . hesfa. leave . Pl. to protect. verloben. allow. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. — Diicange. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. are innate . to give leave Dan. to promise or engage. to sound loudly . to praise. — mankind. to permit. is used in the sense of approving. laubjan. to bolk. measure. locus securitatis Schilter.D. To Belay. bell. a tower. bealcan. to sanction an arrangement. true. Bell. praising. To praise is essentially Xo prise. belief . Du. on. frid. to fix a price upon one's wares. . a vessel made for dishonour. if a narration. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. to praise. in nautical language. to bellow. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . border. Du. bettifredo. 6o BELAY BELL loven. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. with the consent of the heirs.. ON. to boke. bellow. honoured. a watch tower. ON. bulken. pro3. bertefredum. Q.Lat. moderation. to resound. loven. to to make A Templorum campana boant.

benaigon. to arrive at. to attain belangen. benedictio {bene^ and dico. binssen. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. dirt. blast-bcelg. as concerning that. . from another modification of the word for bubble. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. or fyle with myre. bander un arc. the skin of those animals that factor. by itself. a accusative. because bcelg. bendaj as. to ring. .' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. belly. Benedico. Bav. pertinere. Bench. Quoth. pino3. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. I soyle it or araye it. balteus . belliJ Lat. bene/actum. . J'emboue. . attinere. bilbila. to hallow. To Bend. ray. has assumed a plural form. — ray. I marre a thyng. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. border. a kindness.pinuz. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. the word. — root consisting of concentric skins. cod or husk of pulse. to use words of good omen. welt of a shoe gwald. I araye. Belt. was in Mid. bandoir. belgr. well. bilbil-goda. bell. G. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. ball. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. Javanese perfume.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. ' I beraye. To Belong'. pertinere. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . w. binsen. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. or a It is times the to signify services. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. to bless. pervenire." — — . a round or bubble-shaped root. balg. Dozy. To belong is thus to reach up to. to reach. bcelg. ON. vulva. needs no ex. ^To Beray. bimaissen. Lat. to become one's property . or sometimes louban. volva. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. See Bind. Gael. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. Gael. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. on. Benefactor. hence with ashes. to belong. se bander. . — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. See Nether. Benzoin. gwaldas. disposed to oblige. to. benjoim. G. Fr. to bend a bow . . bolg. Bent. from benedictio. belt. skin. the womb. OUG. Du. Fr. langen. bienfait. is a kindred form. wallet. a bellows . taken absolutely. Bret. are stripped off whole blase-balg. Benefice. welt of a shoe. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. Eenison. est matris in lucem editus. a benefit. bless. benjoin. from which is also bulbus. benedicere. Lat. bellows. bags or bellows.' The term had been previously planation. pouch. Lat. a good deed. benehusk. Lat. hem. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. poX^ri. a blessing. beneison. to do good to one . I say).polch. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. Kil. belch. Benediction. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. rushes. to hold to one. bellows. from cwcsthan. attinere. as. one who does good. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. or simply djawt. wallet Benefit.. benefacere. loubdn djawt. to say. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. rise against external force . . Fr. From OFr.Fr. incense of Java. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. to stretch it on a frame. to concern. from Arab. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. a spring. Sw. The ing-skin. Beneath. means seeds of plants. to touch. bellows. a bellows. OFr. pod. benignus (opposed to malignus). Lat. To Bequeath. To Benum. belly. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. a border. ON. bolch. Benignant.' — Hie fimus. becwathan. fens et hie liraus. a speaking well of one.' Palsgr. See I . Ptg. to attain to. benir. G. to come to the crown belangen. G. Gum benjamin. bimpsen. leather sack. bendan. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. Was das belanget. a leather bag. generous. — See Numb. ' . skin. — Ducange. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). an inflated Lat. a blow. balg. to exert force.— Belly. gelangen. benejicium. bag. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. to concern. to touch one. Lat. vulgarly the belly. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. See Bank. attingere. In E. Benign. is The word balg. a water-bubble builge. kind. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat.videtur. blister balgan-snamha. fyle To dirty. bolg. to make bilbil.

to to deprive of. bet. beseech. and Du. Beere. or to bestead one. from It. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. Goth. To help. think more probable. ship for a make amend. to on the other Goth. or the space kept clear betan. The proper meaning of the bale. advantage. make better . Sw. jnore. So Lat. lay out. repair. het vuur The serise of Boeten. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. bacca. baete. rubbish. what does it better a man. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . might have been . fall with sound. bestow. to thrust. reafian. I from lew. to the place boarded off in a. to light the fire . eld up- On is to be placed A — . to mend. The dry. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. dirt. to make better. besje^ Sanscr. sweepings. as Du. same word with the provincial barth. R. Devon. to exercise on a definite object. Fin. person to lie in. burrow. besmas. dirt . preferably. Bestead. berwe. to To Bereave. as bouter selle.D. E. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. ariierf to 113. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. dung . to defend. Du. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. as. bur-we. to be-place. p. as in growth.t. to supply a want. stealth from steal. bereafian. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. protect . but in practice. place. reparation. to fire a funeral pile of . Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke.iooA. roe. bdt. dial. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. solicit. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. fyrbotare. — bota. stede. Hfence backing. besnij Pl. to stand one in good stead. G. berwham. supporting on the one side Lat. earh. * To Bete. the side bhakshya. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. to kindle the fire. Ihre. a berry. to entreat. lewth.bhaksh. in the sense ctf beria. See Better. Best. sets fire to. but it is specially applied mister. to fall with roisto. Tusser. To Gl. barfham. The origin is AS. roju. small eatable fruit. improve. put forth. profit. one who shelter. sheltered from the wind. Kil. as conversely a besom is called broom. boeten. . So too Yorkshire arf. buttafuoco. boteith Goth.• 62 Antiq.— VixHsm. a fire. bota. Fr. bdt. a place . It is the restore fyr betan. position. 3. to thrust. compared with bargham. encouraging. barthless. AS. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. to word is shelter. to seek. beorgan. p. * Berth. R. barth may be for barf. Grose. — Chaucer. Du. put.fish the other hand. betan. to amend. When men of mekeness him baet. peto. bouter. — . then ordered he a shelter for cattle. bal oppbota. what does it boot. From abet. bat. vol. Esthon. berry. To Beseech. to cast. fearful. supply. and also to entreat. it seems hard to separate as. BETE dirty'. boeten. Fr. botesward. basjaj Du. brem-bessen. Berry. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. . ^•n.—^fake. houseless. Tha het he micel fyr betan. a horse collar. besen. boeten.— Hal. To Bestow. besein. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. amendment. — amendment. to put on the saddle. E. scopse spartis. to make it. AS. or. reparation. stow.ot-i. Sw. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. Zeitschr. On the other hand. advantage. ^akka. earg. roju. as. buttare. boutefeu. as. noise. OE.X. Rob. seems twigs or rods. dust rojahtaa. from grow. as. arwe. ropahtaa. See Reave. an incendiary. making better. to give a place to. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. BEREAVE Wall. To seek something from a person. mud. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. basya. better. betan. Du. To bete his Jam. besIn sen. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. broom twigs. Beit. So roto rattle down. Beet. from AS. the guardian . because used for making besoms. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. vi. — Biglotton. rods. the origin of which is to be found in ON. To Bet. an incendiary. Besom. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. G. baete.irova. Du. is to perform a serviceable office to him. to strip. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. of ffeed a fire. hva mannan. and on which the wager is laid. AS.

betweohs. to discover. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. taemen. make manifest. ruogia. On the same principle ON. Car son umbre si le trahit. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. Lat. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. springs from ON. ON. G.— . G. from Fr. polish. dispose (whence schicksal. trahissais. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. In like manner folissais. E. Dii. advance. OE. ziemen. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. trahison. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. wrogia. AS. To Bewray. batizo. gesiemen. kein leben mehrin no signs . bet. deign. e. of pheasants. a traitor. trakir. 88. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. In like manner from twain is fothied between. the being pushed to the frbnt. The as. Friar's Prol. AS. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. afford. which may be compared as to form with amid. zimet. The inflections of Fr. /alia. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. find it good: Goth. is used for the — R. by two. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. it bewrays itself. Percy Soc. Pl. tima. To vouchsafe. Better. Between. a brood. R. amiddes. vrohjan. trahir. Bevy. Fr. be fitting or suitable. larks. To boot in coursing (i. tweoh. e. tima. as trahissons. Fl. betwuxt. better. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. batista. Fr. of quails. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. deem suitable. to accuse. riigen. for measuring angles. to deliver up in breach of trust. R. Now the stirring of an object. It. &c. two. betaemen. find in one's heart. awry. is treason. In the water anon was seen His nose. by a final sh. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. Sahissais. betera. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. to deliver tip. Sw. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. and thence twegen. bouter davantaige. suitable. fate. Thus from dbahir. are commonly to one's lot. r'ojer dig. betest. Golding's Ovid in R. BETEfiM translated. tradere. bat. obeish. Det sig sjelft. E. betweoh. G. or with again. A — drink. Bav. abash j from polir. i. *Ah. To Betray. against. Ober D. baet. Du. Chaucer. progress. spritigs from schicken. -to appoint. whence beveraggio Fr. — of the authorities. e. Cot. to deceive. beverage. Goth. traditor. as one would have it fall. . — that schickiich. are there Regt R. not to have the heart to give up a thing. G. — See To Bete. a different form of twa. has — In a like sense tanie>i. — Betwixt. I approve of beveau. to happen. his eyen sheen.D. lot). better. Pl. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. taemen. thy speech bewrayeth thee. wreia. a drinking . evidence of life. betweox. roja. more. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. to make forwards. moveable and compass branches. to fall. to drink . suitable. It. a bevy. gezimet eines dinges. proficere. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. verbs in ir with a double ss. Ik tame mi dat nig. become. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. Goth. Tinia eigi at lata eit. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. ON. from Lat. bibere. order. Hence last G. Buveau. Fr. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. twain. pair of compasses. treachery. i. R. beuvrage. To Beteem. dir. From the former of these are AS. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. sloped off. E. bevere. betray. betst. betwuh.D. obdissais. his mouth. Fr. in the same way Lat. as from obdir. traitre. an instrument opening like a a thing. beva. to Teem. to Hence It. roebucks. Fris. zemen. to fall Some call it a bevel. in the middle of twain. to happen. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. fallinn. bedriegen. amidst. from. regen. better. x. tradire. Dit tungomal rendered in E. Mich self a good glass of wine. betriigen. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. as tlock. Slant. From It. bevde. bet. best. what does It is forward him. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. some attention. Best.' Dialogue on Witches. fitting. to stir. in the middle of two. gatiman. to cheat. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. as envahir. said he. from invadere.

oblique. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. beslei. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. a fragment bieco. Ci^. sbiasciai. whence Du. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. to tipple. bihais. — crooked. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. To Bibble. to stir. Biseau. An excellent Basil. to a fight with stones. bebble. expelling or preserving against. pddzahr. evident. to slaver . metaphor). aslope sbisciare. as an eel or a snake. bring under ' Thy accuse. love first begins to life signs of him. to stir.D.' bibble. sbias. sbiescio. E. wraggeln. kwijl-bab. To bicker in NE. foul weather. Lat. sik beregen. Sardin. and zahr. snout. bestemps. Du. though such a change of form would be very unusual. To Bezzle. bis.two. — Bi-. in him. Sp.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. or by any rapid motion. in Fr. Cat. by throwing of stones. biberen. to be a paring. biascio. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. or kwijl-slab. sliding. beregen. baverole. used in precisely stone . bibaculus. to purl. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. to shake. (according to the Fr. Fr. in two ways for duis. to glide or slip as upon. liwell. or in and out. sbiesso. Bible. Hal. The It. aslope. Fr. to it evident to sense. 78). The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. Fr. bible. him. Ant. a Galilean. discover. bias-wise. To Bicker. to well up with Cot. Mantuan. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. bickelen. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. sbrissare. of the sliced off. babbi. the basil Sc. bes-azur. dial. from pdd-. its clothes.{ioin dua. biberon. It. reveal. wrangle. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. . twice. is explained to clatter. to cut in two. asure-bice (Early E. See Wriggle. bavon. To skirmish. Uprogen. To Bib.D. Lat.s bellum for duellum. bisel. ice . OE. he is Wtb. The train of thought is then. Bib. In Arab. makes ble. poison. . /3i/3Xof a book originally. Pl. bending. Fr. notice. whey count . to stir up . Yes. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. bezling or skueing. Dan. the word became bddizahr. biaiser. An inferior blue.or from obliquus. bickel-sieenken. kwijlen. rogt un bogt sik nig. bibo. crooked. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). kwijllap. it becomes (Jz-. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. babbefore the eyes. presence. has a singular stone-picker. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. biais. sbrisciare. dial. edge of a plate of looking-glass. Bibelsworth in Nat. Piedm. Hal- — do something aslant. bickel. In comp. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. bisdare. Pers. Oh when shall I bizzle. Sard. Fr. to slaver or drivel. Bezel. the papyrus. a sloping edge. petit-lait. a bezle. inferiority. ber-laita (for bes-laita). Probably. Bisect. shows the P1. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. Bias. to tipple. two- footed. to move.as in Biped. pible. sbrisso. bickai. —Bickering'. Misc. Jamieson. one who drinks in excess. Cat. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. . bescompte. . to dispute.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. to make tongue Du. sloped. misFr. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. slanting . roggle. bark of which paper was first made. It is especially applied in Sc. rogge. a stone-hewer . . slippery. biascia. I Wallon. per\'erted belief. It. b&zahr. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . lips. sbiscio. 172. which good bibbeler. Gr. Diet. baviere. Bice. bickeler. tailU en biseau. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. to the stirring of their conscience. specially in a bottle. sbieco. winding or crawling in and out. a bibber. Schiitze. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. Prov. stock still. convicts thee of being drink. to Jam. —Dozy. sbriscio. wrogen. to stir. like guzzle. To drink hard. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. it were the mouth. Piedm. sbiagio. biberer. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). Fr.to drink much. to give signs of life. to creep or crawl sideling. besanca.a. a slabbering-bib. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. to sip. Fris. biax. Bezoar.

of More ' in Richardson. bugt. cultivate. proud. called the tertiary order. bilge or bulge. to marry. Big-swol- . to bend. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. G.peto. bulky. ON. bat . offerre. 1. bead. bag. as G. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. and consequently ordering or reGoth. beodan. — prepare. bedun. To Big. as. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. porrigere. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. Bigot. bidan. G. Kil. AS.' Pope in R. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. AS. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. and Gael.Leta). bog." buque with E. to belly. to cultivate. bidill. bouwen. bi-. To Bid ' Big . buga. Bight or Bought. to have one called before him. to bicker. to arrange. bygga. verbieten. consisting both of men and women. to build. Two verbs are here confounded. Compare also Sp. England for swollen. to bend. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. bieten. to offer. bolginn. OSw. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. bua. The ON. bulge. bo. to build G. are also used in the sense of asking for. Einem einen guten tag bieten. beadle. may plausibly be derived from Goth.t. spelling seems to used in the N. With respect to logical pedigree. bulge. bced. forwards. or. twice. to look for. and the Sw. as tears from the eyes. to build. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. to inhabit. bauen to cultivate. ewes. bolga. gebeden j G. form. bit- bidja. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. to dwell. biddan. belly. to solicit. The loss of the / gives Dan. G. to pro- command. The original Swollen. P. swaggering. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. and yajiBui. pressing on one's notice. belly. rising up. iiQ. a suitor. From Gr. byggan. swelling. repair. to pray one to dinner. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. Jam. in the sense of ask for. be bug. Big. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. to ask. to offer one the wish of a good day. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. R. The 'La. biegen. who. OSw.uddered len heart. 2. to bid one good day.. bulk. inhabit.' Addison. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. to inflate E. a swelling. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. bath. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. einen vor Gericht bieten. becoming in Lat. ON. bidel. to curve. Palsgrave in Halliwell. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. to swell. or third order of penitence. ON. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. to abide or wait on. build. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. faurbjudan. to forbid . bis and in comp. bow. boa. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. bug. pray. to start out. an entire skin. bend. praebere. — — — Halliwell. to ask. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. Analogous expressions are G. praestare. AS. Hence Sc. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. Wallace in Jam. a chip. bolgna). BIGOT beidan. ON. to E. The ON. related to big or bug. The . to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. bigan. bugne (answering to ON. Du. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. Bigamy. which is stiU. has leta. bend of a shore or of a rope. anleta. — To Bid. or bad. to bulge. Bickelen. from bidan. bieden. the belly of a ship. ' Bug as a Lord. balg. to presimpler pare. athird class. a flexure.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. to move quickly. bidjan. byggia. beidast. bugan. W. bidan. by seek and beseech. To bid the banns. gebodenj G. A bjudan in anabjudan. . A pose to one to come to dinner. from belgia. to offer it to public notice. from seek. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. qucero. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. explaining the Sc. besides the professedmonks and nuns. to forbid . BID of stone. inhabit Du. swoln. abidan. the meaning of bid. ten. quiring something to be done. . It must be observed that the word bidja. to look for.

They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. Bighini. corruption would easily creep in.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. clownish. 15 18.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. and Q. beghart. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. xx. grey. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. In the same way Fr. A. Hence the OE. the other form Per te Tribune. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. They wore a similar dress. bighellone. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. coarse woollen cloth. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. bigotta. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. was formed bigello. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. In a similar manner from bigello. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. A.a. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. probably from biso. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. Flor.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. Bizoccki. begutta. Francisci communiter appellabant. A. and also unlearned common men. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti.' Chart. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. as well as bizocco. Augustini dotarint.' Matthew Paris. dark-coloured cloth.' says one of of bigio. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. From bigio. alii Apostolici. Bizocco. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. homespun cloth. ix. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose.' says an Venet.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. to adopt a similar course of life. both men and women. &c. D. bighiotto. and underwent much obloquy and persecution.' translated by Muratori. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • .— Ducange. vol. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. Beguttce.D. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. alii de paupere viti.. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. 1499. borel. beghino. signifying bagmen or beggars. and hence the variations bigutta. Bighiotti). face VIII. author quoted in N. with reference to A. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. rustical. all apparently derived from Ital. biso. honesti plebeii amictus.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. ac labores manuum detestantes. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. G. a dunce. 1243. bigio. perch^ i Terziari di S. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. aliqui Begardi. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. a blockhead. the nobles to Rienzi.D. absque votorum religionis emissione. natural grey or sheep's russet. sed maxim^ in muliebri. S. vocati Fraticelli. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. says.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience.— BIGOT bigardo. grey.D. 560. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. which must not be confounded with begardo.

Bojce. bill in parliament. Bilberry. bigotto. an ingot. a devotee. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. The origin of the term is probably from bole. bila. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. biilge. a hatchet. an adze . Kil. to strike. a floating log to mark the place of some. Johansen. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. BILBERRY nated. a bigot or hypocrite. Piedmontese bigot. Dan. billot. a beak. Thus we find in It. blaa. 2. horn of an animal. at sea Billet. bille. billard or billart. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. loi. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. Kil. the o changing to an i to express diminution. false pretender to reUgious feeling. as a bill of indictment. an axe. weapon . bui. might be taken to express a hypocrite. Deutsch. and a billard. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. bulgja. however. that of swell. Billow. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. belghen. fluctus maris. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. Bille. the swelling G. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. in the sense of a writing. symbolum. and in Lat. irons or set in a kind of stocks. an axe . bull-berries. e. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. as craneberry. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . Du. Lat. a short note. the beak of a bird. now A Bilboa blade. bisoch. bigot. billard also signified at billyards. The Du. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. plog-bill. Bill. to pick a millstone. the trunk of a tree. . a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. 5 * .The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. bolghe. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. A lorum tam in — Diez. from OSw. dissimulation . names bill-berries. AS. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. boja. topor. is properly a sealed instrument. Billette. on. whortle-berries. a seal. from the dark colour. Langued. Bilbo. fetters. bigardo. In the same way are related Pol. to job. I. blamand. a negro. a of the sea. to strike. clog to a fetter. boeye. . billet is the diminutive of this. procella Kil. To Bilk. Sp. Lat. NFris. An instrument for hewing. Tartuffe. top. an ingot of gold or silver. the bill of a bird. a shackle. person of religion leading a loose life. bill of exchange. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. p. — bigardia. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort.' mariners. billet. beghart. In English the meaning has received a further development. e. AS. ^Billiard. abelthe fetter itself. buoy [i. bulla. Aurelles. Sw. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. to peck. buail. To defraud one of expected sinking. Fr. blue . like change takes place in the other sense of — — . Sw. buie. Roquef. Bill. of boja. to swell with rage). See Bull. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). tepati. Du. ferrese quam ligneae. Gascoigne in R. axe. gleischner (Frisch). bulghe. — — ' . bigot.' in Richardson. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. dziob. a hypocrite. inscriptum. See Bulk. A slang term for a sword. gan. So in Gr. Mundart. from Mid. Gael. 2. Fr. used in legal proceedings. Sw.— — — . a seal. Ludwig. belgan. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. G. bill. bla-berry. Bigin. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions.. OFr. of E. Bilge. 'tumidi fluctus. beil. bullet. and dziobas. genus vincu- Bilboes. deceit. a sword. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. Fr. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. a man who rests on a stick in walking. dziobad. an axe. crowberry. 3. bizocco. w. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. boia. . in the same sense. Du. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. Prov. to be angry (i. b'olja. The proper meaning bylgia. bile. — Cot. obsolete. Billet. an axe. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. bwyell. a name given to a. bil. AS.' bilio. seems to be rather the unda. Bohem. Dan.

Bind. Bittacle or Binnacle. beorth. from \t3\. a bunch. j). The bitol. bindan. to form a knotted structure. EpisETTiTOOTToe. is in Scotland applied to ivy. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. fowl. vescovo. bitill. berkas (z=:Fr. isfiw. to bear.. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. Fr. bundun. Lat. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. a pig petz. a bitch. Fr. twice cooked. terial.68 BIN Bio-. — — . Thus I suppose the Gr. Bizened. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. Lith. V. truss. See Breed. a heap. biclie. ON. a weight. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. Dan. or baked. . This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. doubtless a stone. an eagle's young G. where the compass stands. Bine. AS. qui nisi propius Blind. a corn. G. bita. pippione. binda nat. . To — — —D. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. or bin. Du. biccej ON. bij sienigh. I would derive the verb to knit. to be derived from Ibfiaq. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. It. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. BITTACLE /Siof. Bitch. Lith. hith. biscotto. bundle. to build. from pondus. a female stag. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. or ben-wood. Bisom. pin-ti. bitacora. beitan. a weight of 48 pounds. to net. lusciosus et myops. to twine. AS. bundt. burt. bund. to fasten it together. . Bisen. a bump or knob. Gr. 'tumens sequor. Fr. AS. also a stone weight. sc. ON. bjork. In like manner from knot. See Belly. Lat. to bind together. overlooker. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. evegue. poule. beize. piccione. a bear. bircej Sw. viz. pundas. G. Sw. a knob. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. ./«idere. Lap. an overseer. bij sien. videt. G. The term ON. H. bunch. by binda. brid. bin-wood. are commonplaces. in Swabia. by the verb knit or net. e. wine. evesgue. forth. band. bigne. v. — properly near-sighted. betsel.. life. The proper meaning is a heap. habitacle. the young of an animal. biscuit. evigue. Sp. properly a young pigeon. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. a house. pittjo. propius videre bij sicndc. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. a brood or hatch of young. Bindweed. Lat. AS. Bailey. to bulge. Fr. Bing. . IV. from Gr.' and the like. Then added division in a granary. episcopus. a truss. To Bite. We — A Birth. from Lat. pinnii. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. AS. bindan. i. Fr. bund. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. to cook). Lat. . — Surrey in R. binge. bunki. a female dog hindinn. beisseii. E. to knot nets for fish. Sanscr. Bin. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. Habitacle. and of Fr. copus. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. piiiti. hiindiiin. to hang. the young of birds . nodus. ge- from AS. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. Birch. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. which is expressed in E. — Kil. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. or petze. brut. bhurja. a bitch. pinnu. a hind or female stag. than vice versi. expressed by Sw. a gallinaceous bird. a bitch applied also to other animals. poultry. earnes brid. bord. a little dog. pullus. i. Goth. and especially to a small poor horse. bunt. When compared with Fr. admota non Bit. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. while bind-wood. bundle. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. to swell. beitsl. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. Bird. bikkia. It. bundt. &c. beran. G. to wreathe. a habit- Binnacle. to bind at . bunga. Bisson. to bring Biscuit. AS. — See Bittacle. Goth. See To Bear. a heap. is rendered in ON. Sw. to plait..

blake. ON. white lead. — Collins in Hal. Sp. white. night guard. indistinctly. quick. is apprehension of danger. /ealo-/or. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified.plab is used to . as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. a large lip. Why presumest And laam's asse. a stammerer. faded. Fieldfare. In like manner E. — Hollyband. Gael. bites. bleg. Percy Soc. blabaran. Nagt huis. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. . blabhdach. Bohem. or water beating gently on the beach . discoloured . bitor. as in that of pale and white on the other. to watch. obscurus. from whence we have adopted the. to babble. It. blabbern. light-coloured. 't kompas huis. blunt we say it will not bite. as of wings . blac-hleor ides. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. pale yellow. even humour seemed and beuin. bitter. pale.' by Gudmund. BITTER dwelling or abiding place.). pale. Black. blubber-lipped. Bleak. blob. So Fr. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. 332. plappem. out the tongue. bitts of Bitts. bleich. Sw. a fluttering noise.. blanc. faded. bird of the heron tribe. bihovac. Blabber-lip. to wax pale or bleaked. a shelter for the steersman. To or he can speake. ' Biovac. to To blabber blabber with the lips. term. . are two strong posts standing up on the deck. a flapping. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. blesmer. bittour. thoughtlessly . ON.' G. from wachen. an additional watch. NE. "uivac. a babbler. leohte . from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. Mund. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). I blaber. synonymous with baber-lip. A a rail. bleikr. G. biacca. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. Mag. gabble. To Blab the anchor. Cotgr. Bittern. The bitas.D. iroxafealo. Mantuan babbi. stutterer. Gael. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. to the sharpness of a weapon. Fr. apparently from its biting the tongue. bitr. mouth. Hald. yellow . ON. baboyer. a large coarse lip .. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. a beam in a house or ship. Fr. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. confusedly. beiwache. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. Sp. in contempt.— Blabber-lip. buft". All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. The Gz. whitish. gulblakk. Hist. shine. v. to bivouac. is placed. as of a body falling into water. Deutsch. small guard-house. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. blakk. round which the cable is made fast. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. to chops. Fr. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. Je N. — cheeked maid. Sp. viz. . G. Wit hung her mourn. his blacan light. ON. quoted by Ihre. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. chatter babbler . as is seen in sputter and splutter. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. beitr. a childe dothe gasouille. Goth. Again. 't huisje. garrulous. yellowish. blepLith. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. pins of the capstern.' by Haldorsen. ^chops. dusky. babbling. on the one side. pale brown . unintelligible talk plabair. maculS. to talk much. Pl. Ai-mstrong. blob. blob. Se bleek. a continued soft sound. white. blab. Bivouac. Du. pale. to babble. biti. shining. babbe. Hal. fallow fawn-coloured. a* mast . a tati. to let out whai should have been concealed. mona mid Dan. whiteness (candor sine It.' It would thus acle. Sp. the palebleff. AS. Lydgate. first. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. bittore. blebberis. fallow . on.. ^aj'/^r. x. brunblakk. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. black. AS. Bav. to speak Dan. Applied in Hin ON. whitish. —Neumann. to loll it out. baitrs. blobach. beuni. things —Palsgr. In a similar manner Gael.€i. bitones. blakki. pale yellow . dark. blank. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. cut. ' plabraich. plabartaich. as of water gently beating the shore. blabbre. In Legrand's Fr. 156. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. butorj OE. Cot. Alex. 'fuscus. an edge is sharpest sword. mouth. Fr. corrupted in Fr.

It is commonly connected with _/?«/. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. in R. Du. leaf. boys. name originally given Blackguard. a bubble. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. Fr. Blank "verse. shining. leaf of a.. probably ate. blister. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. I am degraded from a cook. white. bladder. &c. with all other loose idle masterless men. candidus. skola and thwatta. to Hence Ital. Wott. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. blather. See Blubber. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. or as E. plat. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. 1854. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. and others engaged in dirty work. Sir. bladder . blegne. a buible. e. rogues and wanderers. blanc. pallido. madder. Du. blaeren. the ON. to dabble in water. bladder. and wandering men and women. gabble. branches . to purl. and the agitation of liquids. contracted from bladeren. which we . definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. blegen. and thence to babble. mus-blackt. broad. variable than the signification of words designating colour. blather. To blank. moere. to To bellow. to bleak in the sun. blinken. But perhaps a more Gr. mud. is identical with Flanders borlen. plate. to glitter. linkboys. blanchet. bladra. his meat burnt. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. also white woollen cloth . the origin of . bladdra. Dan. Hist. as. blister. reproach. blanchir. It. PI. whitish. leaves. Eadmer. G. a bubble. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. waschen. blena. Play in Nares. plat. dripping-pans. bladeren. Sc. p. a bladder or pustule. whitish. and G. Blain. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. Sw. — — — to jabber. Dan. pXaatpiiiiHv. to blow. to vocifer- — Cot. — rura. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. to shine. — Sw. vagabonds. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. chatter. pimple.— ^o thehotsun. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. blaere. slush. mud. also jabber. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. also tanned by the sun. board. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. to make or become white blanc. D. flap of a Du. and E. G. Blade. a white or unwritten ticket. vagrants. roar. on. a blanket a bed. black. To Blare. and he shall be sure to have O.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. to bubble. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. from candere. blahen. defame. as blader. Du. Now. Du. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. blatt. blatter. — . tattle. coat. pladdern. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. speak impiously. Fr. borrelen. to blanch.. blactra. a pustule . to glow. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. Fr. Blancli. the leaf of a tree. Jan. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. blister. 7. Blame. Blank. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. biastner. Reliqu. as scullions. . bladre. blasphemare. Sw. smother. livido . or a mass of bubbles. as. blanchet. Gr. commonly called the Black-guard. blether.— Kil.—Blatter. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. a blank ticket. 86. blank. —We Bladder. The radical bubble. or blafich. pass over. The present forms then should be classed with blether. white. . blad.—Blatant. dial. most complete example of leafy structure. bladder. G. . from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. a. as Lat. leafy. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. a boil. Bacon in R. Blanket. biasimare. Du. revile. blad. 5/^a/^ of colour. a leaf. Dan. blister. piatto. to shine. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. blanqne. —^Webster. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. Fr. blame. foolish talk. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. Torriano. on. blatter. to disappoint. Lat. imbrunire. and Q. cited in N. pluddre. irXariQ. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. chatter. to omit. Perhaps from blegen. Cot. mire. sheet of paper. polished. Besides the examples of this connection given above. smore. Bav. or of an oar G. blein. tree. to —Blaspheme.

a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. to spread news. also only pains and excellent endurance. I. blesse. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. a coat of arms. The AS. a funeral oration . blaeteren.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. Blatant. As Kilian. might spring from the same origin by a . oured. might And sain. blason. an empty and two theories are proposed. magniloquus. how. blazen. Blast. a loud noise. the matter incendiary . To blast. Sw. whence Blazonry. pale. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. — ' — stroy. blcEsan. to set on fire. ON. Sw. 2. blysa. each of boaster. ill-speaMng their proper colours . to blow. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. to blow. . blaodhrach. blasonner.' painted or figured . beast. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. Dan.' to fastum . light-coli. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. to blaze Sp. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. Fr. and to make him word blaze. is the imme. a voice Jr. blast. to blow . blus. magnilo. to trumpet forth. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. a blast. Troilus and Cressida. blasoen. visui patet. bliEsan. friend Cornelius. somewhat different train of thought. Lye. But now. Fr. brasa. as a verb. To Blaze. She roade at peace through his heraldry. Kil. shield or surcoat. A gust of wind. blis. To blow AS. blezo.sound a trumpet. i. a shining spot.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. Blanches illuminies. — — ' : bless. Fr. to publish the praises. fire. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. is from AS. blaze. splendour. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. a torch. blase. and. First from the E. . the noisy. in the same way as we 2. blatero. 'op een trompet blaazen. live coal . bles. blasa. proflare tues. abroad. ing of arms. redness . blcese. or blazening. ther it was erst not knowe. boasting. biter. blossi. to extol. e. declaratio.). — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. blose. a flame . blcesett. Gudmund. thraso. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. commendation blason funebre. a shield. The origin of this exSp. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. Du. blaesen. besides blesse. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. a lamp blasere. A strong flame. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. or to the sound which it produces. — Elazen. indeed. Cot.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. brasa. blass. to bellow. OE. bleis. blorach. Cot. g. also praeblczse. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. blys.— . With inversion of the liquid. used. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. a shout. to publish. Du. Gael. AS. kept up. Du. a MS. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. Dan. blaodh. G. to cut off prematurely. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. The other derivation. has also blencke. on whose behalf the herald appeared. by stripping off a portion of the bark. quus. Blaze. loud . Prov. — ^Jam. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. also blazon or the blazSpenser. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. blateroon. laudes (Kil. oron-blasare. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. blesse. coloured prints. Du. baladron. like the in English. blcest. abroad. blase. bldsse. braise. of an animal. a torch . baladrar. AS. an conium. . a flame. noisy blor.whence the Fr. G. to proclaim. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . a whisperer. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. blason. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. is used in the sense of manifestatio. much plausibility. it is manifest. clamorous. bawling. blcEsan. stultd loqui. and which. blaterare. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. proclaim the virtues of. Sc. embraser. Du. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. among other . Du. to de. ventosus. A blaze is so intimately Then. gloriosus. in that of praise. senses. See Blare. Golden Book in R. blaser vid. ON. If armour. a flame.

a spot. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. start vor den augen. the formal equivalent of English wink. And By a similar metaphor Pol. 242. drop of water. wanness. exposed. G. blesmir. to become livid. blink. A stain in a man's reputation. novice. blesmissure. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. a spot. blemissemeiit. light-coloured. 419. and thence to a bruise. B. in the expression reputation. Blear. a stain. which are blurred with the have shewed you. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. ' — — eye. a fault. N. See Black. Bailey. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. a disgrace. . BLENCH obfusco. to cast a mist before the eyes. goda nainn. 115. to wink the eye. a blemish in one's 2. darkness of vices. I chaunge colour. . blot. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. to wink at it. A Blab. bleakness. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. Palsgr. blakna. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. Fr. livor. to disgrace one's name. to humbug. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. bleikr. pale . Gr. on. To Bleat. dead-coloured Cotgr. paleness. from the than schal I go. while the agent ac- From . a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. to start away from. Bleak. what blenched him therwith. not only pale but livid or dark of hue.' to deceive one. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. Pol. to spot. wheal. from on. So in Sw. ^Xiixaoftai. or blemish. Blemisli. livid. to spot . a spot. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. to blear one's eye. . c. The term blear. to cry or weep. inflamed eyes. p. (faith or creaunce) Be war. . confound him. to make him feel blank. . Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. boggle at something. to bleat as sheep. tumanid. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. AS. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. a blotch plerr. To salir. to bleach. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. blarren. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. blur before their eyes.P. ' . is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. spla7nU sie. splamii!. flack. See Blood. or to low as oxen. or blemysshen — blaken. Mac. a spot.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. like one that has long P1. ' — — ' : — — . to whiten by exposure to sun and air .' the devil makes a vain back. Bleed. plama. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. pier vor den augen eyes. As AS. — — R. Ancren Riwle. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. Schmel.filerren. to blare been weeping. bloken. guenchir. color plumbeus bldma. Blancher. to soil. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. To totally different from the foregoing. ' He blarrede or roar. Blear-eyed j having sore i. the livid colour of a bruise. See Black. Manuel de Pecch&. sugillatio. Bleb. blister. souiller. a been distinct. spSt. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. sinen langen tranen. blcecan. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. a red watery eye. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. Richardson. blema. pimple . In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere.D. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. tacher. ^Blencher. tutnan is a cloud. Sir J. — blink the question is to shrink from it. geplerr.'he cried till the tears ran down. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. From the OFr. to stain one's honour or reputation. blench came to be used for a trick. Gower in R. blot. as of dust or mist . wan.v. pale Du. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. avoid looking it in the face. Bejaune. a blot or smear blanking one. And now are these but mansbond (i.' God in his wordes. bldmi. Sw. a boil. is Blench. whitish.

pale. with or without the nasal. blahos. weaklaveny. ON. to bluiter. blithe blis. bliss look . to make happy. to shut the eyes G. to plunge. a wink With the bletsian. joy.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. blag. Owl and Nightingale. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. as a blind entry. pockets. happy . flash of light . Swab. AS. to shine. tire. livid. blend.not sting thiiren. Pol. . F. To Blend. Blazena Bea. liquid filth to bluther. G. although in the in the next article. Du. Blind.' To — blunge clay. happily. The inblissful. G. riches blajennii blicksem. as in Du. plotzen. blotzen. but by no means therefore a pre. a glance Swiss blenden. blindr. sweet. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. a blessing. The term then self or others. the sign of the cross while blessing one. G. to bless . Russ. blinzeln. gives blinzen. blink-eyed. good. riches . to consecrate . Swiss (obsolete). vious one in the order of formation. blicksem. lighten. blet. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. to glance. OHG. blessed. a look. to flash. Kiittner. glitter. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. blent. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. AS. or nettle which does form. blick. . plonsen. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. to stir or puddle. joyful. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. blund. Biglotton.D. blanssen. cascultare. make these hands 3. AS. to dazzle . Sc. blendian. —Brera. blogi. . Thence apblinds. blago. blind- ON. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. to rejoice. blinzdugig. to fall into water with a sudden noise. joy. lightning. . Du. mixing in general. glimpse. to bluiter up with water. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. — Goth. shine. to dash wine with water. blissian. Wtb. to shine.Q. mix from blekken. a dead nettle. blinzler. blicken.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. Needle. Bliss. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. Serv. Du. Blight. to mix. to lighten. burn up. to churn. 375. to glitter. to act like a — . the G. blich-fiur. well blagaya. ^Jam. to make a rumbling noise. blink. Du. happy . G. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. . to blithsian. Du. a. as a vatn i vin. blessed. thou knave. to — make it thick and muddy. blende. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. a glance. Tany. as taschen. blitzen. Blink. to twinkle. a gleam. — A A — . . doors. Dan. to bless.blinken. blatida. De Sonne ' verblekken. Sw.blinkard . also to wink. blazeny. to shine. — . blidu. to merry. Sc. an entry which leads to nothing . a flash. bleg. the verb to bless is some. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. Paradises blidnissu. AS. (=bene dicere). a wink. Nares. glad. lovely Bohem. blide. moment. a nounce happy. to rejoice. glance. blinde fenster. be glad flash. to shut the eyes. wink of sleep . tative source of the word is wholly lost. blind. A . Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. From the action of the hand making Sw. wink. dazzle . III. . Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. blithe. j). in potters' language. bludder. csecubrandish. gladness. glitter. readily passes into a /. seems the simple netel. to be blind.corn. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. happy . to glitter . blindselen. glitter. pearance of the blighted . HalliwelL Of this latter the E. money. ' Pl. fortunately. blicken. to dilute too much . tless —Gamm.wink . well blahy blick and blink. blaziti. to pro. blincken..blinze. goods. blican. Deprived of sight. To blunder water. sertion of the nasal. graceful. false windows. a blick-ooghen. . the Slavonic languages. is I shall Gurt. . blac. blahoslaviti to twinkle. bluiter. I hold thee a grote thee. to glitter ful . trix. as in the case of blaze. blitz. . a. lightning.nasal. sung. To Bless. The sound of k before an s. and joys of Paradise bliden.eyed.blunda. — when he — Bailey. . lightning sweet blago. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. to dabble in water. giving (Fr. joy . window-blind. OHG. . A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. to dash cream up and down with a plunger .

from blcsr. soft. blod.pusta.—Bloated. Dan. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. Blob. blond. to cure by smoke. — Blob. weak. and bouclette. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. bubble and blubber. a small lump of anything thick. Gael. blubber. To a smoking or drying by the fire. formed spot. swell. buclde. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. ^Jam.— Bailey. blijde. blotfisk. —Bailey. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. blaustem. and inarticulately. or is inserted or omitted. Kil. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. a little blisg. bloated.. boucler. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. soaked. Dan.—Bloater. to breathe hard. to close it with a solid mass. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. Du. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. to block up the way. a bubble. Egillson. bleiths. in the sense of a soft tint. strawclod. any lump or mass of things. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. as if soaked in water. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. W. while Lat. cooking. The stem or trunk of a tree. or the like. blautr. a . blot. mass. to swell. blot. the unhewn bole of a tree. Gael. plub. in Nares. a bubble. to blow. separate portion. lagga i blot. blindsehn. ON. whence blast. puff. ON. a block or log en bloc. Blob. pusula. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. light yellow. — Sw. and pisg. blobbes or droppes of water. as blinzeln. kostua. biota. Mod. blinzel-maus. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. . bloc. a blister . to to puff and be noisy. round. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. It may be formed Blithe. Block. sloppy dirt. . G. senting the dashing of water. viscid. Fr. — . I believe. merciful ON. pods. Blister. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. having an unsound swollen look. Du. as a blab of ink. blindman's-buff. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. fiustula. And so from squatter. kostia. Goth. Bav. a lumpish head plubach. taken altogether. blidr.plisg. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. in the lump or mass of wood. to bubble. also to set See Bless. blcesma.— Hal. Sw. A solid blouquette blisters. mild. signifying in the first instance to soak. to blissom. a ram. bloc. Svt. Bleb. or bleb. G. to soak. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. Fr. Sw. a drop of water. blister. and easily changes its place. like clot. blad. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. Blond. repre- pusula. must be classed with forms like Gr. Jonson. B. pimple. blobber. Hence E. blithe. N. to desire the male. mild. soft. In Fin. and F. Hence. a bubble. pustula. a blot or spot. bluster. pausten. The roots /. a dirty blister. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. A under this name was imported into England. speaking rapidly any . . a See Blot. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. inde humiditate tumidus. soak in water cured fish. . ^vaaa. as in E. blouca and Fr. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. For this. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. bluyster. to blow. Sc. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. To Blissom. an unformed mass. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. bausen. Boyd in Jam. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. See Blot. busten. it is must be observed. in gusts. Lat. blide. Langued. fish blind person. to blow. is also used in the sense of swelling . blister blasan. to steep. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. a blister. a blain. blaud. Of sheep. soft. blote. or the mark which it makes. B. Cotgr. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. husks. or blinde-kiih. blab. shells. Thus we have blab and babble. like manner the coloured. gentle OHG. buckle. To Bloat. frequentative. is formed squad. expressed by cognate roots. in bulk. The blow E. blesme. must be referred to AS. to dash liquid. blot. Ibid. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. orbicular. — — — — — From blabber. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. joyful. stone.

blowen. . blostma. white blatte. Dan. bloi. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. Sc. blose. mud. kuh-plader. or the sound of it . platt-voll. bluish. plattata. bloemen. blaeuwe ooghe. blue. glasi. to splash. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. — Blotch-paper. to sparkle. to slap. blysa. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. blauwel. plottra. to blaze . bliise. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed.' the rain is driving and blue . in v. blotter. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. to glisten . pale tint. whence plader. OFr. the bright colour of the cheeks . Stalder. glossi. yellow. Pl. Wendish blodo. Jios. fall to overflowing. Hatch. ^Bleed. a flower. splashing full. great leaf of cabbage. blus. It should be of filth blak-blatte. coloured (Diaz. splendour . a The form platschefz. a Schmid. to dash down. to flame. Du. from G. a water ploutsche. a cow-dung. fair in en blat vand. Fris. platz-regen. Dan. blaeuwen. lump flower. See Blow. bletister. blawels. to grow pale). Fris. to dabble in water. straw. blosma. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. bloutre. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. — Cot. blue . to strike . Dan. blond.^ Kil. AS. — Stalder . a torch blusse. blut. bloi. skam. to strike with something soft or flat. pale biavo. ON. Du. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. blosa. on. to strike with such these objects exhibit.platter. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. Fr. livid marks. E. plet. Blad. bldmi. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. bleistern. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . blase. wan. . . blodelsa and blawelsa. lidmr. Sw. a nature. AS. to squat or lie close. a lump. as the skin or hair. Blotcli. to exists in biadetto. D. blois. Du. bfys. en blau ach. a drop of water or colour. ON. PI. j^ blottir. a blow. plotterwis. to scribble. blou. blue. E. Florio). a spot or blot. blady. gammon. E. parallel form with ON. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. pladern. blad. cow-dung. to squander. to blaze. blat. flower. Wflz<^«. blotte. The G. redness. bit by bit. to shine . Harmar in R. platsch-voll. a gush of milk . blust. bleustern. spot pletter i solen. to dirty. Russ. Du. Prov. a blaze. —Barbour. blond is used in blatt. pladdern. to From . S-wiss pladern. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. bliihen. sbiadare. blue. Sw. light. blosen. blotting-paper. Erploten. lustre. plot of land is a spot or small rage. blooth. a flower. pale. of a blow with something lios. a black eye Du. dial. a beater.blauschlagen. blaeuw. kobladde. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. . . to dash down Du. a. Blot. Blood. to blush . E. bloi. ^lys. G. Lat. the bright to blot paper morsels. Ir. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. Bloom. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. spots in the sun. blistaf. glus. to be red with blot. a pelting shower). Ein platsch milch. livid . E. It. to dabble in water . to glow. Sw. blue. ])erly Du. a flower. to blot the land was in a leme. from the bright colour which 7'vci. 2. a deli. fall down . Plots. clod. — gush. blomstr. a Usaae. bloeme. bldts. glister .— . . to slap. See Blow. couleur livide. platschern. bloto. Schwenck. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. bloed. proto shine with bright colours . . E. biado (of which the evidence plattern. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. blondheid. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. Schilter. to spot or blot. bloedsd. colour of the cheeks. ON. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). Sc. soft or flat. glose. ' — .platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. blond en blaauw slaan. platz-voll. probably connected with Pol. dial. bliithe. Blow. Schmid. a blot or spot. to be red.properly to scatter liquid .D. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. blosem. plants which prepares the seed. gleam. — — . . Blossom. bloetnsel. (of cattle) to dung. shine . lump of anything soft to blad. gloss. dirty spot on the cheek. yellowish It's G. G. a Halm a. to patter. blatte. gfyssa. leme. brilliancy.

sound like water. in E. Notwithstanding the We . where the word may be compared bliggman. flower OHG. grug. to hard. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. a bruise. a blast. Jla-re. like manner Lat. Pl. to inflate. G. pale. meurtrissure Roquefort. wan. Danneil. to with Bohem. is confined to the — . to flourish. G. And. glas. Prov. G. Gael. The radical sense is shown in Gael. blubbern. corre. . to Plodern. y\r)yi»v. to beat. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. Her sweet bloderit face. To Blow. to gush. wan. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. These are — Bludder. green. to blow. In agitation of water. . blau. disordered in head-dress. to'disorder. B. Blowze. to gabble. 1292. Langued. to fade.D. blubonciti. blazir. boasting.nify bubble.to blossom. cheeks bedabbled with tears. — To blubber. ' BLUE or guggling. sense. blazi. 2. OHG. blezir. fqded. and closely allied with Du. Du. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. OFr. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. a fat. — . to make blue. blubbern. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. pale. a gurgling . glaodh and blaodh. boil. to breathe G. We . Blue. w. blue . — . -ii. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. in rapid or indistinct utterance. to guggle. Mund. ler. a flower. The aUied forms. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. and the forms mentioned under Swab. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. marking some application from that bladder. bloi. gUd.— . toused. — — Mundart. bluod. to make bubbles in drinking. P1. Kil. a blow. flower w. —SchmelIt.' — Palsgr. . may cite for example G. A. blosen. E. plusig.D. a continued noise of agitated water.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. Wtb. Tumbled. Pl. to beat with a mallet. ^Jam. bldt. heath.D. the red fluid of the body . coup. gloeden. to bubble up. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. To Blow. bluh.D. gliihen. to glow. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. a paddling in wate r. is very frequent. dirty. bliuwan. . into flower. vi^ound. to spot. to blow. to puff up. gliihen. grey. bliihen. glas. plubraich. blahen. It. bloeden. bruised Prov. plubair. blow.xo'»'. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly.' Hamburgh Archives. blebber. little apparent resemblance. fem. bliihen. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. blaw j biavo. 51.. to glow. chatter. plodern. glede. to shine with bright From colours. to flap like loose clothes. Gr. . blao. Bret. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. blodyn. withered. . sponds with Sw. Bav. E. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. blodern. pale OFr. or gr. blady. 92. puff. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. Chaucer. florere. grow pale. red-faced bloted wench. Pludern. and thence. pale . bl. to blurt out. piusen. to exhibit bright colours. MHG. a. to show flower. /idXavoc. br. bliithe. bloemen. bludder. blawan. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. fiubbem. to breathe bouteiUis. disordered. blass. Chaucer. blodelsa. — To Blubber. v. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. fied vowel. blue. blava. a herb Gr. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. blois. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. Blowzy. It is howbliuwen. bloes. to blow. pludern. bledniai. a Blossom. d in Sc. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. bluther. tache.Jlasa. bruk. Lat. G. blau. The interchange of an initial gl. Sik upplustem. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. gloeyen. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. blut. to fade. Du. closely difference in of blabber. to fade. blduen. especially with respect to the hair. jabber. bloom.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). The primary sense is to shine. AS. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . blust. plubartaich. foam. — Bluther. Raynouard. 1. bloeyen. |8A)'. to bruise Roquef. Deutsch. glow. OHG. glowing coal . plustrig. glansj Ir. Deutsch. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil.

OFr. Roquefort. bawling. See Blurt. Pm. in water dobbelen. - reddish yellow. pale yellow. flodderen (Weiland). . fallow. glundr. bluish.make a noise. I blonder. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. blunderhead. blanssen. herauspoltem or sloping shore. a fore. contrasted with the dle. Blunderer or blunt worker. bUich. which is rendered by Florio. The Du. earth and water mixed together. blave is moreover. blunt. and then generally idle talk. devenir vert blavoie. Blaffart. bloi.— . yellowish red. polter-hans. and sbiadare. to become pale. Du. blunder. to become pale or livid. blutter. in plur. without image or superscription. yellow. Dryden in R. Palsgr. pludder. G. to work To blunder out a fronto. Pl. pale. bullern. Sw. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. Hal. And blunders on and staggers every pace. has donder-bus. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. To blunder is then. a plain coin herausplatzeu. is. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. Blunt. discoloured {plowiee. Bodge. Bluff. G. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. sense of yeUow. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. plomp. having a bluff forehead. abrupt. verdoyer. plo-wy. and biavo (Diez). corn.' trouble. tutte le semente ancora in erba. G. to confound. We Blunder. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. non rotunda. to fade). E. blahir. 't — —Hal. bulmanner. The Du. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. Supp. mix It. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. planus. blond. segetes virentes.//aay. find accordingly It. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid.in mud or water. polterer. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. Bohem. Kil. confusion. liebefactor. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. biada. to agitation of liquids. ploffen. G. Then with the nasal. — Pr. blake (identical with AS. rustic. to become pale or wan. to lose colour. buller-bas.D. as well as biado. from the Lat. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. a shore abruptly rising. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. Kiittner. and metaphorically. biava. blue. Roquefort. blunder. Kil. Ditton in R. speech. from the brilliant green of the young E. herbe. biavo. tradire to Fr. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. fawn-coloured. corn. to plump into the water. trahir. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. to dabble in the mud. dial. to mix it up with water. superficie plani. to blunder water. applied to green as well as blue. an ill-done job. buller-bak. It is remarkable however that the E. Analogous forms are Du. pale) is provincially used in the. blaf. Hence a Slcelton in R. in the same way as from It'. like Du. originally growing up turf and water. disturb. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. From G. sbiavare. Altieri. pale straw-coloured. a blunderbuss. Du. Flor. flav-us. like the Celtic glas. and bustle . Halma. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . and Du. from an imitation of the sound. something. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. Hence we pass to Prov. See Blunt. Pol. to puddle. glundra. Blavoyer. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. A bluff manner. his business with much noise. as well as sbiadafe. to fall suddenly on the ground. It then signifies something done at once. or an abrupt manner. blandum. — — — . used for the work of an unskilful performer. blue. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. Dan. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. bleu et blanc.. verdure. Romance bluiter. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. all representing the — . falb. to blunge clay. je perturbe. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. to dabble Biglotton E. mistake. sloppy drink. a flounder. blavus. blac. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. blue. Bladum. — . a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . to stir or pudcorn in the spring. Lat. jaune. a boisterous violent man. Biada. puddle. . Dief. poltern. The word is here synonymous with amplus. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair.• BLUFF biado.

Bare and blunt. biosso.—D. blue.to fall into the water. bleak. united in Gael. hebes. obtusus. plotz. plains The large bech. Plontp. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. blait. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. More in Richardson.— — — . to make a noise of such a Stalder. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. It will be seen that the G. bloss. blunt. Molof something wet. as cow-dung. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. It. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. used in both senses. or blab out a thing Kiittner . Dan. rough. pressions. platz-regen. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. Then cometh indevotion. and hath swiche languor in his soul. from the loud report a fire-arm. blout. unpolished. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. as in E. plump. a thick and will person. nature. as Sw. Stalder. to make foliage. Dan. The blait body. inactive Swiss bluntschi. a simpleton. that the sense of bare. blatte. Won by degrees. Kiittner. V. clumsy. viz. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. maol. F. to bring it suddenly out. dull. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. pointless. naked. bald. homo stolidus. Q. Kiittner. mit etwas heraus-platzen. Plump. massive. ang. Swab. The syllables blot. dull. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. unfledged Sw. the absence of sharpness. inaKil. —D. Pol. sheepish. a blot. a bluntie. A light blue colour. and in the same sense. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. pale. figuratively. blunt. —D. . fooUsh. and. bare. to plump down. without the nasal. a portion To inquire for slaves. plumbeus. is The word dull. Sw. heavy. seems to be derived. plump J to plump out with it. bluntschen. poor Sc. exactly corresponding to the G. to blurt. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. down. plutz T)\i. Now the Swiss bluntsch. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. azure. plump. Ford in R. void. blat. without preparation. V. stupid fellow. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. but of something soft thrown on the ground. Chaucer. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. identical with E. blutten. blockish. through which a man is so blont. of a knife which not cut. Sc. blait. naked. viz.plompen. naked. A modification of the same root. bus. forestis. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. G. or heraus plumpen. raw. that it not easy to discover the connection. Woddis. dial. Blaitie-bum. awkwardly. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. edgeless. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. G. biotto. and an unintelligent. to handle a thing bluntly. — Kil. it will be well to point out a sense. blunsch. silly. it will be observed. Plump mit etwas umgehen. and the like. obtusus. bare. is thrown. blotta sanningen.pludse. in Richardson. Blunt. . with or without the nasal. heavy. platzen. without Maolaich. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. heavy. without horns. Halma. insensible. bare or blunt. blunt. plump. It is from this notion of suddenness. to blunt a thing out. — blunt. awkward. plump. absence of preparation. rudely. like a thing thrown down with a noise. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. ineffectual reason. thick. blunder. plonsen. — — pidus. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. wan. unceremonious manner. V. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. blott. Du. plotsen. Sc. Sir T. Probably radically hlekit. unwrought. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. rude. clownish. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. good plump person. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. Bluntet. naked. fling down . It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . nis. to plump into the water. blunt. duU.

be a crack or loud sound. Gael. Pl. gabble Sw. blose. margin. dial. bot. Schmeller. bobine. pof. Pull the bobbin. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. aper. — — . Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward.D. an end or stump. and when applied to vaunting language. rude. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. To brag and to crack. the sound of a blow poffen. G. border. Board. Fr. Bav. mire. puddle. Blush. V. batello. gabble. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. the Brem. a club foot . to be out of temper. to crying. as in Du. to blur. Boost is used for the boast. See Boisterous. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr.y. and Du. cluster. Fl. blarra. Sc. bdta. a smear. rude. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. stellio. Halma.v. blunt. BLUR Boar. 'Ba. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. to rumble. eafor. a Jam. splurt and spirt. bustuous. blaste?i. to puff. G. pausten. To move quickly up and down. imitated by has also In like . both used in the sense of boasting. or backwards and forwards. bora. Sc. borrar. or blurt with one's mouth.plodem. blast.— . P. it implies that it is empty sound. G. blotch and botch. c. Lat. acre. coarse. to glow . . bliise. E. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. like the parapets (viggyrdil. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. bord. edge. crack made by bursting open. eber. to make a noise in boiling. strong. to dangle. to talk quick and indistinctly . and wrapped round a little piece of wood. a grows to a great bigness. to brag grande loqui. to puff. swagger. To blow in puffs. 274. blaere. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. Fr. boot. beer. 29. outward edge. to roar. blur. bluter. boord. to say bluntly. w. blaustem. to blush. chicchere. a short thick body. blot. edge. baiag. boistous. Du. to disfigure with E. See Blossom. Du. blubber. stupid. to snuff. pfludern. to bounce. — To Bob. to puff. &c. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. e. then applied to indistinct vision . To splirt. blurra. Supp. a border. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. plump. of the word seems . to blow. to blaze. violent G. a burst of tears. AS. AS. cocodrUlus. Du. planks or boards. a blow . to make a noise with the mouth. botte. Du. fringe. 1. an ear of corn. is formed Du. my dear. to dirty. bausen. geplerr. bord. dial. Bot zeggen. to breke. bobbin. . ader. pluddre. Explained by Jam. will fly up. blodern. to give a crack. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. bakke bleustern. and the latch . a board or plank. whence bordvidr. literally edge-wood. To tinct. to endeavour to terrify. Gael. It. Boa. to chatter. hot. to threaten. table. Du. to blubber. bar. table. Hal. blosken. to render indisbhir. boa. E. pludern. dull. Bluster. blot.the syllable bot. lindwurm. Fl. 9396. and E. ON. To Blurt. Wtb. to spurt out. to bark. BOB 79 — To Blur. to sound like water boiling. margin. bludder. bdtr. board. blader. common. skin. Du. . to guggle. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. Comp. blasen and See Burr. an edge. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. bladdra. Wright's ed. a blot. The elision of the d is very to chatter. De Boat. a flurt with one's fingers.' — Red Riding-hood. to blurt out. this root are formed Sc. beacon fire. to dabble. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. to smear. bateau. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. . — ' Dief. Du. Hal. bur. a mist before the eyes plerren. a mistiness. berd. blaffen and baffen. and boisterous. on. — a blaze. Kil. i. . boccheggiare. a dangling object.pusten. short pieces of any filthy mud. and swimmeth very well. Wallace. ever-swin. or bog also thread. A large snake. bot-voet. Related to blutter. violent. brett. Dan. — — — * Boast. whence bob. bdd. primarily signify loud noise. pustern. 156. blusse i ansigtet. sudden. a bladder . cheeks glow. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. bit. Swiss blodern. a blotch. bord. margin. bleuster. lacerta. as splurt to splutter. Boa. a tassel. Sverris Saga. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. to jabber.plerr. bhis. Slur. It. a tassel. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. blirt of greeting. AS. to blore. burra. planks raised up outside the roofs. a baU of thread the mud. properly noisy. ground. The to radical meaning D. OE. baban. a. puffen. It. As the as. — From mouth. voce intonare. bludder. flat. large.—Bobbin. a small lump. to make mouths. bluther. a torch blusse.

to make. the belly. stumpy.' Bogglie. bodilo. . baboyer. a cask. Bodkin. unsteady. boll. potig. To Bodge. biodeachan. round. an announcement. or stem of a tree. Schmel. as a horn. 43. Reliq Antiq. a spur. to prick. goggle. pall. bodene. Crist. to be uncertain what to do. quakmg. the body of a shift gaguejar. Thy i. then from the yielding. AS. gago. to push with the horns. Now unskilful action is conmire. a quagsoft. a prick. Ir. a dagger. to fail. quagmire). corset from corps. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. to stick. . bodies. unsteady. to stammer. ^Jam. move. to thrust. a bog or morass. bodian. bog. — H.rabodi. — as well as the body of an animal. the body. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. Commonly explained as if from Sc. a body. rounded. to deliver a message. Lith. busti. boftich. the trunk of the animal body. To Bode. bayonet. . bodi. bolr. See To Botch. to be unsteady tich. So BOB To Bob. meaning the round part of his body. And waves. bodi. anything soft. strike with the horns. '£. Bodice. The signification of the root bot. as signifying anything spherical or round. ON. potahha. Bret. body of a shirt bol. woman's stays. potacha. arise E. bodhag. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering.gmh:t. biodag. W. bod.\\i\c\iset. body and G. gog. unsteady nature of a soft substance. stitch. exhibit another modification of the root.' A — Sherwood's Diet. bogadh. bodetz. is identical with Fr. stuttering. BOGGLE trunk and G. bagges. palleg. To make bad work. shaking . Banff. a puddle. message boda.a (i\ia. bot. an awl. moving backwards and forwards. to bodge. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. anything protuberant. dies. . The Sp. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. bo tich. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. or a pair of bodies. . to make a mow at. . formerly bodies. Bohem. gagoula. barriga. bodat. whence Fr. . nave of a wheel. Supp. bog. waving. We . a messenger . mud. gag. point. toss. daubed or dabbled with blood. VI. precept.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. barrique. bottich are derivatives. a ghost . Ptg. With With this we charged again We bodged again. bayonet . bogach. bogadaich. a cask. from fitting close to the body. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. 3. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. where bogs form Gael. bodak. e. to butt. . Wall. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . agitate. to blurt a thing out. — Grandg. nodding. a prickle. gog in gog-mire. the boss of a buckler. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. butt. shake. Gl. Lap. bodnu. wavering. swelling. patsche. Ptg. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. See Baber-lipped. thrust with something pointed. — 2. gebod. as in stammering or staggering. bod. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. bogan. a round body both. or bag. needle. to commit a blunder. Gael. the stem of a tree . corset. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. to roll. belly. expression hogglin an bogglin. stutter gogmire. corpses pot. bob. to fail. the thick part of anything. To portend good or bad. * To Boggle. bodig. speak of the barrel of a horse. Russ. gogach. bole. a sting . See Bid. It introduced from Ireland. by the syllable patsch. a command. To mock. potacha. Body. Gael. corpset. so large a feature in the country. to start start and back as from a bugbear. to smack. of which the E. to bob. bogle.hollow. cask bottich. Miracle-plays. calf of the leg. whence paUchen. Gael. and E. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. moist mire. bog (equivalent to E. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. is a lump. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. . to waver. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. to dabble or paddle. Cot. Bog. and the word is well explained by Bailey. gagei. In like manner E. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. bottig.! . AS. fickle . Shakespear has badged with blood. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. to scruple. a . badyti. to stir.. bothog. French bouter.

ohg. The bob. — 6 . bald. the body . also a blister. quick. perpendicular. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. Pm. w. see Boast. in speaking. capitellum. bouil. sels of flax. bSlstr. (of Mons) b^guer. repagulum. which are not used for a similar purpose. the gurgling sound of water rush. to boil. confident. as baltha. obex. caput scapulse. bolstar. bollen (Kil. animal as distinguished from the limbs. To Boil. brave. to stumble. . Mund. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. Boll. tomentum. bulla. chaff of corn siliqua. a boil or swelling Du. Chaucer seems Dan. a bakazikni. Swab. . furfures. globular bod)'. Gael. bul. bullire. to give a hoUow sound. Du. baud. Sc. bolzBold. ballr. bog.— — . bout is explained by Kil. A. bolzen.palleg. The term applies in — — impressed . If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. bog. Goth. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. prince. bal. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. swelling. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. Daring. by which it is moved to and fro. whence bulla. bout. Stalder. Chaucer. Test. pusten. tartajear. G. fiausten. bag or bog are derived Piedm. Fr. insolent baude. poppy (Bailey). 304). free. bold. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. ^Vocab. bealder.rounded part of the body. the lir. OHG. boss. from the branches. bolc'h. Bustuous. beule. hero. puile. boutpijl. G. glass phial. then violent. .). bald. — — which the cushion is stuffed. bol. bochken (titubare. to the belly as the or dislike. to be prominent. bulr. ON. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. polc'h. to be at a loss a shirt. to stagger. V. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). bolleken. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. Sp. G. * Boisterous. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn.. i. See Bulk. bulla. capiing into a cavity. stramenta. buller. balldr. a head . and then applied to other husks. b^gayer. — ' — tagliare. . Love. the body of a man or of ter. Lap. intrepid. ^Boistous. he will speak out. haughty. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. bola. The round stem of a tree. Kit. Du. Bole. bola. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. Fr. ON. may be identified with It. gluma. flax-boU. ON. rough. merry. as. Fr. as. or the like. In the same way Sc. courageous. gerade signifies straight to the mark.— D. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. bold. coarse. a quaking mire. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. tar. excellent. shake. boil . puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. impetuosity. tartle. pustule. used. Da. notes. bok. Me doth awate. Du. Boystous. a fastening for a door. stutSw. Bret. to stammer. to hesitate from doubt. boggle. strong. buile. belc'hj. a cushion. * Bolster. a swelling in ice. pillow. strong. round the first instance to the materials with . Cot. To Bolter.' Mrs Baker. as those of nuts. treated under Bowl. tartalear. from Du. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. bolster. boystousnesse. Du. to waver or hesitate. wag. bolt upright. It. strong. folliculus grani. E. 45. stameln vel bochken. blow.D. proud. Sw. bold. bolster. Boil. bolla. balder. a bubble. trunk of a tree . bula. G. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. a bubble. bol. scruple. pall. chatter. This iv. cheerful. Kil. Magy. is probably a modification of boll. boll. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. Wall. courageous. the husk of nuts. roydeur. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. boly. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. swelling. stud. hakogni. up of bubbles. to tattle. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . Westerwald bollern. bolr.Du. Lat. bol.w. noise. tulum. properly represent belly. huge. Pr. in the sense of handsome . Lat. to stammer. to puff. pimple ON. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. to swell. puilen. warlike. but that Bolt. ON. hollow. bald. Properly noisy. and manace for to de. a bubble. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. 1430 in Deutsch. bolle. bul. styffe or rude . E. the. bhster. OG. bolt. as E. dint in a metal vessel. a bump. bagaji. cows the people from speaking. 374. biiilen.

in S'W plotter.) E. Dauphiny a sudden movement. Wtb. projections. crotlar. blotttre. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. P1. or a racer from the course. In the next place. gebolder. Brem. cruddle. hole. bolt-foot. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. rugged. the wheels groaned.clack. G. Bav. kloteren. a clump of turf. to bolt meal barutel.by forms like G.On the same principle. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. Supp.i5a//^«.). to knock. It. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. to clack. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. buretter{CQ\. on the one hand. rugged. and to crash. Schiitze. tar. . lumpy. The ment and the operation.agitation of the meal in the bolter. zen. tumultuari. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. bolting to that of form. crash. Pl. with E.Lat. jolting. barutela. : ' — — . agitari (Kil. to shake. racket gepolter.D. barutare.D. Here the radical image is the violent O. a rattling carriage. Champagne burtcau. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. Dan. beliitea. as Fr. bulk or quantity . as above explained. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. a clod cloth. a small portion. poltern. small heap. uneven. I boulte meale in a boulter. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering.fe/2?. bolzen. as snow balling on a horse's foot. we see that the one consists of a words. tling or crashing noise. bulstrig. cro. knob. have Lat. a millpoltzet augen. protuberance. Mid. to start with palpitate. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. bortelen. to come rattling downstairs. bullern. vessel with narrow opening. bolt head is a retort. a bolter Prov.D. bultred. to coagulate. bulla. hulch. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. Fr.). 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. pull. holier poller. we pass to Du. the sense of right on end.nature of the operation. Lat. die treppe pressed. burclct. Prov. . or ill. staff which sounds tar.. by the representation of a racketing sound. from G. baruta. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. grasbulten. Bulte-pook or bulstar. OFr. a round glass ending — bultig. a rattle. Du. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. btilt. taratarrum. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. boss. to start out. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. a .through a cloth of loose texture. budeln daz mele . buideln.— .protuberance. OFr. also to curdle. poll.thump or blow. / is transposed in Fr. 2. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . abolter. a sod (Schiitze). uneven. . then to knock. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. pattern. buletel. representing a rat. a bunch. croler. bulio. we der Brocket). . . to significance of the term was overlooked. taraabout. to make a knocking. barutela. Pl. ler. . and the Thus from So. beluter. we have Du.u. . bolt. taratantarum. bolzaugen. mole-hill. to spring forth E. curdle. Pr. Pm. as of a trumpet. bultig. pultare. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. clump. ' Holler poller / bulter. And as the agitation of cream in . Sanders.D. — — — .as the essential element signifying the talum. as a rabbit from its baritel. Sw. to E. to bolt meal barutel. hulter de bulter. to bolter. a club-foot. buUire. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. to bolt flour burato. zare. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. . brattle. bolzauget) Sp. a clod. poltern. MHG. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. or the like. sestuare. tuft. hump. ' — — ! ! : — . one after the other. to form lumps. swelling. hammer. je bulte. Du. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. hammer. a clap of thunnences. fied bot. Lang. bluter. On this account Mid.noise {brattle of thunner. bulk. The ulti. to agitate. a crashing or racketing noise. projecting eyes pul. loud and fast. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. to become lumpy. crod. So also we pass from Lat. buletare. to talk pulzen. Hence Palsgr. ex•wagen. OFr. a bolter or implement for bolting.. tantara. Hence. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief.

to bind G. bombasine. gunpowder. Du.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. Schm. band pi. a hollow sound. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. tiffany. bande. bulter from It. and Du. bombasin. bombicina. band. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. beil'n. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. It. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. iuttern. Bomb. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. tie. whence bomme. bommen. from teu. — bombast came guage. again. banitola (Fl. Bonfire. the Fr. 155. bombast. bwmbwr. bombice. baun. baum-bast. e. It. derivation. thick. Moreover. silk-worm. or trunk word in W. OE. bein. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. biire. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. tree. and called in Mid. Fr. a —Bombasine. Gascoi^e in R. boulenger. rimbombare. the silk-worm. Banstead.^Altieri. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. ties. bureau. breast-bone. to boult meal. d. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. bras. borel. to shake down fruit from a tree. an implement of binding. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. basin. silk. to which the leg.) . G. bomba. It. . beuteln. Bone. a beacon. It. As cotton was used for padding clothes. HoUybandin R. a stem or base. bon. — having a stem or stalk. and also the leg. a thundering noise bomre. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. raw silk. produced the Pl. and that from Fr. term is appropriated in G. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. also thick-shanked. G. Du. sericum arboreum. achsel bein. band. to thunder. bureau. &c. sye. bauniwolle. When ture. a bone in general. bombarda. bwmbwry mar. . buidelen. Butterglas. a churn for butter. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. i. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . G. builen. and Bond. agreement. a baker. gossipium. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. the contracted form of Du. sije. In legal language. PoUitriduare. . bonds. buttel trueb (of liquids). bone of the . accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. to resound. From builen. Dan. thick from shaking. It. butteln. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. bongam. Mid. . bonog. bindan. bambacium. E. a drum bombammen. Fl. a word of which we have traces in several English names. thick-legged. In E.Lat. and in fact we find the and Du. . the shank the shoulder-bone. from boom. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. stuff.bast. coarse. to beat a drum.). to cast to and fro. beuteln. Dan. tie. Castrais barato. the leg. lana lignea. bommer. q. as Banbury. bombase. butteln. ^o/j.D. ODu. . burato. a string. — Bombard. booming over the water. Antiq. buidelen. however. bond. It. bombdra. 83 Gr. to shake. must be explained Fr. bombe. sijde. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. assuming the of leg : special signification W. — AS. crook-shanked bondew. to shake (as to shake the head. bunden. a boulter of meal. the murmuring of the sea. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. a ligature. bambagino. as in . Bibelesworth in Nat. bonfras. has repeatedly varied. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. bopin. cotton. Kil. Need you any ink and bonibase. we speak of a gun to resound. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. stump. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. and Mod. to bolt meal. bambagioj whence It. The material called by this name. to thump W. to ring bells.Su?. . any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. Du. been. brust-bein. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. Fr. cotton stuff. Near 6 * . is supported by the analogy of G. bolting-cloth. a stock. barate.

bua. however. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. bauen. to gape. a head-dress. a dry stalk. dial. netis stall. Thin ben Luke i. Du. wondering signifies not only straw. . OW. G. AS. babau. or Vanns. Prov. But bosg. build. ass. to dress. bdn. Gl. the alphabet. been. bonad. a simpleton. the name of the letter b. booby. b&ber. but stall. dress. gawney. Hufwud-bonad. . tall. beam. AS. Boom. boubair. bommen. bossen. From bo. — . boubi^. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. Fr. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. swinbusa. inhabit. high. quest. succour Bailey. head-dress wai^g. E. bds. foolish. relief from sorrow. boa. to yawn. See Bown. one who dwells nigh. Fr. boia. Schm. 232. remedy of evil. bote. The latter is the original AS.. pig-sty. gaby. set in order. to ask. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. Fr. 13. G. of wonder On the same principle Sp. w. buandi. whence ban-ffagl. botte. Boot. A favour. remnants of hay or straw. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. short boots. a lying-place for dogs or swine. bid). inhabit. a letter Russ. Ox. bose. dial. a lofty blaze. signifying beech. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. boutig. to litter bosu. botte. E. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . — From the participle present. Fr. ganian. writing bokos. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. boandi. Jr. also called Brecknock Beacons. petition. bota. ben. Build. a tree. simpleton. N. a hollow skin. and from AS. prayer. lofty. bas. boom. bobo. the possessor of the farm. a good turn or re- meaning. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. a letter . as the Brecknockshire Banns. * Boose. Bonnet.Boos. Busk. Kil. bolt. from beida (E. a stall. to cultivate. \ais-band. without ad- . pole. desire. prayer. Bonnefyre. in Phil. Booby. bua. . A peasant. boer.^ —P. Goth. The origin of the word is probably the W. to gape. G. babin. dolt. fool. — e. ty Gael. master of the house. a scribe G. In nautical language. which one gaping and staring about. a. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. . . Palsgr. from gape. gaping hoyden — Cot. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. Du. . It is commonly explained as identical with It. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. the mouth. stabulum. ON. busu. bos. to set in order. help. a bag of skin or leather. Swab. Mrs Baker explains bun. . build. reparation. although in the OG. See Butt. babb^o. p. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. betere thing werse. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. Basa. bene.—Bootless. boo. dog-kennel. as a lying-place for cattle. Bun. in w. to aid. It. bosig. hu?idbusa. house. buch-stab. clown. See Bomb. pero. chaff. Boor. a vessel for holding liquids. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. Boot of bale. Pm. A stall for cattle. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. petition. bonaid. litter. bd. biikui. nachbar. to prepare. bauer. Du. Trans. letter. the first consonant of the alphabet. a bonfire. and fig. to strew with straw. tigh. to cultivate. the scriptures bokareis. ON. tapestry. Sp. from Du. by arbitours sholde bote the P. Kil. wall hangings. boten-shoen. till. bAkva. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. is Du. and thence Rouchi baia. bonnet. . bosih. ON. blockhead. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. Thus from the syllable ba. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. from badare. Bootless. and Ban in w. Gael. boutig. feu de behourdis. Hal. literally cow-house. — Bailey. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. — To boot. the stubble of beans. bonad. till. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. b'ukvdry. often cut for burning and lighting fires. . Hal. b^er. by itself for head-dress. Binau Brychyniog. where a cross (or a gun. The i. a silly fellow.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. and Gael. To Boot. comes bondi. ON. gehyred. a. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. Boon. Mrs Baker. beiSne. countryman. bowwen. badaud. The character of folly is i860. are formed Fr. the cultivator. Wall.n. bobo ! interj. Pr. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. dress. at everything. Book. baier. OSlav. botta. . Perhaps. — — .

edge. cellar. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. BoracMo. G. to profit. cottage. which are probably from the same root. and E. a shed. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. chewed food for infants. piercer. Magy. sculpo 05\xiik. terebra sculptoria purastoa. Pol. a shelter of branches. to divide. limbus. forare. Bete. boede. Gael. Fin. It. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. to hut. Du. 1. reparation. to to . an engraver's chisel. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. byte points to the verb byta. .par.. a granary . to restore. admovere titiones. Esthon. betan fyr. a sharp-pointed tooth. A phorically a drunkard. recovery bata. to swell. a. or anything pointed. to quench one's thirst . or the gradual working a hole in anything. to foam. puras. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. boeye. boete. &c. a hut or tent. borracha. mat-bod. to stick unto as a bur. comminuted by either kind of action. and hence to fine. bolino. . BOOTH vantage. as afford a satisfactory explanation. dens mordens vel caninus. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). bothan. chisel. a wave. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. Lat. cure Sw. pu purro (saha =: saw . furd. To Bore. baete. ON. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it.por. in Lap. sawroot. The ON. a tusk. and parrets. to . Booth. butin. bud. the . an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . bottino. to pierce. purra. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. exchange or divide. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. a borer . . butin is explained by Flor. drillen. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. • — To Bore. Palsgr. puru. . sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. a responding forms . The Fin. scalpo. borino. better. to expiate boeten den dorst. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. boeten het vier. OHG. Sp. from borra. 3. budka. scsdes-bod. bower. Mag. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. puru. to build. Gael. hem or gard of a garment. wine-skin. Another derivation from Fin. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. to The Sw. a shop budowati. a bladder. . from deila and skipta. beute. of an edge that will not bite. wave. are derived from G. tent. 266. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. Border. The cor. yfirbdt. See Bower. bord. struere ignem. a bothy. It. purra. bauda. fire. bata. is purin. margin. bdra. Fr. making good again . urboro. extremitas Bore. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. In the Fin. lappolone. hut. a shop. on. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. nor E. to bite. . abode. to anything Neither G. bauen. limbus. baara. from bord. bohren. See Burgeon. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. fimbria. bora. budowai. to repair. to profit Goth. to bete the properly to mend the fire. a hut. purro.—Burin. to bore. Fin. rof. AS. borracha. a cupboard.— Return from Parnassus I inR. bothag. furni. pi. OSw. ON. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. boards. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. And so in ON. aid. batr. a borer. bordi. Bohem.. But probably the E. puras. ora. amendment. ON. . Fl. to bite. botjan. Gael. welt. It is admitted that Fr. Kil. in Ihre. sharp. repair. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. amendment boeten. See To We speak in E. Fin. pointed. a great bur. Booty. Esthon. . to importune. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. Burke in R. dust. and meta- Fr. a word. — ON. Fr. to patch. to build buda. barn. . bite. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. The as G. remedy. bardure. bdt. lappalare. differs only in termination. to surge. a chisel. a border.. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. uzboro. make . swell bara. biorag. are parret. a booth or shed. terebro. a borer. both. and thence to eat build. Compare Manx birrag. a leather bag or bottle for wine. kvit-bara. to boot. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. burin. Du. cup- awl. N. p. to mend. Alexand.

destitute. ' pledge. Hence borhes ealdor. to protect. which now signifies a knob. or perhaps it may be See Bury. Du. bussa coarse. or head-borough. Borowholder. borei. plain rude fellow. basse. gum vocant. I. to save. bttssel. knur.bucklers. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . a. In like manner It. cormpted. Bunch. Altieri. i. nonsense. to keep. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. D. pego. borough or chief constable. bosh. agrees with E. the sun sets. And that unsittynge is to here degre. that which biirge. Bailey. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. a boor. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. a boss. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. E. botch. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. butsen. an eminence. unpolished. poor. borealis. Jam. borel. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. bom. AS. loan. pitch. It. The primi. bierge. storm. huschen. to knock or strike. butse. V. to save. boss.' every man be under bail. cob. Jam. in instead of without.. the North Wind. cnag signifies both a clergy. whether from the fact preserve G. to strike . a knob. without. to give a hollow bizo. a citizen. to conceal.mass. baurgs. while Gael.ribs and the side. beorgan. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. the hollow between the Borsholder. into borsholder. bourgeois. f graauw. to become is emitted by a hollow body. Lang. blow on a hollow object. a giving rise to It. bump. bos. bosseu. Fr. rude. plant. projection. Gr. Botany. Goth. in the body struck. connected. less. knocking. rustic. Borrow. Lat. Fr. bosse. to save Sw. to strike so as to Bureau. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. Borough. surety. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. knock and a knob . Hal. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. botse. or perhaps also To Borrow. northern. botsen. borg. is probably radically Boss. G. bourg. the must have arisen burgensis. ^o^^flj. striking. viipyoc. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. boss sound.vr\. a little blow. undyed wool of brown sheep. a wen.any round sweUing. — ' wind burya. Sc. Du. secure. bossen. a bunch or hump. bunch. (1867). AS. coarse cloth made of the Du. — — — A — . vain. a bouncing baby . a blow. /3oraMK6f. Bosh. a citizen. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. boss or knob of a buckler . borg. empty. of bail throughout the country. tuft. See found in Bav. (Bridel). Fr. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. a city . beorgan. when that system was forgotten. a tower. grey).86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. 106. cnap. . a pushing or striking out.' or system of bail. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. pegou. cnoc. empty. gesylle. brown cloth. boss of the side. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages.' the chief of the ' borh. . to take in. botch. Turk. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. a herb. formerly used in the sense of knocking. burh. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. primarily signifying coarse sound . boussi. borgese. Swiss Rom. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. and thus could not shake off the old burr. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. burgess. empty. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. AS. ^ma. bundle. whence the burg. to give bail or answer for an. boschen. tempest. knob. as if from the verb to hold. bump is used in lump or piece. and borough in the sense of a town. was origin of the term is the OFr. bos. ' — — . one who sticks to you like a bore. to contain. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. or because a blow berga. burel. Newbury. hollow bucklers. Russ.' if thou give money on loan. clownish. busse. So Du. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. a surety. useCanterbury. is used in the sense of bussare. boss. bussi. The origin seems to be the Goth. Cot. It. ON. the Sc. from their grey clothing. The other. Boreal. bail biirgen. from AS. byrig. head. bergen. borgo. .' Vegetius in Diez. Bos a surety. the ordinary a swelling. borough-holder. tive idea seems to bring under cover. the N. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. to pick or cull plants. hollow. as we speak of a thumping potato. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. Hence knot. . by which of or belonging to plants. poor. to protect. &c. borh.

botn. butwo. On — Du. . Lat. Bailey. w. what pushes outwards. knock. to knock. butsen. e. 212. a waterfall. Lith. mend. boden . Fr. Wedu. kessel-biisser. Stalder. poltern. whence the name ol pool to podge. botte. H^cart. OSax. boccia. bluster. to froth as beer . buts. Mudu. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . a cesspool pass. Botcli. Fl. blain. To confuse with noise. abbi. pocciar. maggots in barley. noise. mess. a bottle of hay. Jtidu. for a bud. Bochu. Again. ON. — — belly-worm. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. to work without order or know. to give a sounding blow. a depth. a cess. Boa two. schuhbosser. buazen. to podge. Ancren Riwle. See Bound. we two. a cobbler. a pit. nets. a botcher of shoes. putra. . to rage. &c. potra. a plague-boil Kil. puddle. bund. bide. the science or knowledge of plants. ubhau. bativa. biissen. A bottom depth. buddeln. It. bdsser. Here the radical image seems a bubble. in the sense of mend the fire. bulderen. Lith. ixorapudder. ' G. bun. bouteille. Dan. to from the root bot. from the dashing of water. and E. to make a make a noise. fire-bote. beggtaj Goth. boil. tumour. a lump of somebatschen. It. BOTCH understood). boiteag. empty or hollow. boiteal. batschen. a bottle.— Swift in R. — Bottom. podge. corresponding to . .— Hal. oba. Judwi.foundation.D. abbi-diwij Slavon. — Jidwi. Butu. btitse. boitean. the other hand. a bundle of straw or hay.^Dec. botsen. AS. to fall : with a sound batsch. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. A horses. stump. bunch. to bcBta. a wisp. — — . a bubble. Canut. botse. Pl. round lump. to mend. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. AS. Du. gen. bossu. Decorde. the first rough draught 2.of a ball of thread. dim. Bottle. &c. Bouteille. botch. to make better. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. buideal. a slop. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. . bosser. Gael.— . bundle. To Botch. stroke. was called a push. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. bot. House-bote. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. to dip in liquid (to Gael. See Butt. to simmer. blow. Hal. On the other hand. both. ambo. a knock. Hal. Fr. — . ba. bdt. an abyss or bottoniless pit. buddl. a cask. to botch or patch.ments of the same root. abyss. contusion . or plague sore . to stir and mix together . Gael. botola. bSn. — duj Lett. botte. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. Both. burgi vel pontis refectionem. . bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. bethia. Parmesan poccia. to smack. however. signify a in OE. any round ball or bowl to play withal. * To Bother. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. Fyre to botme. hurly-burly. is also a bubble. pozzo. ledge It. G. to stir and mix together. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. repara- — — See To Bete. to strike . bAdtr. a bump or swelling. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. is boteau. Du. a boil or swelling Halma. turmoil. See To Bodge. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. ON. disturbance. a pock. of botta. Fl. gling piece of work. bottigUa. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. j3i/9os. bodem. Bouds. — — A 2. Danneil. to we have OHG. bozza. I. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. The Gr. bulder. boss. butse. especially in Gael. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. gipuozan. — Fl. an imperfect and bunbutt end. a tinker schuhbiisser. botte. G. ON. we have Swiss batscken. bozza. you two. any plain round viol glass bozzo. a patch patschen. stem or base. pozzanghera. Diez. — . shoes. stock. mutter. they two. by met. the lowest part. to mend (kettles. See Boss. dial. a bott . . a bottle. patch. botel foenn. . dabble). pimple. boute. a pit. as a push or windgaU. a humpback. bots. fundus. It. botus. bile. Bret. — Dief. AS. bottom. pother. a bunch. to dash about . botel. From the dim. i. Podge.) . Leg. whisper. And so we speak of an eruption. abbution. ing out.' to the fiery Csedm. thing soft batsch. a maggot. baiothsj Sanscr. a vessel for holding liquids. Kil. to put on a patch. blister. disturbance to . mess. abbu. A — oba-dwaj Lat. Prov. botm. a. ^kvBoQ. E. a slop. the bud of a flower . stock. • Bott. scuohbuzere. N. noise. as Fr. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. a root. and ajSvamg.

bay. Bunche. frequently used in the same sense with bound. Brem. strapping. a stock. limit. Bowlder. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. Bought. See To Bolt. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. tnndo. 136.— Boundary. Boulderstone. till The dat et bunsede. Bonny. And the new stools set out. The W. To Boult. a bud. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. gulf. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. — strike. an occasion. bounbounejha. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. — No i ausiratz parlar. signifying in nautical coil of rope. bons. nor horn sound. a blow. the smaller ones. dial. a bouncing apple. baby. Mid. pothel. to thunder. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. to set bounds. thumping. Sw. a large pebble.D. nave of a wheel bothel. Wtb. bolder. AS. knock it sounds again. bend. Coxcomb. Bodinare. to knock. bunda." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. a blister. p. bouton. winding. The branch of a tree. the bay of Benin. . bottom. bamsen. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. debodinare. boh. To Bounce. to fix limits. Raynouard. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. buUersten. ni frestelar. So It. bondir. its kind. of thread. turn. from volgere. iv. carpet.— — — - 88 BOUGH . — — Bight. Dan.'— Charter of K. Ni gacha cor bondir. the hollow of a bay. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. as a nosegay. in the absence of actual e. as that of E. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. boujtce. bullra. . boriie. bog. Q. a boundary stone (men stone). bone. Alpine Re- — gions.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. to set out by metes and bounds. To Bound. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. a button.— F. Ducange. mere. bend. to turn. geration. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. or Bow-pot. volta. Bret. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. Probably from the Celtic root bon. butina. bodina. language a * Boulder. round. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. by Bujns or Buns.>a bout. ni motz brugir. I assure you. — — leap. E. Pr. contusi. he fell so that it sounded. bonzen. whence buj7isen. 3. to hum.' round and round in similar circles. bumper. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . signifies a sliort thick mass. to thundering big one hum. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. in contrast to klappersten. an de dor bunsen. a turn or time. bonna. Du. a large stone rounded by the action of water. Pm. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. see Boss. came home with his face all to-bounced. dial. . Bout. to spring. bun. Primarily to strike. See Bunch. jungen. to spring. and Prov. the verb bondir in OFr. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. A Langued. Fr. root (see Bottom). boundina. a round body both. The Bight of Benin. has hot. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. bunsen. to bow..— Cot. from bugan. jump. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. bugt. to resound.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. ing. the larger kind of pebbles. botwm. Fr. like bobbin. 2. Bound. a bound. march. boss of a buckler. bugan. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. bonndn. pimple Richards bothog. Bough. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. Nor a centinel whistle.' B. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. — Take care my house be handsome. Halma. a boss. as a bout of fair or foul weather. and F.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. mcn-bomi. to knock at the door. to make a loud noise. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. Fr. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . from AS. Webster. From Sw. Bough-pot.

like quaff. bog. schulter-bug. cudgel. Comp. buigen. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. analogous to Fr. bogr. A water. whence buysen. identical with E. hous^ Man in the Moon. to draw a deep breath. language of folly or ridicule. a jibe Shaw bururus. G. head Fr. to drink deep. Gael. a. And there in mourning spend Sw. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. schenkelbug.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. in Fr. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. bug. bend Sw. gurgling. curvature. epaule du vaisseau. Borden. bourd. Dan. bordone. a jibe. a — — . bdgi. drone of a bagpipe. So Sc. sotich. on the whole. biugan. that ON. shoulder-blade. burlare. staff. the ting of a bell. to take breath. to tipple. bonitas. fun of one .. Bow. buyse. . AS. a drone of a bagpipe. to hum as a bee. to mutter. Sw. ready to pike or spear . game. to bulge. a drone or dor-bee. steady. biegen. verb bua. fresh* water. btiga. the burden of a song. bausen. It is remarkable that we find vary. a mill-post. cheat. Cot. beygja. g. bunaiteach. to bow or incline the . to swell. bourdon. deceit. — — — A pare. Swiss bausen. burdan. Gael. good. limit. springbiirn. Dan. pusta. spelling the word iox bound. bend. . lance. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. to pre2. hence musical accompaniment. A —Cot. a brook. sense durd. to — Hal. to banter or laugh at. pared. burd. and not in the sense of curvature in general. Du. bordon. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. Prov. bugne. burreti. — — . shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. the big end of a club. It.which see. The meaning of bound. their time -With "wailful tunes. bommen. ^<7r«i?. prepared for. brausen. to indulge in his cups . bagna. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. the Bourdon. G. The foregoing derivation seems. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. . to drink deep. warbling. Lat. Fr. Du. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. a humming noise Macleod. Gael. Gael. to hum. belly out. Bound. Du. bage. souf. to trick. bordo. Fr. when we speak of. . a prop. beogan. also the humming or ON. a go to. . mockery. the fixed. a humming noise. Cot. G. buizen. it is probable that the It. bow to shoot with. repartee. bue. It is the participle past buinn. Gael. Burden. bogen. a corToward the garden. a from Du. Eown. bending of a joint knie-bug. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. Bounty. patesten. a pot. Sp. on. a cup kroesen. Dan. flagon. a bow. taunt. w. an arch. When used alone it . whether by sound or gesticulation. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. a sing-song. bugna. As the Gael. purra. a. Dan. bogna. and that probably from a Celtic root. Sc. from spring. burn. bwa. has also buirleadh. tinton. to our bous. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. the shoulder of the vessel. joke. Bourdon. buzz. brunna. explaining Sw. potio. buys. Bourdon. . trick. grumble Sw. — probably through this latter signification. set out. to bow.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. ready. way ba7n. addressed to. bovne. crutch. buga. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . drink deep. bov. a well. pausen. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. burdan. jest. ing. Sw. Bourd. . He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. a for New York. ruption of bonne. Burgeon. Chaucer in R. drunken. bourde in the same sense. spring. kroes. bugan. address. as was for. to take one in. sport. bound. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. sausen. or of an Gael. brummen. buzzing of bees. bending. is. pot. different modification gives ON. are applied to the bow of a ship. saufen. burt. Bret. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. Spenser in R. G. must be referred to the same root. to tope W. to take deep draughts. of the ON. puff out. to draw a deep breath. bonus. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. pre. Sw. purlBav. bugna. to tope. ridicule buirte. i. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. bourdon. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. bog. Du. borne. bogha.bass of a stringed instrument. bending. Fr. Goth. bontS. firm. It is bov. Immediately from Fr.

to raise the back boll OHG. busse. iri'iaQ. to bulge. bow. Bret. anything globular. Sw.. puffy. painter's easel. boucle. a swelling or rising up. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. bending. the head. a ball. bol. a black pudding. to guggle. bulcken. as in E. lump . a bubble bolli. a boil.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. hollow place Fr. bhuj. buchsbaum. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . AS. buxus. . Cable. hiidel. From the other form are G. zich onder jemand under to him. G. bowels. mausbollelein. bulka. * Bowels. Thus we have Esthon. a drop of pullistaa. beuz. a knot. bulla. or in e. biiske. ku^o. bukke. kupukka. swoUei) Lat. bulne. .\s. bugyola. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. a protuberance. water pulli. and to a coachbox in particular. boxtree. bur. a ball . tumour. make obeisance. a chamber swefnbur. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. guestchamber . OE. W. different position in ODu. tumour . a bundle. . a box. a buck. bug. hollow. purse. the box-tree. . stream forth bugyogni. to bend down. bolne. acsian.cup Du. boxtree pusska. box in both senses. a little box . Lat. biisse. boor. Bowl. bolgna. a wine-can . buckelig gehen. PLD. ^o/a. A . bur.) to incline oneself . ON. bugna. a bowl. to bend. . bolle. bog. bulge. . the skull or brainpan . biicken. round bead. a bud. buigen. bouellou. See Boil. then by the loss of the /. Sw. bent. convex. Bav. Sanscr. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. buckel. peated in Magy. bulb of an onion bolleyield. pusspan. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. with inversion of the round. a wardrobe . bolla. belly of a cask. the barrel of a gun. the crop of a bird. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. to swell. botulus. budello. boil. intrenchment. bhugna. Dan. (in pass . The word may probably be identical with Fris.a. to make crooked . to bow buck. Hal. a box. in both senses. honse-bur. E. . prominence. swell. . to stoop. to bubble up.). as in AS. Bret. gut. . bowel Box. a croft by a house. koziel. crown of a hat. round glass phial. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. bugyani. and on swollen. . box. Du. ON. . give in to. boel. The / a bow. belly. beutel. bogla. a pot. pullo. . bulk compared with Sw. . signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. to puff up pullakka. buello. OFr. . globular body. In like manner the Pol. polla. without the and grits. a stud. Sw. a box. bosso. ask. Fr. or. kuppelo. a round glass or bolg. Sp. boss. bollen. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. bouzellou. a polla. the box-tree It. a hen-coop . Dan. folliculus . a box. AS. bwra. an inclosure. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. fata-bur. head of a cabbage. compared with Fr. utibur. bubble. the box-tree and articles made of it G. It is more probably from the G. . buk. a iDubble. buis. a separate apartment . Fr. heafod bolla. &c. . belly. is applied to a coach-box. bossola. bocka. at the e. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. bow. a bubble Fin. in walking appears in a . pocket. Hence. to buckle G. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. biichse. dial. globe or spherical body. a thing of liquid. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. spherical Dan. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. G. Du. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. bog. signified by forms like Gael. bol.). to puff up. . a box Lat. W. ON. bowl . containing the implements for keeping the coach in order.D. bock. Du. ttuJic. inclinare se (Kil. . . ken. a hump on the back rossbollen. a bubble. bouge. sausage. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. to stoop biickling. to yield to one. a. ^o«/«. . convexity. budel. See MHO. A Bulk. kupu. bwr.. Boll. blister.flask It. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. as well as the name of a. w. a sleeping-room . hill. a bubble. knob From the former modification we have bolla. Bower. the bogna. bolla. . Pol. wisp of straw . Buckle. trestle. Bohem. kupula. ne. bubble. . The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. bugyni. a sack. . hollow wooden case. crooked. busskai. fyn. an outhouse AS. . a parlour. bola. buga. spring as water bugya. globular. Gr. bulla in aqua. the head. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. a ball. passing on stud. bugy. Fr. boudin. similar shape. cumena-bur. boss. of a wooden ball to play with and — . bucka. See Crab.

breach. Fr. brassard. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. a sounding blow. Prov. parallel with OK. corruptse. . wrack. Lett. to give a sounding blow defect. Rouchi Then as an adj. youth. .D. — . breach. Bracelet. whelp as. G. OFr. want. bracon. 91 the Dan. Fr. to be wanting.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. braco. brageuses. Swiss Rom. a crack. is a rope holding G.with a noise. root). spaniel. Pr. — . BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. . cramp-iron holding things together .puddle. posh. land spoilt Kil. boy." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. Pm. . turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. and string of his bow. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. BOX To Box. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. mud. his eyes are failing him). flap. braquet. ghebreck. — — . flaw.. by an overflow of sea water. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. to give a blow with the fists. bube. It. or defect. ratch. — . unmarried man . thwack.. filth . Swiss bub. bresta. fault . loud smack. brakke grund. clay. pube. want. A brace probis. ON. In like manner the It. ing from a mixture of salt. bracket. . strike.. a girl. baske. flaw. damaged board a ship. merely in our mode of considering them. Heligoneed. a grown youth Cimbr. La ville ou y avait Brace. jabber. and F. confining. buah. boussole. See Broker. . odorinsecus. V. Swab. Sp.. the arm. bray. murmur. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. salo sive aqua marinS. disturb. rack. Pl. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. bouibo. a bog or pass Fr. Boy.— D. Ptg. to want. bitch Du. mud. Water rendered boubo. which sigof straining. Brack. To fight with the fists. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . To Brabble. bruxula. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. an languages. brek. brechen. breuque. a box. braecke. a boy pupa. fault. MHG. Sp. Thus brack. as noticed under Box. rakka. brago. want. bracco. Kil. from a root brak. It. to Swiss batschen. Prov. brae. acidus. Brack. defect. land batsken. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. brack. OE. I sal slyng. — . merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. babble. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. or bracer Cot. s. a braceOFr. brechen ihm. Bracket. brabbelen. breptati. Sp. beagle. wnzC/J. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. . wristband. defect Du. foul. Lat. brace on and Du. and then Pl. dog Sw. G. dog in general. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . A bracket is properly a scenting dog. pupus. Fr. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together.nated by dirt. defect. .D. break. variation of babble. See Brake. matter. which has many representatives in the other Europe. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . ON. bracer. &c. Kil. brostia. mud. need. boy bouba. Brak-goed. s. Prov. salsus. let. Fr. OFr. to burst. brek. in R. armour for the arm. bracke. brae. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. a guard to torf. Hdcart. A to halt between two derivations. compressing. bue. Brach. Prov. brakke Bracelet. brae. refuse. to smack the hand batschen. to slap. moral or physical. baukscheht. quarrel Bohem. to box the ears. brack. to fall. bracil. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. a pair of braces. One girl. to stammer. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. con. AS. braic. ' — A — — — . dirty. Du. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. On the same principle from the buksteht. in R. brasselet. To brace is to draw together. Brackish. race. briche. fuse. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. dog that hunts by scent. bragos. to is derived brestr. braque. then from break. braca. taneous talking. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. boiste. to stutter. bask. pus. bracha. — . brec. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. brae. Cot. It. suppuration. a bubbling dura del mun. . to give a gebrechen. the first instancebya physical tie. bou^ba. lalear-eyed Prov. Gael. It is B. isolated part of the text. priated to the original sense. Kil. A — — . to crack. brague. rakki. by the same inversion of J and k. Du. The different meanings of the brageux. a comworld Rayn. rakke. braco.

flaunting. . brag or jet it braguard. breach. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. brayete. subduing. breghen. make a noise . . to shout. bravado j Fr. swaggerer. Bret.%. brails. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. to make a noise. to Rouchi brMer. affront. From Fr. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. AS. blusterer. smart. hectoring. brag. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . — From W. also derived Fr. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. 2. BRAG Piedm. . torture . se pavaner. bragaireachd. . the feathers ON. stout. de Vaud. bragd. Brake. the opposite of which. to crack. The meanings included under — Bragget. brae. Lat. or from braie itself. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. courageous. also tion of this was brayeul. a noisy talkboasting. Dan. Cot. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. —Spenser in R. also insolenter se gerere . Primarily to crack. bravacherie. boasting. expensive. is identical with Gael. braka. &c.i5nz^. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. spot. bravo. Langued. braggard also valiant. the arm. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. finery. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. Brail. Brag was then used brisk. fine. Turk bazu are used in both senses. to stand upon terms. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . brave. was formed brayele. would be to brace. empty pride. braicli. bragging of his own valour. Rom. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . braske. be found. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. be noisy . ative fellow. To Braid. See Brace. braver. From sprouted corn. to strut. braske. brag. 92 Cot. Sp. excellent. about the hawk's fundament. in numerous dialects. bragging. in order to prevent its catching the wind. — Equivalent forms are Gael. brabhdadh. to sprout malt. riches.. and it is very likely that the root brak. Bray. a roisterer. Fris. beautiful. Wallachian bratsou. Hecart. bra!. well-dressed. bully . confining. drawers. braszketi. — A — . called by our braggard. swagger. binding anything together. braka. crash. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. power. . brazo. — Chaucer. Chaucer. as the type of exertion and strength. fine. i. bullying. To Brag. gallant. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . — . In like manner to crack is used for boasting. to flaunt. brave.aburst. See Bray. Haldorsen Gael. Fr. handsome. a carriage for breaking in horses . gay. is Cot. braga. to unbrace or let down the breeches.—— . It is certain that the word for arm is. strength. w. . Hence E. Cot. braguer. bragio. .^ Sp. gayly dressed. or by gaudy dress and show. cry. Brake. From brayel. Bret. It. Sc. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. brake in the sense of constraining. idle talk. bravache. crash ON. brave. braga. Walloon bress. braw. stately. gay. that will carry no coals.explosion. breyne. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. vain glory. breghe. . braga. gallant (in apparel) also proud.hy which this idea is con\eyed. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. brave. Brain. brachittm. fine. proud. Fr. to boast of his own worth. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . and that from e. used in the sense of force. compressing.. gorgeous. To Brail. bushy . valiant The head are sumptuous. Cot. to swagger. se parer de beaux habits. Faire le brave.^Vocab. breagh. vanter une chose. slight modificajoining the two legs. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. flaunt in fine clothes . brabhdair. Lith. vaunting. to brail up a sail. to boast or brag. brav. an inclosure for cattle . to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. brave. crack. fine. in the sense of the Lat. noisy ostentation. an iron for holding Zalli. brao.Shepherd's Cal. A — Hal. braegenj Du. dhbrailler. to cord a bale of tie up. Thus Bret. goods. Thus we are brought to the OE. se donner trop de licence. h-avare and Fr. boast.breeches. braies. The plant y^r«. showy bravery. The meanings of brake are very numerous. ^Brave. subigere. Dan. brake is. to rattle. splendid.

In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. the original meaning of G. low wet land bruch. P&. a fen. have thus Du. brake. de Vaud. to stiffen against Taboada). Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. bush. nemus.' It. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. brega. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. brog or brake. to break. Dan. to distinct. Brake. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. bruch. Brake. as well as in the case of the e. broeck. OFr. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. to row. braquer un canon. brage. 2. In ON. el arco.D. as in Du. braken. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. It may be sus- . brage. riguus. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. gebroge. Prov.— . and G. to fracture. a stream. referred brake. Dan. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. broil. murran. bregar brake. Fr. word. gebrUche. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. bregille. glebas subigere. conSo in G. thing is brought under control. to exert force in different ways. is braukti. in usus braca. to harrow (Lat. marsh. fratto. been confounded with the verb break. bushes. Biglotton. as in Sp. briers. Corrfeze bredgea. brak is a frame in which strip. Sp. —Ovid. copse-wood. brog. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. briser. a horse's a horse's twitch. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. broillet. Swiss Rom. properly braking or subduing them. brook. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). tnurdma. broilium. to knead or mix up in a mortar. ^raca. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. marsh or swamp. broor bushy place Hal. might come to signify a swamp. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . brook. brake. In like manner Lat. tris). to bend or direct a cannon. a thicket. Dan. and when once thrown down. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. quarry from Fin. Fr. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. to head must be bit. thicket. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. a marsh. The Fr.D. pasture. to rub. gebrUche. dial. braka. the lever by which the string was drawn up. to bray in a mortar. gebroge. casser le \va. bregar.. We — . and Lat. iSpsx". BRAKE to external force. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. to bend a bow. cover G. a spinning-wheel. to pound. brambles. or overthrow of trees by the wind. watered. brego. 3. e. any thicket of brakes. — Fl. a swampy Mid. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. In the sense of a thicket. break of such a kind. brolium. cetur. where from Esthon. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. frangere linum. to brush. Gr. signifying to sweep. broken fratta. a brace on board a ship. Fr. farinam in mortario subigere. as in the case of horse-breaking. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. to subdue. gilum. braeken. gebiisch. . — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. brogille. brook. broyer. subigere. — — . braca. for — Due. or a wood in a marshy place . murtaa. It. It. Lat. ing of flax or hemp. Pl. is formed murd. To the same bend a bow. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. to The ON. Voc. —Bracken. flachs brechen. it is not surprising that the word has here. to break. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. In the case of the ne. G. Gael. braecken het vlasch. brog above mentioned. bush.bracan. a harrow. breuil. gebroge. to break or fracture. murrokko. breaking in the operation. bredza. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. t° moisten. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. break flax PLD. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. brcekke. in northern climates. game. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. brushwood. or A A ' . brambles. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum.

brin (as It brano). dirt . Gael. bushes. it glitters — — . braam. bracken or fern . broust. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. Brancare. compress. from brug. . heath. sprouts. brass. Fr. brandello. Serv. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. a shrub . apiece orbitbrandone. Pl. a burning fragment of wood.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. — . manner when waved about like a flaming torch. broccoli.. That beareth the red hepe. brouskoad. snotty . The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. a briery plot. The naof strain. brughera. young buisson fort epais. Then by comparison with claws or arms. a vine twig Bav. to burn. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. brenda. from Lat. a thick bush. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. iii. that is to say. thicket of brambles Cot. in the same sense. bren. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. brushwood. . A mark made by burning. Sir Topaz. and E. pected that brake. heath. to bridle. excrement. bronbo. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. . Bret. As ON. Bret. brarn. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. or ling. See Brush. a dunghill. brancas. &c. .D. cabbage sprouts Fl. berneux. In like hrst. wood composed of twigs. a bud. brem. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. brok. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. . breme j Sw. Thornas and bremelas. a bridle or bit . a bud. pfriemen. brand. broom. brandmurk. from gaggi. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. a halter. bren. chaff. prufye. ordure . ear-wax mud. E. &c. Bret. briars. also a marshy low ground or fen . branco. brwnt. Dan. Diez. 1 8. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. and thence a shoot. piece of anything. bretnel. bruch. brenna. brous. brenn hesken. the bull-finch. clutch. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. a firebrand. It will be found that shrubs. heath ON. G. braeme. Fr. Pl. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. brank. to or iron. 2. bruch. brejo. G. may be so called in analogy with Bret. . a shoot or twig. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . breun. piecemeal brindelles. brom. hallier. — branca. the branch of a tree. pfropf. burning brennen. Branch. brosst. to gripe. what is cast out as worthless. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. It. AS. The same form becomes in It. bruskoad. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. bromboli. a rod or twig. w. branchia. Grisons bruch. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. Fr. from brand. brug. also pfriemkraut. a small deri\'ation . . A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. a roA. or with It. brin d. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. sawdust. . brano. Brank. —Ducange. thorns and Gen. Brand. a bud It. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. in the sense oi fern. brambles. brug). constrain. ground full of briers. But we find It. Port. as AS. a heath. brank. brang. Russ. the thorn apple or stramonium. Fr. restrain. pfriem in the sense of an awl. Gael. Piedm. breanan. Thus we have w. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. nasty. titio. broom. virgultum. bran. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . bruk. It. young twig {brom-beisser. i. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. from virga. brake. sedge burkni. Bran. gebriiche. branche." The bmno a • on . gebroge. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. heath (Bret. Thus in Lat. brin. . cack. stink . a shoot. a shrub from Bret. bit by bit. broembel-CBppel. or other plants of a like nature. heath. Rouchi bren d'orMe. to -brugen. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. brog. is the draff or excrement of the com. So Swiss gaggi. bran. a single plant of heath. w. brandr. from Servian pnit.G. brenn. Bramble. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. broem. G. broussaille. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . bruk. bramble Du. Bav. heath. and waste growths. as. brugek. to brank. Bret. brein. G. bro7n. brandiiialil. bruk. sweet broom.D. Broom.). as places overgrown with brakes or fern.

weinbrenner. fire-wood. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. Du.pan of coals. shake. Milan. and branchis shaiand D. to glisten or flash. to French brawl or brangle. ish. perplex. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. embraser. Gris. make a — . Sw. brasca. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. brasca. morsel. as Fr. as Jamieson explains it. It. bruzi. To brand. du Roi et laine. flagrans. all. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. live coals. Manx bransey. braise. to shake. to distil . Bret. brasil. to totter. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. to murmur.. bracea. G. make an outcry. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. apparently very distinct from each other. E. 59. to shog. brasa. a brusler. a pan of hot coals. AS. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. and bruir. brandolare is exbrandish. conbillet. spirit distilled from wine. hot Fr. put. to brustle. brin. brandende wijn. urens. to bicker 2nd. prasseln. from to vociferate. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. splinter. to burn. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. or in stick. bra?ier. to rustle. Jam. brus^. bryne. not.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. — . To brase AS. branler. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. WaUon. In the same way the set on fire . brandiller. to brandle. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. It. Fr. forms brasil. comes from thence. gebrannter wein. the spelling to kindle. e. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. to brandle or The It. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. branler. was in use Fr. brustle. Fr. Hume in brand in ON. the colour than hitherto known. brangle or brawl in E. a fragment. to shake. to blaze. n. braza. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. bransle. a roaring fire. De Barros considers vinum ardens. Ija. ist. Kil. V.^Brandle. Port. to solder iron. to sound of the Fr. faire fracas. crackle. Fr. to hurl with great force. brush. braser. to make sense of a bright red dye. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. Fr. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. to make shine with shaking. a To Brandish. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. Thus the bound up again. Brasil. glowing embers . But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. With top trimbling. Brangle. to shake The word brisil. to and fro in the hand. to brangle. bragale\ wood. aqua ardens. brane-wood. brand. braise. then brandr. brennen. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. plained by Florio. in Marsh. The corresponding form in Gael.well. Formerly brandy-wine. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. to burn. brausen. Fr. bruciare. so. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. eldibrandr. bragia. to crackle . the name of that holy wood should have Kil. before the discovery of America in the brandir. crackle. Guill. to dash. and scold. stake. noise. G. a round dance. Sw. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. brasa. E. from used in dyeing cloths. Chron. firewood. brandigh. hoisting to the fall. to burn. Lye. billet. braise or hot coals. as again by well as the blade of a sword. brandiller. brazeiro. N. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. bracia. set on fire. bruan. brascct. is bntan. bum. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. — . briiler. to quarrel. Diez. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. Fl. incendium. bruire. Chron. It. firebrand. De Goes. to make display . to braze or lute. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. The name Brandy. a stick. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. to roar. branla. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. So. brastlian. The tre brangillis. given to the country. totter. Braser. — . distilled wine. Bailey. became ashes Pied. to confuse. bransella. brouir. to Bailey. d'Angl. Brase. bresil. brazil. — ting to confusion.

and bronzo. brat. a. ON. Certainly a little girl. Kil. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. a lump of flesh. to copper. roar. whether contracted from brabble. trul. Fris. luncheon. calf of the leg. borderinge. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. pan- — Rayn. bratidone. See Brandish. a rag. the buttocks. Swiss bradle. braeye. ^Altieri. bras. bretesque. a contempt- banner. It. brazen. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. bratid calf of the leg. a wooden tower. OFr. Betrax of a —^Jam. bretesche. then a parapet. bran. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. 2. or on the top of a wall. 1224. Math. branle. brailler.— Fl. strepitus 2. —^Bronze. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. brces. Brave. as scrawl from scrabble. to Gael. is The word — uous name for a woman. For the application to a^child compare Bret. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. bralle. a patch of cloth. G. ni autres choses sur Due. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. cloth.' BRASS BRAY et AS. buttock Sc. bartisan. tasce. discord. a rag . le repasser un peu sur la braise. Sp. Cologne broden. So also See Brag. Brattice. calf of the leg. — . A dispute or squabble. bradlete. breyon d'chaur. rag. to cry.D. contignatio. A.D. braede. a contemptuous name for a young child. a battle-girdle. Fr. as lattice. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. lat'te. Brawl. boutures. to scold . braiio. neita girl). ship. It . a lump. brat. the calf of the leg. a fortification. breteque. Bartizan. A. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. Sup. to shake. Circumeunt cibertesca. apron. Dan. Brat. . a mantle. especially that used in the working of iron . slakker-bortchen. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. OHG. brass. esbraotier. braon. bruir. bronzacchiare. a lath. W. bradon. brett. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. a clout. Cot. a rag . Hist. Brass.— Braid. Wall. bratdn). Fr. —-Jam. Cot. as a brawling brook.' Hal. baltresca. Pisana in Mur.brettysing. coassatio. bronzare. from branler. bribe de viande. I. Florio. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. to solder. boarding being sbranare. flesh of a leg of pork. The same correspondence is seen between It. — Deutsch. bmhon for brado7i. bred. to braze. The muscular part of the body. P1. Westphal. Pm. frequentative of braire. Brawn. Mundart. as rashers upon quick burning coals. bratach. slut. Many gambes. breyon. any piece. a Lap. It. or whether it be from Fr. slibro {neita. Paris. Gael. a parapet.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. Fr. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. Jam. ferruminare.96 Roquefort. KiL Prov. solder. A land of dance. brettys. cob.— Remade. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. a — A from the confused noise. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. in the first instance of boards. to tear piecemeal. from Fr. braoilich.— Diez. bartising. saillies. braion. muscular parts of the body.propugnaculum. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. breyon de kinds of . as criailler of crier. &c. ' A vraale. burning coals. Brangle. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. 1156. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. a cloak. 368. noise. braodhlach.walle — Pr. Sc. AS. a lump of flesh. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. a slabbering-bib. to carbonado. a loud noise. brandillo. Lorraine bravon. deblaterare. OFr. See Bray. from Sc. frame of laths. bas morceau de viande brawhng. The verb is probably derived from the brase. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. bronze. brat. at brasa. berd. slibro. bransle. squall. fraiche. braser Fargent. a plank or board.D. Du. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack.^ — Sverris Saga. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. Bailey. equivalent to the Du. to talk at bralle op. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). brdto (ace. pil. bretays).

on. to snatch. at once. to The cup was uncoverid. Lat. brechen. to rush. a breach Cot. which has given much trouble to commentators. R. the sound — of arms. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. the sword was out break. &c. yell. to the seijauntes. &c. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. to scold. a rent. F. appearance Hal. crash. broyer. fish. fractus j Gr. ing. to crash. Beryn. Q. to bray in a mortar. to roar as the sea. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. the clash of ai-ms Dan. iU-favouredly — in Jam. to bawl. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. plait. And with a traid I tumyt me about. relation is seen between Lat. rogi. brage. a brack. — — — explained motus loud noise. to smack or the eye. bru. Du.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. kind. at a braid. to sound very loud and very harshly. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. — . as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. explaining a very obscure application of the E. &c. to work up in a mortar. cyprinus latus. Then. Breach. Prov. bragd is also applied nets. to crash. make a disturbance.y. i. bregar.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. braidar. disturbance. Goth. Fin. to bellow.ear rog. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. braea. to rub Fr. a rag f . W. e. G. brame. ^p&xia. bruzir. to break. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. to resemble him. riAprjyvvfu. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. R. crackle . breche. rattle. crash. ON. brak. breuan. regi. to resemble. to break Fr. father. noise . to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. Prov. to start. The same He might don us both a villany. brak. with or without a final d. To Break. a wink. to resemble. brugier.g. V. k. I'll live and die a maid. ON. broad. paste or dough. Bread. D. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. to have the lineaments of one's ON. as the notion of turning crack. Fr. crepo and E. to N. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. to cry out. V. to braid. baiyl. brice. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. Cot. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. ser. braa.fracas. The Lat. . to cry Port. abraid. AS. fragor. at braga eftir euium. See Brake. to roar. Wal. roar. a mill. Chaucer. to break. To rub or grind down Sp. and make a hideous noise. to tear Bret. upbraid. soft . Bret. or wound. And at a braid he gun it bende. to break. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. as OE. imitate or resemble one. G. resound . will. to braid the hair. instantane. starts crackling up. bragr. braid. bregda. a crash. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. as the voice of the ass. twist. weave The ON.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. Cat. bradar. and frangere. or cry out loudly . vapna-brak. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. Then is simply. 7 . ybrayid.. bruire. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. breach. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. braa. and to signify the fracture itself. brot. is . paxog. D. E. Gr. Chaucer. in Jam.' To Bray. a brake for hemp or flax. augnabragd. Ppvxia. — koa. . OE. to roar or bellow. Bread. to cry out. to t. the miller's dog. rustle. Fr. 145. bray. bratsche. to bray like an ass. to braid. . yell. D. Swiss bratschig. a .^ Fr. to rumble. roar. turn. Dunbar braessem. &c. brikan. brand. gestus. to braid acquires the sense of bend.ch. father. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. braidir. V. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. verb to break. From the or brack in a wall. mos. Bailey. braire. to pretend. bregar. 2. to knead. and fracasously. rangere. The ON. bragd — ON. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov.

braies. trembling. also to chill and shiver with cold. Fris. zare. brasiuiii. grillare. Compare OE. morsel. to be misty and cold. einem de britze geven. brosame. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. to smack. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. Dev. brut. to simmer. braciarc. are related to Prov. of trees. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. brinisa. bruzir. Bruise. body brostia. to break. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. malt. w. to fry Then from a Gl.98 borst. noise. Piedm. — Brist. to hum. E. bris de charbon. bresilles. malt. breeze. binding. bra. bragues. bremse. a crum. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . to bray. brisciare. corresponding to G. burst. bandage or truss for a rupture. peitschen. Piedm. Du. brire. Breeze. rubbish. a horse's twitch. may be from the wurh fesser. a cold and windy mist or frost . brimsa. Prov. as in the case of twitter. Sw. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. Gl. braich. of E. scent. to bind. Bracha. brisoler. grill. properly to crackle. to feize or feaze. Dan. breath. braucn. braux. brezling.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. Breeches. to rattle (as hail). Breast. the bust. OFr. broiiwen. met de bridse slaan. crush. as the G. G. broza. brezzare. as. brcekur j It. to breech. To Brew. Breeze. an odour. a to lay fly-flap. to brew. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. Breath. de Vaud. brijsen. cloven. remains of leaves. griller. breinse. drawers. . twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. so AS. from AS. polenta. AS. point to G. brise. bris. in Schilter. — . representing the sound of a blow. to shiver for cold. braie. de bridse geveii. grillen. &c. a twitch for a horse. Dtyden. brdtschen. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. briosa. from ligare. brison. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. switch. AS. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. brimme. Originally probably the word signified steam. murmur. a box. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. but more probably the E. brciz.). — . Gael. sprouted corn. to roast. brossi!. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. fail. /esses. — And blood. applied to shivering.vare. QNtsterviald) pritschen. as commonly explained. briosat'. The Teutonic verbs. See Brick. brumtnen. Du. G. briiz. briosa. G. break. a crum Du. . braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. braca. bretilles. forms analogous to E. or the blow itself. Bret. bruzun. Swiss AS. an into shiver. brijselen. trusts. xyligogio castigare. one on the breech so that (klatschet). Rom. to murmur. braia J OFr. brew. are in like manner ' . G. a cramp-iron for holding things together. Fr. Bret. of straining. to crush to break. to brew. simmering. bris. Brize. chilly. simmer. orts. then to broil. briste. bratscher. forms. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. G^nev. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. and other rubbish dibris. braca. brustia. briig. Russ.'— Gl. . Fr. and E. brist. to buzz. as.D. Breeze./ssus. PI. brasiare. and brought beneath between the legs. Lat. Swiss Rom. Biglotton. to fry . to whip. subligaculum. b}-as.t. sheep's droppings bruss. murmur—Vocab. brugga. braga. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. with It. E. brodem. broil. bridsen. brok. It. brodel. a girdle. from brace. brissle. bruc. clout for a child. braies. . singing bone. vapour. braga. — — strument for smacking. to resound. the dry spines of furze broken off. Hume in Jam. little bits of wood Berri briser. the breech or buttocks. i5r(Z^. a cool wind. britze. windy withal. —Briss. bracecs . a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. brezza. The Breech (Prov. a smack. brisd. bryi^ga. Briss and buttons. breme. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. Lat. siibligar. Prov. bre- I'os qui bresole. bark Fr. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. their stings draw . — See Broth. Gael. rubbish. Hence the Lat. We bragezj on. breson. bruise. a gadfly. brasser. coaldust. fastening . Fr. chillness or shivering. broden. Swiss brdtsch. dial. brache. Goth. So ON. braguier. the soler. Du. breost. to burst. G. brcEth. Du. fitzen. — Halma. instead of being derived from 'La. . to crackle. Isidore and Tatian. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. Gl. . brusc.britschen. as by the Sc.

with transposition of the r. brice. a lump of bread briber. to break. Lat. or brizo. brygga. from bit. fastningar-ol. Brick. imprint. brittil. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. breve or brevis. crew. priod-ferch. Sp. pier. a quoit of stone. to tlie brico. Cot. Gael. ' . would correspond in like manner to the Fr. to boil. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. feast. a wedding priod-fab. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. Hdcart.It. corresponding or letter. funeral. one's ovin. a sow. Applied ous words derived from break. privus. bygga. bride. troop. briicke.groom. jetty. Bridge. Diez. In E.Fr. to appropriate. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. bread. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. . Brief. bruarium. bro. brar. bruyere. In the patois of briccia. broosekens. brieden. of burial. Priodi. Trovarfor bride-ale. and that from It. to meet together. broken. briw. then the marriage itself. company. . priod. the newly. lipdZu}. a crum. Brique. ter-in-law.gfiugga. Walach. brukkas. The Sw. brocaly. to brew. It. to stamp. bryd-eale. Lang. Du. in the sense of OSw. httle bit. bribe de pain. any jot or crum. brau. Hence OE. a lump of bread. brere. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. married. — . Fr. barren land priodas. Fl. broken bread. ibrukkti. bulicame. AS. to Isrew. Goth. heath. bably contracted from brigantine. Bridal. birbante. has briguer. but to a paved road. grug. Gael. bo. from the last 99 of which. Dan. bricge j G. a little king's writs. See Broth. peculiar. two-masted vessel. son. E. buckler J ON. . bro.privatus. a married man or woman Lat. bruk. W. The origin of the word is the w. fraoch. and ODu. boiling up brocoliere. Ihre. and berweddu. Gl. buskins. a crum. brood. bretonica. bricou. It — is Kil. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. bruskr and buskr. A — A — . a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. Brier. pavement. feast of espousals. briiths. betony brulicame. a rogue . a man. AS. a fragment. especially to a letter or command.pritil . So It. Fr. brigade. masted vessel. bruith. Due. bruk. brique de pain. to circulate. a fragment. AS. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. stone-bridge bnikkoti. Diefenbach com. — — — — — — . bro is applied not only to a bridge. a proprietor. to beg one's bread. jipaaaiii. Fr. betonica. the marriage si in brigata. graf-ol. berwi. . BRIGADE dead. Thom. groom (mab=:son). E. bride. AS. a boiling. bridge. to break to pieces bricalio.bergantino. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. Rouchi brife. A bribe is A — — arval. to pave. appropriate. So in The Prov. Flor. Pol. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . Pro(merch=:maid). a cheat. to press in. w. from Bret. G^n^v. It. ment of anything broken. fragment. If the foregoing were not so clear. brasser. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . to press. brahi. Bridle. ap. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. a heath brughera. OSw. — . a bush. to prepare. a bride. berwedd. brug. frayer. sponsa. birbone. to boil.. bitill. bara briw. a bit. fit. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. . conjux. malt. hlafes brice. a rogue. briwo. Ducange. bribour. beaten way Dan. thick appropriated. from the Normans. malt. which however is undoubtedly from brace. bridelj OHG. brilt. . brughiera. broken victuals. pavement brolegge. as. owned also propriate. a heath. E. daughheath. brigata.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. fervere. to boil. . . Brewis. as so. ' — . to pave brukkti. Brigade. remarkable that the Gr. to rub. Bribe. but probably Bricoteau. a bride Brig. bidsel. sugga. twopares Lat. . a briole. division of an army. served (Patois de Bray). AS. arf-ol. a beggar. a brig or priodor. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. bryd-gutna. collect bits of food. the equivalent of to the dial. ON.rough with brambles and bushes. it is applied to the letter to OE. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. E. Grisons bruch. the Fr. Mid. brA. nurus G. a Bride. OHG. is still used in this sense. from Bridegroom. gf2o. brakes of high-grown ferns. brutg. In the G. Bridal. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. whence berw. braut. a lump of bread. Neumann. AS. piece of burnt clay. consort with. brigantine. pavement Lith. a married man guma. guma.

tion. speech. strife. glir. to cry 'Schmid OE. clear. beorht. Brilliant. Due. dine. also called briganders. outcry. bryhtm. to sound. sound. is easily understood. rixa. to rob. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. with respect either to sound or colour. Gr. bregar. a noise.Lat. Schmeller. Du. briegen. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. and secondly. From ON. brak. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. riis ' — Chron. there are many armour. 1654.shine. secondarily. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. The E. The primary meaning of Sp.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. in later times a robber or highway-man. AS. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier.clare ^tinniens. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. brigant. Owl and beorhtian. It. In the same way to strive is. splendour. biartr. to reservavit. to shift for with care. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. loo BRIGAND lor. — brigante. — Due. braid. briga.— . brigare. A. from hall. clear. splcnornd de brigandine. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. bracht. a spark. brigare. Bav. brcEhtin. and. and led it away. tinnitus. at a later period. a brigantine. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. \oice. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. clear. splendens . and to associate with them. Xa/iTTii). wilella. So G. bray. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. cange has 'Veles. to contend with another. — Probably then to strive. clear sound. and the E. etincelle. clare lucens. Florio. glbram. moment. to glitter. clangour. and. may play the pirate or thief at sea. inde squammatus. 312. then. the grew high. representing a sudden noise. and hence be explained glampi. brebrigare. twinkling. noise. lay was sung. bright bearhtm. to shine.' The sense of strife or combat express. splendour. glitter. schiteren. See Brake. tuilahtaa. to glamr. clarus. manifest ON. A strepere. brawl. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. to make a loud noise. a sound.dorem clarum reflecto. . the gleeman's song. a small light pinnace pro. squamma . XafXTTpoQ. in the first instance. on his — own account. a pirate. glamra. to resound. transparent. to shine. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . labour. combat. and diligence. Gall. brdgen. — A A . The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. —Capgrave. rover either by sea or land. — Beowulf. Brigata. Adelung. . shriek with laughter. It. Goth. briga. schateren. Mid. tumult.D. in the sense of a robber. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. to rove. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. show the origin of Lat.' torum. the bench-notes resounded. They or brigantini. glamm. praht. In Fin. that of Fr. dine. tinnitum clarum movco. Swab. — Briganbriga. Beorktode bene sweg. clang. and ner me hit iherde. OHG. — — . seems to be to exert force gar el area. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. kilistua. necessary business.' The passage from the sense of a light. — Brigantine. The Ir. Heo — song That AS. tinkle. a glittering. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. to ring.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. brigandare. Brigand. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . — brigante. to strive for. 1351. jurgia. bragen. pugna. kii:'a. himself to serve men of merit. willata. to piracy. It. to cry.pracht. Flor. hell. to bend a bow It.glampa. bairhts. Wilista.' in Due. Lat. It. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. Bright. malandrini. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. brigan.

vattubryn. to shine. briller. post. 154. the singing of Sodom — — . brame. have then in Fr. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. finds the Fr. on. to sparkle. to . gresiller. griller). brissle. tience. noise made by meat in broiling. 754. Closely connected is OE. In the same way Sw. grdzil. dial. Sw.). to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. Fl.' d'etre marie . The expression is now confined to the sow. Sc. Prov. to roar. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. It. to burn. small gravel. to quaver with the voice. to make bilbil). brim. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. breziller. excited. also to reflect. the lap or bosom. A . s. Rayn. and corresponding to these. pMiller. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). brandr and Fr. to make a crackling noise.D. spraing. ON. glit. with an initial br instead of gr. ON. bremas. breme. sonitum edere bremen. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. — — So Fr. hence the bosom. To Brim. the sow is brimming. Tutschek.preni. bramer. Brem. Wtb. Streaked. to resound. bray as an ass bramire. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. Brim. cross-barred in colour. Hence with an initial s. to glitter . AS. broiled. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. to utter cries. brant. a borDu. is used of raging. brennistein. border. border. originally the lap folding over the breast. kiimottaa. . to crackle. crackle . bramar. os qui bresole. kajata. brezil. brommen. Kil. the eye-brow. brim Magy. It. to roar. Dan. — Rim. rugire (cervorum. border. The E. to broil. earnestly . The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. ling noise and a sparkling light. edge Pol. to wish or covet. vigorHal. coloured in stripes. Tresiller. kimmaltaa. lip of a vessel. surface of the ocean. s. (poet. kommata. brumft. 1. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. E. rut. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. Swiss Rom. voux. greedily to covet Cot. to shine.— Brinded. : ' — bone). grisser. ous. to sound deep or hollow. bremmen. Subo. a border. burning. as in Langued. burning stone. The meaning of the Fr. griller d'impatience. Lith. to fret . to long for a thing. rugire. der. parched. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. Langtoft. the meaning is transL' amour. Brimstone. breziller. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. to shine. as of meat in broiling . to creak. perent. striped or streaked. barm. brame.) brimi. to parch. crackle. barmr. a stick. ring. — . to shake. brama. kimina. or violent action. to twinkle. to glitter distance . reecho.— BRIM . briller (related to each other as OFr. bry7ie. glisten. . — g. Rugere. fringe . rym^. brdnnsten. brummen : de soge brummet. to shimmer. beam. — — — . Said of swine when in heat. Sc. of the eye. fringe (Lat. grullo. The identity of ON. fire. kimista. ter. and 1. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. brimmen. the heat of animals. ON. brullo. brow of a hill. In Fr. clangor tinniens. bresoler (Gloss. an apron. briller. griller. brunft. Du. to glitter. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer.its vent in cries and roaring. Fr. gresiller. bramar. Brindled. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. frequently interchange. identical with passion. as is the case also with Pl. ardere desiderio. to creak. grisler. whether of desire or anger. FJ. AS. brisoler. greDiet. furious. the edge. from bringe. bar. barm-cloth or barmskin. brand-krossottr. Supp. bremmen. breme. a rod. whence bilbil-goda (literally. lap. brastlian. that the original meaning of the Sc. margin. komista. chime). brummen. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. bryn. brmdottr. the heat of animals. from brandr. sprainged. to storm. Thus Lat. G. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. fierce. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. a streak. brinfire. which seems identical with rim. 1 1 64. leonum). sparkle. Dief. komottaa. shine. brillare.' Elyot in Way. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. lap of a garment . the verbs Flor. broil . bramire.ioTiviS acutus. a long. to crackle. as well as bl and gl. It. . fimbria) .

briocho. a button broche. Du. a clasp. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. very salt brimi. birstle. angry.g. See To Brim. from brande. brocher. Bohem. . roar of the sea saltr. Pectusculum.). Da. the twigs of a besom. brisciare. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. a bit . a rebours. e. Then as the effect of shivering. from break. Fris. sticking up . Gr. saulmeure. trembling. thick — A elastic hair. eager. to set up one's birse. — — . brijn (Kil. a shoot or sprig. and hence. brocco. Sw. bronchus. Brickie. . a rod or twig. brich. to roar. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. is to erect the hair. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. sour. startling. bringue. quick. brittle. Brine. stitch. bros. brim (poet. p.D. brusk. to thrust. Sc. It. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. ' . In the N. like the Broad. . briota. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. bricho (with the diminutives. bryde. brindelles de balai. broca. . Ptg. rebursiis. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). Gl. spur. brezza. to stick. as unripe fruits. Brisk. a brad or tack. Compare also E. i. cK) the . brocciare. as.. birse. — . which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. strong itself. a deluge. craw of a bird. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. of astonishment. Mid. Hence ribrezzare. G. rash. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. broca. to break. brocchus. brisk in taste. ribrezzoso. ruffling. spricka. the surf. whence may be explained the Sc. It. to put one in a rage . chest. britar. lively. coli. and forms on. . metaphorically.'— Vita'abbatum S. sprout. Formerly written brotil. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. bruskett. Boh. a morsel. aculeus. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. brimhliod. Sc. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. breaking out into growth. Fr. — in Due. sharp. breidr. broccata. braidsj ON. Commonly explained as from Fr. to shoot.' Nat. Fr. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. a bud. brim. brddj Goth. Hal. prick with Sw. fantas'* tical. brocco. to shiver for Sold or for fear. brusque. emotions which produce it. Fr. birs. briota. Cot. Zeuss. against the grain . brim. . — bryme. as. a crum. Alfr. fierce. It. Bret. fiscbryne. bringe traced through the brano. 222. See Spread. to set it a going. bruckle. brichet. to spur. borzen. to burn. bristly . britchet. a morsel . brittle. crabbed. Fr. a belly. brote. a spit. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. brocar. borstel. Port. bringe. flames. to bud. to birstle. Bristle. Antiq. wine of a sharp. Lat. as. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. to broach a business. brodden. brytan. setting the hair on end. harsh vin brusque. to goad. britar. bresk. the brisket or . Fr. ' breast. borzos (struppig). to spur. a skewer. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. a cold and windy mist or frost.. shoot. Liquamen vel garum. Palsgr. apt to break. birssy. fragile. Russ. Brisket. b. borst. man's throat. has under It. and Sc. breaking of the waves brim sior. to spit. Brooch. Abroacli. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. smart taste. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. rude. as a noun. bruched (Fr. Swiss to stand out . a stitch brocher. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. a fragment. brockle. brin. broche. humorous. breast. Prov. brusco. to turn up the point of anything. a bud.Lat. to crack. broc.rcendij'i. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. a slip or sprig of an herb . Walach. sprouts.procio. 'V^. to break. It. — A . to stitch. brime. Brittle. or the full • . Prov. brandello. is called a birssy day. a projecting tooth It. grim. Brocade. The Pl. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod.). brog. and. brioshko. or — . byrst. Brym. Russ. form bris. an awl. ON. to broil. brimme. a stormy brimsea . Du. Prov. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. to scorch. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. See Brand. brickie. bros. a peg sbrocco. rebrousser. Dan. brcit. broccare. expression. suddenly angry. a brooch. to begin upon it. brust. to stab Gael. setting the hair on end compare It. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. from AS. brissle. sprocco. hot-tempered. reburrus. Berri. bryne. the surf. birsle. of E. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. are used in the sense of brittle. /3pE^m. to break. brot. Breeze been connected with the Sc. Sp. brissko). Bret. NE. Fr. Salte sand is called brimsand. brezzare. briser. flame.

to embroider. Sp. AS. or roast on the braise. Grisons brascla. broiled. and bord or bred. — The proper sense is that of Fr. houx. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . Fr. a brecJi. broil. scorch. ToBroider. brych. Sc. brizen. to crackle as a shell in the fire. blusters. and AS. has grisser. broukit. shuffle. to instigate. brasolare. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. initial . Ihre has guU-bord.. Hal. brastlian. brasuole. to broil. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. kled breac. frocadura. — . a freckle. frecSee Brawl. a quarrel. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. brouda. Broker. to burn. silkes-borda. to prick. broccuto. whence broccare. brooked. Dan. sparks E. embroidery. The ON. birsle. the line of development has been something different. a brim. tufted ornaments. Icnotty. R. brusler. broccato was used to signify stuff . bordar. a brouhaha. . briz. parched. an edge. thread. to spur.tumultuous. brocart. dar seems derived from borde. broglio. broc. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). — Gower in It. 103 embroidered. fundamental origin. rustle. to knots or loops. broil. From direct imitation of Brock. to boss. spotted. here. a To Broil. brychau. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. gold and silver. broighlich. q. or glowing coals broged. or It. brusuole. a peg. prasseln. Here to ornament with needle-work. a flock or Gael. margin. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. trouble. stump. broder. onbryrdan.. Gael. Thus brod. a b?-ustolare. — Fl. tori shows that. bawling. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. to crackle. confound. broud. and w. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. the shoot of corn. badger . ornamented with a raised pile. Brocket. parch. brindled. brocach. noisy. E. border. brodio. Cot. grullo. a mole. brucilare. Surrey in R. embroidering. speckled. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. broice. brasbrasciuolare. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. Cot. a prick. briefh. parti-coloured. agree in being the extremity of a thing. Contracted from Fr. to burn. brucach. brullare. trouble. piebald . hart of two years old. borprick. bram. forming to jumble. A fried or boiled steaks). grislement. streaked. to parch or broil. v. So from Pol. creak. brerd. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. brustle. with Sc. sting. bordo. to embroider. A badger. Fr. breard. b?-od. to On the other hand the Sp. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. atoms . brocco. gresiller. storms. freckled. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. It. knobby . — brissle.— B. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. brouFr. brasiller. a fallingThe sense has been out. Florio. a point. Bret. Compare G. It. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots.sound. age was termed a pricket. speckled. precisely analogous to the Sc. The Bret. a flake of snow sion. point to an origin in Bret. to crackle. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. to crackle. to scorch. border ornamented with silk. or salted fish on coals. parti-coloured. broc. to darn. prod. Ptg. To roast upon hot coals. froco. braird. rinj'. a confused streaked face of the animal. bmsciare. Sc. noise. Compare also AS. bj'oil. It of br the Fr. . bramowanie. to streaked or speckled in the face. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. hurly-burlies. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. bruler. from the white. tumult broighleach. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. spots. motes. ciare. a border ornamented with gold. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. B. brod. of pointing out their latent defects. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. brasiller. Gael. to crackle. carbonado. a freckle. or snag. to stud broccoso. a border. Fr. a badger. — — . W. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. bustling.

matter of blame weak place. abbronzanchiare. reject. damaged. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. bring eggs and spawn into active life. G. to roast on the embers. Brood. To correct an exercise is to Lib. brands. Sp. Kil. — Fl. to scorch. a brood . Bret. embers. couratier. G. It may be compared with It. brwd. abject. and fishes . try . brak.— — . to pro- to reject . screatio Junfus . briiten. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. fault censure. brack-gut. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. selection. brack-gut (Sanders). Commonly referred to the notion of warming. brid. phlegm. keep warm. fish-spawn broden. burning.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. a broker. brae. to copper. w. . to — garble. wraken. brod. inspect. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. as. refuse wares. Bronzare. merchandises de rebut G. cracker. with. to sort brakovanie. 38. Lat. Fr. fermenting. slaae vrag paa. raquer. . brokas. hot. to sparkle.D. Alb. brot. brass does to Sp. brunds. vrage. sunburnt. designation is indkler. The use sunburn. bronze. spittle. to hatch. brumo. and to reject the damaged and unsound. — a spark. refuse Fr. corrector. nounce unsound. Sc. refuse. try out. dial. rejected. term was correcfo^ir. bronzo. Dan. refuse brakovat. . mediationem quorundam J. vile.D. . brydio. In those countries the term braker. braeck goed. See Wreak. warm. cast Lith. If to vomit . has exactly the force of G. Adelung. which E. et A. or brascla. want. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. tussis. to garble. find fault with. Grisons brinzla. — point out the faults. to be hot. Pl. Per manus et old worthless horse. the young of any animal . to pick. bronce. wreak. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. broiid. This word shows the same relation to It. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. Teutonic class : Du. whence the modern courtier. an outcast or rejected sheep. ODu. Pro v. brasa. brasa. glowing coals. 396. Pl. bronze. racaille. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. brieden. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. S. brod. buy and sell by commission. — . embers. bridde. brokoti. inspection. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. faulty.D. To blame mens ware. blur. . to sit on eggs.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. Russ. correctarius. to emit sparks.D. to nourish. wrak. to reject. Alb. to hatch G. Bronze. a cough Hal. Du. bric-a-brac. lack. to sort goods . In the . ordure. but from the primary sense of the It. in which sense the OHG. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. bredan. bracker. sbrinzlar. • . hot. broen. to brew. Du. . Fl. to spit . spittle . vile. filth. Abbronzare. to be wanting. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. dirty. goods damaged by sea-water. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. refuse brakowad. brak. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. ON. mud. tan. brakyne. to throw blame upon. to pick and choose. insects. pan metal. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. a chicken. an . an operation performed over hot coals. to blame. find fault — — — fuse matter. The Langued. to braze. See Brackish. brack. For the same reason the Kiittner. and as an adj. on. embers to brund. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. a makeln. raca. : ' . And gart Backbiting be a brocour. — broeden. rejection Pol. brokers' goods. i. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. Tooke's Catherine. See Broth. to hatch. criticise (makeln). from break. refuse. to criticise. bronze. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. to . whnake. On • tliis principle the G. hraki. a fault. G. trumpery. braken. e. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. brackefi. racher. Jam. from makel. Pl. cherish. sort. It. refuse goods. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. a breach or flaw. brechen. stain. find fault with. brut. make out. Prov. OFr. analogous to Bohem. progeny of birds.— Lib.— Breed. the spawn of fishes. wrack-good. hrak. damaged. in the sense of rejection.

juniper. brozia. bryn. breg. broth brothaire. of which the variety of forms. face. &c.) . a river. Du. was originally used in the innocent sense of . But the Walach. bhratrj Zend. as small-pox. a spring. infusion. waves. Sp. Sp. . to spring . to browse. frater. brukjan. brd.D. briar. . . . brouic. brosst. bushes. broca.' Due. &c. sap. house of ill fame. . Tam de terrS. to bear patiently. the bubbling or springing up of water.. brun. Pol. Fr. forms appear related to the Ir. The softening down of the consonant bud. Prov. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. a confused noise of winds. riviere. to sprout. to use. a bud. eye-lid. Gael. shoots. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. Catalan brossa. grow into a bush. borda. perhaps burnt coloilr. to browse. vigour. grow brossa. on. a hill. bordel. shore. . a shore. G. a source Gael. — exiit et heath. brost. to scald. G. or broken up . brus. brodo. bruith. broth. brushbrothas) gives the OE. Bohem. sprot. brodem. heat explaining the Prov.braubiti. brov. mettle. . simmer from the murmuring AS. bntdien. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. brawdj Slavon. broc. edge. . brothas. Sanscr. sense the Sc. braussa. boiled . brotar. . eat. hot. brauwe. broeye. cia. Brothel. AS. shoot. from ripa. Serv. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. G. augen-braune. 'Lzt. hovel. broccola. seethe. noise. Dan. iVlanx broogh. t— Cot. or bushes and scrubby growths. circuindedit cum familia. a hut or cottage It. of plants broust. to use. broza. strength Ir. bank. . So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. . low The AS. fur Broom. brennen. Bohem. .spross. brouter. Roquef. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. strength. fabric consists. Gael. to boil. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. ale . rerum decoctarum. bank. brotar. brdtaj Gael. . a sprout. bud. thairj w. pfriemkraut. eye-brow. AS. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. broth. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. Brow. — ' . spuma. bruach. margin. brogues. bruich. brew . brushbroccoli. Kil. wood . To digest. broth the ocean Sw. frucius. a sprig. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. Fr. brst. bor. Mid. border. a bruth. Bohem. brabruach. sodden. borde. protecting the eye. verge. braun. eye-brow. chen. G. to roar. bruno. bruceti. hut. brass. 105 Brook. brio. branches. brusmalt. has briw.brons. brucan. a bud brous-koad. bros. bryn. BROOK brook w. a shrub broust. eye-brow. vigour. brow. dumetum. to Pl. broit. It. brwd. brocco. thick bush brousta. Du. or shoot. — . and It. brouches. who is steaming with sweat. brosses. brewis. signifying low wet land (Brem. a little . Bret. to murmur. bratrj Lat. Ppim. Ger. brad. bruich. Gael. See Bramble. breh. surDu. Russ. eminence . broud. broi. broth is sometimes used . brow of a hill. bank. as rhododendrons. Bav. A — . sordes seu strigmata young branch. Gael. heat. ceales briw. sprouts . spirit. b7-un. useful G. braces. as Fr. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. brosses. w. a little house or cottage of timber. Limousin broudi. Commonly Teutonic. from Goth. to use bruks. — . brstiti. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . Due. buds. break out brewet. brmi. It. to burn. broden. brouet. The origin is a re. brlgh. broieii. Celtic. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. to boil. cabbage soup . heath. . briihe. brouskaol. It. briu. to border. Sc. may be connected with Russ. Russ. bros. bank. laissent Domunculum. bruddeln. brudi. surface of Broth. OHG. sprocco. bruc. OFr. thicket. . broem bark. to bubble up with noise. eye-lash . Fr. and Slavonic families. browys. sprout. Fr. a hill. Cot. shrubs. Browse. Here we find throughout the Romance. sprout. &c. plants composed of twigs. riviera. Lat. pour boiling water over. brost. bruscosd quam de arabili. Pl. It is Brother. breg. . warmth ch'an. steam from heated bodies. properly boiling water briihen. braew. rage. a caldron. awl-plant. bruithim. shrub with leafless pointed edging. OHG. brink. to boil. Wtb. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. brouser. broth Brown. meal. juice of meat. The AS. and Sc. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. Gris. brpuster. (for brodem). the colour of things burnt. pottage. Manx broie. eye-lid. enjoy Goth. juice of briars. Gr. bryii. infusion the barley bree. &c. on. bree." Serv. bordeau. a . brau. cabbage water. heath. bruitheati. Prov. frui. signifying twigs. brous. w. breg. to shoot. sproc. in which brinnan.— Overyssel Almanack. broo. to boil bruithe. Fr. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. a derived from the boards. dialects is very different.D. G. Bret. shore .brink. eye-brow. and also border. kail brose. pith. edge. bregh. bruth. brue .

See next article. Sw. — OE. Pm. Text Soc. a brush . chips. Hall in R. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. mg Cat. brugir. OFr. borst. brisar. brosst. bruc. brushwood. rubbish. brossa. broust.). brustia. bruscia. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. Fr. shock. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. ling or heath for brushes. . dust. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. to crush. bush. brousso. brysan. Pr. bruito. a brush. detergere . biirste. brise. brosst. ON. brus. broustia. a brush Swiss bruske. . Allit. to break.— Palsgr. dust. Castr. . modification of the same root which gives the E. burt. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. Poems. fescue . a flax comb. Bret. borste. brit. brossa. bushy ground. field. Bav. break. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt.). coal See Breeze. a bud or sprout Bret. bruskr. rubbish.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. brist j Port. to make a rumbling. to break or burst. irruo. crum bit . E. brous. 134. bruscolo. to strike the foot against an obstacle. brusco. Port. Sp. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. biirste. a crum. It. Piedm. . Gael.— — i. brous. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. and also Brush. britar. abroncar. brist. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. Bruise. bruis (sing. Gael. ca7-bo>i. 201. bruscolo. borste. Prov. wool-card. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . brust. G. a blow. And that best is. On the other hand. a tuft of heath . . brico or brizo. and in the second place a besoiB. a rumbling. . bud. insultus. bruise exOFr. Alexander. —Chaucer. tremely. brikan. a briser. brusca. brottcher. Bruit. flax-comb brossettes. to cleanse. briketo. Lang. Gael. fragments. * Brunt. It. as It. a horse-brush. a brush. burs. a bud. borste. Cot. B?-usske. Lang. of twigs. Prov. Broach. — Fr. brist. to break to bits . escousse. NE. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. Diez. brista) or breaking out . quisquilise. a — — (Agea) said. also a head-brush. but on whom it schall to brisen him. bross. brunt. tuft of grass or hay. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. brisd. to make brusshes on. and actually come in collision. . effort. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. brusca. a bristle. it schall be al Sw. a brush . Prov. a bush of hair. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. bruzir. and It. brusc (Diet. Brush. bruiser. broza. bris. crush. Fr. borste. and . Pr. a shrub composed of small twigs . and sighid therewithal. blow burcar. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. insilio. wood composed OE. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. rubbish. In E. twig. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. desbrisar. bross. Pm. heath. brossar. Wicliff. G. fasx . splinters. Palsgr. The same relation holds good between G. Cot. shoot brouskoad. wool-card. sordes. quasi twigs. The Bav. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. bris. rods. Beryn. a brush. Brunt of a daunger. broken. bris. E. brik. a little brizal. brMt. briiis (in the pi. E. 174. Pr. bris. a brush . a bristle. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede.). or from the materials of which it is itself composed. Fr. p. to break. brist. borste. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. —Fabyan. dust. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. Sw.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. an enmy. a brush . brosse. Piedm. or sodenly comyn' dust. K. bricalio. It. to stumble. remnants of hay or fodder. bruit. To brush then would be to dust. Fr. briser. — those signifying a sprig. orts. to butt. Fr. brustia. Brunt. — a bush. seems named from burst(on. a mote. brusg. AS. bruire. That in all haste he wouli. Prov. a noise. wool-card. bruyere. brizeto. and Piedm. dust. appearin Goth. britar. to brush. The Lat. A. Pr. into a multitude of points. Gael. brustid. OE. Fl. broza. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. twig. brusco. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. or shoot. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. shivers. brosse.

The male goat. It. to butt. buquer. . bubauti. tender. 1857. open lath-work. bublati.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. not so plentiful a commodity. it is beuchen. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. watery bud. But see Bristle. This bubette. Fr. buchen. buerj It. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. to Gael. boh. . from colar. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. mollire. or projecTo Buck. buborek. bubseti.boukaat. bouk. the linen at buck. Sp. . a bubble. as G. boc. a steep for flax. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. bugada.wet Lat. hog dressed whole). was called bucking the linen. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. a push.-wtt miekki. at a door. a ashes. .steep or soak. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. and exercised their cruelties prin. to wet Pol. bube. soft It.buchen. the upper for coifee. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. to soften.byka. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. tender. top. It. From an imita. The place of such a 2. bifbel. hump. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. Bohem. Magy. Fr. a fescue. w. bduclien. Bret. is 1. mokry. bukke. bucaIndies. The name. moist. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. bog-aske. Formerly.D. to stick. bugd. 17th century. soft . also applied Una. and the bunch. lye. w. thunder gently . Dan. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. a. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. Gael. mieknad. Diet. ac. bouc. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. erweichen. . to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. The word was very generally Buccanier. Etym. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. and Fr. designation of a knob. a bubble . To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. because bucare does not in Marsh). Illust. a knock word. to filter. to strain. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . Pol. Fr. Cot. set of pirates in the spread. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. tuft. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. mote. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. blast or strike with the forehead. wood. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. a hole. The term bocan is still ap. . bucking. bubiti.— . buck-ashes. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. A . and as in and b so often infor cocoa. molle.lessiver. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). to butt or jurr Dan. de la Floride. knock. — . byge. See Dupe. to soak. buquer. In G. from weich. or mok. to bump as a bittern. plied in the W. pokka7na. buck-ashes. . when soap was tion is commonly taken. bokni. bucata. different form. soft. BUBBLE bruschetta. who resorted to the islands beichen. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. bub. does not hold. a bubble. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. drying of produce. pukkata. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. . maban and baban. colada. to a place used for the mouillir. — . as a buck rabbit. News. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. soft.biiken j Svi. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. Bohem. boil animals. of wind. the lower soak in lye. Pol. in which the flesh dish. boc. bubBuck. moczyd. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. Fin. rap. soft. Sp. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. to bubble. The cipally on the Spaniards. pup.derivation has been much discussed. bubbola. hump. a. to soften . boucaner. very generally designated by the same puk.tare. to butt. a to the male deer. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. to soak foul linen before washing. bucquer. bub. tap .to allow a free current of air. was called in Fr. says Laudon. to soak. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. Bubble. to murmur. Bret. — — ' A : ' ' . lye. Sc. March 28. I. to soften. the first wheal. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. bwch. Esthon. to buck. blister. It. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. Magy. The natives of Florida.' Palsgr. Pref A. to which in their language they call bou. and then to other wild tumour Lith. and as a verb. faire la lessive. caned' Hence those who established them. 1586.

is doubtless fallacious. skins pushit'. a buclder or shield budge. prick in a target.— . boaLat. It termination is lost. K. don't a baby). ' . butzen K. bedde. a trough). to stir. jSouKoXiKog. of bac. to pen cattle. pwtio. become bochen. bougette. So on. whom it is still much in use. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch.' Boccaccio. protuberance. The word is a ddyn. no wheel bogeilio. push forwards.n. loud Cot. bug. a navel. turgere buczendig. NE. * Buckle. Mid. knock. bouter. with which it was ornamented. Budget. Buck-bean. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. a ring. In the dialect of the Setti Cem.pode. bump. a servant. soft. a boss. dint . the end or rise or bear out in the middle. need. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn.stumpy man.r//'. bucherare. wallet. a dumpy gin. clasp of a book. stroke. Bret. imbuere. bulb. to butt. the word w ' — . Fr. having a boss. boucle. a bubble three thyngis. bollire. boqueranmis. Fr. motus creber. crack. Mid. case of leather . Fr. . lump. bunch . a small shallow and open tub. a pail or flowers. bullion. pulga. Swab. butz. bod.t-le!L{ * Bud. bub. don't stir from hence. To thrusting part of a long body. is to shrivel up. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. Du. words is converted into b. bouk is a pail and with the dim. . to 'soak. Bus. Buckler. Gael. Fr. a .). scion. bolgetta. in the beginning of to pierce holes. w. Du. ornamental stud. from bo. ON. OHG.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. dinted.) as to soak. . boucler. a buckle or protuberance. no business to do that.' And this sacrament bus have dial. bdden. with a central boss. II I'a feru desor I'escu. stir. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. butzen. It. a stump buckle up. and the reference to It. bucherame. bulka.' Schm. goat's hoof. a shoot. Russ. boglyn. bucolicus. buachazlle. a little coffer or turgidus. weichen. — . and of the Lat. See Bulk. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. a pustule bout. probably from the notion of bubbling. bouprobably identical with inok. bo. Bav. to un bout d'homme. . of bouge. pote. Sw. bugnir. mani. bud butzen. a cowherd.Lat. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. — . brobrocchiere. water message. boulj. It. to swell. Port. with let. . knob . put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. . In Lat.) . a leathern sack.. macero.' Hal.may probably be explained by N. ' . OFr.anything short of its kind. bouge. Behoves. a bud. call bo. The dressed fur of lambs.stuff. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram.poot. from Gr. . bucket Fl. Fr. bouger. bulla. bog and G. great pouch. Prov. boach. pulga. boiling. * Bud. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. built. buckel. like a bean. boucle. The Fr. the radical image seems to be a set plants. It. bocla. call. Bret. of a surface. bulais daqui. or male of to boil . So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. a fold ceilio. rump of fowls . w. knob dwfr yn boglynu. fur. and weichen. butzen (Du. noise . Hardly identical with Fr. . Wtb. bloca. bukke-blad. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. as in Fr. to boss or swell out G. to line with fur. seen in Hesse botz. blow. swelling. a bump. swelling. clump. hump. to graft or bud trees. inboachen. to move. convexity. bogla. Prov. . A buckle or fastening for botch. dim. botzen. child. trunk of wood covered with leather. bloquier. call. to budge. * Bucket. bougette. ble. stud. Fr. a budget. Pol. ' . a shield. bouclier. Budge. butt . Pied. boucaran. bouljein. were To Budge. agreeing with Gael. A water-plant with leaves and gille. to poke./a. budge. It.goa. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. Hence quel.chissima. Sp. from bugr. belonging to the calling of the chen. Fr. bulga. to word. — — . a short thick man. cattle. Bucolic. bloca. above mentioned. excrescence. set of a plant in bulk. butzen.. Dan. also a leather tuft . a wallet. ein. boucle. a curl. . boccula. butze. W. a tuft. — — . boss of a shield. weich. explaining Fr. male or botzen. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. potz. to boil. the root of the Slavonic words gran. thrust. where the G. boss. put. pwt o Fr. bolgia. bul. to thrust. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. Bav. a budget. to bud or bocla. weich. Cot. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. a boy. This expression boglire. a boss. Prov. The entire train of thought is bucket. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield.. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. G. The knob or projection formN. botzen. gjeit-klauv. sboge. Lat. rabodS. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. bouton. bode. bunch. Dan. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. bod.

buffalo. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. The cry made to excite terror is then used. Teet-bo. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. confused. word other cases. Cot. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. a bugbear. buffare. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. bo ! an interj. bufogni. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. Bufetarium. to blow souffleU. and in Fr. bukow Ikow.D. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. to signify an indefinite object of terror. Lat. buffen. — thence it has been transferred in E. Thus buffet would a tapster. a buffle or a bugle. often covering his E. as Diez remarks. things in Jam. buffet. a puff. buffets. from It. a hobgoblin. Buffeter. bwg. caupo. a In . to puff. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. buffet. — La Crusca. — retailing buffeter buffetier. smells . to marre often tasting it .BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. buffer. to strike face to represent the unknown. E. the buffe. to rePl. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. bufHe. It. or hath been Cot. buffet. to excite terror in Macleod. often blown upon. to bellow . L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. bw. buffare. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. to puff. bumann. scarecrow . — — — Buffet. thus be translated to tap. air. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. dull sound. rebuff. botffon.D. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. bugbear. bubiti. bauwi. bugs. a clap.D. Pl. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. dial. tastes. — Z. to blow . stupid. Pl. bufogni. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. to blow. The children were playing in an oppocomer. buffetto. dausa. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. buffle. Swiss baui. Cot. Fr. bubach. for this purpose is very widely spread. to a representation of his voice. buivol. a cuff or buffet. Fr. Gael. Buff. or wild ox. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. from souffler. human. as from Lith. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. Sc. while in Sp. a budget. boman. Magy. Buffoon. een duffen toon. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. Buff. pulse . made to —Bugbear. a skin. dausinti. soufflet. of colours. yar^aa. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. a jester. Romola./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il .— Buflae. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. btifetarius. God's boast seemed feare children. wine may The verb in taverns. to frighten .—Buffet. Esthon. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . to beat. A blow. Hence the E. bolgetta. a block-headed noddy. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. bouffer. ' They rether puffed at him. him but Boyd iugges. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. duff^ dull. It. as wine that hath taken wind. A — Bug. mingled with water. buffle-headed. Fr. le reste emplissant d'eau. also the skin or heck of a buffe. buff leather. colour. From bulga. W. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . boo. Fr. tabernarius. bouffer. baubau. Fl. —Boggart. wauwau. G. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. bugle.' La Crusca. to give benti. Sc. Mid. . bau ! children. leathern bucket. 265. deadened. Limousin bobal. buffeteur. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. — Bogle. puff. cuff . &c. a side-board. Lith. Buffalo. A puff with — Fl. a dull BUG From 109 — A . either alone or with various terminations. sounds. bobaow. buMagy. as emblematically making light of an object. It. bubus. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. bolgia. site The two — — iii. a hollow sound. by metaphor. It. made by a person. Lith. bw! It. also a G. to jest or sport. Fr. the place whence the wine was drawn. bubaRuss. blurt or puff with one's mouth. breath. popo. senses. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. to give a as of a blow. w. mumming. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. From buff! of terror. a goblin).' perfield.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. The use of the exclamation children. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. Lat. buffa.

roo. banian boube. disgust. of bugabo was given. booggen. a misshapen person. fierce. worm. threatening. shepe and gootes. with more or less modification represents bau. to creeping things. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. boeuf sauvage. Sw. a buffalo. insect. bogk. to bellow. affright. fette. bogk. Lap. larva (a bug-bear. quos what produces dread or disgust. the buggaboo w. and bugle. and a boggarty ing. Hal. a rabme. bwgwl.3uhtii&:. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. great or bug words. il brutto Demonio. an insect. pugaf. bbgni. swollen. as an object of dread. A similar applica.loud noise. bogil bo (e. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. Fl. beugler. Cheval de trombugti. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. Lith. bugler. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. a. Bogge. an object of terror. — boogg. paws the ground .. a bug-bear. rose-bug. Bdronie. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. and is Deutsch.— . Lesachthal.Lat. and in child's Magy. Grose. is very common. The w. provincially an insect. a beetle.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. An ornament of female dress condread. Mundart. Illyr. any disgusting animal. Bug as a lord. well as the terrific object. w. insect. mask ' . Serv. buba. gad. . Same as buffle. high-sounding words.Fr. to roar Aasen. Mid. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. i. Magy. Sp. Big. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. long. bauginti. buffle. and in Lat. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. The name of bug is — . a bugbear for children. bucula. bug-bear. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. E. the Devil. a boogg. Chaucer. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. Bible. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. troll. threatening. bugle. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. a goblin. . to take fright. It. poggl. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. fear. See The name terror). Parolone. iv. is the dim. thus connected with bug. Swiss ing. baco. — — terror. also a bug-bear. — . earwig bau da grascha. given in Chaucer. pugalo.. bold. boa-peep. bok. bug dung-beetle. coco. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. 493. 1551. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. to bellow. xiv. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. terrifying ward. (Spurrell). The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. Russ. bukati. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. superbire. . a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. oxen. also a bug-bear. Deut. * 2. I. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. hert. proud. The final guttural of W. especially to beetles or winged insects. big. . pujalo. boo. bugar. blustering. Manx boa. language any kind of insect. then a horn for drinking. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. bug. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. vermin. 2. protuberant. Swelling. according to Coles. the black a maggot. of pipes sewn on. as Buffalo. the word is lin) bbgge. Grisons bau. bug-bear. monster. bau (Pureiglia. Fl. bobal. Lett. Hence bugle-horn. also a baco-baco. to take bug. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. saucy. dial. used in the same sense. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. Bugle. 3. bogil. W. a proud overbearing man pujat'. bug-bear. tion of the beetle tribe. — — . buggabod). to take fright. Bug. biignt. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. Magy. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. bwgar. a bug-bear. a silk-worm. buculus. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. It. high. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. forSc. : no BUG . With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . roarHal. ghost. scarecrow . tumble-bug. bwg and E. b'dgni. to frighten scarecrow. BUGLE Tentennino. — — ' . bugbear. Stalder bog. to origin in the expression bugs words. bogle. Schmidt. bukashka. Swiss booggen. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting.

bubbling up. bilge. belly. blister Manx bolg. bulge or bilge. as well as is very variable. blow. Dan. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. MHG. belly Sw. The radical sense is shown in Russ. the belly. knot in thread. to puff up bolginn. head . Here stand behind this bulk.— . Boss^. bulcke. bua. — . a round bulky body bwlgan. of an inflated skin. a stage or scaffold. Pm. bukr. the contents of the hold. bunch or projection. knobby. bulbe. G. . bladder. bolgetta. bulki. bulk. at riufa bulkann. skin bag. cumulus. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. swell.pulks. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. ON. Lith. ' . crowd. to raise a habitation. In the representation of natural sounds. a dint in a metal . bulbe. on. a bulb Du. I. swollen. — . bellows builgean. bolgia. balg. leather sack. hollow. Bulge. bed of a river. the carcase. inhabit. — Bulb. snorting on a bulk. buk. bulka. and N. formed a farm. dial. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. acervus. (3oX|8oc.' Anat. Muratori. swell. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. a bubble. as it was merly written in English to bylle. body of a ship . bubble. a prominence. bubble. Mister. and put it home. skin of an animal. bulwis.' Palsgr. to bol. trunk of the body. Ptg. G. biilken. a tuberous or bulbous root . . hull of a ship. See bollekeii next article. puff. He found a country fellow dead drunk. balgs. . to break bulk. ^ — . habitaculum. bulg. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. to belly out. . The addition of a dim. bol.' Fl. Hal. boss. . Othello. Bav. byli. See Bulk. domicilium. 1388. the capacity or burden of a ship. has bulbuk. a heap. boss. to bubble up. and bulbukd.'— Cot. a lump or mass. hold or bilge of a ship. or of what is shaped like a bubble. bulgen. tumeo. belgr. OSw. bulle. lump. bulked or bumped out. turgeo bolnyd. bale. Palco. OSw. ' . or feminine termination gives Bav. thorax buick. . bulge or convex part of a cask. body. pulkas. Pr. belly van de kerche. the potato G. straight will he 2. bouge. a. balg. or cargo of a ship. anything prominent. G. body of an animal. balco. a bunch. in bulk. bag. bolnyn. it again. mass. skin flayed whole. Dan. . knob. belly. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. belly Cat. nave or body of the church van 't schip. herd^ swarm pulkd. villa. ON. to spring. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. Lat. bulbus. whence bylja. It. Hence e. bouk. bulkaf. to bubble up Pol. bubble {palgan tiisge. Bourser. the body Du.' Cot. trunk. projection. Pr. stuffed bag. . — — . boss of a buckler. blister. Lat. belgja. mass. bug. belly. in Sc. blister. the womb. jnake bulch. wallet. a water-bubble).' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. chest. Sp. bulne. bugue. the position of liquids in the word In English. tumidus. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. swollen OE. buc. bolle. Kil. A — ' — Bulk. boss of shield. the head of an onion. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. pouch builgeadh. buhe. Bulk. to blow. to swell. bolle. . unevenness Sw. bwlg. beuck. Bolke or hepe. or. principal portion. . With these must probably be classed ON. bulk or capacity of anything. . of E. pocket. Gr. to build. bauch. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. bulk is a partition of boards.d. globule bolg-lhuingey. a leathern sack or portmanteau. — — . . . bulgen. to throw out a convexity. a. husk. bo. be protuberant. vulva. lump. womb. a bubble Gael. — — . The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. . BUILD supra dictos bugolos. . m um Placentiae. pimple. bolg. compare Da. ne. To Build. bol. Lett. van loock.' Festus. For the latter sense ' — My . Pm. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. Gr. as water beginning to boil bolg. bolso. ' . knob. a protuberance. ball. The Walach. bolgna. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). in vessel. were a habitation. bole. a leather sack or budget Fr. a globe. swell. to gather. Lith. boulge. balcone. . sedes. gebolgen. w. or bear out as a full purse. pod ON. . a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. bubble. Mandeville. bauen. to swell. a straw corn-vessel. From till. cultivate. belly. to undo the cargo. Bulch. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. bolgan. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. bullka. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. bol. belly. trunk. See how this tode bolneth.). PoXj3a. boa. Melancholy. Jno. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail.

I. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. bwlas. signifying roaring. w. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. in N. large of its kind. bole or trunk of a tree. embossed work. any great-headed or studded nail.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. a hobgoblin. and vellon in Sp. dial. also a parFl. as in E. a bulox polos. — A tition in a ship. witches. a seal. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. however.. bolli. urchens. poltern. scarecrow.D. &c. Terriculamentum. bullos. bal. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. balgeting.. bolla. b2iggaboo. Bully. i. And The word bullerbak. Du. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. This word is used in several senses. It. poli-cheannan. hhint. G. also of the tadpole or young frog. a bul-begger. bulke. Lith. bulk. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. G. The bullfrog. /SouWivu. from the noise. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. bubble. a noisy violent fellow. bullern. spirits. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. of boule. a beam or rafter. ba. w. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. to bubble. bauli. coarse. The male W. as a mill-dam or the like. round glass phial. Bullet. Bullfrog.'— ' Palsgr. bulloi. — Fl. a blockhead. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. ON. bulla.. — — Bull. BuUiou. from the Lat. a bull Swiss bullen. many to protuberant objects. stud. stamp. sloes. from Lat. Gold or silver uncoined. bugbear. baula. blunt. to seal. a cow. which may probably be the origin of the name. lumpheaded .D. a tadpole. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. boillon. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the .Gr. A papal rescript. blister. See Billet. Pm. a little fish nearly all head. a tadpole . N. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. it is boulet de canon. whence Mod. Scot's Deso. of the ox kind. Eullrusli.' do not go by the dangerous water. the seal affixed to the document. Fr. a seal. a bowl. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. bwbach. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. large. bellow. bulla. Gael. Bret. A lace tree. as It. pwl. brass-headed nail . bollar. Du. Bullace. thick. a scare-bug. stud. eth and frighteth. poll-cheannach. It. from the use of the equivalent terms. W. whence bullire. bullus. bulle. bellocier. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. pimple. Sp. 3. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. leraures nocturni nigri.D. as the ornanails. Pl. tition of deals instead of a wall. bulk of a thing. to tical with Sw. Fr. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. bouillon. BulUiead. is called a ball. Du. in the sense of base metal. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. boss. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. bullocks. a hornet. child by the represents the hobgoblin. Dan. of Witchcr. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. the matrix or die . from baula. a bull. a stud. elves. and thence terror. . bietebau. The wild plum. bwla..lle de fusil. bollon. bullebak. polten. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. as geting. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. to emboss . penbwl. G. See Bowl. lumpish. any embossed work. Cot. to bellow. boss or stud. billoti in Fr. billon. The final element tergeist. G. bulderen. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. Bullbeggar. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. biitzibau. stamped money. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. a hobgoblin. bouillon. but is more probably iden- palchetto. boulct. bolos Fr. 2. it may be observed that a bullet in E. bolli.Fris. a framework of balks. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. bollos de relieve. on the contrary. beams or boards. assito. is of a class with Pl. Du. stupid . to boil. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. 2. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. dim. pollach. a wasp. from Fr.

Du. 10. Miege in Hal.D. 2. baluarte. blunder-buss. c. buller-bas. biihne. Etym. Bully-rock. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. or a humblebee. a. 'lega. polterer. a boisterous. John). Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. intonare. ground. Fris. and porter au billon.. violent. A. propugnaculum.D. Du. bottn.' reals of standard currency. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. St. From the notion of a humming. a hectoring. — Boom. from boden. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. buller-bas. bol-werck. G. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. Du. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. noise. — — plate d'argent. III. beat a — Hal.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. ON. 1305. then in general a rampart. a blunderhead. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. minari verbulderen. but now is the central part of the town. to make a noise . that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. to terrify by noise and clamour. Hal. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. bolderen. 4 Hen. IIL st. 2. AS. furious man. to make a droning Du. up was termed monnaie de billon. Kil. provides. on the other hand. The cry of the bittern. boulevard. resonare. hum.' agger. For bottom. the soil. Philip le Bel in Due. is called bumping or bells. bastion. sound. BULLY with which coins were stamped. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. violent overbearing person. — bombam?nen. Fr. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . is bullion — A — buller. c.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. ^Bully-rook. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. to drum Lat. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. buene. G. buller-brook. bommele. a floor. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. argentum and silver. The decried coin. boene. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. ^i^/«.d. clamour. c. boisterous fellow. or work of defence. 14. by corruption boulevart. To bully is to bluster. a noisy blustering fellow. bombilare. bomtnen. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. vallum. The 27 Ed. honunele. a bumble-. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. scaffold. To Bum. un faux brave. G. bulderen. To bum. To bum. ierd-beame. The Stat. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. buller-bak. Bum-bailiff. bottom. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. blunder-buss. Kil. debacchari. block-werck. IV. to . Thus ' ble. ierd-boeyme. 9 E. The Sw. — Bumto . &c. droning. Bully. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. blaterare. Kiittner. poltem.' Again. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . D.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. 2. Bum. perturbare saevis dictis. legaggio di metallo. 1687). Bailey. buller-jaan (bully. agrees with e. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a.' ' mettre au billon..' Stat. — Bump. bodem. Hence bom and ban. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. a stage. primarily the ramparts of a town. provides. to dun. bustle. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. botm.the ramparts. It. Fris. Sw. Hence — . defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees.' for the purpose of exchange.

. or to the mass by which it is given. Hence E. a hump. bumsen.S. dial. Bumboat. to . E. dial. . Probably from bump. Suffolk bonnka. .D. to bang ON. bun with ON. clumsy. a large . — — de dor bunsen. Mrs Baker. Bony.P. a bunch. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. as we have seen E. Hal. Daal bu7iseti. are dim. calamus. strike E. a rabbit. a lump on the foot bunny. should probably be a short tail. stump. bugnone.' he fell with a bang. Again. Bumsen. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. Forby. — — — — ' — knock.' Bun. Sc. as in other cases. stock. 1. one ever saw the word in that shape. also for taking a pilot to a ship. . banga. — round fruit. bonuach. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. round mass of anything. throw down with a bang. See Bunch. pwmp. Related on the one side to Pl. bottom bun feoir. stubble of beans. Bunch. a pumpion or gourd. to beat. Bump. mto Sp. from bunsen. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. BUNCH bum-bailiff. from knock) It. pumpa. a. poumpido. botn. bottom. Manx bonkan. Bums it's hit. bmike. strapping. E. Thus e. pwmpio. binge. See Boss.— Bunnion. and related with ON. signifying one who does things in a thumping. a knob. Radically identical with Dan. knob or heap. passes Sw. a knob . to strike so as to give a dull sound. buns. to beat. Pm. Bumpkin. large. Bunewand. bunki. bump. to bang down. a wallet.). Gael. bull. Kyx or bunne. bund. bunkc.^Cot. bugnet. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. bunga. . bulscha. Ir. nor would it concern the public if he did. ner. Pm. . bundle. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . a swelling. seems to unite Gael.pummel. bottom. bunken. . to . a.D. trunk. OSw. a heap OSw. Bun.D. to ' .D. w. —Bunny.. stump. a knotty stick) Sw. a heap. noise. E. . Lang. pompon. Probably for bun-boot. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. He buncheth me and beateth me. explaining E. bun eich. Roding. H. a Sp. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. Bunk. a into Dan. Dan. bunga. bmidt. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. Li cake. bungersome. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. a boil (punkos bot. an old stump of a horse. tundo. to swell out E. Hal. bonge. . Pl. bunny. Bunch. awkward. bannock. bunch— Hal. or grete knobbe. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. hay stubble . Bang sen. a bunch Magy. a boil or blain. the tail of a hare. To bam. any round knob or bunch. gibber. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. while bulch was traced through Gris. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). bun. . Dunchyn or bunchyn. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. bolsa. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. a heap or cluster. bonnock. so the form btmk. especially girls. a rabbit. pwmpl. protuberance. a person employed to dun one for a debt. a purse . He fult dat et bunsede. a heap Wall. bumtel. stem or base. il me pousse. lenten loaves. bulse. knochen. a swelling from a blow. Bung^. A Du. bunsen. stalk. Pr. to knock . bongie. a round mass . bignet. a heap. cluster. bum-boot. foundation w. bung. a boss Lith. clown. a knock. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. stubble Manx bun. Fr. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. to bang. lump. — Marine Diet. bamgetroffen. bu<rnone. a tail (Macleod). Pm. See Bounce. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. &c. — stalk . bunt. abrupt manbuns-wise. boi7ieog. bunka. .— Pr. Hal. a knob. banke. hdk passing and E. truss E. It. bans. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. a hemp-stalk. S. a bowl P1. Moor. root. the Pr. root. a dry No . stock. blain. — — Bun. a pocket Sw. a bump. a bud. to thump. bon. and signifies consequently a mass. any round knob or bunch. . A clumsy. applied to young persons. Pl. . bulto. forms. — — Bun. Du. Then. Dan. w. bune or boon. pumpurras. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. a button.. ! — knocking. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow.-^Fl. knuckles. Hal. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. lungeous. bugno. Fr. . bunan. inconsiderately. Fl.! . a dried hemp-stalk. bugno. pompette. bunke. a bag or sack. Sc. gibbus. Holland and Flanders. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again.' Palsgr. bunnion. Gael. callus. awkward clown. poumpi. butt end.

Banff. Sp. A bubble. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. to stnmi on an instrument. byrthen. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. dial. B. To burgeon. buie. Sp. la Borgonota. also a piinple in the face. burion. tinkle. coassatio et Du. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. the loose open grow big about or gross. contignatio. bongun. Burden. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . court of audience was covered with such a cloth. The Fr. bote. Pl. boya. The Magy. to bungle. bou^e. OFr. and now more Bailey. tap. with the head. to bolt meal. to cobble. fascis. whence bunting. reddish brown. are from bouscfie. borboUar. Burden. knocking. klempern. clumsy performance. or putting forth of a vine. Bung of a tonne or Lith. bond. byndel. ghebundte. E. of a song. Sw. Prov. A load. See Bun.Fris. bungande. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. to push. Sp. to bear. Burble. A Dan. do a thing bunglingly. Bunt. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. stiimpeln. bindini. Cat. and Du. bondir.D. — — . boucher. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. Burly. — Bureau. russet. as it still is in Modena and Bologna.punt. to stop. a boye. something bound together (Mrs Baker). that the primitive meaning of shackle . To bunt in Burgundian fashion. See Borel. AS. to kick. Fr. from beran. to shove. Burganet. N. a water bubble made by rain. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. to knock. Bunny. knocking. Johansen. . to Somerset is to sift. Bret. OG. to resound. buove. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. to bud forth. Du. borgonota. a wisp of hay or straw. p. gyves. Palsgr. bundel. — — To Bungle. bouche. — . punishments for prisoners. burboloti. a bunch Burbulas. a bungler. to push ghebondte. to pype. Muratori. To Bunt. shove . sprig. properly a Burgundian helmet. Russ. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. to in to stop the hole. is originally a wisp or bunch . From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. . bury. unskilful working. Compare G. bummle. the middle part of it. bourion. OFr. boj. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. bove. the young cloth used for sifting flour. boei. G. bundt. bonde. to knock. . ' — work . colligatio. bundle. guggle as water. bondelj bundell. knock. bommen. to gingle. Sw. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. bang. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. on. bourgeon. Fr. biirde. a botch. to hum. bondel-loos. AS. Prov. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. clogs. bondon. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. a bunch. to strum on an instrument. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. So in Pol. to stop. the float of an bundle. bang. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. bag to catch the wind. however. the bung of a barrel Lim. dial. an anchor buoy. especially in wood. To bunt. klimpem.— . — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. bunsen. a sort of helmet. fetters. a bung. * Buoy. buret. — btiruii. Bunting. rumble as the bowels. and van t' vat. noise. The belly or hollow of a sail. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. Bung. Cot. bon. or tuft. to push with the head del. bimge. Kil. to work at carpentry bangan. bourjon. Sp. shackles. Lat. G. stilmpern. the noise of drums. or used as a receptacle for papers. to hum. bangla. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. Bundle. B. Fr. tapp (whence tceppa. It. Rietz. tinker . to botch. bondeau. The word is flags are made. bolting-cloth. banga. dark. in is Fr. bouchon. bunta. halm-tapp. 202. to float. anchor or of a net boyar. bui. bourguignote. generally known as the material of which bud. racket. dicimus rufum. and bomme. was formerly pronounced buro. To do anything awk- wardly. banghagr. and E. bonde. Fl. to work ineffectually. racket . Hal. a cork. a drum . Fr. loosed from bonds. So Du. The Italian buio. working in wood (especially with an axe). .' Festus in Diez. modem bummle. to gingle. ho-tapp. buret. and the Sw. See Barbarous. would be the earliest float for an anchor. to hum. See Bourdon. Sw. on. . bongani. dark grey bura. whence in bure. stocks or such OSw. bounta. the stopper of a cask). bangla. boil or bubble up. driving in the bung. Biu'geon. The stopper for the hole in a boia.

a bud. Bav. Lang. — — . From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. See Burr. Burgess. sicut sound. to rub. a bladder. a jest. singe or scorch with fire. to burgen or wax big. de Vaud. as Diefenbach bud. Burgh. a prominent eye borracka. brausen. to To Bum. Antiq. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. Probably. born. protuberance. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. Pm. 56. with Dan. with little iron nippers called burling irons. spring-water bumach. brAler. — Han to bruser op. to roar. sidiary element. A burl. to roar. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar.. Prov. bourglairs. to roar. purra. Walach. boure. Fr. In the same way ON. to polish helmets. Castrais bourril. Burryn. — . sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. to roar. angular . burle of cloth. brook. Sw. From Fr. brinna. is termed burling.ireui£r:e. ' rugiens. OFr. explaining Sp.' a jibe. to effervesce. borr. to sharpen on a whetstone. flocks. — — . E. to fiy. brynsten. watery. lorra. bears. Limousin bourdo. bururus. a gurgling ^. and OG.). from Lat. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. swell up or strout out. Burler. bourd. a well. brunir. i5«r4 biiirte. pressa puret. Fl.bryna. G. The primary origin of the word. a margin. to burn. burgen. language of folly or ridicule. The Gael. Bret. swelling borr-shuil. to set on fire. it of the knots. to puff. to murmur. It. tion of the root which gave the OE. brim or edge of anything. explaining the E. bruzir. a fountain. burn. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. roguing beggars. pur (see Burgeon). Gael. jest of. to roar (as lions. See Burgeon. OE. Supp. ^ttsa. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. in Schm. knob. to puff up borr^ . to make a So from Fin. to surge. a knob. purling. toast. j. blow. to Gael. ends of thread. to ridicule. ridicule. brinnen or Also ein roar. the J in OFr. bremmen. Lang. Sw. Schm. brusler being a faulty spelling. to burn.. Pren7ien. borrelen. So also Sw. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. the roaring surge of the — — — . repartee .' Cot. the er is a dresser of cloth. fires up. lerre. brunnr. an edge. Pr. bud or sprout forth. broil. has also borr. . big. burgensis. . a purling hiwe brennen.. fire. to sharpen. sbornoi. 122. abourioner. brase. to swell. buirleadh. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. he rustle. to hum. — — . Dief. ample of polishing metal. like the wind in trees. Burlesque. a blaze. a whetstone. and Dan. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. a bubble. BURNISH i5«r/. to swell with pride. Fr. laer. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou.— . as the / in purl. dial. borni. N. brunna.j'own. borracka. become big and proud. It. tahkoa. Fl. It. must be explained on the same principle from G. A legal term from the Lat. from the roaring sound of flame. burlare. from bryii. sea. the word seems Pm. burgeois. a wine skin. as in cousteau.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. G. OE. Goth. bururus. purrata. brun. Bestiary. brandung.). a jest. A — — . burly. Burglar. an &c. In the manu. bouril. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. It is probable indeed that Fr. like. See under Bore. tahko. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. . to polish. Swiss Rom. water. burren. as of suggests. to roar 5. brustolare. grancelli. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. Burgher. tumentum. condemnentur morti. a bubble to spring as water. to bourda. . Sp. From the same root E. to bouronna. ^Notk. borujon. Bouffer. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. a lie.or bubbling up. leo Fin. brustle. joking. thence. briis^.. schleiffen. de Vaud. to bud .— Pr. brinii. robber. OFr. Swiss Rom. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. to tell lies. See Berough.Ps. to polish. brimmen. and the Burnish. taunt. the flocks. warbling. occupying much space.sharpen. brasa. a spring a robber. compared with G. — . to swell oneself out as birds borras. to have acquired the sense of polishing. ON. bruse. surge or dashing of the sea . Probably a modifica. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. which has given much trouble to etymologists. Burly. like straw or small . Compare also Piedm. Todd. Nat. is connected with brim. to ridicule. barrel. mockery. Cot. bourou. boiirre. burgi latro. crackle wood in burning Hal. brima. Bav. to grind on a whetstone. is an Thus G. ii6 BURGESS Gael. brunnen.). Burn.. ends of thread. &c. to give an edge to. Hence Bridel. boura. bunch. and the Burin. The in. embraser. Fr.

brest.' Harris in Todd. See Burgeon. foretell great storms at 3. as it is still pronounced in N. whirr. whirr and burr. a rabbit burrow. prsnuti. and thence flocks 'of wool. Hence Fr. moss. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. brickie. borre. . from AS. &c.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. brittle. verbergen. Burser. that birds make their nests with. keep. save. borrow. to hide . brisdeach. blurra. In OE. a morsel. and spelling. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. dial. and. brico. bourse. birgan. burial place. impetus. S w. Burrow. bur. also all such stuff as hay. hair. To Bury. leather. — Translated by Kemble. cwning-gaer. . Cot.. when they spring So in W. idiom if 4. Fris. also ' any such trash as chaff. brist. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. ON. byrstan. straw. bolgia. burgisli. brit. as from Sp. With a slightly different ghen. to buzz. makes the disbursements of the college. Fr. of a body hurled through the air. G. To Burst. husks. Sw. some people in pronouncing the letter r. ultimately resting on the Gael. dial. bris. borra. It. byrigels. 2. bourse. brista. buscha. 225. root borr. AS. brown. as in Northumberland. G. casting bullets. skin. bur. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. purr. an exchange. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. Jam. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . bristeach. Mid. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. Gael. Swiss burren. briketo. swell. its own protection. burre. The root forms brik. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. any rapid whirling biarga. ptcrren. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. talk fast and indistinctly. byrsa. Bursar. See Bulge. bris. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. Beowulf. signifying protrude. force. byrgan. an annular swelling. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. brast. bolsa to It. coo. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. as for the protection of a child's head. bourrer. ber•whirr to whizz. stuffing. to break. berstan. borsa. Burse. preserve. to stuff. byrgels. Du. chips or anything else Fl. &c. bres- — tan. Dan. peluca to Fr. It. a port. brizeto. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. bristen.Lat. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. a. Shelter.— . Burr or Bur is used in several senses. a sepulchre. iii. Brun on bane. a pad. A rabbit burmotion. Sexy. caer is a — — — ' ' : . Fr. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. 5150. Burial. a purse. a place of defence. burra. but it is more probably a development of It. borsia. Du. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. -Grisons bulscha. birigean. bourre. barza. birr. to hide. the — — castle or fortress. to P'air. ' BURR AS. I. to bury . shelter. to mutter Sw. karborre. In a met.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. cover. g. Port. pipaa. briso. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. -burse. shuffling. Compare also OE. a harness or collar maker) .' The same word with burgh. i5(7&a. borsa. britar. . and met. be more in accordance with AS. tomb. any kind of quilting or stuffing. perruque. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. fortify. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. Burr is related to buzz as protect. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. OHG. to burst. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. explained E. the officer who bears the purse. bourrelet. OHG. a wallet or scrip. byrgen. ON. briser. mentioned under Burgeon. shales. preserve. This word seems safety. brist. appears under the Lang. brisd. Sw. bergen. beorgan. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. break . Hal. borra. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. Burse. a barn or cupboard. ' ' — — burren. AS.' edge grew weak. whence Kil. borre. of England. brokil and brotil. Fr. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. from Fr. E. shearing of cloth. brittle. a purse. beurs. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . brjota. from whence we pass through Sp. Burr. bourlet. bersten. — Clare. to save.

signifying to entomb. bosta. bush. at buast. defence. See Bust. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. Bush. berghen. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. sur une litifere.Lat. a troop. buysschen. a corpse). to direct one's course towards. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. dead. boisseau. OFr. brake. wisp. brodequin tout noir. and from the Fr. bush. grapes. bosch (a diminutive ?). AS. Fr. Gr. To Busk. lump. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. Le roy Richard mort. So from Fr. bo7ich (Fr. aheap of stones. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. the idea of knocking. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. bousse. burial mound. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. a grove bosch van haer. bousIn the other copy ser. then a tuft Sp.boisteau. bousche. to dress. bouche. busken. Harold G. ' —P. a rampart. Sw. clusprobably Morocco leather. bustula. besom). a tuft. box wood to bush. bundle * Buskin. Brunne. abdere. -idis. 410. a little box Dan. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock.P. Sc. See Box. Thus Froister . bosc. Ptg. . the Moors and of Morocco. The bone in a woman's stays. bussare. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. buxula. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. a -tavern bush. 'at bua sik. in OE. bussellus. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. cluster. as boun is simply buinn. . by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. mount. and not directly (as Du. buxta. Malberg. It. busk. a box. a been written buasc. Thence byrigean. a tuft. ' . Sibriht that I of told. . 2. hjul-bosse. bua. thicket {buski. bussel. to stop. And her ful sone tuft. ' . the land. induere vestes . or — Busk. G. borseof trees. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. boissa.) to hide in the ground. is thus accounted for. rad. in the For Skirnis . roquies. Mid. to bow. ieorh. oneself. to bury. bustellus. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. bunch. bossen. Fris. ' . from the ON. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R.' a box. basse. bramble. to keep.Lat. To prepare. bundle. to forest of Eyda. at bua sig. Du.— ' ii8 {chreo. a clot of phlegm sart. and he cites wisp bauschen. to sepulchre.' sheath. ' . Bouchet. van wijnbesien. boxta. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. a gun biichse. truasc. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. boucher. il fut couch6 l^jkema). and thence Mid. apparently a secondary verb. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. . a tuft of hair. to enclose in a case or box.gur bidst austur um EySascog. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. verb. or the like. to dress. that the lend had lorn thorn. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . bulk. In to Brutaine. —Busk. Brunne. . Bush. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. R. bulge. to bend one's steps. make ready. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. Sir Tristram. a tuft guini. projection. bausen. a hump. barst. preserve. Du. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works.-^Bushel. a bundle. a box. : — . which would later have truast. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. to swell. ch). iriCtf -ifoe. Prov. borghen. a wisp. occultare K. and we actually find bushel. The word frequency with which to busk is used. biichse. OFr. basse. a box for measuring corn. to turn.' The buskin is said Bret. a bush. diminutives. Layamon. BUSH hreaw. knot.fiasc.' The word is explained by — — . qualster-boscken. a bunch of twigs. busse. whence at bua sik. protect . to prepare. The radical idea is seen in Goth. It. AS. bos. a bunch. They busked and malced them boun. a bush. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. The primary sense of hair . . thicket of thorns . bossida. the past participle of the same verb bua. whence bouchon. barsc in Heimskringla. borcegui. fiast. gave Lat. buskr. buxida. whente beorg. brodiquin. tuft. Du. boistel. bairgan. tow. we have Fr. as synonymous with to inake one boun. beorgan. hunch Du. boiste. for at buasc. condere.

arbor ramis trunGloss. Fr. small. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. bus. buc. mouth. — clattering about. body without arms and legs. kupata. its slowness of flight. bacio. A wisp. busta. would explain the G. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. a bunch of flowers . thick end. cata — . Nained from Proximse iis zia. knock. to Swab. to make a splash in the water. 1555. morsequi. To Bustle.' Plin. body of a woman's dress It. Sp. also a It. lips. B. pussa. basiuin. bu. outard.> Also written buskle. body of garment. but. biist. The proceedings of Parliament. busche. forms morseqiiill. Fl. employment bisgan. I. body. Gael. bisegung. Rouchi. bust. ' bistardej It. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. a stroke of wind. lump. brostia as well as bostia. Port. abutarda. Prov. a blow. otarda. betarda. work. tuft. Fr. an affair. buyse. 10. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. I go strepo) . speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . mohedairova. Bav. stump. especially of a woman's dress. To hurry or make a great B. stir. With respect to bust. Cat. windbutsch. — . occupation. besongne. snout. 22. trunk. Fris. signifying trunk of a the body. brut. austarda. mons. Lat. a kiss. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). Walach. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. bisg. trunk. worn to make the body straight . busy. also a busk. abotarda. to make use of. kiss. AS. bussa. Cot. Fr. Busy. ON. bucha. Prov.). a ship of some size. 2. Comp. bulk. ' BUSY 2. borcegui. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. Sp. or avutarda. — Thus we should have mocherqui. smack.D. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. besoigAe. a kiss. 2l box.' ON. and supposes that the common Arab. a log. log . Bustard.pjik. busto. btcc. busch. butz. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. Du.— . Busitiess :c3iVi . of a doublet. Xerqui. and also a sounding blow. sunt quas Hispania aves . A A busquer (Sigart). the point of a lance. a boat or small vessel . — hardly be distinct from Fr. Bulch. buc. mouth. a great billet Cot. love gestures. ottarda. busch. bist. BUSS Dozy from Arab. a bulk or trunk without a head. from jnund. chest. bruskras well as buskr. geidha. brusc. Lindenbr. 1372. stump. as in moharra from harbe. a large cljest or particular applibox. The form brust. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. bisgung. the trunk. avuDiez. Hence probably au-tarda. made stiff. bnist. of the human body (Grandg. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. Swiss butschen.bezig. Buss. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. body . beso. . to bustle. . A great sluggish fowl. putta. vessel employed in the herring fishery. or Cherqui. baiser. mogangas from gonj. buc. says. also a flagon. bus and Pol. Fr. tarda.Lat. So in Fin. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. bysgje. a blow. buta. Busk. sera. stem. a tree. trunk of a tree. body. Prov. a. the long. — — — — It is like the smouldering. Edrtst. Box. Sw. to knock . crack . to occupy. knock. 7o\. fe^a. the body without arms busque. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. Lang. inde discurro et operosus sum. On the other hand. bus. ON. utarda. buz. Bust. occupied bezigen. statue of the upper part of Fr. lip. I. a bust. kiss. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. the breast. and then with avis again prefixed. — — difications of the same word. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. Bust. ^A. Hal. box. I bustle. bysgian.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. bustla. a backstock. Sp. and by transposition morchequi. putschen. a kiss of reverence. The Prov. an ostrich. ship Sp. or chest in which the vitals are contained.d. forest. in Diaz Gris. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. bussen. biseg. bukr. representing a blow. ViM. busq. Namur — Champagne Fr. body of a man. hipista. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. a fishing vessel. So Wes- terwald munds. a busk. 119 bi{tr. Pol. business. a mouth. outarde. plated body or other quilted thing. as in ON. Business. lip. a bush. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. beezig. a kiss. bust. a Mid. See Boss. a sleeveless truss or doublet. buquer. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. mosequin. a projection. trunk of Cot. busc.

body of a shirt w. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. a butchery. Du. a wooden cask. except. the jug and in E. bolgia. OFr. the principal apartment. bocin. by the mode in which he is treated. ' Besides all that. the store of ten. similar train of thought is seen in ON. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. which the word corresponds to the Fr. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. Tooke's dis. calf. mais. hollow case. boquier. and the real origin of the and within . beta. bodifie. "PLT) . a butcher . — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. butan ce. belly. tinction between but. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. outside that moreover. without. Fr. the mouth). boucher. biitait slaughterer of goats . is well explained by Tooke. (children) boc. in addition. botilla. the trunk or body of an animal. the bottles. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. are. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. Sp._ bitten j biiten door. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. without the house kept in bottles. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . rumpf. . a goat (and not besides . But when will you pay it ? the belly.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. the full expres. bitten dai. As a conjunction but is in every portion. But In Sc. Butt. also a hollow vessel . we find ben. a cask. A A . skin-bag. the body of an animal. hull of a ship. botte. without punishment . ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. bouz. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. — we acle for liquors. bountifully. belly. So in Italian from becco. bitlga. without law. bous. a budget. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. the belly. Wall. of the wine and drink. bouteillier. the name must have arisen before the within. a barrel. Buttery. botija. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment.in which his brethren are included. — . slaughter-house. It. a bottle. belly. Fr.jamin. the precise correlative of but. beccaria. Ben-house. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. bolr.' ' write. large barrel. be out. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. original sense of without. AS. that which would be translated by Fr. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. ways. bola. butan.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. bout. Here the but implies the existence of an. ont jhi^ton. besides that . barriga. but one thing. then hoUow trunk. ' There is leathern bottle. to-boot. The E. bole of a tree. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. a goat. wooden receptthing to be done. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. Sp. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . calf of the ' say. able. from as.streets. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. Sp. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. boteria. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. bol. the present day we should say. properly a butan wite. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. bounds of. Butler. .' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. my is called the adversative use of but. G. viz. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . without buiten-man. those in beccaio. If that where now we should compiler. a small winebag. beyond the Piedm. sup- meat and drink. from boc. Lang. bisgung. gives at least two pounds sterling. binnan. without care. an outlaw from bouche.The Sp. young mais. and bot. Fr. add.' Thus Chaucer says. rotundity of the body. bute. moreover. collection of casks. a baiTel . bochier. the body of a tree or of a man. Where at an earthen jar .' there is really a negation to be supplied. as Pantler. viz. earthen which the debtor has adverted. Lang. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. boccino. ox. beccaro.' — — ' . bhcciero. being wholly unten. a leathern bag. the Perhaps besogne — . the servant in charge of the original object. Whatever is in addition to Butler. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. buta. is put in a class by himself. or what in in charge of the pantry. bag. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. and with It. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. a butcher. Butcher. Prov. equivalent of AS. trunk. But It.

both. buter. bud. butter un. To Butt. To come full butt against a butts. clunis. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. to butt. a bun. strike.against another which needs support . Fr. Du.— BUTT leg . to abut on. a but in the W. . bot. Gr. bott. from stossen. — A . to heap up earth or ihrust. to blad. the edge forwards.. Lang. give way. to thrust. nursling. from bugan.putan. as if from Povg. bocsam. Buttrice. to so close to the Fr. bocgsuin. Fr. aim whence to make a support to a wall. pwtiaw. the thigh of a goose. butt. rabodd. &c. of E. dripping. a tub. To strike with the head bags. bodi'. boiUer. a blow. boil. or or shore post. * Buxom. obedient. Kil. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . the rosebud. a cask. of the present day. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. is formed the augmentative buttatich. i. boutoir. pwt. a stump or club foot.arbre. so as to make a sounding blow.rejected thing. hillock . bouton. put. Fr. Halma. From the noise of drinkables in a house. to thrust . bata. any small projection. The Bavarian potig. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. Button. a stroke di animal. Btetter-schmalz. a bot. tress. It.. Fr. -ez. bottich. poke. a buttrice.' thick from shaking. then the thigh or leg of an to push . are the strips at the edges of the field. the prick in the middle of a target. butteln. to femur. to push earth . Buttery. as rejeton. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. An erection built up as a Fr. to throw . Bav. bouter. Boutant. From Du. Fr. pied. and the true derivation boar. as in G. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. to thrust. butz. to touch at the end. buttock of beef is called butr. fowl. . Du. waste ground. A — — — .thum and not button. from the large knobbed head of botto. povrvpov. Grandg. a large belly. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. &c. a heap of merly called pushes. potacha. Mur-buttant. a buttress Cot. — . thrust forwards. a corner horses' hoofs. having a rotundity . on. bouton. what is kept in a blow. courtaud. oir spike with a k coup . — A . tout seat or breech. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. to abut a stone roof. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. a blow. thrust. butt of a person. to thrust. The word body itself seems identical with G. buttern. able that Chaucer. Kil. Fr. botta. from rejeter. a boss. humble. suddenly . Perhaps corrupted Lat. G. by boE. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. submit shaking up salad sauce. butter. Schmell. a scope. a button. the thick end. buhsom. coxa. . boding. a dle . Fr. butt. clumsy . a thrust the thigh-bone. short thick thing pimple. Boutje. Sp. end . boter-schijte. bodi. butte. a ribbed glass for dient. at. boter-vliege. bot. Gris. boter-vogel. botta. to cast. leg of lamb. a wall butor butt on. trapu. Schmell. e. boteria. stump of a tree Fr. a button. a little push . bothog. Buttock. Fris. an etwas anstossen. to strike. R. stump. W. the Butter-fly. bout. thick. bouter. bout. Du. to boult flour. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. in the R. geboogsaem. a. obeto shake backwards and forwards. Hal. to be con. or person Schmeller . From Grisons biitt. large head. a leg of mutton. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . Hal. signify a cask or tub. botwm. butter. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. butte. but. — . but this is probably from Fr. — — — — . grease that sets by merely standing. W. butt. Bav. Du. botto. buttals. w. lams-bout. Cot. So in English pimples were fora clod. an ox. See Butler. to thrust Fr. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. Bout van het schouderIt. Buttress. bot blijven staan. nourrissons. botten. AS. Butter. to bow. Gael. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. fle>(ible. Kil. a bolt. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. a boss.to push. a hill. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . caput scapula bout van f been. butyrum. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. a mound of turf in a field to sup. gigot. boutis. the trunk. ment being supposed to resemble butter. Du. from bouter. the store of while bottich. buttare. a flying buttress. a button. any short thick thing. a. : . a mound. Buttel-triib. from notirrir. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. nourrisson. botte. Butter-glass. striking end. bottig. a barrel.

OE. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. confusedly. and it is of good will.. from by.busardj Prov. bugjan. CABAL Goth. A by. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. Sw. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. to stand at his side . to jan. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). bei. byar-rettr. bycgan. a meke thynge with — alle. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. groat in token of his good heart towards him. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. as in Da. bylove. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women.P. \s\xy. good-humoured one. son. 3. stall. Du. AS. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. & Q. buso. 21. It. . and boxome of speche xviii. lete. Many good mological explanation.. to sell. farm. also say. Etynj. train of thought which has become obso. to swear with him by . abozzago. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. and would have been lost in E. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. Buzzard. bi. See Abie. Sw. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. tions by one. who makes abigg. big. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. Verstegan in R. P. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. favourable. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. to wit.in N. Dan. to whisper. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. iii. Byre. buzarg. jus municipii. gracious. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. buzzicare. buteoj Fr. bylag. bi. . bar. called Cabala or Tradition. buzac. bees. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. byr. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. The ON. Mercy hight that mayde. a by-path is a side path . to abie ' rhyme with rigg. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. village. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. favourably to a petition. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. 116. G. Then applied to speaking low. from whom it was addressed.— P. bozzago. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. Originally the law of a particular town. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. byar-log. — 122 BUY P. 200. harty prayers and God speedes. bauhta. a buzzard or puttock. a town. bij. By-law. p. depends upon a esteem in falconry. bohte. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. 519.— Diet. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . . bygge. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. to purchase for money. to pass by. lb. leges urbanse ON. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. a beetle. town having separate jurisdiction. To Buy. —gracious of speech. blessing me with their of side. A A We — — — days' wonder. cow-house. The sense of buxom. Cabal. It. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. indistinctly. Pecock Repressor. ON. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. A ful benygne buirde. as heedless as a cock-chafer. frabttg- To Buzz. Lat. a borough. to buzz. AS. ii. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. Goth. as Fr.

Du. whence Fr. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. havyar to caviare. to crush. Du. cdble. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. or as an interjection of disMod. w. originally an Gael. to put or pack up in a frail. Kil. 'habl. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. chaable. kabane. maim. cabas. Tugurium. Etym. It is remarkable that the Esthon. Neckam — by the wind. disgust. form kactal. manticuKil. accablcr. a rope. round or great headed. a frail. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre.. mdhaigner. OSp. gabardme. From It. calabre. . It. cabasser. Common to Lat. kakaloH. : — from violence without blood. It. The double a in the OFr. Sw. cadabulum. Didot. Due. Mid. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. cabuccio. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. and Or. string. cabre. manganare. a headed cole or cabbage . headed or cabbage lettuce. aeggi. Imitative of the cry of hens. kakla. a rope or cable. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. precisely in the sense of the lari E. dirty. cabo. kabat. OFr. cabus. whence Lang. a shed.Lat. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. It. . Choux cabus. it would seem fundain children's language. gaggele. cabuyskoole. dirt and the Fr. a car- We convasare. lactuca capitata. cabane. wilful). vile. — . Cot. the Slavonian. hovel. agga. cabbage. E. an engine for casting stones. caable. laitue cabusse.. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable.ticula. Cappa in OSp. Gaggle. forms indi.. a cabbage . cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. signifying properly a rope's end. a jacket Fr. Fr. filth. cacare . for discharging mentally to signify shelter. to strain in such a manner . cable . dirty. is probably unconnected. Castr. agge. cabulus. gatsch. Celtic. Ptg. and the Arab. as an expression of Gr. Mid. . . covering. a rope.Gr. Fr. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. &c. main. name of the projectile engine. —Diet. capanna. Finn. cabo. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. E. from manganum. a rope. traboccare. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. and Ptg. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. and as we find stones Mid. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. Lith. Due. kabaSsen. prostratio ad terram. aakkat'a. capo. signifies down. surripere. vincially used in E. cacare. hoard together. cabarino. a head (whence cabochard. deponat a store closet.). (ca/coe. To Cabbage. origin is the OFr. Capstan. caables. as Turk.. Cot. ! — . geese. Item habeat vocant. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . The Sp. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. in which sense are explained The the OFr. It. cadabalum. the bowels. — Tarbe.Lat. ckaable. cables. cabacho. cadabulum. to hurl down. caable (in legal language). cab lis. overwhelm (Diet. nasty. band. or rush basket. cadabola. caboche. a booth or hut. to chatter.' Due. overwhelm. would correspond to cable. headed. &c. Cablisb. chabla.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. as it must have stood in French. . agge machen (in nurses' language). from trabocco. properly windfalls. To steal or pocket. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. brassica — capitata. stercus. — Ibid. dung. aak! tandi like Fr. as Diez supposes). a tunic. Du. case. Cabbage. especially shepherd's frock. Katr-iT-aKt. . OFr. serious injury — In like manner It. Cabin. gaggi. Cabinet. Lang. Lat. head. — the ON. giiare. or cadable. Sp. su/Furari. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . caable. heady. — Kil. to hurl in Nat. cabre. Fr. the Prov. ceach / exclamation of guages. The name of the engine. cab.Lat. Antiq. cabaii. — . OFr. kabas. to keep or Du. chaable. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. Very generally used. disgusting such an engine was exerted. cadabula. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. Sp. Mid. akista. bad. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. caqueter. hut. Coticesserint Swiss aa. a covering. gaban. Fr. has kabbel. a cloak of felt or Cack. Fr. for the origin of which see Carabine. disgust cac. chadabula. Brushwood — — B. and Finnish lanLat. capuccio. come the Fr.

The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. kage. calx. Cadaverous. to throw themselves into the sea. A hooded carriage. misfortune. little chief. Sw. whence calash. kolo. Lat. a waggon . is probably delusive. chetif. the pith or soft part of wood. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. joyous . a mischievous dial. kaeckelenj Gr. a falling. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. Originally from a Slavonic source. calibre. Caddy. kakulla. gabble. cage.uv. To Calender. kukje. a corpse. N.Gr. caliche. Calocli. Arab. Turk. an ugly waggon kolaska. a lump or large piece. collop. to sleek hence a den. kuchen. babbhng. cabdillo. a calesh. a wheel . kolyasochka. from calendcE. calculo. It. frolicsome kaad mund. Fr. Sp. form) calderone. limestone. Mrs B. bad . one that is brought up by hand a petted child. ever and anon. Du. hot. capCalenture. the pi. calessa. hence musical rhythm. on. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. .— . to — Fr. Gael. kaad. Gascon capdet. ' . from calculus. Dan. * Cade. The young G. (in the augm. one unduly indulged by. cadenza. &c. Lat. calidus. a small stone. Calendar. Sw. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. caioler. An open travelling chariot. . kalem. Pol. Lat. kalfi. Cot. dead body. ON. from the Chinese catty. calamus. calamitas. calendarium. captive. a loaf of bread. loss. a counter used in casting accounts. Calcialate. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. Fr. a common cart. caldaria. cadere. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. a wretch. chaudiere. its mother. . It. a car. kdfich. cykevie. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. * Calibre. The Lat. gabberen is identical with E. to treat like lime. a wheel . lord. to prate much to little purpose. Calc-. It. wanton. signifies a waggon. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. The Calf. kolyaska. Sp. javioler. gabbia. Du. dial. KxiKivh^o^. of which. a wheel. capitetum. Lat. pi. Lat. In the same way Fin. A . a roller. the lump and the increase. To Cajole. to cage. a hollow place. Calamary. Caitiff. chaudron. Sw. desire of land. Fr. Fr. or prattle. to gabble. ben- kalf. Due. Cauldron. Calamity. the younger son of a family said to be from . a cake or loaf. gabbia. calentura. calcis. Calash. principal and interest. cadet. Calp is riadh. cage. Du. Cadge*. cake. when they are said to poor. a tea-chest. Dan. calentar. It. calba. a vessel for heating water. pet lamb. incolumis. Cage. kauwe. cauldron. cattivo (from Lat. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. See Kiddier. Lat.— Cot. calf of leg. kat. chattering. kail. cha'cmie cadence. from Gr. prate. to . pith. just falling. B. boy. calesa. kolasa. ratas. It. to cackle . cadaver. safe. Roman reckoning. calpa. KaKKat. cavea. kolesb. lindrus. rattaat (wheels). and troublesomely attached to. frisky. without loss. kdtr. Serv. Cake. G. a wheel . The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. . an inkstand . directly representing the chattering cries of birds. calidus. or smooth Hnen cloth. cadence. Fr. Cot. It is another form of the E. a reed. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. of the nature of lime to calcine. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. or colpa na coise. colibro. G. —Atkinson. Lat. to heat. kola. loss. roller. kalfvan hout. the calf of the leg. kalb. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. unruly . Calf of the Leg. a dence. lime whence calcareous. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. caldarius. hot . En kaka br'od. Cadet. gavia. Perhaps from w. Tea-caddy. reed-pen. 124 prattle . It. a calash . jabber. of oxen and similar animals. disease of sailors from tivus). kolesnitza. naXaiidpi. Cadence. gaggia. gaggle. Fr. Flo. taking it Sp. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. a low note. kaka. — in a kiln. the bore of a cannon. master. cuttle-fish. From lerie. Cajol. calibre. so gabble corresponds with Fr. a cylinder. marrow. Russ. calendrer. kolo. pen Mod. from the ink-bag which it contains. — — — Dan.warmth . Turk.— Calliper. Lat. koeck. kolo. cageoler. Caldron. whence Lat. coll. Fr. Fr. to compute. Cot. As Du. Lat. . Calandre. A cuttle-fish. Lat. A — fall. a circle. a caFr. for green fields. coop. especially of something soft. Sp. wretched. a fever. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). Lat. Du.

dragonder. calibre. tapulta. culverin. calibre. hot. kal. hallottaa. trull. Call. The origin is Gr. form. Turk. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. Among these were the turn. donderbuchs Sp. The primitive colubrina bombarda. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . kol. Lat. word of mouth . licht stuk The change from a. gossiping. piece of bigger circuite. Kil. . To century was Squalibre. quality. klover. bombarda Cauma incendium. on. a drab. harden by pressure. and dragon. To Calk. * Caliver. ram. caluw. calclover. diameter of a ball. brawny. Sp. push violently. to callet. cotton cloth. couleuvre. femme frivole et babillarde. calicot. 125 Prov. vulgo Coluvrine. prattle. KaXka. moso. kal. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. To drive tow or oakham. to rail or scold .from Ka'tm. sence of wind.. Bi. Calico. Dief. to call. whereas in troth it is not. Fr. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. a soldier who the It. fistula. Ptg. u to an I in such a colubrum. khalif. calc. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. to abuse . lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. the heat of Now these Du. alta voce ploro. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. to affirm. Gael. calgua.position is much less common than the geschut. whehce it was first brought. Caliph. calk. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. the day. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. AS. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. by many that the weapon Callous. Lat. bald. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. Ca. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). given. ' pert.' But it is hard Du. NE. Fr. and heat. to say. quA librd. calcare. of the bore of a firearm met. skin hardened by labour. and sometimes a handgun. ' rine. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre.' Slange.(jaa= ice). oldire from audire. saucy. Lang. to burn. Diet. and E. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. water-tight. harquebus or handgun. the Fr.' Winter's Tale. Indies. coulevrine. 'A callet of boundless tongue. tittle-tattle. form in the kalib. but is only a jda-kallo. E. having a thick skin. calme. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. Calm. from Calicut in the E. to be of a good or bad quality. which has its memory preserved in Du. faint. glotton. the Fr. Fin. qAlab. Heb. Sc. the scalp or skull. voice. callum. a last. a good calling.piicede Lat. a. Hard. The word was also written cawme in OE. koluvre. calma. faint. a feathers. calleting. calca. drive. Diez. calor. callus. calo. Sp. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. cauma. Kil.' Chaucer. calare. whence couleuv. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. a successor. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. Fr. According to Jal (Gl. people's remarks. kind heat of the sun. scalmato. Unfledged. to calk. cauque. overheated. coluber. — Fl. sclopus. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). depreciatory term for a woman. abto suppose that E. kallo. Du. cahna. Mil. an adder. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. chatter kallen. to proclaim. a round of abuse. scold. coluber also. which is as much as to say. ululo Turk. * Callet. chatter. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. to tread. B. calma. — — — — — . Mahn derives it from Lat. to cram. them &c. CALICO Calliper-compasses. serpens. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. i. dial. So It. or caliever. kahcwe. of a column. quiet. or mould. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . To call. CALM to press or stuff. calvus. to hear. done with heat Alt. The reference to heat is preserved in. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. heat. caillette. try. Kavfia.en~ kinds of firearms. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. or languishing drought is . They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. can be distinct from ODu. however.' Whitby Gl. kil-u-kal. to prattle.— . nautique). Fr. Sir John Smith in Grose. calcaich.Lat. Derived by some from Arab. serpentina. Fin. Ibid. colubraria canna. moist. sound. the latter of chamber. dragoon. Gr. hollaing. Antiq. Mid. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. heat. calat of leude demeaning. It.meaning of the word. — — — — — . Sup. kael. the hard surface of the ground. Callow. longior. . kalla. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. colubrina. caliver. to call. overscalmaccio. Due. sestus.

ko/utuXoc. It. is Cambering. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. camaien. Fr. kanna. E. field . Bret. Palsgr. Lat. cancer. Lat. a basket. camelus. fresh. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. open and level ground. canistrum. Mod. Camisade. crooked. cam^e. Lat. B. cup.—Jam. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. It. to jut. Fr. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. Gr. across — Bellenden in Jam. Cann. whence the noun signifying an applicant. brought from Fr. campagna. campagna. cainahelus. Calyx. higher in the middle than Fr. Pers. cambren. whence the Fr. — Lat. the bed of a stream. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. catmneo. Cot. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. is Candle. crooked. Properly calver in the field during a war. candidus. campus. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. cere : Lat. chommer. — — — A — — escume de saumon. B. lattice. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. whence Fr. the spersed with white flakes like curd. Peter Martyr. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. candela. an eating. died in 1526. Cancer. Lat. A — the Cannibals. KafivTu. hooked. It. Campaign. camisa. properly good country. Lat. Sanson khanda. Canine. E. when its substance appears inter. cup. Cambrav—Cam. Camp. also an eatmg sore.. se cameloter. Calumny. different sections of the like the Chinese. ation. E. Camel. to break. . lie level. had no r in de bric— Cot. campo. camisade. chamold man. sugar. salmon. crooked-stick. arched. cancello. frank and sincandidatus. Lat. Candid. water chamlet . 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. It. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. Mid. campren. bis. icaSoytipoe. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. to bow. sore. Lat. spot for cattle.' Forme of Cury in Way. — B. Ptg. chandelle. toile some of whom. Canal Channel.Lat. from candere. arched.— Chandelier. w. fair. canalis. a. from xaXbg. Kakoycpos. See Canker. a piece. a large drinking . India Islands. a' Sc. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. campo. cambr^. a crab. Canker.— Hackluyt in R. Cambric. to warp. Fr. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. In a different application It. Camlet. .—Cambrel. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. It. It was distinfrom work. crooked. callour. or hollow of a flower. a. arch. nia. champ. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. paign. camelot. Fr. From campus was formed Lat. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. co7nbar. Fr. callar.who their language. and yspiuv. mg Canister.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. Cambray. having an aquiline nose. samon. camp. monk. KafitjUe. Arab. Or the word Lat. aspirant. aged. lame. to bend. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. to bend. champagne. Fr. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. canna. It. Fr. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. the salmondis faillis thair loup. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. Candy. to avoid enemy in their shirts. white. a caught. Cameo.— B. camber-nosed. camahutus. calj'x. Turk. calutmiia. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. or Caribs. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. chaitcre. Sp. campaign. would plenier. slander. Canibal. cambrer. cAouma. a may have acquired that signification from plain. — Cancel. unwater chamelot . canis. good. the space of false imputation. Sp. camiscia.conduit-pipe. Caloyer. campagne. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. Sp. on. Calver of cane. camafeo. a goblet bud.' ' Quhen a lattice. a field Greek monk. The Grisons cauina._ kamm. to the force of the wind. a dog. at the ends. the heat. Gr. Fr. the calix. the type of a hollow pipe. ckaouma. An eater of human flesh. From fluting or furrow in a column . a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat.Gr. crook. Cambrel. to glow. camiscieia. clothed in white.—Candidate. cambre.

Cot. haitt. from a Canter. capello Italis. A piece of anything. cantone. a division of a country. cantref. &c. But it may be different source. Lat. Capari. quito curtain. he discourseth of dissection. Canton. . a Fr. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise.Gr. to shut. It. kand. cantina. Schwab. to put upon sacred writers. Capacious. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. canon. kaput. . Germanis kdppen. trine. KCLvva. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. Alamannis. Again we have Lat. also a measure. and the sex- &c. a reed. pipe. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. canteau. Canopy. the part easiest broken off. W. margo panis diffracta. hemp. covered. language. a pipe. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. astrology. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. OFr. or cantell of bread. a rule or standard of excellence. rumme. a cantle of bread. canevas. and hence a gobbet. Canon. to sing. able to receive. canapa. caparazon. It. Prov. To Canonise. It. is found languages of very different stocks. canvas. a horn of the moon . To canvas — . a hundred. name. kanta. Fin. The — . Jonson. To his judicial And trowl the tile. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. Fr. Cape. cannevaccia. Wtb. Gugel. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. capa. It. canonici. side. cappa. lump. Swab. a cane. Kil. territorial hundred. Gael. schlapp. region. If the word had been from cantherius. call. a small boat. canapaccia. cannabis. cantred. contain. a cover Turk. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. kapamak. cope. the heel. and met. was formed Kavtiiv. a tube. to con- rummer. quarter . Sp. Sp. cheese.CANNEL vessel. from canna. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. clqse. cane. a cap. a side. a — A — Cannel Coal. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. cainnt. cover kapi. canton. regular. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. cane. See Capt-. hirnschlapple. speech. and tref.n. a cloak kapali. The meserseum and the mesentericum. hamlet. shut. the tried list of saints. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. as a cantle of bread. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. The word seems to be taken from Gael. part. canonicus. cannone. Coal burning with bright flame. Palsgr. from cant. kq. KaTTiram. . Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. coarse hempen cloth Fr. kyndel. the heel. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. From Gr. cantle then is a corner of a thing. a corner. Fr. a reed. a torch. the quartile.— Cot. N. from . properly a large Prov. leiwan kanta. root cap. cover . It. Mod. kantr. carcase . as. Probably only the augmentative of canto. cane. tain. a ship canot. Esthon. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. From Lat. a drinking glass. Cant. Goldast — in in Schmid. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. Mod. canoa. coat. to contain. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. capevole. kynnel. . and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. Hence Lat. Cannoii. measure for cloth. Canvas. Sp. cannu. corner. Picard. Canoe. canto. which is not the case. a straight rod. kwvwxIi. a hunch of bread. See Chape. Fr. capax. kandt-broodts. chantel. chape. Cope. or hold. a scull- — here. a boat. B. gnat. has kahn. schlappen. border. A slow gallop. &c.Gr. quarter. Diez. being a yard or thereabouts . say. coarse hemp. It. like a torch or candle. border Dan. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. chanteau. capace. a door . a ruler. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. cappe.. Canteen. Of vena cava and of vena porta. cannevo. Cantle. it would have been found in the continental languages. It. cappe. Kavt\. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. edge.^on. a cloak. cane. Capable. signifying cover. A . that the G. from Dan. ON. Du. can. hood. a wine-cellar or vault. hemp. a gelding. cape.

sault. heath. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. capar. w. Caper. to shudder. to ruffle the surface of water.— 128 CAPE a rustling. rihrczzoso. or. Griller d'im' patience. of a fowl. prickly husk of chestnut. to shiver for cold. It. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. bristling.standing on end. is either wholly lost. and OHG. cApre. a goat. herissonnement.Gr. gives rise to Sc. to crackle. capriol or caper in dancing. a separate division of a matter.' Cot. a little head. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. cover of a saddle. a hedge-hog. The true derivation lies in a different direction. greziller. a caterpillar. Fr. kid. To treat Capitulate. humorous. also the capriole. Lat. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. arricciarsi. Hal. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . to parch. curling. Hair-like. See Chief. capitulare. Unexpected pleasure. the initial mute of forms like Gr. frisson- ner . — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. bristling. ziki. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. p. ribrezzo. Genevese bresoler.'— Trev. the head. Caprice. horror. castrated cock. shrub. Hence capitalis the sum lent. caprice. capitalis. Sp. cut. the head. caprice It. ericius. the principal part of the debt. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. curly. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. toy. <I>pi'?oe. then to shiver or shudder. bruco. a capriol. grug. curl. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. to fry. Fr.' — (Supp. riccio. CAPRICE twittering.— Fl. rissoler. end. brezilia. Fr. chief. gricciare. Fl. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. It. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. knis. brisoler. aggricciare. It. arricciarsi. hedge-hog. grillcr. Lat. It. Acad.). as Fr. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . then to be in a state of vibration. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. a caper in dancing. of a tremtdoiis sound. abridge amKoTroq. airoKOTrrw. cappriccio. It. explained by Diez from capra. they longed extremely to see it. fansuddenly angry. Torriano. erica. with joy' Vikram. knis-hujwud . So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. And similarly to yearn. eruca compared with It. where Burton adds in a note. a ch illness. I have shivered with love. cut off. frisser {frissement d'un trait. — — A a hair. to twitter as birds. capriole. Cot. shivering. G^' Many words — ' ndv. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . shivering. capriola. compared with Bret. Arab.impressions on the ear. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. Lat. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. a head. s'hdrisser. brisciare. the hair to stand on end. frizzle. grisser. to crackle. brissle. and his body bristled We to castrate. and 7tucc. capillus. caj)o. It. for which he cites the Comask nucia. the hair to stand on end. a .) grezille marid. algabr. as in Lat. frissoner. . brisciare. to broil. It is probable that Gr. ticchio. Lat. ^piKos. greziller. It. as the means of earning profit. hair. Capers. II bresole (Gl. brug. a buck. a kid. crackling sound Cape. upon terms Sp. to from capitulum. 75. So from Sw. chattering of the teeth. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. frort^Lat. to broil. — to yearne. a chevret. according to the Hindoos. or represented by the syllable e. castrated. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. caper j caprio. It. hi. and with an initial gr instead of br. grisser. belonging to From caput. principal. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. a yearning through sudden fear. gives rise to brezza. Capital. Fr. or other things. Capillary.) d'etre The It. then find the symptoms of shivering. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. A . birsle. or Lat. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. Lang. A headland. or goat's leap (done by a horse). the singing'bone). and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. roughening of the skin. to shiver. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. a young kid met. capparis. h^risser. brisciare. capro. of a coach. to . gricciare. as Fr. as Fr. horripilation. The same imitation of Capon. Mod. alcaparra. to desire earnestly. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. wriggle.

a cloke) capuccino. concipere. Nordfoss. to take baclc. Fr. recepte. It. fancy. It. captive. chirriar. caput.s. was a kind of horse soldier.). cabreia. as in OFr. calabrin. an engine for throwing stones. karrende waegen. to accept. conceive. carretta. caprice. or the (capo-riccio). Capriole. In cases. Du. i The meaning Car. and of captus to an e. dim. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. of capsa. capitano. Cot. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. a sudden will. capra. crepo. a kind of torture. also to carry on a car . Carabine. concevoir. also tresFl. See Caper. was converted into -ceb. conceit. a reception.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). concebir. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. recevoir. It. accept. box. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. a taking back. Sp. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament.. concept. &c. bock. Kiittner. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French.). was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. Crab. captus. Carry. perceive.of these compound verbs. a cart. to load . a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. recipio. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. Fr. It. Etym. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. recipere. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. to carry . Fr. — —Diet. one odd. karra. Sp. desire. fantastic. It is a standing crab. and tropically. Cot. Passing on into E. capuccio. whence capture. captivate. chevre. de- price. capitis. karista. Du. deception. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. tnoschetta. from head. Cart. capio. to creak. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. -cept. Lat. the -cevofthe Fr. Derivatives are Fr. Fr. latterly. capp%tccio. Fr. commander. Fr. karren. Capsule. charret. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. Thus the musket. to creak. It. acceptus. seize. verbs gives rise to the element . to take. Captain. char. G. of the Sp. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. krul. caricare. a fantastical humour. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. carabin. conception. precept. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. OSp. a windlass. &c. a sawing-block or trestles. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. 129 — receive. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. to receive receptio. charger. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. caThe hrestante. to this is It. also a kind of rack. strideo.or -cib-. cabra. It. Neumann. and has accordingly been lost in E. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. Carabin. Caseneuve in Diet. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. Capuchin. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. a hood (dim. a creaking waggon. as in accipio. a. sels. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. charrier. Castr. carro. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. hold. to take to. where it forms a very large class of compounds. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. kerren. -cept. Lat. Capstern. a hooded friar. crab s. Capt-. — — Capstan. . and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. cams. a. cabestrantej Fr. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. Fr. a head man. intercept. chirrion. a she-goat. deceit. capsula. a capuchin. cabrestante (whence e. trestle. The It. decepte. receptus. &c. at least. was originally a missile . a coffer. to please. and has thus descended unaltered to English. In the S. Fin.. Carbine. contain. however. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. calabrino. as the dragoons (Du. oisr. Lat. a sudden fear apprehended. It. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. -ceive. cabestan. di cappa. except. shivering fit (Altieri). Fl. case. recibir. Lat.

properly a siege machine. cabrita. winding carach. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. tcapKaai. carcanet. . a winding staircase. Cat. the . 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. a quiver . a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . cerran. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. card. bock and Fr. Carbuncle. — seems to be something holding together. and catapulta. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. &c. carbo. Mod. carmiiiarc. shell. a battering-ram). From the battering-ram. alia sunt majora. a snail. Ptg. Carbonaceous. kard boyd. skeleton. Pers. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. Gr. krciti. Gael. carcaij. a thistle.. See Carpenter. to comb wool .applied to a battering-ram (G. a collar or chain for the neck. carduus.charcoal . carbh. carcasa. in the same way that the Sp. Derived in the first edition from Mod. . cdrlag. carabba. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. a gem resembling a live coal. bend. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. to draw in. a small weight. KtpaTwv. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). Gael. . An implement for dressing wool. vitriol. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. the carob bean. a kind of ship. burning coal. caraffa. karri. It. carquan. Fr. quse vocant karabd. Lith. Sp. to curry horses karsztuwas. a firelock. to card wool.. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. the carcase of a fowl. carquasse. OHG. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. to ripple flax. silique.z. Gr.Gr. a twist. kirat. of the same Caravan. Carcax. skeleton. turn of a horse. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. designated in the case of G. word is only an adoption of the Turk. It. carcanada. Fr. Fr. is the chine. black dye. Comp. a thistle. decanter. the husk or cod of beans. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. an engine for hurling stones. military engines made for hurling stones. It. Venet. avSpaS. the case of the flesh. winding. ' Vasa vitrea. ON. Caraool. caraffe. garafa. Carat. fire . an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. for a gun. the trunk or chest of the body . among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. p. a he-goat. case. The Trjg xeXwwac. a ship. It. of carbo). a machine for casting large darts. Sp. casso. cramp. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. «capa'|8i.— — — . eitar. also a small weight. boch. espi7igarda. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. kerwan. karra. to comb. carbunculus (dim. a skeleton. Bohem. Card. to creak. quilato. a quiver. the core of fruit . Gael. mural attack. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. It. Fr. cardo. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. Carrob. to card wool. Cot. carquois. Exot. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. wine- bottle.Gr. . coming to four grains. &c. a lock of wool . caracal.. poison eiz. cabreia. copperas. chevre by the name of the goat. matter. to hiss (as gee^e). a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. turning.' From the same source are SicU. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. or framework. contract. AS. skeleton toise. Gael. a goat. a coffer. also (as Gr. . curry-comb. Sp. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. a card or comb . the name might naturally Mod. a ripple for flax. &c. Cot.. Lat. the dead body of any creature. an ulcer. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. is the word used in modern Lat. a quiver. Sp. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. a prison. Caravel. confining.. Carboy. carta. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. Lat. carch. carcame. W. I. a dead carcase. Parmesan cassiron. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. Arab. a quiver . carere. a case or chest . wool card. carate. eit. carabe. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. Carcase. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. cabra. The radical meaning . teasel for dressing woollen cloth. caravela. ancient springald. seed of carob. karszti. cassa. to turn. restraint . Sp. the shell of a torcarcasso. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. a wool card. a crane. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . constraining . car.

be anxious. kumra.. the several meanings of the words above Rom. sensual.. careless take care of. or street. Bret. — — . to load. beans. and sum. solicitous. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. see Garble. tenax. W. to love. Gael. Carl. as peas. a deed. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. the load of a ship. charag. It. hoed. . carrefourg. It. No ' place there had. — To Careen. Fr. Fr. to take Goth. morosus sum. the old theory of humours. voce strepo stridente. carezza. Mur. moeThe Lat. karrig. Lat. is to say. W. scharren. carnalis. principal. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. ON. p. . to shake. ceorl. the hull of a ship.— Charter. to load. from carus. quadrifurcum from quameet. strideo. stridere. sorrow. cardinis. road. Carenare. and thin. in Carp.Lat. to parch. de Parthenay. soUicitus OSax. a card. caritia. astutus. a highway. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. Lat. car. caricare. carch. from caricare. Peas steeped and fried. Cath. to scratch. an endearment. charg. from carrus. compared with Fin. murahtaa. It. to comb flax or hemp. Carlings. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. carener. a man. as quadrivium from Carnaval. carriera. to clean the bottom of the ship. Champ. Fr. AS. Coll. carina. from the keel to the water . A place where four roads Mid. x'»P'"^s)) paper. . OHG. It. Trin. Bret. ress. caresse. crowl. . wool cards. Care. that on wliich the matter hinges. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. Fr. tremble. dear. — — — : Cardinal. Sp. cargo. karg. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. camovale. like connection may be seen between Fin. charnel. — — — Caress. Fin. karista.' Slceat. four. niggardly . Fl. record. Sp. karry. carnal. karout. Carminative. carnavale. . fleshy . to fry or broil. zanken . and compare Bret. what is felt as grievous. From. W. ignarus. tuorfurcm (Burguy). carnis. Carled peas. caMid. It. Properly. surrata. charie. affection. . regar. to rumble. . piger. G. karl. Cartel. 1S66. A quirito ut infans. cardo. charnage. Caricature. Card. Venet. cura may be ror. AS. Sept. one of those ac- 9 * . Charnel. whence carricare. to whirr (schnurren). cargar. — — Diez. kribina. intrasset caro. as carminare. the keel. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. or grumbling —Due. essere in carena. and G. charger. Cot. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. Chart. morosus. grolU. from Lat. kargr. place for exercise on horseback. Bois crolant d'un ladre. in N. carena. to comb wool. to load. to lie on its side. — Carfax. For the root of carminare. mutter. murista. gakaran. Groler. care. crawl. to card wool. the time during which to Rom. to scrape . caru. kurista. carnasciale. caricatura. to fry. & Q. 273. the flesh of animals . love. to care unkarja. Fr. charta (Gr. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. Farewell flesh. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. charneux. sorrow. immediately before the long fast of Lent. fundamental. asper. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. A mod-carag. crosier. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. ON. an overloaded representation of anything. that Fl. carena. stingy. is This however Shrove tide. a turn. 2. graller. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. carminare. carcare. winding. carcus. Translated in MS. quarreG. chartre. grief. G. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. OFr. w. combing them out like the knots in wool. a hinge. to distress growl. the keel of a vessel. sgritudo animi. Carnage. It. carriire. E. act of moaning. Fin. Properly a car-road. Fr. parched or carled. Cargo. AS. male person. carFrom carrus. weyes. cdrle. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis.Lat. bottom. It. cearig. Probably the origin of the word is the . in St Jerome. A medical term from line —Boerio. Fr. Cot. appertaining to the flesh. karantez. meet at a head. to growl. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. Cot. at murmuring. carian. 8. clown or churl. . giierlir. Carnal. cearian. rixosus. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. kara. also a career on horseback. Fr. care on. msstus. kummer. Cark. Ptg.— CARD karr-kambar. &c. cura intenta. Roquef. quaver a lazar's clack. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. murren. and murhet. kroU-erbser. Dan. to eat flesh. croller.

a wheelwright. as Fr. cited by Marsh. bier. in Due. .' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. maker of waggons It.D. Alluz (G. ship. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. to rustle. skraf. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. W.]e bois Carnelevale. used for stuffing mattresses. a drinking cup. to find fault with. The ' ' a chariot. Mid. Discov. to reel. ballare. To pledge them thou refuse. ON. On the other hand bumper to one's health. querole. zimmer. 94). quoted by Carpentier. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. CarTo quaff carouse do use. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. charpie. carpenta. peta. a song accompanying a dance then. Beggars Bush. Other names of the sea. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. On this. The tippling sots. linteamen. ! Carouse. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. as carnaval from carnelevamen. Carole. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. biheld without. tattle. Carpitam habeat in lecto. krapati. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. Sup. From Lat. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. to pluck. ' ' — . a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. Fr.'— Stat. In Dominica d'autant. carduz. qui sacco. zimmerspan. yede tham about.: . Mediol. Lat. carpentum. gonna. 760. I quaught. Olr. The word seems of Celtic origin. is erroneous. 1 1 30. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. carnelascid). Palsgr.' Reg. carpende fast Carol. in Carp. 2. Here's to you still my captains friend.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. So gone they forthe.Lat. Properly a round dance. to dance. i. charpentier. carpere. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat.gonnella. whence the form carnasciale. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. — . Gower in Way. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin.— R. a carder. or loose as a couch without further preparation. I drink all out. to pull asunder. carpo. All out B. Mid. . on that. Carpenter. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. chatter skra/a. 216. and F. cardos. in Nat. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. a plank. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. pluck. Lat. cxciv. Carpyn or talkyn. Carnevale. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. carpia. to gather. Pm. gar aus / all out is correct. chatter. Carnelevale. was formed Mid. act of drinking a full Eq. of Guiana. koroll. Analogous R. and Carnem laxare (It. chariot carbad. Pr. Gael.' Ordo Eccles. to chatter coroli. carpita. Dief.— Drant in R. Carpet. carpenter only in the latter sense. sense. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. In a MS. The karole of the stones behelde. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. Pref. Teut.Why give's some wine then. tymmer. pluck at.— Neum. a car carpentarius. fabulor. A. i. Bret. a dance.Lat. Sp. carpat (Stokes). garrulo. vel coopertorio carebit. Biheld within. Nomin. Lat.— Patriarchi. Chanson de carole. carpetrix. balade from It. e. lint. Ant. course. krapanj. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. at midnight which derivation from kroes. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence.' says Motley (United Neth. The custom. chirp. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. as E. carpetam (a quilt?). Ein we find the signification transferred from . to dance. to talk. Shrove Tuesday. Bohem. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. worker in timber Fr. Templariorum — ' — Due.Lat. Cot. carbh. litter. Fr. carpenticre. as the Lat.' Raleigh. or a carouse fully drunk up. . — — ' ' — — — I — — . garrire. culcitra. differing To Carp. all aus). a wheelwright. 2.

casso. gristle. casser. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. coffer. AS. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. a merchant's cash or counter. caro. It. a loopscale the wall. carogna.. casco signifies a skull. of carro. Casual. ' Casa-matta. kerpu. caisse. krat. charogne. also the carriage. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . cassette.to annul. kasseren. des rideaux A'carp^ie. to dash. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. and matar.' — Hdcart. vault hole in a fortified wall. casa-maita. of carta. casag. abrogate. dim.' Bailey. and that apparently from capio. Fl. the money chest. Fr. the charge of — — Fr. — Cartridge. as we . to fire on the enemy. slaughter-house. quash. to slay. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. casualis. To Carry. carretto. Fr. Cartel. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. not reaching to the height of the ditch. void cassare. afterwards any written challenge. It. cassa. coffin of paper for groceries. shell or carcase of a house. packing ' cloth. to notch. CartOTicli. augmentatives of carro. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. Cash. carretta. G. Carrot. crush. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. cartoccio. The carrying of anything. from It. OE. Fr. Gael. cassa. Cassock. Sp. crown of a hat. Probably. paper. bitten. carriaggio. a car. blotted out. to crack. Rouchi carter. Casque. properly to convey in a car. caroche. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. cia. and the OE. AS. ceorfan. a fall. to fall. cascare. Rouchi caroche. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. to convey in a cart. It. fall It. where Fr. quasser. Du. Fl. Walach. augm. casaque. Lat. to cut or carve . It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. from Lat. a hut. Casuist. helmet. tion from Sp. a canonry or slaughterhouse. caisse. To quash an indictment. Preparatory drawing of a It. cartilage. to an- — Kil. mata. Hence casket. subject for a picture. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. charrette. a long coat. Sp. Cot. kerben. As defence from shells became more important. a coffer or small case for jewels. gristle. a chest. case-maiej Sp. made void. hollow. caxa. mord-keller. Cartoon. house. Fr. annul. It. — Cartoose. To Cashier. cassus. from It. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. Fr. To duash. mord-grube. Fr. to — — also casse. casus. It. To Carve. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. luggage. to break. cassere. case. to shear. kirpti. See Card. a of water. — — nul the proceeding. Rouchi carone. Fr. cartone. Fr. Lat. something that actually occurs. a car. hull of a ship. cascar. charrier. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. like all the names of tendon. carroccio. — — . for the security of the defenders. Ready money. cascata. corresponding to the G. Flor. casacca. to hold. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. cancelled.' Cot. cancel. It. carroc- carrozza . See Case. long man's gown with a close body. from the sound it makes when Alban. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. capsa (Diez). one who reasons on cases put. discharge. Cot. casa. card. ignominiously exposed. The Sp. Hence a challenge openly hung up. Rouchi carpHe. Cascade. Fr. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. It. caroach. cashiered. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. carreaggio. turn out of service. Cask. It. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. a chance or accident. carota. discharge It. Du. Casket. a paper case. Carriage. to bear or carry. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. Lat. pasteboard. Fr. cartella. Cart.' Fl. Fr. See Gristle. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. Case-mate. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. carrosse. caisse. Lith. empty. fortuitous. bag and baggage of a camp. Case. cartouche. from casa. It. hung up in some place and to be removed. an augmentative from Lat. Case. an act of falling. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. Lat. Carrion. kerven. casitiste. cut with scissors. — FI. cascade.— Fl. Fr. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. break to pieces. casuelj Fr.

from water Karappaaaiii. fer toTa. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . Fr. from the first of Castrate. ating. a cat koshki. Catastrophe. To It. &c. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. the stalk of plants. accastiare. Roukind. chasser. probably from an imita. In the dialect of Picardy. by the loss of with several pitched cords. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. kic' kicil are used chasser. to drive away. kakka. mino. cacciuolo. a fortified place. Gael. force j Rouchi equerviche. kat. catar. Thus we have Caste. Cat. punch. It. chaleur. Fr. casipola. rack. Pol. to cast or beat to tioner . dashing it to pieces. casule. to hunt. casulla. Fr. squash. follow after. cash. arpi^m. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. Others explain it from Kara. an enumerlist. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. castello. lance. . ecrevisse. It. a chesnut . dash. crush . a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . on. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. KaTappaKTrjQ.the / or c respectively. V. 120. ON. cast. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. away. shaft of a 1 push. So also from It. to is Essentially the Sp. cat.to drive out. Pm. Fr. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. catch. Sp. to torture. kasi. Etym. KaTaarpifm. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. execu. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. Lang. speak of dashing a thing down. Isidore — in Diez. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. cacciare fuora. Brunne. a whip on the other into latch. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. dashing it out of the window. and from the castus. kotas. . the ground . of sarabands does Gr. casser. Castanets. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. klakka. V Lith. is not satisfactory. to end. to crackle. dim. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. . R. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. . Catalogue.Lat. to bring to an crack given by the joints.out cacciare . Cot. kaJoivad. Lat. Pic. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. B. castanetazo. heat . Lat. puss / for calling them. which has been retained in E. to fall as over a precipice. 134 CAST Catacomb.Rouchi Scaches. a vault. down. to Fl. to scourge. or bruise together. castellum. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. Cast. of castrum (castra). burst cascare. a Cataract. a cat . Fr.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. and tomba. KarapaKrr]g. Yz. sue. _G. kasta. ' Catchyn away abigo. first made ordinary Fr. Fr. signifying breed. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. kissa. second chase. was introduced.. — We a cavity. ichasses. cascar. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. to drive Cat o' nine tails. to lash. race. koshka. chat. n. cassa / cry for the same purpose. or Rouchi cat. cacciarc. katze. coming to us through different dialects of French. casupola. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. or comba. to break. to close. puras E. being Fin. Hence castaneta. KaraXoyog. Chase. the earlier sense of catch. name. Gr. Fr. and KviilSog. chasser. torture. cojz^/a. fall. stilts. bot-kotis. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. It. Sp. To Catch. kotas. to clack. to turn overturn. a little house or hut. the castanets for or implement . handle of an axe. however. perhaps from which we have E. represented by the syllable quash. down. a garment for performing the mass in.— Fl. The E. Gr. a thump. to hurl See Awgrim.. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. image accasciare. cat-o'-nine. drive away. to crack. which. Hal.'— Pr. The Diet. Mid. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. to dash. Fr. tails. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. to make clean or chaste. squash. under chi caleur. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. castana. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. OFr. 'Vaaaw. to look at. chasuble. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. castro. kottr. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. same word with break. Fr. in the fire. like that of It. while kiss / Pol. Castle. .

woodlice. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. to clap hands. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. 'Bxn. claquer.from Bard and ayopsw. a caterpillar Milanese can. Diez. blow. Kil. has both or of charming by sound. latch. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. GaUa catchiza. Gael. chatter. worm. e. cache. chassoire. a little dog). children's name for cat . Du. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. Wal. to harangue. pedes. E. called dog or Galla catchamza. klatschen. companaige. ' Fr. a whip. Rouchi clincailleux. caucht. snatched. resound. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. icarrix'Ki^. to kythe D.V. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. a pill. or any kind of relishing food tuals. * Cates. to snatch (said of dogs). chenille {canicula. a smack. c or ^. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. OFr.) . gliong. de Bray. happe-chair. . . For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. to chatter with the teeth cake.P. to crack GATES cache. seize. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. Metivier. . with and without an / after the c. catch. clatter. from shutting with a click. Sc. called in Fr. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie.. . chase. instruction in forms. clap with the hand. cagnon (a dog). an officer of taxes. dainties. in order). snatching. Caterer. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. e. which all . Kil. Gael. In the XV'e. G. Cates. sound. devouring mite or weevil. kaetse. — Catcli-poll. Gr. a carter's Pat.j. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . s. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . silkworm. Guernsey pilleure. catch. Grandg. wild-beast. Kartiyopta (/cari. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). weevils. — with a whip. — Kiittner. caker. formerly called cliket. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. the OE. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. kletsen. Claucht. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. a — gatta. to chat. millecaterpillars. ictus resonans. catch-flesh. chacepol. the elements of a science. insect. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. Cot. a cornIn the s. ArbaUte de courte chasse. E. snatching it with a any one. Du. klatscherei. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. Swiss Lombard G.V. apprehend a person. predicament. Guernsey chafer. Fr. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. kletse. Cot. Chate peleuse. a clap. a whip or Kuttner. klinke. On Catechism. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. flap klatsche. * Caterpillar. compare G. . chink. P. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. klatsch. gingle. to take. bichano (pussy). to A bailiff. 135 — Aasen. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. cat is not apparent. KaTtix'so. Ptg. resono ictu lash.' CATCH Fr. — . as of the latch of a As ! — . door when it is shut. Tutschek. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. chatter . the the same principle he was Fr. from Gr. ketsoore. a. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. latch of. head. dainty vic- a form lash. smack. klatsche and Norm. glcu. and answer. — tinman. Fr. to snap. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. — B. to the crack. — explained. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. whip.' ^Jam. quincailler. i. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry.yopl(. Fr. fragor kletsoore. gattola. chachara. to teach by oral instruction.s. ecachoire. E. Sp. a. Du. an accusing. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. to catch strength. a whip Rouchi cachoire. chasse. 'Horxa. clap. verberare kUts. is said that he got a claucht of it. bicho. a whip. ' ' word catch. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. catc?u. the distance to which the ball is struck.

Fr. little cap is . apt to burn iron. to buy. chair. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. capull. KiwariKog. little cat.p. chaudroii. Port. kocie. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . 4. Du. Fr. primitive is meaning a shale or off.willow. ce^l. It. Palsgr. minon. kin. cheval. CAVE Caul. Fr. Gael. Lat. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. Lat. what . — — cavallo.. B.^Hal. kaussijde. lamb. caballus. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. Lat. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. Chaud. catkin Pol. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. quire. Provider. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. any Fl. w. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. OE. puss. CATHARTIC sense. Fr. achepter. to sound like a blow . Richly she feeds. catkin mitz. Bessie of Bednall. flue. Cauldron. Du. kopista. cale. calotte. It. caudex . from delf^gato. from chaud. make clean. the. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. . Pol. klopfend knallen. cabbage). also to pave .' Elyot in Way. to burn. dumpf tonen.^ acheter (Lat. but the acates that are sent him. Lat. adcaptare. catkin Magy. Lat. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. koparet. a horse . Cathedral. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. Rete. . That he was ay before in his estate. puss. • — — See Chattel. a horse. the stones of a street. kobuiV. flock.Y\\Xea. Sx. kobyla. hot. kopano. Kavrfipiov. Cathartic.—— — 136 correct. Lat. Pr. Diez). a horse . The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. Jaubert.. having the property of cleansing. Cavalcade. cabbage. kocianki. a kind of skull-cap. is used in the sense of cat-skin. Cavalier. It. Mid. It. Causeway. . Fr. shaled or picked Fr. to beware. It. acaptar. &c. . Cavern. Fr. Cavity. hazel.Lat. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. Cavalry. Ka^afriKOQ. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. mutz. catkins . green husk of a calon. despencier. Caution. Thus Bav. Caustic. chaussJe. Fr. Caballus. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. Kil. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. ' Gr. fur. chauderon. and at the rich man's cost By sea. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. reticella. accattare. a kettle for heating water. The word — . choufleur {choii. cal^ar. KaHSpa. chausser. cavus. cavaliere. Fin. from caveo (p. to shoe. hollow. Gr. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. kautsije. a mare. cauHs. to shoe . Gr. a The peel. katteken. otherwise written kell. whence cathedralis. and hence a skull-cap. kassije. fur in general. macska. chevalier. deyntie meates. rete A — Prov.Lat. cabbage-stalk. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. Russ. cale. kdtzchen. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. Mid. Dryden in R rete. Delycates. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. the caul of the liver. Cave. 2. by land. On the other hand. challe was ther of a temple. Cattle. via strata. Kavrijp. to purge. catons. chatideau. Fr. puss. cautis. walnut with the husk on challer. Fr. a pavement. — Cauterise. a branding from koiio. G. a pulpit. Wyatt in R. from KaSaipio. Fr. calqada. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. Palsgr. a receptacle for small things. . Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. a horseman. a seat. to shale or peel. caple. calceta. is Prologue. A warm comforting drink. a stalk. net or caul-work. katte. kitten kotki. cautus). causa. Caudle. . and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. chaudiire. a paved road. mudet. cat maczoka. KaPaWrii. Cause. calceata. . Jonson in R. a road calceata. and spareth for no perell.' B. to ac- — Fr. Manciple's Tale. hot. Catkin. — . Boethius. calidus. accapitare Rouchi acater. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. caldo. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. acater. Gr.

In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. cavillor. ceiling. — . kapp-zaum. Fr. -cess. departure. Cede. Lat. dil. VIII. a boarded floor. cesso. to cut. to seele or close with boards plancher. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. Hence concede. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . To seele a room. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. ceiling. . and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. — — — toyour soverane. . in Jam. 5. in Hal.' Rutland papers. a log. hivtmel. a beam. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. p. komo. also a seeling of boards. Wore. cedo. plank. that. —Decease. E. . In the N. sky. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. hollow. excess. jaa. Gawaine & Sir Gol. -cede. and zaum. . but hang around at the sides. CAVESON kopera or kowera. crooked kopio. The importation of Fr. wainscot thiljar (in pi. thil. to plank or floor with planks.' Cot. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. board . departure from this life. sounding as an empty vessel koppa.. column E. Fr. proceed. ciel de lit. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. &c. hung. caveqon. . cielo. seele. a log. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. a fir-plank.' — Gawan . 7. lambris. -cease. Cavil. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. Lat. See -cede. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. decessus. . of E . beam. . p. And seik — Cessation. to plank ON. The sense of roofing. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. as if from happen. rafter. Fr. heaven. Ceiling. door-sill J Sc. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. B. deal. a severe bridle. . a log. . The line of descent from Fr. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. The It. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. canopied. dayntily diglit. nailes will begin to cling. dille. coffer. In the same way G. curved. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. &c. thiling. step away. heaven. selure. syle.' Ordinances and Reg. or of a bed. So from Fin. menuiserie. death. hollow ice . lambrisser une chambre seeling. quibble. hollow. wall. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. Boyd in Jam. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. were met. thelu. the deck of a ship at thilja. Plancher. — . yield. Cease. It. flooring E. to go forth. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. thili. sybire. little house. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. thilja. applied to a canopy. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. semely on syll. wuoren komo. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls.. Sherwood. empty. Cam. thel. cease. a board. &c. A — A false accommodation produced G. is applied to a canopy. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. H. 43. cessum. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. IV. thil. Lat. plank.). the roof of a coach. and Gol. a planking or boarding tkilian. Hal. . augm. Fr. Sp. 'A celler to hange in the chamber.' Hall. del into English without ' translation gave cele. succeed. &c. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. bridle. as. komista. — komo tain). CEILING The kynge to souper is set. ciel is so unbroken. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. to canopy siled. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings.'— Z. Cot. Soc.). dScis. a canopy. sill. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. recede. cyling (W. cabega. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. in Jam. and then to gape. Sir 137 pit . syl. cellar. post. sill in window-sill. exceed. -ceed. a halter. the inner roof of a room of state. an aquiline nose.' del. with their substantives concession. of cavezza. and that from Sp. kommata. to argue capto tiously. a head. . . it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. give place. sus-lambris. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. a plank. cavezzone. selar. cabegon. pp. a canopy. . to panel or wainscot MHG. the testern of a bed. a hut.j have come from this source. tester of a bed. koppeli. Lat. 32. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting.' Marriage of James IV.

and thence censer. Fr. appertain. For sess from assess. to prick. 1. estimate. KsvTpov. Lat. Sherwood. Fr. ciller.ing a room where there is not fire. ceremonia. dchauffer. Cot. celer.. the hollow the Lat. concernor. sift. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. to be regarded as one celebro. conceipt. guish. Lat. Fr. thence belonging to or connected with corn. sure. criticism. heaven. an eyelash. festive. to take. {cori)cipere. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. Lat. — . anger two distinct words are probably Lat. cenio. quarters for slaves. to chafe. his office. cot. riscaldarsi. — A . become heated with anger. -cepere. contend. Chafe. to -sum. chaufferette. oil. with transposition hence (of a day). to seele or sew up the eyelids .— Chafing-dish. -oept. distinIt. to blindfold. — . decide.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. also grave opinion. as entering largely into the derivative certo. Lat. is the opposite of disora virum. -cess. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. a hundred of what- — . See Celibacy. concerner. a religious observance. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq.of the r. to burn incendo. Cess. syll. -cipio. pick out. Gr. to glow. cigliare. It. K^'ivut. and put it through the over eyelydde. a numerous con. -civer {conciver— Roquef. a Cemetery. in comp. To Incense. decebre) . To seel or close the eyes. candeo. — . a valuation of every man's estate. to sepap rate. to distinguish.unmarried. to separate. calefacere. -ceit. zens according to their property.). being taken from Fr. to twinkle darkness. and so of that other. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. or any bird's. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. to contend. solemn (of per.' Celebritas. S. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. to visit in numbers. for building. as in some places burnt. Lat. the point round which a circle is drawn. judge. siller les yeux. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. The term cilium. the talk of men. Gr. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. -i^oivre. Censer. Incensum. to set on fire. cretum.— Cellar. -CEIVE a shaft. value. with the eyes.' Book of St Albans. tax. Fr. Certain. -cern. -cevoir. sacred show. chauffer. parted sleep. Celebrity. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. censura.cern. oil. Fr. To chafe is for wine. &c. to concern. blind. to bury). In Celebrate. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. Censor. make angry. Lat. to sleep). Cell. Centurion. keep in It. sting. renown be embodied with. thronged the participle cretus. what to set in a chafe. Lat. Fr. and — — — possessions. tax. Lat. — . cillier. a solemnity.j 138 thill. and met. -ciper. capio. Cij(fe5j. point. Prov. of heating. confounded ist from It. then to rub without reference Cement. eyelid. judge Lat. Gr. to course of people. ciglio. Centre. or expression of Ennius. to think. to attend on object with. cilibat. -cepire. Fr. census. Sc.. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. It. rough from the quarry. single or unwedded life. centum. empty. swift. -cebre ifoncebre. see. &c. in accordance with the Fr. mortar. Assess. age. goad. Ta^oe. Lat.). in Marsh. in comp. observe. camentum. Coehim. is totally distinct from the foregoing. a tomb. receipt. to warm. eschattffer. the officer appointed to take such returns . Celerity. to rub for the purpose a hut. Census Censor. See Cede. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. caber. assess. a storehouse Chafe. but was gradually lost in conceit. a solemnity. Assize. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. crevi. deceipt. to incense. — . — . Lat. OFr. a shaft horse. to take. /ctj/rsw. (and thence also) to hoodwink. Gr. to seal a pigeon's eye. Accelerate. family. to heat. stones to the production of heat. cceremonia. a prick. abundance. a registration of one's self. Lat. calefare. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. — — Cenotapli. cencer. cella. from Saa-rw. -ceive. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. to rate. a hundred centuria. irot\oe. materials It. deceit. capturn. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. Ceremony. Censure. cerealis. rubble. incense. ' . and thence to conceal. the place where the de. census. judge. . encens. Fr. to celebrate. Lat. Century. Take the nedyll and threde. Fl. concetto. celeber certus. hollow. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. we have a modified form of (of a place). -ceptjun. from censeo. Cereal. sile. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. Lat. much frequented. Cot. . -cense.

the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. to babble. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). chaffare. to calumpnjamen. dongio. Pers. gewolb. to pant. idle words. cup. Chagrin. fa sagramen de calompnia. refuse barley . Ayenbite. often puffing. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . to call. a pulpit Cot. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. Bav. ON. a rustling noise. vis. de Brai. much blowing. kaff. far lima-lima. calonja. a chain. fern-chafer. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. chaps Chamber. breathe hard. ckapfare. Chair. chambre. with a:n arched roof. to puff and blow. chatter. Cot. Chalice. tattle. Fr. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. a vault or arched roof. cauvette. Chain. grief. 11. To buy and sell. place See Cheek.— — . In like manto huff. From to go to law. to file. G. calonjar. kahu. — — — . cathedra. to claim. crooked. songe. now a chair. to bark. Fr. bargain. &c. kuhista. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. to dispute. KoBiSpa. sagri. Due. chafeter. in a monstrous fume. signal by drum or P. a chough.' Rayn. rustling corn. chayire. ple^. refuse. chaulx. call in question for an ley). calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. and signifies to consume with anger. . kiamta. Lat. swelling with anger. cadena. rustling motion challenge. fume. hght Chalk. vel susurro. kauchen. Fr. Halma. Gr. Cot. Fr. avena vilior. on. khah. sagrindse. Perhaps Pm. lime . havOFr. ing rapidly repeated cries. a prattling woaction. Prov. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. puffed or ruffled with ly. calice. Hal. kahista. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. a jackdaw. matter by combat. charge with. Came. — — — . to action arose. yap. snuff. — — — — — — . chafing. cadieira. Du. snort. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. Piedm. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. to Latin calumniare. rally one. to fret inwardtronfo. Bouffard. . ^Altieri. chaene. kever. B. to tattle. contestation. Fin. any insect of the beetle kind. to chatter or talk lightly. So from dominio. From the To Chaff. kiqfta. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E.sure carriage. kuhuja. Probably from According to Diez. muzzle.. Fr. in a cana. keuchen. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. from of the G. Lat. great chafe. to ner It. difficulty . and as this was the beginning of man. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. calumnia. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. limare. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. as. Fr. kaff. Pr. Lat. clamare. without chap/are makiinde.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. kuhina.nium. ceafer. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. dispute. haggle. leviter crepo Then. . kedja. chagrin. Kaiiapa. from Swiss kafeln. De Ir4. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. . taubes korn oder hafer. Pat. sborfare. — . kdfer. or puff with snorting. Wall. talkative. of. Prov. false accusation. . preise. ceaf. OFr. breathe KaOa^oiiat. 35. tronfio. to institute anforensic action. jaw. kuhata. G. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. lime. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. have a mind to parley. quisquilise offence. a double operation * Chafer. much more Genoese sagrind. kahuja. Lat. calx. from the shark-skin. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. a pulpit. ing a hard case to their wings. care. Chayire. grief. cathedra. hiss. Lat. as a carriage is a moveable seat. chaire. Fr. Fr. that leneth e per I'autra. chicane. keffen. cam. tattle cheep. chaine. thick and short. The jaw chafty. — — ' — — — A . chawe. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. puff. camera. cadera. a goba rustling . Fr. cadena gives chain. E. to a seat. Adelung. P. catena. hordeum vel let. calix. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. Lat. rustle Challenge. Fl. shaIt. care. to buzz. Prov. baras of ants. p. Cheffern. chaise. also to prattle. (ca'e'ra) to chair. Gr. Camera. chalanger. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. to sit. Kuttn. to gnaw. kdfelen. to move the jaws.. From Port. Fr. chamar. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. to caw chawer. Lat. In vulgar language. to gnaw. kiaftr. green sagrin. Du.

received the petitions of the suitors. schmatzen s. from cheoir. . dial. Prov. . Lith. Lat. chdance. kapp.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. fight. act of falling. E. Fr. chamfrain. top of a borehole. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. cadere. compound. keiiipe. kimpUma. Pm. kiammi. to quarrel (comp. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . kiinp. Gall. termediaries between them and the judge. — masterly Sp. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. cazer. — Hal. fighting place. Sp. to groove bevel off a right angle. The G. contend or argue G. head armour. to — — champ. Magy. . i. Dief. camerlengo. kimppu (Lap. chance. Hence (with the nasal) w. CHANCEL It. Fr. Chance-n3. mesleiare.Lat. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. to fall. ciambellano. Sup. campar. reusement — fight in single combat. zs jeopardy. game campio. to fasten oneself on to another . to happen {ad and cadere. Meleare. at the railings. Lat. to Hal. to paw the ground E. The E. to to chew champ. to strive at games . a warrior. . kappd). governed by laws of which we are more OFr. broil. giving rise to the as. Lat. who stood ad cancellos. to hollow out. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . chanfrar. accident. Chamfron. cample). ciamberlano. bundle. a game at football. Champion. to hang. The happening of things Chance. kanip. Champ. a field of battle. a feat. Prov. Champarty. Fr. champion Du. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. Fr. surpassing. To hollow out in chanPtg. kabintis. Fr.—Tutschek. To cope or contend with.' melleia. to . Champaign. calidameya. caer. champ. cempa. Commonly derived from campus. gekrUmmt. a horse-race. s. accidere. Fin. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. to wrestle. chain. ON. to flute as a column. to cample. to fasten on. Chancel.edley. kabMe. chamble. gewolbt. a jaw kianisa. or less ignorant. Lat. difficulty . Fr. E. dricka i kapp. See Camp. champ. dial. kippo. chance. boys speak of capping verses. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. hero Sw. jocus partitus. a bundle. pedilusor. kabe. zampettare. from Fr. an athlete. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. a hollow chanfreiner. a hook . combat. hamper. ON. camp. luctare. to debate. Chancery. kampeln. fray. excellent. campus partitus . divided game. kempen. kibti.' SherI'altro ' ' . Chancellor. So in e. kriimmen gebogen. therewithal. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . Du. —Chamfrain. bickering. kampen. to chew. hng. kimpustella. and acted as inofficers of . . to wrestle. jeu parti. and mesUe. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). kabinti. chajnbellan . to hold . it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. . ing. Carpentier. or player at football. to smack the lips in eating. Partnership. tsamtsogni. campear. e. champ. the chafldn. to slope. campus. athlete. as in It. escazenza. to bevel. nels. dispute Hal. to stick to. to excel. kablys. It will. — ^Tusser. chaude mesUe. G. champ parti. champ.140 CHAMBERLAIN . kinipen. to tread The sound heavily. move the jaws. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. The word is preserved in E. pinch. ON. to be eminent. to fall). from chaud. as swine. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. calida et sans aguet. . . kampeln. fight. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. — Ch-amberlain. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. a court of justice. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. Ptg. a scufSe. contest. Get campers a ball To camf . kempa. dial. Sp. kampa. which seems another form of the root. cameratus. — KiL . M. sukibti. rare. cancelli. to slope out the . camp. cahir. to fasten oneself to another . chanfrein. wood. dial. chanfreindre. To Chamfer. dial. hot. When the to quarrel. contention kappi. tsammogni. chanfrein. camp. certare.—Charfron E. slope of a bevelled angle. to talk. kimbu. is explained by serrarsi. to move the jaws kiamt.' ' Pr. prize-fighter. Campar.

. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . to truck. Walach. to — cut. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. kennel. chancellerie. esclapo. Chaps or chops. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. to apply one flat thing to another. Chip. chandelier. chapa. to creak. surfaces striking together. Da. as to chap hands. a small metal plate Port. to sing. cambiare. See Chop. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. cangiare. chapilla. also a clap. from chandler. as those on a trunk. It is also used in the sense of the E. to hack. Lith. Aasen. 2. a chap is a crack or fissure. Sp. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. ceaplas. A fellow. chiappa. to change. — : Lat. lips of an animal. as chancery . to spht a chip. kiceft as well as kjakje. prune. Fr. chaps. kvar kjceften. to strike. are kept. throat of an animal. a money-changer.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. Chap. Da. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. to cut off . Chandler. ^Jam. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. Fr. not a soul. esclapa. leather. gab. . Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. skipta. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. Cheek. —Ordericus Vitalis. AS. Chape. Hal. cambium. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. exchange. Sp. waterconduit. as It. chanter. chapear. exchange. Chapel. shift. Russ. Chap. hard bodies. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. chapeletas de imbornales. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. In like manner Walach. to swap. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. as skin chapped hands. to deal. changer. Channel. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. flat . to put on fresh clothes. Sc. from canna. any hollow for conveying water. Commonly derived from capella. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. W. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. or the cracking of one. to cut up into small pieces. wood. exchange schimbatoriu. debeant conjurare. Du. as corn-chandChandry. to peck. Chap. is used in the same sense . muzzle. the loose flesh of the cheeks. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. to paw like a horse . cobio. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. chapeta. kapoti. . The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . I. . hack . Hal. Compare chark. a jaw. ON. Lat. to chap at a door. canalis. a strip of metal plate. cambiar. the gutter that runs along a street. to coat. Prov. or the like chapar.^. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. kjaakaa. properly in a hard body. and also to chap or crack. chop. Lang. a pipe. chancery. chap. while the broader vowels a. chap. And N. the place where candles ler. Chop. kaupa. may be compared with ON. —Chantry. a dealer in candles then. Fr. kappen. kemma. That wide were sentin their spicery. — . the cape or little cloke of St Martin. Probably from chap. jaw. Man of Law's Tale. to cut. to strike with a sharp edge. to peck. to plate. jaw. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. the mouth. Bret. extended to other trades. chop. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. E. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. the chaps . to strike. Molbech. clapet. . Hence It. and the modern canal. 140. cantare. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. camjar. schimbu. chapelete de una bomba. Fr. — — —Marculfus in Due. a reed. To Change. schimbd. Hence chantry. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. from clap. to break . the clappers of the scupper holes. like the knocking of hard things together. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. klepan. to plate. ceaflas. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. a small plate of flat metal. kiceft. cheek. See Chant. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true.

to prattle. charer. Charcoal was ciarlare. to turn Gael. a merchant. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. From Norm. It. Boh. czurksti. ceap-man. chatter. a dispute . cha. Character. Yx. beloved. See Cheap. char. Fr. dim. It. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside.charme. Chapter. &c. a mark made on a thing. dear. kirkti. czurliwoti. dear(in both senses). babbling. capitolo. Bret. capellare. Chark. Prov. Charge. that turned decken . ciarlatore. cluck kirklys. a riddle. . that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. a cricket karkti (schnarren.' Boccaccio in Diez. schreien. Hence carminare. in turns. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. occasional turn. Lat. cearcian. Fr. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child.whirr. OE. keeren. the turtle pitre. Gr. Macduff. . Lang. Justin. wood to coal. tegere. hiss Lith. caricare. cher um cher. Deutsch. Chapman. return. a rhyme. czirbti. to dove . prattling quacksalver. w. See Charlatan. cabildo. from capa. AS. chapel. carus. cedeleac. . wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. Lat. Charade. gadka. creak. affection. Chare. — spell. karout. corona. chara. from cape or cope. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. a charm. chirk. AS. to charcoal. Fr. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. siarad (pronounced — sharad). be- e. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. to chirp as sparrows. Inst. jabber. for the same reason rosario. Sp. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. cluck. 2. ject). and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. —— . canne. Lith. charlatan. Ptg. caritas. grave or make incised marks on an ob. chatter. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. a mark of a mountebank. An enchantment. a head or division of a book. condo il volgar francese. gaggle . carricare. to tattle. a verse. charitas. cam. twist. decken. es ist mi cheer. of chapel. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. to croak as a frog .). to turn.czirksti. to chirp. twitter. turn about. it is my turn. — a car. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. Lat. Chirk. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . as a beetle. Mid. to converse. eapitulo. to prattle. charcoal burners. charlar. colliers that charred coal. tattler. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. It. called kedlock. charge an enemy is to lay on. chapitre. Du. to sing or chirp as birds. the nature of a thing. a turn cerran. To Char. and in It. in To ness Charity. In that work the verb is written caire. creak. which was incantation. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. Charlock. A weed among com AS. cerran. to of the governing body. as. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. a hood. from carrus. seems to be derived charade. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . And damned be he who first cries Hold. talking. carmen. to creak. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. surris seu Lat. hadka. Sp. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. * Charcoal. to load . (eucharistie. a The OFr. from gadai. chirriar. called in Sp. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. turn. burning without consuming the substance. bler. clack. charade. kurkelis. chapelet. pohadka. from Charade. — — — turned to coal. to chirp. enough. Sp. capella. The crash. to . a garland of roses. Lay on. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. go. used in the sense of magic Fl. ghirlanda seor garland. carregar. from capitulum. w. wreath for the head. . gnash.. Cot. Sup. capital. chirlar. Fr. to love. It.Lat. kurkti. car. Mundart. carmo. eyre. Charlatan. Fr. a riddle. as Pol. krachzen). but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. The G. properly to place — . rightly explained by Tooke from AS. 370. babdistinction. Swiss. . Chaplet. chat. to talk . charger.

ch). csacsogany. used to represent a sharp note. to gape. Chamel. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. ferire. la chasse d'une rose. also to germinate or spring forth. — Hal. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. An imitative word. It. chat. is to represent the chamier. — Fr. chaste. clean. from pure. chykkyn (Pr. to chirp as a bird to cheep. Gr. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. Russ. See Card. the cry of the bat. clap. chip. the young shoots . as turnip-chaits. s. chit. From carinen was formed It. — sharp sound of a crack. careful. a word. clean. a gap. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. eclats. or equivalent forms. to chirp. chip. %aafi. Chasm. pure. a crack or a flaw . kastaa. fragments or leavings of food. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. a yawning. converse.. Fl. geug. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. — The . carme and Fr. carnisj bones kept. make a noise as birds do. to chirp. Pm. schioppare. warble. karigh. whistle. Chary. root of the Lat. as from nomen It. as we speak of olive branches. . kata. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. — Yorkshire chat. gazeuiller. a shrine for a relic. Chart. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. to make a noise. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. In like manner Russ. splinters. To Chasten. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. tittle-tattle. carmen is presented in AS. whence a charm of goldfinches. —Chastise. fragments. It t. chaste. —Charter. to cut and faggoted. to clap. chick. incassare. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. jackdaw . the noise of birds. shout OE. Chat-wood. It. also to hatch. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. cs E. to chatter or prattle . and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . or the cry of a bird or the like. Fr. as in the E. gazzolare. Lat castigare. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. in Jam. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). a flock of those birds. Diez. kna. cyrm. niggardly. —Jam. Malay. also a youth. as purgare Fr. scraps of for fuel. talk much . Chaste. Kil. flesh. a twig Suffolk chaits. Cot. to enchase it . clear. g. kippen. charm. a branch and a young female. knacken.a. csaterdzni. Parallel with E. See Cistern. The egg is chipped. ch&tier. magpie. — We ornamental work the to signify E. Lat. crackle. pure. from xoAn. It. chikat'. Du. . parcus. pure. a young man . See Catch. chits. Fr. shivers. CHATS fit 143 to name. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. castus. a plate of metal. Pol. to which it bears the same relation as chape. a branch. tenax. Fr. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. Hal.ppen.). To work plate as silversmiths do. speak . to burst open. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. germinate . noise. So in Gael. prattle. to set a jewel. to baptize. to cry as a chicken . csatora (Magy. clatter. to wet. limpid. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. noise. letters p.— Chatter. Chat. G. or suckers on rough borders. chary.house. or pop. knatiern. snap. cearig (from cearian. a churchyard or charnel-house. chisf. Kil. To chitter or chipper. castus. nome and . — Palsgrave. chair. — — . To Chase. sordidus. racket . as. charmer. chick. xi'i-'^vui. the handle of a razor . Fl. clean. V. chatter. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. To Chase. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. to care). nommer. gallan or ogan. little sticks cudere. —Bailey. the calix of a rose. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. — = Chats. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. czysty. be wide open. To chit. prate. caro. to separate in morsels. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. from purus. warble. gazzettare. karg. Fr. Pol. i. the bird is iiown. occasionally Forby. OE. csacsogni. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. an enchantress. D. kata-kata. chit-chat. enchasser. Cot. to crack. gadu-gadu. To talk. To chip is then to crack. chit in the latter sense Du. a chatter-box.— Chit. to talk. gazzerare. chip. to crack. discourse. B. or a bird out of the egg. talk. gaddc. cassa s. clack. blackthorn-chats. gazzogliare. Magy. It.).

chuckle. bon marche. whence captale. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. frown. cera. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. kik. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl.— Chole. kaupiti. to vomit. gagkezen. ceaflas. Chattels. It — Brompton in Due. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini.ing. visage.. to laugh. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. Chear. to act as a rogue. hawkmann. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. KaviiXog. .of the throat in coughing. keck. goods. in Fr. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. It. a rogue or person who used the canting language. to deal ON. OFr. kek. jaws. chatel. snout. Check. . Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. &c. equiva. to buy. prattlingchete. kaupa. Sp. koopen. to . with the exception of land. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching.-^. kak. cattle. a tavern-keeper. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. kakkaset. Cot. kauf. a cheater. with Dief. cara. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. kaufen. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. CHEEK zitella. which is the word in ceap. society. The gutGoth. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . thers. Pr. to swap goods . a willing look and unwilling heart. in widely separated languages by the Lat. dchec. Cheat. citello. chaptel. Modern Slang. the Confessor. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. to make inarticulate sounds in . a repulse. tradesman. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. capitale. Hence to cheat. exAS. Fr. Fin. choule. to stutter gigken. syllables ^ag-. chire. Then. kakaista. giving or taking in exchange. Lat. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. the face. to fetch the breath with difficulty. countenance. horse-couper. a young boy or girl.—Choke. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. chear in the sense of victuals. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. Fl. to coff—Yisi. lead to OE. the countenance Fr.. It. See Chess. cheeks. s. kichen.— . from Lat. ceap.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. Gr. giggling. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. cattle. e. price. entertain kindly. from AS. and hence the E. cattle. favour. . Chew. chiere. — To check an account. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. catalliim. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. and. Bohem. 'li^'opa jord i jord. CHATTELS has ciio. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. chop. teeth . Cheek. to clear the throat . Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. Pm. to cough and hence either buying or selling. Hal.' kezen. any cheating. caupo. the Lat. sum in a loan. mandibula. to cluck like a hen. kikottaa. to — . force of the word. G. agreeing upon. Du. sale. retching. goods. to nauseate (to retch). Sc. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. . stuttering. welcome heartily. Ek dry and hard. ku. which is used in the to stutter. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. lower. aspect of a man. chatal. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. upon a checked cloth. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. look. to chop and change. a dealer in horses.. a piece of moveable property. gig. cachinnari. Bav. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. et juxta catalla sua. Fr. ceafl. — We ' . Soc. 144 the It. OFr. changing. . See Cheek. are represented piti. chavylbone or chawlbone. entertainment. cozener. gagkern. Cam.— Chaps. NE. kok. to coup s.— Cattle. truffa. a canting knave. sense of bargaining. ceahhetan. the principal ' colloquial E. Slav. farm for farm. chapman. cita. a dealer. the tongue. Ingulphus. to negotiate.kakot. sob E. kaupon. to buy. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. stuttering. laughing. while it Bret.' to exchange to gasp. — — —Chowl. Faire bonne chire. jaw. us. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. Pro v. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred.

gullet. . food. Chekenyd or querkenyd. the hke. ichec. quoka. chevron. like a young chicken. jaws Sw. Chess. the final guttural is retained in writing. Sc. schach. From them the plish. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. E. to year. clear the throat. xaque.their struggle for independence. Hence kikna is identical with OE. G. schach.D. Lat. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. ca' — . w. Sp. Jam. kjceve. G. geagl. chiffe. jouffle. Lith. the throat. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. kdkel. X'C&s. caru. cheek. AS. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. gabe. the loose the game of checks. jaw. Chevisance. made rancid koka. rafters in heraldry. scacco. cough. veluti piscium. (Kil. as. kces. king). The Sw. cherir. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. cerasus. Sw. whence kasa-leipa. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. kjakje. jowl. — 10 . E. squeak as a mouse. cheek. frame by which the exertion is made. kdke. ceg. cerise j G. w. ost.peep in the same sense. chevir. incaseatus. prevail with. cheeks.pose of acidifying them kasadr. mollium congeries. Tutschek. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. old bread. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase.. to choke with laughter. Sp. Pm. cisty G. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. It. jaw. Chef. kirsche. the mouth. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. nish source. dear. gap. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. caseus. Da. cabiron. E.D. to gasp. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. to bring to an end.. Fin. chops. cista. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . Analo.EP CHEVRON 145 on. jaws. gapen. — — .cirieggia. cabrio. acquisition. the palate Chequer. ceaplas. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. caws.perly head. a chicken. suffo. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. to make a noise different word. Cher. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. mouth kek. w. An imitative word. Kil. /Ji2^/(W. To Cheep. cheek. Cherry. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. Du. . kopen. to love. giffle. CHE. Hence chesten-nut. e. Chemistry. cese. a heap. achever. a rafter . proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de.). ation. rattle in the throat. then end. skratt. things Da. . In these latter forms we see the transIt. Fris. Fr. quok. F*-. to geahl. kaecke. cheken. gill of fish AS. Lith. to kasa. The name of creak as shoes. Lat. equal squares of opposite colours. kok. kistej Lat. kapen. As the board to gasp i. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. chops. chasi. to swallow. gaghel. to boken. — — . carnium. to heap up such things for the purchoke. rupted into chess. subjected to this process with that which the throat . the The use of the word kcesir. . It would Cheese. to belch.koppen. Lat. Fr. See Case. N. See Alchemy. accomplishment cayed. OHG. kesten. AS. castaneusj Fr. hasten. ceac. cireggia. throat. make an end. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. Chevaux de frise. subacidus. by laying it in come to an agreement with. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. for cheese itself. practice seems to have been communiChevron. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. Achievement. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. cufd. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. to hold dear.G. to kep. by laying up in a covered heap. rennet. cams. chesten. Prothroat of an animal . Fr. gous forms are G. to prevent the attack of cavalry. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. the neck. Fr. Fr. — — . though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. Du. chaps. geafl. kikna. &c. ceocian. kikna of dorum coacervatio. a cricket.' to w. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. kastanie. Pl. to choke. chests in OE. Cherish. Thus "we are brought din. Sc. chAtaigne. kasiiUPr. throat. ceaflas. jaw . cegio. treat with affection. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. AS. takes place in the formation of cheese. kastr. ON. condition of being taken. To make a shrill noise Chest. See Chess.Xo belch. to gape gab. . whence czypulas. kjcebe. Lat. as meat and butter. kasa. cyse. Sw. to accomThis they call hdrsk. dersen . E. Prov. czypti.

De finger killet mi for kalte. kieken. a chicken. a young bird. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. to contest about trifles. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. a jaw. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. Fr.. tremble. a small cask OFr. Palsgr. signifying properly shivering. 'Among these the G.. kinderen. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. Chitter. while the Magy.-ill. Fl. k'imm s. E. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. kidata. kibr. tiuk. — . from the second Lat. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. chawbone. aner.^ to resound as a bell. lead through the synonymous E. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. Lat. chillness or shivering. kauen. to chime. kopf Du. pi.— Gattel. kuwe. chillrar. cica cica. chieftain. pululo. kindeken. It. term is ssaru fu. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery.. as pointing out the origin of the E. chaps. Fr. a cup. or qf people talking rapidly. Now gan some courage unto him to take. kitista. the cry of young . to use the jaws. or as E. when the vibrations become very rapid. kime. chicaner. chew or chaw. to twitter. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. czypulas. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. beam. For the see word Doit. ach. stake. knarren. acute. The loss of the syllable it in Du. to Du. Gattel. Chime. and from the third E. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. rafter. G. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. to chirp or peep like a chicken. crepo. Tintillo. a finch. Gael. the head. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. kimista^ . Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. Magy. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. chillar. CHJME the radical form is unusual. Chill. — Du. cib. pipe. Probably from Fr. into a continuous shriU sound. chef. or chick. chill. ]). a chicken. tyuk. Kil. Fin. jaw. the least imaginable jot. The Pl. strideo. knit the brow cib-led. — It. Chaw. to go. caferu. Payer chiguet A chiguet. Halm. chic. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. Fl. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. the throat. a hen. kaw. w. G. tiukkua. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. knirschen. Prov. — — Mother Hubbard. then as G. AS. in Walach. tiukka. grelot). pipio. mountain top . kimme. caprioru. the jole. capu. Brezza. a cup cibaw. kind. Chick. chicoter. also the horizon. by driblets. kippa. cild. . chicken. to the brim. a little bit. capete.— Cot. kauwe. the young of animals in general. mouth. Pr. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. head. Fin. ultimate origin of the Mite. jaw. klagend tonen. to raise the rim. Da. Du. horn wood. gosling. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . — Fin. while didder is to shiver or citteren. chol. Russ. .D. from little to little. alter. to gasp for breath (Hal. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. Fr. 146 brial.^ Hal. killen. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. Swiss kiden. cheek. are formed Du. Chief. Du. chin. Chigue. keichen. to contest. antler. pole.' my finger tingles with cold. hiss as meat on the gridiron. the Ptg. a cup. and not vice versd. creak. the rim or edge of a vase. killen. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. tintelen van koude. then cold. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. chiquei. chiler. kop. deer's horn. twitter. E. jaws . to smart. Pm. the same principle I regard On birds.peep. De chic en chic..— . cabar beinne. s. capo. A To Chew. caput. has probably the same origin. machouere. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. from the first of which is Lith. chikat'. pip. chavel. to crackle. rafter . choule. cidan. cabriones. cabarach. And hence. a head. chimb. branchy. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. to pettifog. a chicken. Pm. greloter is to shiver for cold. ' . tremble with cold. to chew. Pr. Sp. as. To Chide. quivering sound which passes. tiukkata. Pl. kaau•wen. Child. E. kilderkin. or the broken noise of birds. cabar. . gills of a fish. to titter is Du.D. Walach.). chavel. rafter . : — a lump. To chitter. captain. See Chimmer. cebr. a quid of tobacco. Bret. queror. kauchen. W. CHEW . kouwe. Fin. to scold. zitterti. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. cap. horns of the house. Imitative of a loud clear sound. pipio. kimia. sonorous. Chimb.

ciseau (for cisel). tsongeni. the jaw. Lat. schetteren. vincially used in the sense of a crack. hiss Pm. tremulous motion. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. Ptg. chin . klincken. to prattle czirpti. from 10 * ' Chia. to chink with laugh2. ter. Lith. part lion. then to any narrow crack or AS. Hindost. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. G. ciarlare. to creak. Kil.Lat. are In like manner E. In the same sense. spina. sounding deep. Chimera. in the same crack. a thorn. pork) . eschiner. spina. companied. epine. To Chitter. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. have been used to designate the spine. and light. cheminde. E. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. a thorn. . twitter caminus. as a large bell . . — . quavering of the voice. tsengeni. to creak. and chim-mer. et garrire .er. sparkle. chhint. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. rustle. to sound deep or the Gr. — .to divide or Du. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. Chin-coug^h. — . applied to tremulous motion. See Chark. Prov. See Chats. 147 kimina. The small entrails of a hog. czirszkti. Primarily a shrill sound. caminsects. a hall Mid. bone . . It. It. komista. eschine. a chap. Huloet. to prattle . Magy.schricken. Chine. to chine. disCot. stridere. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. the chin . Caminatum. schiena. the cheek (jaw) . as birds the mouth. simmer. Chimney. name Then. chink. to murmur. Diez de. Sw. to chink. a Kuttn. cinan. from the geon's lancet. kumista. kumina. Fr. Fr. clangor tinniens kummata. shiver and the chyver of Pr. to chirp . but or cry as a parrot. A . all these imitative terms being minata. quivering or shakyng for colde. kieck hoest. tschirpen. ykvvQ. . Chitter. or chyFrigutus. komia. to tremble. It. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . — .czirbti. See Bright. zirken. to open chirriar. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . as a bell kommata. Pm. Gower in Hal. Chink. Bret. chick. kinne. gena. the chine.iron. hiss chirlar. To chirp or twitter. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. . genou (pi. It. a fire-place. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. Fr. to sound. Chintz. a surkik hosta. to simmer. chirp. twinkling light. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. Fr. resonance . chits. To chink with laughter. fyr. which differ from each other only as Chirk. to gape. hus. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. to squeak in It. Sp. Fr. schina. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. cheek. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. Sp. cinne. representing connected together.sharp. esquina. schetteringe. then of a fabulous monster part goat. gen. to chirp. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. from Lat. Gascoigne in Todd. j^lf. plodere. verynge or dyderinge. G. The desig. Chisel. genawi. clashing of weapons. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. Du. also vibrans. pare also Walach. cincel. KinneGr. crepare. Bav. cisaille. as the chink of money. do. tinnire. a szemrcU. the mouth (jaws) . in Hal. sonus the backbone Lat. squittire. and the Du. backBut she withal no worde may soune. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. to chirre. Du. hollow. keich husten. Chip. to sizel.Huloet in Hal. the whooping cough. and bodily movement in shimm. Chat. yivtiov. Chink-cough. esquena. clipping of coin. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. Chyrme or chur. Chitterling. sonants.' Phaer's Virg. caminata. a chink or fissure.). skina. AS. killed by Bellerophon. to tattle. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. a crowing sound in recovering breath. dial. and from a similar sound to boil gently. Chit. sound. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. Pr. zirpen. as the/ is preserved tering.to chirp.. schrick. up and down. bx-eak the back of schena. sound on beginning to boil. Cot. It. the cheek. fissure. backe. flaw Hal. chatter . E.. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. Sp. Sp. The change from the sound ter \s. eschin^e (de pore). the jaw. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. Chymerynge. — — — — — . kink hoest. To Chimmer. caperd. See Chap. cisello. i. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. Gloss. cleft.

and It. Equivalents in the SlaFr. The . to try . chaup. As kushnuti. the inwards of an animal. cive. chawdron. kieser. then to try. chap hands. Body and Soul. to exchange horses. . are used in the same sense. kiezen. gdnse gekrose. ruffs. ments of the knightly class. called cMtters in the N. to try. chife. schoch. Chuck-full. a rag. causir. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. ent quarter. i.vonic languages are Pol. chorus. a knight. a twittering. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. 19. a chive. to ^cleave . ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. — See Cheek. chock full. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. Schmid. . Yr. to experience. and Vf. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. to chap at a door . anger. shiver. to chap. a fragment.ceosan. skifa.' At last he dwelt . to taste. from kraus. try.' who shall not taste death. •- Russ. pluck. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. a small slice or slip of anything . To Choke. to try. choix. curly . ^euw. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. of an angry — — — ' ' — . signify to kiss. cut up into — See Chats. a calf's pluck or chaldron . Fr. to Compare also Pol. a ruff. select. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. ON.ffrill. to prove. Luc. schiefer. keypa. Fr. lead us on to Lat. chippe. kaup. — Chock-full. . rare. in the same language. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. to taste . G. haslets. chiffe. coro. as with a blow. To Chop. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. to wrinkle. disposition. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. Goth. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. to strike hands . . try. also calPs. cke. gekrose. Chivalry. chives. wein didder for cold. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. G. and N. to palpitate . Choice. kausjan. developments of the same radical image. * To Choose. Swab. ^S. a calf's chaldern of E. to ing is doubtless to taste. by the vibrations of sound or motion. to taste. choppe. x^poc. coup. word is more likely to be from Lat. from chevalier. crammed Choir. The I go to prove them.— B jag E. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. I. Jam.V)^x. approve. arkiusan. kbhren. whence Lat. wrath. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. kustigen. ON. all seem slate . &c. Prov.freze. G. then to shiver. Walach. kiesen. to hack.gust. the small parts of the roots of plants. full. a wine taster. or original meaning is preserved in G. Gr. an onion. Lat. and in kosten. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. — — — . Serv. to break off in small shive. Enn Sigridur sem ' . 2. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. kiusan. to choose. civette.D. Swiss kust.' Verie coinme Cot. fine threads of flowers. kusid.yEuffM. kor6n. . experience valerie. The manners and senti. friller. the ridges prove. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. bile. Chives are also a kind of small onion. shoot . by which they are Fr. prove. . a company of singers or dancers. taste. a heap. keuren. See try. from %u\i). Boh. scheve. propagated.. a young . taste. Warwickshire coff. caperd. Fr. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. cape. chattering. krussyi. Choleric. CHOP kros. pieces . of E. cepa. —Chorus. to turn. as green as leeks. specially with an application to theatrical performances. whence choleric. Cavalry. kruszki. to shiver. koren. xiv. g'schochet voll. OHG. schevel-steen. and in this sense the * small pieces. kiusan. Gr. chceur. a ruff or frill. chimp. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. — Cholera. gusten. to tempt. to clap up Hal. fresure. seallion or unset leek. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. &c.. heaped measure. Choice is probably direct from Fr. to taste. gustare. Chives. a goose's giblets. a blow. The Sc. full to overflowing. Gr. chibble. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. okusyti. to taste. wkusit' prikushat. %o\ifa. Chap. kalbs gekrose. to stop geschoppt voll. kushevati. to try. . chatter. kushati. a scale or fragment P1. to taste. it is probable that the root kus.

klopper. Cot. peace. to strike in the hand. sent before him a Chiaus. to overturn. and we actually find champman for chapman. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. Gr. Peace. Borgoens happen. in i6io. dial. Du.povucd. Chronicle. kowe. gull. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. thumb Fl. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. clogs.— Chevin. which was written 27. Du. OE. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. an offence against the fitness of times. Fr. Chopino. Marin. Chord. or miller's kaycke . G. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. connected with G. In Sc. chrysalis (Plin. to speak thieves' slang. e. chapin. whence apparently the Sup. What do you think of me. chapineria. ' ' What's that? Dap. capitone. I bring you the Cloughs. to turn over. caker. chop. because she would not endure this husband chopping. E. to chatter. quappe. kaufen. Lat. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. kolbe (club). civetta.X. gold. in Chaucer. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. Chuck. cambiare. monedula. &c. the string of a musical instrument originally.— Landnamabok. chatter . Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. to cant. XpvaaXic. chub. Nominale in Nat. kaej Lith. xftovoq. P. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. Sw. a The What dhy ^. Gr. kubb. kobe. yiSA. xop5>}. kaw. E. fat. cob. capito. Kil. Fr. clat. capita. koppe. — . doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. Chrysalis. chronicles. whence — E. cow-couper.). A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak.' They are forebuyers of quheit. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. kauwe. A jackdaw. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. prattle . time ra .• — . bearand aits. Fr. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. If I discover. chack. To coup. p. syllables chat. chouquette. AS. cauc.sohola. capitanus. we find the following passage Dap. 49. Ant. In the Alchemist. kaulhaupt (club-head. the same word with the It. whence the Fr. caphatenus. cheap. — Dief. Picard. -chron-. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. chevane. short piece kubbug. To Chouse. chevane. cresmeau. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. a lump or piece chump. soul-couper.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. that will thank chiaus — you richly. a trafficker in souls. xpi'^lia. i. E. ceo. From the Turkish Chiaus.. See Chaff. thick-set. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. noble Doctor. overset. Sp. 4.\^s. klompe. Jam. kubbr. merchant. claquer. by the Robert Shirley.—Chuokstone.). Fr. Anachronism. cauvette j Fr. Alchemist. cavena. ley in Giiford. the intestine of an animal. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. the teeth to chatter . who took in the Turk- clack. E.. a thick piece. traffic. Chough. slipper . Madam. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. kowej Sax. Chub.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. To Chop logick. A fish with a thick snout and head. high clog. chrisme. plump. chuet. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. a messenger or envoy. Gr. a small fish with a large head. caqueter. dealing. one who buys and sells horses or cows. equivalent to the E. — Chrisom. as Du. cheviniau. —Shakespeare. Confounded with the bullhead. of which such strings are made. Wall. to knock. gull. Fr.(.' Jam. applied to an owl in that language. The Turk was here As one should say. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. as in Fr. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . gobio capitatus. to clack. . dial. a stump. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. chevin. forms are Chrism. chapma?i. cangiare. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. — — — . for to defraud. See Change. Gr. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. whence e. e. That Face. from kloppen. chouette. choucas. a bullhead. ON. chroniques. . Come. — Quabbe.

incido. geaflas. an old man. . ceffore. cinctura {cingo. sinter. pith. kern. Probably from It. ON. a fellow. flower. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . The origin ation. a cutting round. kakka. ashes. giffle. Lat. Du. x^^i?. .rendered by Kil. to throw out sparks. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. -cide-. tie about). a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. Diss. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone.^. sindra. to cause the milk to grain. calx. .' he adds. The derivation from Kvpiasov. a resounding object. countryman. To chuck in the fall from. joufflu. cado.V//a'6'?. sindel. pp. Ka-^aiva. or choice part of a thing . i. sicera. ceaflas. Ir. KvptaKolg. G. AS. Sw. a lump. to make a aiKipa. to make a rippling noise. the snout of an animal. to form grains of butter. Cider. have given rise.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. ceaplas. to sparkle. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. chakil. 24. As AS. Cob. See Cheek. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. a girding on. a man. dust. chofe (Grandgagnage). -eris. chaps. ON. kjami. to fall. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. to jaw chack or snap. kernjen. we have to chack.. Du. . chife. kirna. Wall. chops. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. accido. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). thence a belt. Fr. ON.— Chu%. the kernel. to fall at or on. scoria. then the on oh StX iv roXt. Da. See Cheek.for the residue of stone coal. Fris. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). ciuffo. in circumcision. as Fr. a pebble . e. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. kiorne. joffu. sive piratiam facere sciant. with It the Lord's house. Jennings. spuma metalli. Chuff. to Newsp. as Epkema explains it. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. The spelling of chider has Chump. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. sintel. in the face. to turn from blossom to fruit. kerl. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . . Church. sindr. — . Lat. surly. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. lamak. Churn. or. -cido. a husband. set kerti. to fall upon decide. comp. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. cendre. chack or stane-chacker. It is certain. has been impugned which it has really no connection. Hence -cid-. -cise. AS. however. cinctus. C^z^j^ churHsh. swollen or puffed up Cot. blow on the I io6 in Mur. Gr. kaerle.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. to gird. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. Chunk. Cieling. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. Gr. G. but by way of explan. tindra. Gothic nations. to determine incision. &c. dial.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. whence church. cheek. cheeks Cincture. a miser. male person.' And cold. Wall. In Sc. — — A — ' ' — . a cutting an old chuff. log of wood.— . Lat. domhnach. whence deciduous (of trees). * Cinder. fat-cheeked. Du. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. residue of burnt coals. ceorl. to cut decide. a man. cinis. to strike clatter. jaws. calculus. as water running over rocks or stones. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. Aasen. whence ON. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. so as to make the happen . Cleland in Jam. -cisuiri). OFr. &c. from Lat. ceffo. chuffy. Lat. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. -cis-.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. as a board. See Ceiling. casum (in comp. klakka. Fr. as in E. cinders used disjunctively. that the word is an adoption of Fr.D. a pebble. chack-stone. i.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. in Sc. e. karl. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. — of the two words. a douse on the tores. cut off. ccedo. marrow. a rustic . but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. cidre. ladre from Lazare. to separate the kernel of the milk. to To Chuckle. . chofu. gffe. to churn. a man. Sicerawry face ceffata. Sc. ChurL husbandman. to him a sudden blow. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. from Lat. KaxXij?.

Lat. Fr. Lat. uproar. Hence Incite. clamare. cittade. domern. klak. clat. to toll . chupon. sound- — hands figures. Lat. outcry. Scion. a young and tender plant. or quill to draw waier through Fl. a lump Du. bunch . a judgment cern. Lap. to cry out. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. klimp. sound. clap. cieo. klamp. klump. kringla. Clump. Lat. klater-busse. a clod. cry. to call by name. See Circle. . lump . to be empty. clamp. circa. Circle. &c. 'mass. Alt. globus. to chatter. a whip. Dan. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. circ2tlus. clobyn. to chatter. castus). Gr. cit^. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. Lat. to summon or call on.— . civis. cisterna. circle. citujn. chupon. with an initial s instead of c. a rattle . a hiding-place. to bawl. clangor avium . of citta. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). The notion of a lump. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. as in Sp. KipKog. W. a. rattle. and. a city. cluster. Hal. Gr. a kind of rattle. klambr. smack. sip. whence cistiti. sprig. log. to chatter . lucerna.' sione. a split. glamm. In Fr. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. Comp. . Cot. a whirlwind. clack. . clump. a kind of pipe. noise — — a cistern. a ring. to knock. claquet de moulin. around. clamras. klammer. Fr. Du. hringr. a block. stimulate. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. area. dob. lump of wood or with the nasal. klabb. circum. forms — — — parent plant. — (Dozy) ing blow. around. to call. . a clod Russ. KpiKoe. cry out . * Cistern. —Civil. to appeal. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. chest. So a light. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. babble . to gnash the teeth. a reservoir Probably from Lat. sajira. clog. a'upiav. Fr. lash . klqb. CION See Tinder. circum. a rattle Fr. a lump Lat. may cite w. the place of . The Gr. cito. klekotati. Fr. accordingly find the roots dab. City. biw. dim. a place See place hiddern. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . a city. to call. chatter . Mack. Sw. clapper. prattle. . Tlie proper sense is a sucker. cion. twig. Excite. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. klubb. crack. clack-dish. klopati. crack. Sw. to clap at a theatre. Clamp. gutter. a lemon tree. glambar. and clash. Sp. fall. -cite. bunch. cittd. lump. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. a block. suck). city. We . Circum-. crack. klumbr. . clot ON. as caverna from cavus. It. chijfre. prattle. citrus. in the frequentative form. Dan. clapping of klacke. from chupar. to strike. sifr. belonging to cities or social life . kringr. radical identity of the Fr. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. a boss . cista. sphere gleba. cisterna. Lat. slam. From Arab. klepati. -cis-. a loud uksa slamketi. a circle. excite. —Circuit. rattle . klacken. scion or sucker. a Lat. civilis. * Ciplier. about. Clam. Recite. to clatter. clasp. clack. to set in motion by means of the voice. . to cluck. klappe. Cite. to mention. a cistern. a circle. Gael. to clack. Du. .. klap. It. sound of blow. klompe. G. klemte. a mass. is traced by Gr. noise. ruin. lump. ON. a knob. . a circle. Chaste. a citizen . creak les dents. compared with It. klateren. Arab. ring. ON. a pop-gun. for Cion. cittadella. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . We . a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. a ball. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. clambar. to go. To Claim. The syllables clap. parallel root is slam. clatCot. lump. claquer. clap. the door was slammed J slamem. Du. Citron. ter. lump.to suck. the tongue. and E. It. ciste. klappen. mass . See Crankle. clamp. cion. to make to go. kluV. klacke-busse. E. empty Golius. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. Lat. or clap-dish. G. a ball. . See -cid-. a shoot. a Pol. as. ball kloben. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. wasserkasten (water chest). or split with noise. scion. clack-box. ON. clamer. and Sp. To Clack. Gael. sindri. claim. a cleansing place. tinnitus . glam. cifra. civitas. . trunk. to cleanse. claquer crash. Bohem. ern. a for water. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. Citadel. E. vociferation. claquer.

gum. klettern. dren. Mampe. who occuG. Clap. klem-vogel. damor. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. a sound made by a lighter clink. solid. sound. a noose . A i. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. G. ring as metal. Du. cramp. to starve. See Clam. Clink.' klibba. cling. dam. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. Lang. cramp-iron. clapas. a stick. kleppen. klepanie. Clamp. yf. chatter. seize. compression. compress. dambar. dank. G. a bird of prey. to cleave or stick. viscous. . — . E. brawl. &c. dial. dem. buckle klamp. is used in the sense of secretly. anything hidden. viscosity . to climb. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. hold. In like manner Du. a heap of stones. of money Gael. hook. klam. resonance klingen. a stone See Claim. to stick conceal. Swiss kldbem. . of which the locative case. beating. nature . clangor. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. knocking. take hold of. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. Fr. diver. clap. a whip. pinching. club . prison. and hence moist. strain . clav\f. clear sound. to hide. daver. klappen. to pinch. as the clapping of hands. klamm. Bav. strait. clang. klam7n. to knock. tone. dang. offspring. E. conceal. sticky Hal. klavre. clandestine. sound object . dam immediate modifications — . OE. . The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. beat. dam. Bohem. Salainen. narrow. tingle. sound of the trumpet . klobber-saen. grimper. to Sw^. to claw oneself up. cleave. klippe. kleppe. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . To sticky. Clapper. Clan. privately. to Hal. dam. descendants . — Climb. to daub pinch. Dan. and hence to pinch . klang. a claw . klimmeii. cluster. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. a rattle . to cling. to stick or glue. grasp. accent. a heap of stones or other things piled up . to gingle. a sound. stick.p correspond- ' without order. sound . holdfast. klepati. also to clog up. klepel. a trap. These are imitations of a loud. kleppe. tremble .1. E. Swiss kletten. tinkle. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. clasp. to do anything with a clap. uproar. with cramp-irons. B.' to take coals to Newcastle. glambar. to glue. Sw. to seize. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. B. crowd . tenacious. sound. of the children. . to hook things together. gripe. Du. to knock. to beat. Clamour. klopfen. Russ. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. to dame. cream Manx doan. klampen. The Fr. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. klamme. clink. — — . to hold fast with the . Clang. coagulated cream. These words To are closely connected with damp. — with hunger. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. c). is a nasalised form of gripper. to clamp. to climb . klubber. clibby. scendants. or klamp-vogel. rumour. kloben. damras. dapier. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. adopted Lat. clammy brace. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. . Dan. To Clamber. Dan. klette. Du. Halma. salafa. klynge sig op. dienklebber. klappre. tight. rattle. substances of a stickydam. to glue. from the w. as the Lat. G. klammern. clapper of conies. a claw. G. to clap on. E. to patronus. to climb. Dan. dap up. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . dink Du. to clutch or cling oneself up. klank. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. — Lat. the in many languages. to clap. ancestor. clap. tattle. klebern. G. AS. G. where- A — unto they retire themselves. The E. gliong. to climb. klamre. massy. chatter. klibber. apprehend . klemmen. klatten. a burr. . To clap in E. ney. whence sala. but perhaps not directly from it. to. to climb. in a hidSen place. The root which gives rise to klibb. klemmen. Du. a loud tingle. klemmen. dia. dapier. clajnmy. children. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. salaan.. dapi^. dee. celo produces Fin. G. and that from celo. children. dandestinus. dientes. kleben. from birdlime.er. Gael. chief. for tame conies.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. a craCmp. clann. klappen. Lat. bandage. klammer. dial. to climb. a hawk. pressed close or hard together. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. klynge. Clank. originally a heap of large stones. hands or claws to grasp. Hence the Fr. run to lumps Clandestine. bond. clamber. The equivalent of Lat. closely analogous to that of the fast. to hold to pinch. contraction. a place underground where rabbits breed. kluppel. a sound made by a still . — Cot.

But clasp or elapse. Clatter. chiarello. same class with w. klot.oi. sound of the foregoing description. biichse. klamme. a lump . clatter. an on the one hand. locket of a door. Originally clasis. vin clairet. ivy. Du. and clavis.It. kiosk bicza. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. kleeven. klijven. a clasp. Du. to draw it up into a bunch.ck a whip. chasguear. Gr. in the sense of a claw. somewhat clear. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. as it is written by Chaucer. a distribution of things into groups. thwack . Prov. Sw. Klatsch- a pop-gun . to clash as arms. klase. from the resemblance to a key. &c. whence kleuer. schnalle. klaskad. chiaro clear. klaequivalent to clack or clap. classis. Russ. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. Rayn. under three modifications dava. subrubidum. the collar-bone. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. klampe. a lump. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. Kil. fibula. with a reddish tint. applied in their harness. From clairet.w or u on the other. Lang. also a knell for the dead. hawk. noise. vin claret. klos. E. clair. clausula. Thus from Lat. to patter. and shrill-sounding trumpet. the primary origin clapa. assembly. compression. Lat. klatschen. a key KKtitid. a kind of small. Nightingale. a clod. to animals Sp. Pol. K\a. fragor . . a club or massy stick. i. a claw. clamp. Fr. as G. kleuen. Du. In E. buckle. thence a definite head of an edict or law. clas. klatsche. the cracking of a whip. chiizjj-o. clarin. a key origmally a crooked nail. a sphere . skeria-klasi. mass. vinum helvolum. clew. Eya-klasi. Dan. a bird with powerful talons. It. Du. Thus from clamp. syrtium junctura. — tells us. a key. Clew. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. Class. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. rion. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. clavus. cinnamon.\x\xvn. The collar-bone. clausum. a heap. Clasp. and old red rose-water. cloi. to fasten together .. . Claw. a buckle. claret win e. nail. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. to clap . as Mod. a nail. we pass to the E. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. to snap. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. is preserved in Lang. and through v into a. teren. which signifies a ball in E.to cra. a water made of aquavitse. fracas. straight-mouthed. hook. from clinging to the tree which supports it. Identical with ON. diver. to cleave.Z. kluczka. clopa. To clew. ansa. clavis. The form clew. crying. klauw. seizes) . —Kil. a little hook . nawith stanis. to shut. is used in Sc. a complete sentence. pet. Sp. e. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. Lat. Clavicle. KXeiSi. Du. globus. rubellum. puUs. he of white and red grapes mingled together. Claret. &c. G. Mask ! plask ! thwick. climp. klc^i. clump. forms are the Du. Fr. pellet . in the sense of a mass or lump.Gr. flap. to ring in such a manner for the dead. an ending. stop of an organ. from its use in fastening things together. a lash. gaspe. globus. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. Fr. ictus resonans. blab. uproar. insularum nexus . cluster. — Clarion. From claudo. kletse. ghespe. Analogous Jam. In the same way is formed the OE. a. klatscha pop-gun. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. dap. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. sphaera. chiarino. klouwe. clew or fasten upon a thing.— CLARET clamp. row aii/iaTos. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. Lat. mass. or as G. glcis. from scknallen. Commonly made. biichse. Clause. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. it is called clamming. a bunch. to end. to fasten. Owl and that by which cleave to. waU. klatschen. klaterbusse. chatter. Wyutoun in Jam. Serv . — Clarinet. clairon. a ball. a. Clash. Lat. sauna de classes. The b readily passes into gleba. a claFr. to knock. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. Nawith stavis. Cot. klampvoghel. to do anything with a . — Kiittner. Eau clairette. So Pol. to rattle . contraction. klucz. 269. Du. claw (what fastens together. bawling. It. klauwe. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. clairon of a trumpet— It. klaeret.). klouwe (Kil. clarinado.

tongs. cleave. klinke. rivet. a key. klink. glor-mhor. neat. shine. Du. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. B. mud. klinke. klyft. is fast and sure. from nitere. . kloben. a cleft. klove The Dan. A — A Clement. smooth. Kil. a in that of sphtting. to chink. gingle. found in other cases. glent. and Dan.' was nailed to a rock. The word is . glatt. cliquet. as the Du. bright. diquetcr. ON. dags. klceg. famous. From clap. rive. G. clear. See Clog. klor. Omklinken. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. E. river. Cleft. kluit. clink. dench. Du. explained from the klinken. a mass. a fissure. clean. to clink or sound. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. Probably a modification of the word doitt. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. sticky earth. to clinch a nail. provinciaUy termed dout. sticky . it cleave together. radiant. the To Cleave. From dob. Du. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. glindse. kluft. glbram. that was Torriano. chaps in the skin. 2. a flash. kloben. glitnir. Clinch. Die zaak is zS. to dag ox dog. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. an object is simply cleft. To Clench. polish . to stick to. to sound or make a noise . to cleave. klirren. The word may be — . The proper meaning of the word is shining. clean. nitidus. voice. to fasten. klafwa. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. kluyte. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. speech . glan. to fasten E. a bunch of When flax). to shine . a clincher. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. a noise. klinken. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . splendid pohshed. and Celtic glan. to be composed. doggy. opposite senses. dial. Da. pretty. E. danche. kleevig. gleit. pellet. kleg. clean. the original . to fasten. to 2. that was a striking proof. sleek. vissticky .). glitta. klieuen. split. glandse. This word is used in two business is finished off. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. as ON. dag. deot. a fissure or division See Cleave. kldnkelein. kloben. kluftholz. or from being divided into two parts. ON. . Sw. dinquet kleeven. a mass. hook. . loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. clear. G. to clench. seem formed dial. To call. viz. Da. cloven wood. viz. together . klijveii. doff. pure. dut. klinke. a cleft. kleben. to shine. kla:g. a — — . and E. klouen. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. Bav. Clear. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. a one end. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. Lat. 154 CLAY dutch. Cleat. glance . klincke. ON. i. the fork of the body. klinken. a noose. words applicable sight. conserere antklankjan. celebrated . dams. clear. klieben. Halma. glint.— Clag. a lump. to Brilliant. . clash. rift. pure. a plate. clout. dedgy. glan. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. a cleft or fissure. Mar. Fr. W. and. gentle. to tear or cleave asunder. holding together. or of a tree. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. klouen. kloue. G. to separate into parts. Clay. as explained under G. sticky. of iron worn on shoes by country people. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. either by the coherence To Clepe. glan. Du. klank. in two ways. bend in a stream. merciful. daggy. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. klutsch. geklonken. loam. polished. calm.Q. date is AS. a claw or talon. clemens. clean. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. Wilbraham. from diquer. Sw. Clean. a latch. clibby. Sc. lump. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . Dan. klinka. as Lat. kleverig. Axletree clouts. bogs cous. to clinch GB.— Claggy. the latch of a door. This is probably one of the clean. Gael. klirre. Du. neat. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. door-latch. klinken. . Sw. gaklankjan. Clemency. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. (Cot. G. — : A rivet. klag. give a shrill sound Jr. as Fr. to glitter. E. . See Clam. Da. from the clinking of the latch. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. The Dan.— . to stick or adhere . AS. Lat. vice. klov. Thus from G. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. Du. the two parts of Du. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . glorious. Sc. clay . glbr. pure . a lump. G. kleg.

dial. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. derigo. cliquet. to tattle. klippe. the clergy clericus. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). klippe. &c. dichet. cligner. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. klikklakken. cleft in a rock. d See Clan. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. cleugh. See Clamber. Clerk. to wink. Commonly derived from deliver. KkrifoQ. to cleave. precipices. kliv. to seize. Clam. cliff. dicher. We movement catch. duik. Rouchi cliche. dutch). Du. CLERK sound of a blow. Bav. corresponding to the Sc. diquette. See AS. lively. to teU tales. rugged ascent. click. the knocker of a door. clatter. Clever. clever. neither as having lordship in the. rupes . The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. a clerk . as a click with the tongue. 3. to clack. click. call. one of the clergy. . a mill-clack . from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. Somner. region not observe it. a hook. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. G. Cliff. a cliff. AS. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. cautes. But the Dan. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. as Lat. abrupta rupes . the dick of a latch or a trigger. agile. klinket. to snatch. kleppen. Climate. OE. ginally from dob (extant in W. what so men clappe or crie. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. to cry. a tumbril. sink. clack. Hence Lat. a hump. klever. precipice. globus. would have been derida. or an object character- Clerical. crepare. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) .r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. clyf. littus. The Sc. had a form. klaffen. a sphere. chatter. temperature. Klover i munden.' ii. . derjon. deuck. verge). crack. Sp. call. click it. has also deik. clep. as Sc. a latch . scar. skard. deik. glomus. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. gleg. Sc. Chaucer. to catch. frap- per rudement une personne. Happen. crackle. cliquer. to tattle.dergie! Wiclif in R. and (with the nasal) — clincher. to catch. kleppe. Claw. — — A . dergi. IS5 Du. rock. hamraklif. kliket. klok klep- crepitare. in precisely the same sense as the E. dever. to rattle. expeditious. klinke. a baU of yarn. clerus. dial. dek. klev. in the sense of active.— Clue. catching. Clew. Det er en Mover kerl. cleft. klaiv. Lat. Norm. to talk as a parrot. -Toe (from KXivm. to prate. dob. to stir. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. a lot. cleft of a hill. chatter. a figure mentioned. Climax. from clifian. deudi. a latch. to confess . it must be observed. rock. deik. icXi/ja?. to bend. dial. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. See Clench. dough. a clicket or clapper. highest is attained. cave . deuch. Cot. to move. klinge. a precipice. clypian. with hamarskard. score7i clif. which in Mid. Clergy. babble. slope . derecia. click. prattle. klikker. to sound an alarm to clap. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. dexterous. klif. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. a clew. and hence climate. —Vocab. cleke. speak. nimble. a latch. a lump. kloof. a lazar's clicket or clapper. cart that tilts over. sonare. is NE. 3. cliof. de ripa. on.). claw or talon to dek or deik. has kl'dver. Du. Lat. In I Peter v.. rapidus from rapio. ravine. pen. whence Fr. seize (Hal. Du. a ladder. klika. Click. pulsare. corresponding to Fr. clever. Da. climate. from Gael glac. Jam. dink. dook (identical with E.Lat. snatch. e. chat. which is used in Scotch and N. Now the OE. — have the notion of a short quick in E. above the pole. diofian. a claw or clutch. in rhetoric. name. exactly Gr. chatter. the clergy. duke.— Clicket. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. a trigger. cleopian. Sw. clima. The origin is the Gr. Climb. a child's or clack . . say. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. ready of speech. klouwe. clif- stanas.) Brai. syn. light-fingered. an inclination. quick of perception. stein- kluppen. declivity. or Sc. that is a clever feUow. and hence deik. clap. on. a cleft in a rock . . Client. a ball of twine. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . CLINCH De . G. clif. one admitted to the tonsure. Gr. Dunbar in Jam. Fr. diver. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. ized . quick in motion. Lat. a hold. /cXi'fia. derigon. Boh. as from derido.

Du. toga muliebris. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. Hal. sloping forwards. to sound sharp. a ball of thread . to open and shut with a snap klippchen. klepalo. Serv. S w. G. to shrink up. also to wink . kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. . noise. ON. kluppe.. knippchen. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. Fr. . Bohem. to knock. to AS. a beU. incline. a hood. Decline. or bagging clothes. whence E. clog.D. nip. Clock. Sw. chcng. . bow. clino. klocke. clips. kolbe to E. klippa. See Clang. klippur. To Cling. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. . to clip. hooded . klippa. klippen. Gr. ON. klynge. clingan. glocke. a lump of butter. kluben. a lump. schnippen. and so' to contract. fetter. straits. as thick or curdled liquids. to wither. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. to cling to a thing. toga. brett-glocke. knot klynge. Gael. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. to beat on the board.. klok. — clot. klupen. to strike. kXiVu. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. clinker. Bi klik uti klak. like cling. klo^gen. gang. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. as to snip in the same sense from snap. to lean. Ir. cloak. Sussex peasant AS. Cloak.— Clot. clivus. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. gUong. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. pinch. . Cliofue. klaka. iissura. to make a loud noise. Clink. to form one mass with. klinken. Swiss klungele. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. Swiss klokken. The notion of a loose moveable substance. speaks of a ' clung bat. Sw. difficulty . declivis. sloping upwards procUvis. &c. to slope or bend . I. Kil. Walach. sloping downwards . to shrink up. pallium. OHG. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. hlinian. klingen. to wither. Fr. Da. klicke. To Clip. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. dial.'— Shaks. Lat. a clock. by bits. also to form a compact mass. Sw.' From Pl. quincailler. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. a clog or fetter for a beast . being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. * Clod. G. to beat. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. 'Till famine cling thee. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. . hill . dial. G. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. hluccti. ' . recline. G. kolki-laud. tuft. in Schmeller) klunk. to pinch. kol- The word . It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. To stick to. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. to snap tongs. disposed to a thing. Sw. w. clangere. four of the bell. to resound. Sw. hlinen. a cluster. Lat. kukla. . a separate portion.. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. cochl. incline. to cluster. a rising ground. E. ten. outcry. dial.ginglej Fr. to snip. rima. Du. E.und zuk-lippen. club). compress . have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. See Cowl. to pinch klupe. klunker. sticky. slant. kima. . clato make a noise. G.' for a dry stick. to clunge. to lean backwards. kliks. to crowd or squeeze chingy. -CLINE make pinch. 2. to clap or clack. g. .D. klippe. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . Du. to clink auf. Du. acclivis. and a similar syllable without the /. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. klunge. klungelin. a faction. G. a tinman. klinka. ON. as G. klipa. a lump G. parva ruptura. Bohem. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. clutch. -atum. hluk. klocka. kldpp. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. at first probably on a wooden board. claw. To cut with shears. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. Pl.. Ang. cloche. shears. 156 -cline. N orman clincailler. klik. and 'E. klungeln. to snap kneipen. Esthon.— KSS. a snare. to ring. — a mantle. to snap or fillip schnippen. knippen. klincke. from klepati. globulus' (Gl. klak. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. glungelin. to . pinch. a woman's mantle . dial. The E. klocke. clique. clinke. -cliv-. dag. a bell. met. to bend downwards . from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. kleppe. clock is a variation of clack. to crowd together klynge sig ved. knippe. related to clock. ring clag. Flem. especially of something soft or clammy. a bell. difficulty. as we now say three or four o'clock. Een kliks bolter. verklungeln.

cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. tJokok. Swiss schlott. -cludo. shut up. bemired. . dirt. I doda clod. finish . Pr. to rattle. shut up. loppe. da- . geschlotter (as E. a skittle-ground klos- sen. klotz. Du. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. . 3.— Clothe. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. clogs for the feet klakk. and E. . klot. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. slobber. a field inclosed clos. Yule-clog. a lump from Du. . kloster. schlotter. Hence inclose. slop. lump of something soft . be found rattle. Gr. G. mire. klokotat. to dash like heavy rain. claggy. beklakken. m&se noch stain. TZoxapov. lob. to sup up liquid food. a log. Cloister. neither spot nor hang loose. I clodde. is a blot on one's character. dag. . sticky dag stick or adhere clegger.' end. mud. slobbe. lag.D. je amoncele. congeler. . . to shut. I clodde. . or Sc. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. Fr. and thus seem endowed . slobberen. zoccoli. a bal!. lopin. AS. we pass to Schlatter. mud klcEg. miry laggerit. to close against one. claudo. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. -clus-. we pass to E. chiudere. spot of dirt. or drablyn with separate existence. to slop or spill liquids. motzen. from Fr. lopperig. lump of mud on the clothes . Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. a blot. plod. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. in accordance with Pl. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. daustrum. A .). Klottermelck. to spill liquids. kladde. loose. to flounder in the wet. then liquid or loose substance. clatk. . without. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. to shut. tramp in wet or mire. klos-bane. inclose. doitre. lunch. claque. IV. dangle. to flap as loose clothes. schlattern. Idppern. to bubble. blot. wabbling from Du. In the same way Dan. fat. . klateren. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. hanging loose and full. compared with clump. kloden. paddle or dabble in the wet. The origin of clod and clot is to . a block. a trowelful of mortar. schlott. wide bagging clothes. clos. to claggock. klunkern. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. unctuous. from Du. a clod Swab. . and Du. laggery. tuditare. klod. He was a man without a dag. -close. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. of something clammy or heavy. It.rge lump. schlottern. lobbig. of a body of any kind. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). loblolly. to a. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. loose trowsers. Mat. A — — A Thus from Bav. clausum. a blot. paludosus. close. klotzschuh. gelatinous. bespotted with mire E. dunch). in comp. a spot. Clog. Pr. klag. to rattle or shake to and fro. to shut up. pattens G. loppered (of milk). klac.'^ Palsgr. splash. to bodies. slabberen. slab. closed. Dan. clotted locks Dan. aspersion. clorre. fors. schlettern. shaky. clog or overshoe. clammy loam. to dabble. a clod. to cling locks. lumps of butter. to bedaub. foreclose. laggyn. . clot. . lobberen. pludre.dial. the radical sylla. lump of butter. or E. from claudo. curdled. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. Close. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. loose mud. motte. a clog. Fr. . Fr. klakk. be&c. MHG.. forbidden by 17 Ed. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. meat from Du. dial. To Clog. His heart was franlc without a flaw. thick sour milk. a monastery. bloutre. Sc. Lat. klos. ! . boil. kloteren. Klak also. is connected with pludder. . kleck or lack. in accordance with It. bowl . clausum. like G. zocco. truncus. -clusum. to play at bowls. log.. • lump. figer. separate part. Closhe. E. Fr. and Gael. chiuso. an imputation. lobberen. terminate. clos. a portion of something soft and adhesive. dirt. to shut in. Bav. a log. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. thick spoon . clotted milk klotte. E. Russ. paddle. Pm. a dirty wench claggy. or loppern. analogous plan to clod or club. clogs. slops slodderen. g. dab. to wabble.1a. kleck. Du. spatter. to dabble. klakken. to paddle in the wet. kloten. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. slops). to rattle. kl'dnken. to lobberig. a babbler. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. enOE. with Fr. cloth. G. klottern.D. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. kloteispaen. slob. rattle. Lat. whence klack. in forms like Du. watery. The game called ninepins. a Christmas log. daggerey. Pl.

D. ON. AS. dial. a ball. G. dirt. from kloven. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. lump. clump.ft. probably from daboter. Sw. — . a clove of garlick. a lump. of sloppy materials. . lump. clot . klotsen. knob. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. botch. clods. are also used in the sense of a stopper. tered . klqb. clod. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. Then applied to a lump of mate. Fr. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . klumpfot. a fissure. coarse. wisp.158 .bar. to cleave or the splashing of water. a knot of people. to a lump.). This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. ON. of a lump of earth and that figure. To Cloy. duthaich. kUid. w. matte. a bunch. sheltered up warm. of nagel. loggish. klever. dob. a lump. nourish . ball of thread Russ. make warm. puddle. klubb. E. klubb. een klaven kruflook. Pl. a sticky. log. formed lump or thick mass. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. mary sense is a blow. with lout. and clout d eudaich. Imitative of the note of a society. lump of earth aria. a thick mass. mire. to strike . klaven. klebek. and clay. hebes (Kil. group of people Sw. davus. to stop. E.). diboter. Properly that which covers and Du. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. Sp. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. a clot or keeps one warm. clot. dial. klump. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. kl'dnne. Du. a log. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . Clown. a. rustic. Clover. the terms expresssplit. Du. strike. clue. a sky Cot. klu77ip. boucher. to splash. a bunch. Club. cluth mhor. 2. and tapp. Clumpered in balls of clouds. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. a clown. clunch. To Cluck. clump of a clout on the head. Du. shel- kloen. a clod or clot. a . bunch. chiodo di girofano. cob. del mattond. zolla dell' . a garthas. warm. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. clammy earth. G. sheltered . mass. The radical sense seems to be an unE. eene ODu. a blabber. dote. . klobbersaen. cobble. esdaboter (Roquef. . aglio. to cloy. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. a bousche. but confounded with cailler. caillebottes. nagelein. a bunch. dump. a patch. a curdled sky. clavo di especias. clog. clunch. Kiittner. lump. cludadh. clyd. lie clyd. G. to cleave. and -the word Clove. Ir. More in R. N. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. as Fr. From dog. kluppe. Cld. daggy. kloete. klotz. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). and closely do conspire. CLOUD an awkward clod . Clump. Rouchi dapoter. block. dillad bumkin. dial. Dan. a breach. dash (Cot. dut. tuft. Cloud. piece Cot. Mabousfrom Lat. choke or stop up. Sw. also homo obtusus. milk run to lumps. a clod. Das volk hat sich in splitten. sticky. kluV. A kind of spice resembling Du. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. clotted milk or cream. kldverj P1. zolla. CLUCK rustic. In the same way E. Du. . blockish. So Fr.D. clumhar. The significations of a clod or lump. Move. dabaire. unpolished. klubba.' Sanders. knob. . w. are often connected. I. clou de girofle. lunch). clod is used in both senses . kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. Gael. klonte. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. in the same sense. It. a bobbin. naegel. to lump mend clumsily. klcBdi. to tramp in the kluyve.D. klubbe. clot. clothes). to cherish. cloud Delfortrie. de Champ. (kruyd =. cluster. The priClout. from W. dabosser. of thumping clumsy action. A division of a root of garlick. from OFr. cobio. a nail. to strike. a ball of twine . to curdle. a ball. klotzig. warm place . Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours.). clydion. a log. little nails. from Du. nelke (dim. the air. clobyn. ser. klumba. a ball. AS. Met. klove. botsen. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. . a nail) Fr. mud (Pat.Fris. clothes ment. a clubfoot klabb. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. Du. a cover or coverture . warm clothes {dillad. and of a rustic unpolished person. klieven. stock. to beFr. indispalte knoblauch. kloven. motte. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. Gael. dys. when something has got into the touch-hole.). spice) G. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. Du. klunds. cludaim. to cover Bret. a boss. — — — . warm. eine to slop.clod. clothe. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. G. E. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. lumps of curd.

or from Sw. klisse. Lat. a couch. with E. -CLUDE hen Du. klemma. a ball . to tramp or tread heavily. coccolare. xXvariip. to squeeze. dek. Graff in Klamjan. strum on an instrument. But clunchy. 159 E. klcise. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. ON. —To Clumsyd. In the same way Du. unhandy.'— animal. beklummen. dial. algidus. Lincolns. close. obstructum. to lie. glocire. claws. conclusion. having the Pl.' Comfort ye dumsid. -close. are the nasalised forms of klotte. koetsen.. klemmen. klos. koetsie. a clod or The noclot. Clump. verkommelen. calling her chickens. finish. dussomed (Wilbrabam). wagen.pare P1. G. cleik. Hence snatching. a litter. clotted cream. cliboter. smart motion. beklommen. to tramp. Hesse. — sen. Sp. cleuk. to syllable click. to grip. as clumper. fingers (familiar). to to snatch. to klotz. dial. Hindust. Du.E. klods. a lump. with a quick. klunsen. limp.— — . a ball. ' Clumper. Coal. Champ. dial. glousser. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. E. cleche. a block. * Clump. dumps. awkward. klont. . log. G. clumsy. a noise. The sense of awkward. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. wooden sole. Pm.mene tied. klimpern. Fr. klomje. koetblockish. unhandy. —More. to pinch. er. clabosser. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. whence koetse. to curdle. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. Du. or aclommyde. dek. benumbed with cold.P. an instrument for nasal form e. clausum. kol. Fr.D. idle. eviratus. eene beklum. G. as Fr. exclude.D. in comp. tight — — . clump. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. klamp. and make ye strong feeble knees. hands stiff with cold.' Vegecius in Way.' Benecke. A group. Boh. klunt. . havi. a clove Sw. klamen. of garlick. -clus-. bunch. claw. a nasalised form of club. * Clumsy. a clod or lump. to wash. crooked inwards . ill-made . wooden shoes. to paddle or dabble. ball as snow. a lump or compact mass. hooknosed. E. G. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. clip or pinch. plad or plod. rial. Fr. a clot klissen. klump. Com. MHG. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. klummklummshandt. — . 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. ' Thou clontsest for cold. -olus-. Riwle. Teulazy. splash. clointer. Hence cleik. Sc. through the senses of lumpish. from ON. klompen. viscous material. klobber in klobbersaen. -clusum.forklomme (Outzen). Sw. Compare Swiss klupe. in v. to wash.Ancr. Du. lump of soft mate. &c. It. ' . Du. klonte. Du. clutch. from laver. to rinse. n. ball of snow on horse's foot . ment. Analogous forms with a tongs. to gingle. dumpers. dumpse. Lat. heavily. and klonteren. Muster. kluntfrom KKvKdi. eviratus. COAL dumpish. may recline. Ang. The Fr. Isaiah. ether comelia P. . also a cluster. lavesen. klumpern. might be reached from clump. clutch. kohle. Ray. claudo. verklomen. Variation of clatter. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. MHG. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. cluntClyster. the word is more probably connected with OE. clook. duke. . Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. klummerhdndt. to curdle. Sw. to shut. Gr. klontet. Clutter. a clod clunter. a pinching time. — Hence include. to collect in lumps. Cluster. lay hold of. 130. as from seken. -cludo. unwieldy Hal. dystere. See reclusion. a coach. seize. Fris. and klotteren. Cath. hand to cleuk. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . klonte. klette. Cheshire.D. Coach. klumpig. koetsDa. esclaboter. klampa. klister. klikaty. a lump. See -elude. doquear. differing only in the absence of the duik. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. of Du. Pl. unfashioned.e. coucher became in unhandy. a claw. to curdle. gelidus. paste. thick and clumsy. inclusive. Beklummen van kelde. ' Uorte (for clogs. cluster. and koetse. dial. carriage in which you klodset. OHG. conclude.D. from klupen. properly to do anything Fr. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. — ' — — tonista. — Cot. From the notion of sticking together. pinched. pladdern. OE. to tramp. kichlemmit.' Wycliff.D. enervatus. hondis. to benumb with cold. a clod or lump. klomen. Pl. Clutch. -elude. to stick together . awkward. a bunch. acomelydfor could Pr. clopiner. klikonosy. klocken.

itself is Nescock . cule cocosse. give the full meaning of the word. koppe. atter-kop. imbecille. petrilla. spinne-ivebbe. things. dial. and jval. e. Formerly written course.' Nares. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. coalesce. frock. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. that is. to cob. Colina' the place where a fire is made. are round stones or round coals of small size. a large round nut cobstones. When the . dial. cock or nescock. broddelen. kop-ar. dial.).' And colo. — Pr. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. e. s. gull. flame. caleo. the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes. dial. from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . a rib. Fr. from bearing a bag. cob. unfledged bird.— Cobble. are often connected. To cokes or coax one then is to make a w. grown together.the water boils. k'dlla. ON. a spider (/r)^=grub. to cobble shoes. 3. to grow together. niais. to glow . gull. Fr. coste. glow jvalaya. then to work unskilfully . koppen-gespin. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . a bungler. staggering or halting. — Cleveland Gl. .. pustule. a sow.(pi. bijamie. blaze. to beCoax. to stammer. a kitchen. It. a pock mark. united. an egg. cob.inflated with air or liquid. to pdt with We may cite Fr.. Fr. verkommelen. pustule. quele. one Pr. as in arr. . a cobweb. OE. nursery lang. says Varro. — — — E. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. — Cobbler. of poison. It. to peck as a hen cobyn.' — Thus from (Hal. kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. Flem. s. hakkelen. from a root signifying Traces of such a deto glow or burn. cluster. throw a blow. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. ordinary as in the expression of course. in Du. See Cot.—Atkinson. A spider's web. to kindle jvAla. klabbare. the one of thump. and imperfect or unskilful action. cacd). E. v. a darling. boil. walk clumsily. H^cart. and thence a lump cobnut. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. side . to be inflamed . universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place. cokes or fool of him. dim.). to worship. kuppa. Trevoux. cochinilla. probably left his home. a coat or frock. niais. cokes was a simpleton. quilet. burning. Pm. koljarn. is one of thump. rivation are found in Sw. The contrast between the bee • Cob. dial. to stutter. to form an union with another coalitus. bredouiller. Coalesce. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. . a woodlouse.a spider. Du. probably from the Fr. . large stones . . a tuft. according to the ordinary run of events. Outzen. Fin. T' waerkopet. small pox (pocks) . to stutter. to speak or act confusedly. or E. The Fris. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. properly to daub. A plausible origin. a nest. kop. Pm. acomelyd or aclommyd. — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. in Essex Jow*2c^. to wheedle or gull vermin). or cobble. however. and the spider as collectors. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. Lat. Dan. to Lett. long standing. tuft. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment.). to burn. a great falsehood. cobble. costa. to be hot. sweets and the other of poisons. klabbsmed. numb. also a coast. woman is said to be very ordinary. a firesteel Lat.