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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). persons of different tongues at the present day. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. and mully or mully cow is the . and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. The syllables moo (mu. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. and where we are seeking. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. in other words. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb.NURSERY IMITATIONS. the closer we shall approach to the . children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. by whom the be understood. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. muK) and mae (rfie. in language of the present day. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. when neither name for the object to be designated. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. and. is given to a cow or calf. Molli. name of the cow. the present day. with an initial m or I. come Moolls. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. mind of the of the animal. or Mollein. to the syllables which are significant to the child. but nothing she herself knows the animals. the baaing of the sheep. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. or. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. when we is represent to our children of the cow. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating.

&c. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. mumm. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. as well as the mind of the utterer. in children's language. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. and which we might express thus. for everything fit to eat. he called to to drink. First. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. by the natural humming sound. when hungry. We have. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation.' In ordinary speech mump. to work over with the mouth. He would now say good.' he says. Gradually. analogous to Magyar mammogni. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. On one occasion he said^e nim. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat.. schipp. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. his nurse adopting the word with him. and nim came to signify everything edible. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. . in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. Finally an n was placed before it. hm. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. nim. . there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. A member of my own new sfop. nineteen years old. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. and some were very clear and distinct. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. family. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. p. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. I had watched the growth of this word. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. to For instance. for things. to eat. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. had nim. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer.). A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. then. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. Gr. became more perfect. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. partly from sounds which the child caught. 72). ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. for bad. Heinicke. repulsive to eat. fiafifi&v (Hesych.

to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. to smack in eat. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. make djamdjam). j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. agreeing with Ein. clangorqae tubarum. snatched (Whitby Gl. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. nam. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. iii. dial. to eat mampfen. to move the lips in continued chewing. voracious. as to . we can call them so. and thence to be tasteful. to mump. palatable. to be pleamind . Galla djam djeda. to fill the mouth. Sprach-philosophie der Alten.). tidbits nama . to taste . greedy . (in chil- dren's language). nvrnma. A negro proOr. 1 86). ' id est. at hiamske i sig. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. to take. food (Tylor. on. delicacies. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. and some of them . crab nam buckra man. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. mujnpa. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). mumble. savory. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. i. jumla. mumpfeln. yamming.' says Quintilian. Gothic niman. ' Motherwell. Soosoo (W. mumpfen. p. lita. sweet (Koelle). ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem.ONOMATOPCEIA. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. Nimm'd up. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere.minis.' says the author of Modern Slang. to Sw. eating. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. namnam. Primitive Culture.' — Lersch. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln.' And Diomedes. aves tinnire. jammla. and the crab — p. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. memmexen. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. to chew laboriously. aptantes adfectibus vocem. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. buckra man's language the white man. and the fizzing (and Series. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). i8o. j ing . oves lalare. taken up hastily on the sly. Swedish dialect gamsa. jamsa (yamsa). . ut tinnitus aeris. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). The Chinese child uses nam for eat. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. Wolof nahenahe. stolen. or word-making. Vei (W. nobis vix permittitur. Africa) nimnim.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. Africa) nimi. 130-1. South Jutland hiamsk. to eat. the Scotch poet. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. nyam nyam. as well as the Sw.

grunting or squealing of hogs. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . lowing of oxen. bellowing of bulls. purring or mewing of cats. We . chirping of sparrows or crickets. not of a moo of Lect. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. between dog and harking. chattering of pies or monkeys. a lamb. bleating of sheep. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. twittering of swallows. cackling or gaggling of geese. Indeed. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. or thoughts of our hearer. or.' he says. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. snarling of dogs. might be used as the designation of it. 89) with less hesitation. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. whether it deserves the name of language. barking. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. dove and cooing. anything connected with it. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. gobbling of a turkey-cock. baaing or maeing of lambs. before the in other words. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. cooing or crooing of doves. might be used. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. croaking of frogs or ravens. hooting of owls. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language.' — We speak of a cow. intended in the instance to represent the cry. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. not of a baa. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. but of a dog. yelping. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. 'I doubt. neighing or whinnying of horses.' And elsevs^here (p. Yet we ing.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. yelping. sparrow and chirping. howling. bumping of bitterns. do not speak of a bowwow. that there is When Man. for the purpose of bringing the animal. ^6^. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. snarling.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. p. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. und growling. when circumstances required.

harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. or quawk.' common sense. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. a crow (Pictet). Picard cau. crow. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. 4th ed. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It.). in is Gr. a crow. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. whose sound (Pictet. gackem.. in g. Barabra koka. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo.IMITATIVE NAMES. and gaggele or gagkelein. it announces (Salaberry). and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. Origines Indo-Europeennes). He to is therefore derives kdka.' kd). We imitate the sound with a modulated. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). a a crier (p. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. 380. according to Durga). layitavya . Sometimes the hoarse i . fi-om apakd- i. Kdrava. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. Georgian quaki. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. Columbia kahkah. and Bavaria respectively. sound). We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. kauwe. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. Hungary. Arabic kdk. Manchu The kaha. kae. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. and the sound of that direction. lion. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. 'Kdka. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. birds. KOKKvi. 349. In Basque.). e. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. a daw. kuho. and means a shouter. In Lat. caw kuhii-rava (rava. caller. having a general predicative power. a bird that is be driven away. Malay gdgak. kdka. is kuM) for the cuckoo. Sauscr. ist ed. coccolare. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. crow. Bav. ghak. Aoo-Aoo. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven.

xviii IMITATIVE NAMES.. a crow lish Lith. a crow. Magy. gugu.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. to croak.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. are represented. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. Mod. tur. Ibo akoka. Swedish kowipa. another. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. Du. by the verbs gurren or girren. and sometimes both together. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller.. kuku. German luhu. lilits. k. 219. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. xi. libufs. t. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. The crowing of cot in Fr. Zulu kuku. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. cock. 6. a crow . while crouk. The consonants p. the name of an animal will gen- . tbrtola. Albacuculi a dove. name of its is the bird. German and Eng- krahen. It. coccovaec. giving turtur (and thence It. Scotch peeweip. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. German kielitz. kraeyen. Esthonian kikkas. Fr. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . to croak. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. Sp. to hoot. Arabic tdtwit. koeren. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. reduplicate form.Gr. kurre. uhu. tuquheit. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. yell. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. lulo. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. tor. French dishuit. lUyrian kukurekati. synonymous forms of similar structure). to crow. krahe. name. either in the same or in related dialects. kukhuta. teewhoop. Pers. Dutch kievit. to howl or Lat. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. Hindi. korren. to cry loudly. Da. kruk. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. kirren. ghughu. So we have Polish krukac. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. in the North of England. great variety of oKokv^uv. to crow. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. Du. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. coucouva. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. and e. krauklys. hibou. Heb. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. Malay kukuk. p. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. tbrtora. tortbla. Lettish kiekuts. and e. kraukti. as well as of Sanscr. kukko. gufo. or Gr. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. kraeye. girre. "Welsh hwan from hwa. turtle) as the Lat. wood-pigeon. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. the name for a crow. Yoruba koklo. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. coqueri- Languedoc. Walachian coucouveike.

humming. German drohne. to hum. ta-na-nd. of England it is to the b 2 . sirkka. Fin. words imitative of humming . of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. a drone. growling. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. North of England. in allusion to its music. a beetle druna. g. cricket is from crick. swirplys with 6. chirk. German hummel. dhran. schrecke. buzzing. to be compared with Sanscr. e. bamba. and yelping cry. Sanscr. The Arabic sarsor. to creak Bret. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. the drone or non-working bee . We may cite Gr. zirken. to grumble. and probably indicates that g. Lith.' — i. skirl. with or Fr. or a gnat fly. skryle. The drone peal. resound. a bee. to sound. g.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. flight its sting considered as a horn. 'The natives call it tanand. Corean sirsor. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. booming. from the humming. Lat. Arabic tantanat. and he kong-ko-rong. to shrill sound sharp. Lithuanian tranas. Danish dron. which they make in their flight very . glass cracking (Schmeller).IMITATIVE NAMES. buzzing. grille. ' — Pictet . give a faint sound. the humble. a hornet. Australian bumberoo. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. In the N. oE. Sc. from schrick. shrill. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. bambhara. gives rise to chwymores. g. The Welsh chwyrnu. knetta. resounding of musical instruments.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. din. Speaking of a cricket he says. Danish gnaddre. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. Albanian tsentsir. to rustle. droning is . German dronen.' —Tennyson. succeeding each other — with noise. a small as hawk is .or bumble-bee. horniss and from the buzzing The. — Catafogo. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. whirr). to chirp J may be compared with . frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. loud rumour. schwirren. to chirp . the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. Naturalist on the tocano. Gaelic dranndan. as . ' Sanscr. grillen. a sharp sound as of a 6. skril with n. The name of the cricket indeed. i. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano.' Amazons. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. common. kong-kong. little intermission. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. (Jieuschrecke) . bee. grylhis. representing a short sharp sound. PofijivXwg. schirke. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. a fly (Tylor) . thunder. there are infinite varieties. Northern Farmer. pip-pi-ta. hollow noise. ajo. 337. and not from E. We may compare the Parmesan tananai.vf3. schrickel. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). sound.

or with on. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. OFr. mamoo-heeheek. Thus from miau. is inadmissible. or bau-l-i. miau-l-er. a Geiger. to or bark. or a z to the imitative syllable. to make. bae. to make a noise. a bullock. a drum . On the same principle. to shout. to low or bellow. Norse bu. bukati. verbal form given to the say. verb is evidently identical with our shout. Piedmontese fi bau. Gael. bugler. Fr. ox. Manx booa. to bow- own bawl. or moo. bucula. biibnas. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). a heifer. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. bue.XX called booing. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. the animal. (iove. to beat hard. to weep. to shout. bubenti. — ^Tylor. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. and djeda. The Galla lilbil. Illyr. The Piedm. btibleti. agreeing exactly with Lith. Galla boa. It. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. or formed Lat. loge. and thence Lat. fivKaofiai. mugire. to boohoo. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. make poo. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. bos. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. whence baula. to bellow like a bull. baula. maukati. lulauti (to hoo-loo). has bilbilgoda. are (with a subsidiary k). Lat. 167. buculus. to bump as a bittern Illyr. to make a loud deep sound. bauli. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. From the same lioao). to low. bugle. bwla. With these analogies. to ba-L-are. make to it laugh. shoot . muJiati. Lat. bovis. Cult. to . ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. His analysis leads cow. the Fr. in a imitation of a ringing sound. bullock. a buffalo. cattle. bu. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. p. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. grumble as distant thunder . bo. Fr. as that of the cow by boo. forms a. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. bullus and e. amuse. boo. bubati. to the uses goda. to from bau. say. be-l-er. k or g. to mew. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. bae. to make. representing the mew of a cat. and from to ring. Lat. bull. in same way. to low . and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. w. representmake bow. Da. From baa. that the imitative syllable are Lith. Zulu lulula. to sound. bolt. Hottentot bou (Dapper). as the Illyr. mugler. w. and in Hottentot baa was the . a name preserved in our bugle-horn. mae. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. a cow. a bull. from the imitative moo instead of boo.

smack and naski. grogner. to bleat. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e.). meigeal. Hence Breton hoc ha. to howl. menAda (ndda. .have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. in Wolof bae. as the proper name of a tame sheep. Kurren und murren. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. a pig. Fr. / The same Gr. (iriKov of forms like Sw. mecati. /xj/caScj. although the imitation embodied in Lat. hundi). name of the animal itself. nire. . If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. cry). ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. or in any ! way ! persuading. and of (maelon). meugler. meketati. the snout of a pig. Moreover. and grumphie. purr). grunlike a pig in eating. Gr. in v. from hundama. a grunt. Illyr. grumble. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. hunt (gen. grunny. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. The g. Fr. a sow. a goat firixal^ta. And it is true there between hog and grunt. to themselves. a sheep or a goat. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. and Circassian maylley. a. undoubtedly imitative. Manx meilee. Welsh and Breton). to grunt. may be identical with Esthon. Africa laa. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. Gael. lekavica. a dog. a hog. and thence groin. ^. 6. a sheep (Lowe). — . with the root ypaipm. a sheep or ewe. naskia. Idgge (Rietz). does not produce a e. leg-et-ni. a pig Fin. ' In driving. sheep or goat. the designations of a dog the term cur. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. grunt. cite as by grunt. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. hadg- Magy. he would hardly. oe. sus-sus. Among dog. sound. . and snorke. hwch.' Moor's Suffolk words. from knurre. lambs. /xijeao/iat. goats. groin. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. grumpf. grugno. Illyr. to rumble. curmurring. hund. hound. and with the subsidiary k or g. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. signifying a snarling. knurfisk. it and e. a (Hesych. karra. G. a wolf. It is probable also that e. to bleat. From the imitative mae. a goat. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. kurren. for the voice of the ox). houch. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. grumble. guttural tone. Da. to growl. kurre. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. Illyr. corresponding to ohg. name of a sheep. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). mekegni. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. a goat. hunon. Gr. rumbling. meckern. meil. a sheep. name. may with to snarl. to bleat . we have Sanscr. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. mutter. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. this obstinate race. by which the shingle gives rise to It. lecco. and hoc'h. Magy. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. a sow. as lou of an ox. growl. grumbhng. leknuti.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. Gr. With gen. to grunt. lek-eg-ni. It.

it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. hiine. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. There are of course some names. . and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock.). hobin. If onomatopoeias can . whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. as in Yorkshire highly right. 91. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. of the character in question. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. hobben. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. a horse.' — ist Series. like artificial flowers. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. when he found peculiarity. e. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. coquette. g. Sc. without a — we root. turn a horse to the is In Finland. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. houpy in Craven.' 2nd Series. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). a mare. ^6<. hoppe. So Sanscr. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. a little am- bling horse.' ticular bird. to go backwards. . the cry to stop or back a horse. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. But words of this kind are. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino.. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. humma.root. from the cry animal. Esthonian hoibo. (Craven Gloss. p. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. such as cuckoo. animal. hottihuh. M). coquelicot. to the left.). cockade. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. hobby. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. p. Thus we are led to the Fr.. to whine. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language.

signified It. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. giggle. to Sanscr. form corresponding hresh. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. . moan. hresh. Irieschen. Du. nounced with a guttural). extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. Pl. Fr. wrena. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. hresh. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. wagtail. hross. creeper. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. to neigh. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. runniken. Sanscr. Bohem. wrenska. Sw. hukkup. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. woodpecker. redpole. g. little speak for themselves. rinchar. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. lapwing. than to the sounds represented. Sp. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. goatsucker. horse. swift. wiehern. ginniken. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. whitename in in- throat. hikkd. but whether there kind between them and other words. titter. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. sol.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. diver. groan. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. e. nitrire. ance or habits of the animal. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. xxiii ginal object. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. as sigh. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast.D. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. frenschen. fehtati. Lettish sweegt. command of language was attained. hennir. animals or certain kinds of sound. cough.

to sneeze. the God of thunder . aritischane. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. &c. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. to hammer . Da. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. heart tick-tack. pit-a-pat. Mei gbengben. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. to ham. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted.' So imac. White Lies. knarr. klatsch.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. Vei gbangba. root kshu. ping came the bullets about their ears. haw. dong Read. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . to drive on. hoo ping ping. on the chops is represented also by pratx. oren : Klapp. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack.' ! ! ! ! — dong. for the sound of a fall. are familiar in ' to every one. DingBang.' it both sides went. for blows with a rod. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. fitsche-falsche. ding. a more expressive than the e. thunder (Tylor) . Wtb. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. lumm. for the sound of a blow. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . atchini. for that of breaking. tisio (tisho). snore. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. bang ' ! trenches.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. snukkup). for the creaking of a wheel. to knock. pump. knack. strippstrapp-stroll. debhes-lungotais (deifies. bang. bangas. plitsch-platsch. —Brem. to beat. heaven). — Sanders. banke. clap ! A smack Puff. hang.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. hoo. for a small one. a kind of drum. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. went the cannon. for in such sound of blows. shriek. .' 'Haw. It is represented in e. scream. Australian bungbung ween. haitshu. 1865. beat. or tliat is accomit. tlirob. banga. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. or the w. in a nail Let. wheeze. beat of a clock child . and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. snort. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. for the for the sound of . a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. the dashing of the sea . ting-ting. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. Zulu bongo. a large bell. to throw violently down. mer. for the sound of milking. an attempt would be made to by the voice. &c. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . atchian. Of a like forma- drum .

Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound.) a chick. to cry pi. —Lyndsay. He Yet asks. Mantuan pipiare. a fife or musical pipe. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. child. Magyar pip. Gr. G. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. . to cheep like a bird or a young It. pi. pule. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. — . calls S. a (young) pigeon. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. laugh. as k.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. to peep It. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. mobility excavation and hollow ^. In cases such as these. and their relations. used as a call to . is of expression. had been used laugh ? two. as the simplest implement for proFr. scream. pigiolare. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. Fr. a or cheep. piou. pipe. part of the What consciousness has the child. to squeak. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. pigione. pu. far pipi. Lat. pipio. piauler. the voice of chickens (Cot. pippione.' instead. young bird. is pfeife. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. and so forth. e. peep. to designate cavity and hollow. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. De Brosses. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. doubtless. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. pigolare. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. not- . Lat. or a piailler. cry. pipare. a chicken or gosling. pipe. has been un- employed to designate fixity. pipilo. or the uneducated different consonants are man. which he added to intensify the expression. pipelni. as in other subjects of study. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. and whimper. cry of young birds . pipio. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. to cry like imrli^u). xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. piccione. a whelp. a fowler's bird call is lost. young child . piou. It seems to him that the teeth t.sc. ducing the sound. chickens (Tylor). and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. bleat. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. The pi. of a word will appear supposed to represent. peep. Florio. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. pipegni.

Poppopvi^to. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. . u. preserved by Kilian. rumble. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. knuks. thunder oil . there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. Hindoo tomtom.. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. gurren. i. rumble (Fl. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. crack. to crackle like in boiling .' We te he ! quoth Tyb. girren. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. Zulu raraza. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. pi . susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. kniks. a prolonged sharp sound. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. of a loud strong sound. to grumble. coo. is very common. loud laughter. kuruk. to gargle . to laugh. laqfF. to growl. to pant bejii- zela. make wood a clinking noise. a short sharp sound. to cluck. to jar. knaks. turtur. garren. . lachen. murren. be cate to go on laughing loud . Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. in German. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. tintino. and lugh. to fizz like fat in frying. as the click of a latch or a trigger. sound). the clucking of a j hen . yapyapii^to (to make gargar). crash. or kaka-faka. grumble. kirkirdnd. karkarana. to pant violently (Colenso). lachachen. to thunder. tonare. like the noise of a glass breaking . ioriogliare (to make borbor). a drum W. creak. to creak knirren. of something fine and thin.. to rattle. {to It. to be compared with Sc. the side of g. cricli. Indian chack-chack. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). Manchu kaka-kiki. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . a closed or obscure sound. to gurgle. chack. sound of dry breaking. Hindustani karak is rendered.Gr. to clack. a. some small vowel or consonantal sound. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. cluck. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. along with Du.) Mod. tontonare. to ring pipio. Pefuxela. kniks. to grumble). signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . or springing back. a sharp short one. murmur (by . when it force than biscuit. to cry pi. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. It. Pacific aka-aka. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. as representing the sound made when something breaks. borrelen. along with tinnio. where the variation. to grate the teeth . gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . rumble. knurren. to hawhaw or laugh loud. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. &c. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. to gorgogHare rattle. to bubble. bubble. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. vaake gorgor) .

e. ding-dong. cry. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. identical with g. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. of keys or tinkling of bells. tup. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. Galla tuma. noise. while cacd / used in e. and bilhila. to whisper. a nightingale. are applied to the is excrements of children. halaidlac'h. chinking of coin. KaKog. Magyar csamm-ogni. agrees with g. to giggle. indicating the origin of Gr. Scotch sough or sooch. jingle. . nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. tubh. drops of i. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. hala-hald-faMa (falda. clank. and the imitative nature of tivgle. Turk. make djamdjam). rvir (in tvittio. clink. coughing or clearing the throat. the tingling Ming-Hang. clash of arms. for the sound of privy whispering. 192). Hindustani bhadbhad trees. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. Tiie Galla gigiteka. word. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. a drum . 368). uproar. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. awater* ' The Mme P.and e. and her heart went thump. Maori pata. is based on the same imitation as the e. quarren. and Gr. Prim. koXiw. chut. kiling-kalang. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. caca and Finnish adkkd. The whispering of the wind I. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. Manchu kaka. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . and Gr. a nightingale. sound. champ. spring of water in the a bell. or of bells ringing.* the heart. rain (Tylor. fumtu. for chut-chiit-er. chuchoter. a smith. brings us to Fr. to ring or jingle. the gingling of glasses. Newman). the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. correspond to e.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. croaking of frogs. wail. 1871. the sound of a stringed instrument. at an accelerated note. as Fr. a workman. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. thump. box on the ear imitation of the . . sound). as of Tamil muromurmur. call. bulbiil. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. for the clinking Lat. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough.' Member for Paris. Calt. shout. especially one who beats. muro and e. to say chut. bubble up. djeda (to say tub). kl'mg-kling. for the ringing of illustrate bells. corresponding in e. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. for a tTviror). or to Du. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. The syllables lil-bil. disturbance (F. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. E. a boy's whistle. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. tumult. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. csam-csogni. or the bubbling up of to a spring. jangle. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. compared with Gr. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . to knock. rifiirayov. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. tumwata. to strike. and e. klirren. is Manchu tang-tang. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. bent her head. Fr. to the purling of a brook. to beat. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. borrelen. simmer. bad. clango. to be compared with g. Sanscr.

snap. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. thump. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables.' — Nohden. chink. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. splutter. din. mutter. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. thump. But although and also found in Lat. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. slash. without the intervention of orthodox roots. jingle. blow. hiss. patter. rattle.. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. clash. dash. whirr. plump. the Germans puff. thump. clink. whizz. Fr. report of a gun. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. ring. and soufflet. brumberum. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. crunch. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. we have buffet or cuff. and the French pouf. flap. to dance. gurgle. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. lash. crash. So in Fr. squeak. clatter. blubber. in e. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. according to the strictest phonetic rules. tum-ultus. thwack. hum. boom. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. ' Der puff. Nevertheless. for (Sanders). rataplan or rantanplan. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. gargle. 'pat. pop. parapatapan. flop. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. The use of g. tinkle. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. paddle. clack. clank. swash. to is blow. it is fallj AS. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. chatter. splash. smash. answering to g. at a door tarapatan. w. souse. a applied as well to the force of the bang. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . It. crack. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. and Grimm. whine. tymmesll. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. tomber. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. squall. Humboldt. creak. twang. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. smack. fizz. to fall. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. puff. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. disturbance. rumble. bubble. sputter. clang. squeal. rap. tingle. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. tumbian (to beat the ground). murmur. clap. dabble. craunch. The beating of drum is represented in e. tap. bang. douse. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. whack. while e. and Fr.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. or v^hether jectional. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. guggle. by rubadub. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows.

ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. little who has time to want of her nurseling. p. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. Grimm or Bopp. wringing the hands. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build .' . by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. or of any if wood. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. every little pain. stractions. an imitation of a sigh . because they are spontaneous. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. in the rushing waters. xxix on the contrary. and thus they become signs of despair.' If chaos. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. of horror. knows them. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. At the first beginning of life. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. that he has taken the step in rational speech. the interj. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. ugh . and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. Crying.'. Henceforth rational beings may produce them.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. grief. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. by the nature of the cry. hay. are made known by an instinctive cry. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. or stubble is meaner name. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . If. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. or any unsatisfied want. the inteij. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. and uttering plaintive sounds. formerly cited. is Thus ah!. 94. and found in the building of be burnt up. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. but if we must not complain on the beach. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. in the case of the animal or of the infant. the kind of action that is desired of them. without a thought of symbolising to them. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain.

' p. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. ^6g And to the same effect 371. more eloquent than a long speech.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. p. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. to solve the I shall call first. 344. they are involuntary interjections. and some of them the composition of words. And again. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. He says. the lowing of a cow. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. coughing. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. p. If I wish to make a person of an . ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. Language begins where interjections end. which are frequently so toned down cance. he cites from Home Tooke. may become traditional. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. as who them spontaneous utterances. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. them to exercise it. 32. of all the mouth. more to the point. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. shrieking.. or which is of me as suffering pain.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. interjections. One short interjec- tion may fact.' — ist Series. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. sneezing. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. and the eye. be more powerful. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. groaning. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . should be remem- .

And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. he says. in Fin. kahkahah. Tooke in truth. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. I am not hearer. when I arp humming and hawing. bered. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. and others from interjections. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . but the less am at a loss what to say. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. cachinno. in Magy. some kind of language might have been formed. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. hahottaa. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. hahota. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. it them. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. for example. and more or less limited . Lat. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. and thus. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. Koxafw. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. interjections. demolishing here. then speech begins. hohottaa.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. speaking. loud laughter. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. Gr. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. Kayxa^u). yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies.

imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man.' he says. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. a Picture-language. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. dumb is the language of signs. The following account is given by Kruse. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. But here nature soon conies to his help. like peewit and cuckoo. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. a deaf-mute himself. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. have understand them studying as claim to consideration.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. What strikes him . Though. words receiving the meanings they now bear. of the world. It as has ing their most striking features.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. of the nature of this great movement. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. And so in the case of language. makes them stand and walk upon the table. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. . Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. if taken as a whole. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. and not. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. the critical question should be. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. and go where we now say stand. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun.

' In the Institutions. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. thought is already broken. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. that air. and we have roast goose. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. such as than the educated man. that signifies great . called Gesture-language. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. for the agent. and gestures. for walk. the sorecalling them to his memory. as it now opens out. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. signs are taught for yet. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. And is. xxxiii him between one thing and another. walker. push it towards the person addressed for thou. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. walked. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. but if I depress it instead. for child. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. many when or but these. particular sense in properly so called. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /.GESTURE most. he. to name. for single objects. and with his thought. can do better and more easily abstract terms. such objects. the lan- guage cultivates itself. The of sign for left hand. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. nay. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. among themselves. or To pull and flap with the arms. most striking outline of an object. like a V. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. and forms further and further. walkest. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. letter To hold the two fingers apart. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. and it is flesh or meat. it seems. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. it means little. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. what more. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. and And thus he makes himself a language. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. thou. and fully serves to j . and to taste. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. he. his action. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. becomes roast meat. or the verb to be.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. The same sign stands and the act itself. the whole secret. that.

to indicate the action of a certain person. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. putting it into his pocket. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. or a quality. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. as But when it is meant door. He gave door a bang. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. the ture of white term pink is and red. when I say. When a verb. according to the circumstances of the case. a number of alternatives are suggested. . Who is has beaten you ? would be. or action.' dener's knife. When I say. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. substantive or adjective. or something of the kind. You beaten . Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. depend entirely upon the use. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. the garden. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. would be simply beginning of speech. as when Bang ! went the gun. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but.xxxiv asking. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. The same word . a colour red. and so is an adverb. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. or a passive scene of existence. Do not bang the it is a verb. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. qualifies the against the wall. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. in fact. and thus performs the part of an adjective. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. as in die it is a noun. might be the knife. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. I say. whether by additions or otherwise. and the as. or an act. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. in other instances sentence. it called an interjection.

ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing.^ — Miiller I. with a stick. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. coalesces with the personal pronouns. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. as kuo cung. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. 255. &c. a sigh of oppression and . and may be used language. Thus tafu signifies a great man. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. whereto.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. which is an old y ting (use stick). that is. middle. as cung. some outward display of the affection. Jii ta. pain. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. verb nor noun has yet been developed. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. greatness. contempt. or with elements expressing relations of time. commencement of speech. but often self-evident. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. grie^ horror. inquiry. whereof. a groan. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. inside. in the sense of great. or some relation between it and another object. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. a noun. wonder. wherewith. wherehy. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. and to be great. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. or nei. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections.. wherefore. in the is indicated by the syllable y. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. . and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . Latin. the man is great. that admits itself in of audible representation.

ah. Gr. ohg. weh.. g. to rriourn. w. dchzen. is w. however. Gr. to gargle. guaj-ire. al. miau-l-er. the pangs of childbirth. Illyrian vaj. och. e. e. Such are g. to make bow-wow. ochan. Thus from springs otjucifw. to wail. oh. ohi. Gr. first person. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. It. grief] affliction. wai. found in g. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. a groan or lamentation vir. djamdjam goda (goda. pain. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. jaoh. . gwe-l-a. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . . guaj- or cry out pitifully. in Gr. and cacak djeda (to say crack. to groan. to sound yapyap. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. vce. Gael. vce. ahi. gwae. as. oi. on. or r. In this way from the root guai. miau-n-is. ach. mew. as. wehen (Schmeller). lament from oimi. wai-l. oh. to chirp. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. misfortune.'). to . ache. to ache. form. is Ay di me I Gr. to wail or cry alas . vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. wehthun. guai. gwae. pain. to hurt Let. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. w^wa. headache. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. och. wAwa. vei-a. woe. and to bark . to injure. Lat. . Jar lau-lau. to lament. I oi[iot. A widespread It. pain. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). o'i. &. xxxvi grief. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. Fr. It. seen in Gr. 6. Bret. hei. ai. ochain. och. weinen. to ache. lau-l-e. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. to do woe. die wehen. e. axofiai. probably a deeper groan. la. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable.ez. 6. n. Lat. suffering. to cry n. howl. miau-l-is. ui. Let. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. misery. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. ach. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. to lament. mostly a ! %. lament. oimare. The form corresponding to Lat. representing a cry of pain. has more kopfweh. woe. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. . representing Illyr. waiidt. w. tirr-djeda. achen. cece. oval. grief. to yell formed e. It. . grief. wai. ah. to make). aiai^to. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating.-l-are. to cause pain. weh schreien. vaj. ochan. on. wd. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. at the close of the radical syllable. jao. to weep. ! ! Goth. j. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. guajo. to weep. to cry at. ocAJ. It. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. Illyr. ing action I. are ol-ire. ach. ace. to bewail oneself. g.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

der da-ige. when he wants something. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. his trowsers' pocket. The Fr. and may be rendered. When we pointing. Phil. Thank you. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. or wants to name something. or that it is. we may translate this by there (it is). to here . I add) . 'nay. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. . Sanders (Germ. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. ToSe (or in Attic E. nurseries.' person. for instance. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. or give me it.' this. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. Diet. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. case. that. ' sees an object. Sie. properly (give) be compared with by which a g.' all is is — their consent. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. a word of many applications in g. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. give me that cheese. In the expression Da. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. or carry me thither. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. thata (ta-ta).) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. this here. implying the direction of its good will towards them. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. as it Dieser da (as Lat. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. give.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. Dr Lottner observes. saying : there the ad- Trans.' then points to his wife. child. da. that is it. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. Bav. da. a specified were by pointing him out. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. more emphatically roSj)j that. and by a variety of expressions besides. But. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. indeed. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. well as Goth. as. when 1859. according to Menage. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. says da-da-da.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. is we I believe. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. and so on. • The child. but the truth is. that gratifies me. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. the nursery da-da. Please. is-te). show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. as to express.

' says Muller. dadee. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. childish toying. moving. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. thinking. sinking. of which any one may. to move step by step. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. reality.^ its ' utters : a cry. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. speech. and shapes it into an . its desire.' says Lottner interior. or metaphor. and one in particular must. tattle. . and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. in every mode of expressing the idea. p. The da is dodem. pay. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. beat. make dadada). used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. to walk. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. Thus Gr. to chatter. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da.' • liv ANALOGY. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. to say to oneself. to beat. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. which thus exertion. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. takes it — as When the soul. to tion to another. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. sounds. to knock. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. stutter. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. meanings. then instinctively interest. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. — Cot. or dalliance. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. tasting. standing. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. the original is that which he places first. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. strike. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89.

&c. bilbil). esclat). and figuratively. pracht. to quiver. may be it explained . scTiateren. and thence e. tintelen. Fr. iclat (in Old Fr. kiimottaa. to glitter. while sapere itself. beam. — 1. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . schmecken. same imitative root with Sw. splendour. judicious. to snilF. then to sparkle. tumult. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. rattle. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. to sound clear In Galla. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. bilbilgoda (to make . It is The word bright had a similar In as. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. firom the Gael. schiteren. Finnish. to shriek with laughter . gnittre. . . to glitter. So firom Lat. on. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. to sniff out. from the . clang. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. a brilliant light kilid. to 5 ghtter. a rustling sound Gr. a dis- cernment. in the domain of movement. wilahtaa. to ring. to flash. signified a clear sound. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. to tinkle. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. sense of brightness. (parallel bilbila. the equivalent of g. for example. also wise. and schmecker. as kilind. to sparkle. sapere (which signifies the nose. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. 1654. In the case of sparkle. man of nice taste. snutrs. a ringing . Heo Du. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. Lith. snot. and. splendour. In the same way the Goth. smell. Du. make a loud noise. scheteren. chime). to be wise. to glitter e. The 6. prudent. snuff the sniiten. bright. sound. to crackle gnistre. to have Sapiens. to resound. snotor. which in ohg. wamara. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. to glitter. ghsten. think. as. may be quoted gUt. unlella. knistre. suspect Bav. outcry. magnificence. we have and the and beorht. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. a with kimmaltaa. air. savour. is used in the origin. to sniff. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. smell. spraka. tinkling. Again. sprageti. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. search . wilistd. knittre. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. to smack or taste. to crackle. brilliancy. to glisten Dan. fiapfiaipw. in popular language. Bavarian bracht. to shine. to . discreet. noise. snudra. beorhtian. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. extended to the exercise of the understanding. kimistd. taste. to shine. wise. to ring as a glass willata. properly a clap or explosion. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other.

he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. power of the letter-sounds. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. pvfi^Civ. discusses the tone of a picture. v. strike. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. And observing that n kept the voice within. he framed the words ivSov. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. accordance with the way in which by touch. rough. fitting the letters to the sense. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. eo ut res vol. 1. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. shatter. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. Acre. Kpovtiv. the bleating of sheep. the cross. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. . Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. soft. Much of the same has been often quoted. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. or . wool. itself letters are felt as sofl. 6\tadaveii'. extremely loose. and vepres. inside. sharp. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. then in rpd/xoe. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. whirl. the neighing of horses. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. The BpavEiv. rough. rough to the ear. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. \nrap6e. smooth. within. rough both ways. roughness. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. briars. in truth. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. pleasure soft to the ear . we hear of screaming colours. ipuKuv. Kep^arl'ieiv. as soft by the ear. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. &c. rend.' he says. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. kvTOQ. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. KoWiiSije. Tpa)(yg. in of his works. gluey. is felt Lana. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. mel. break. to slide. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. flow and flux. tremour. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. he says. crux. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. the clank (stridorem) of chains. which The Stoics. of dressing loud. oily.

as when. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. to jogj sac-cade. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. jag. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. for exis ample. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. dag. to signify varieties of movement. the case of the voice. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. sag-oter. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. like the hand passing over is smooth surface.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. d. p. k. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. jog. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. shog. 'and consequently form. or checks as they are called by Muller. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. 138). rug. Fr. jig. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. jih. degree of roughness sound. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. stab. joli. cular effort Again. tug.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. g. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. A greater felt. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. ii. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. p. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. corresponding to the ineor. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. stag (in stagger. and in the utterance of a high or or low. a rough and sudden . or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. dig. t. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. to reel abruptly from side to side). shag.

chique. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. not to utter a syllable. mie. to say a word . zigzag. a small bodily object. tech-tech. like English tick. sound barely audible. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. to pulses being knock. It. an infant . chiquet. a cracker. to winkj micati is Lat. mot. Ene olde suksuk. to glitter. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. a quid of tobacco. an old worthless horse or carriage. The analogy then carried a step further. tecche-tocche. figuratively. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. a jog. to incite by light touches. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . as tot. e. motion. chicoter. to mark it with a touch of the pen . passing to the signification of motion. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. Illyrian migati. g. sound Fr. to utter a slight kick. Mucken. a piece or bit of anything. Accordingly the g. is so frequent a consequence of movement. and e. is made to signify movement. Thus we have B. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. as Italian tocco. Brescian toch. mica. cica. The syllable suk is jerk. foot. movement. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. Sukkeln. in cases like the foregoing. to have it ticked or marked on the score . S-panish miga.. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. Fr. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. to tickle. to strike It. schuckeln. so to Italian toccare. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. schockeln. then. Welsh cicio. for the sound of knocking at a door. also to stir. kuk.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. toch-toch. or check. tock. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. a good piece of road . &c. it produces Dutch micken. however. Dutch kicken. that we never can be sure. Then. and analogous movements. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. used interjectionally to represent a . The train of . to On the same principle j we have g. rough horse. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. to take a thing on tick. to move rapidly to and fro. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. to beat or play on a musical instrument. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. a playiug-marble. Hence Lat. mik. and It. Bolognese tocc.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. zack. Fr. a little bit. is lanese toch. to ring a bell. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. The Mipen or pencil. chic. then. To tick a thing off. kik. properly a small lump'of . (mitsati). tack. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . to mutter. micare. a crum. to stir. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. a . The production of sound. lead to Spanish tocar. a stroke with a French toucher. to touch.

to dot. To jot. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. . this. you. to touch lightly with a pen. small titlark. Then. tot. totle. or the like its It. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. to movement of the pen . a small bird. Malagasy to.- a jot or little It. tit. titilh. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. titmouse (Du. bunch or flock of wool. to e. citto. motte. a certain conception. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. little j to that of a small bodily object. tittle. not an atom . and a small lump of something. motta. that iku. here. gno. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. But the same is language has re Javan. tot. at where the order is inverted. there '(at a short distance). a tot . the same organ touched with the man. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. a light quick blow. . mote. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. often entirely arbitrary.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. to make a slight mark. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. subdued manner. lix Sp. a little titty. The following table from Tylor (Prim. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . anything . Cult. mut. gnu. mossche. . e. This kind. a morsel girl . gni. jot. a morsel. seesaw. mutter. a whisper. and out there. little. is shown in murmur. fragments It. the vowel sound.n. 199). to excite by slight touches or movenjents. a girl. a small horse. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. . and mite. a. a bit. neither moit nor an atom. clay . here (close hand). this . and he. i. lump of earth. to whisper (Pr. zitella. mot. to tremble. tottle. the least visible insect. eo. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. titter. and dot. a sparrow). tiny. there (further of!) ao. 0. iki. (Halliwell) Da. Pm. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. So. 48) cites from the African Tumale. fait.) . . taut. and toddle like a child titter. to touch. a e. chico. for the beating of a clock. ika. a lad citta. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. syllable mot. not because the pendulum makes a different left. n. a small quantity. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. there. or o toi. a small lump or pat. for the three personal pronouns. tot. to jog. small of kind. zitio. not to utter a syllable. as in e. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). . further off. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. ri that. or the converse. Du. move slightly to . tot. of movement in totter. to jot down or note with a fro. corresponding to the personal pronouns. e. Halliwell. anything small flax. tit. that. we have e. . I. a bit. . In a similar the relations of place. ticktack. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. tozzo. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. a small kind of lark. Fr. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. mutter j dust.

.. qu. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. Ossetic am. thou . here j ka. to. this . uta. he. . Mutsun ne. . Gr. an old . Tamul i. is father. this . that. Chilian tva. for the male. biii. . here . ukko. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. that. that. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. young one. that. as in Italian Fin. /wo. It seems to (fen. Zulu ajoa. there.. Sahaptin (America) kina. man erne. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. you. that. here 5 Yoruba na. that. father k . Magyar ez. Lat. ni. olo. loo). ni. tiiio. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. this <t. ita. j Canarese ivanu. w. this .. there. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. here j abe. ojOo. . an old woman chacha. small (Pott. Dhimas isho. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. . Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. Japan ko. ^. 6. mother. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. /mya. child. here feraa. as the act of pointing was ta. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. Tarahumara ibe. ulri.) nna. thou ni. this fi. that in the distance. ndi. Fernandian az. there. femina ama. and a for the female. ofj. child. bi.araM. akha. that. there. It Carib lala. I . thou. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. that (intermediate) j wana. Abchasian aSn. and origin. is Here. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. here . . Then. usho. (tt). minution further.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name.) pronunciation of i or e. there. mother. there. here this . . he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. respectively.e^. mother. father. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. that. there.. that. ne. nne. this . owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). ta to ka. Botocudo ati. /e«. this ole. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. Guarani nde. no constant rule is observed. km. little. probably initial of distinction that the k. me probable that • Vei also little. Mm. as Mr Tylor remarks. he. Carib ne. mas cheche.

knob. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. a step. — Douglas Virgil. titta. just beginning to appear. Clank represents the sound of something large. in old e. The sound trapp . The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. barking of a dog. tion. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. nipple. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. as ding-dong. A little wee face with little. trappen. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. to tread. whence Fr. wean. to leap. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. or even. as j money. keeh. the simplest mode by the g. wenig. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. to teet. trSpigner. The Sw. to begin to appear . nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. for instance. is to express simple continuance of action. dance (Kil. trap. don-don. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. stairs.) . Top. And perhaps the E. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. murmur. looking through between obstacles. has tittafrem. trippen. for a succession of light blows low-wow. the pip or pippin. analogous to winy-piny. at pippe frem is to spring forth. to peep through. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. trappa. A little weeny thing. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. repetition It. trippelen. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. &c. the idea is called. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. Fr. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. little. nil. the principle of reduplication.' — Merrv Wives. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. din-din. lift 8. fretful. a child. to make its way through the bursting envelope. sound of bells . the germ from whence the plant is to spring. 401. for the . From cases like the foregoing. to peep. nab. Thus we have Wolof sopa. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. i Sw. or chink. little To sup up. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. Da. pepin. . a little yellow beard. to feet.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood.' making the voice as small as possible. and in the Pacific dialects. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. the nursery few j Sc. of smaller things.

random . to talk at to walk. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. clamito. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. the and clique. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. a grasshopper. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. to cover e. or el. cliqu-et-is. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. properly speaking. is language. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). to love. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. didi. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. to call frequently from Fr. er. to treat with contempt. very long (Pott. a spot. child .Ixii REPETITION. racket. The same principle of 196. child . mawhiti. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. sopasopa. Malay ayun. or imitative syllables. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. And generally. or a little tee--ny thing. very great. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. to to call. to or rub. 97). So from clamo. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. &c. in familiar use with ourselves. puka- puka. could readily be conceived. kendagenda. or rdtchi. the comparative degrees of greatness. ratsi-ratsi. very bad. hardness. kenda. a clattering noise. bad . and Fr. click. keep spots. little child (p. to pant. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. loloa. tach-et-er. . kamha-gamla. lololoa. Thus in E. or very very great. from Maori muka. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. to skip. clash of weapons. the agent in panting . to rock. mawhitiwhiti. to vi^alk about for flax. Again. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. the lungs. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. amusement. ayunayunan. (to use a to speak. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. if very young. and the words express a continued sound of rack. to say pooh It is ! to. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. 99). tache. Cult. Susa di. rapidity and strength. puka. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. . or in Fr. repetition or continsignify long. ding-ding. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. calling. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. mpolu is uttered.. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. are echoed by the rudimentary et. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. rack. Thus in the Pacific loa. serves to show and in this way. instead of being actually repeated. Mandingo ding. smallness.' expression is — ^Tylor. rack click. a cradle. i. to express repetition or continuance in a general way.

or fi bau. wancol. compared with g. smack. to puff. the knie-en to E. to crackle.Jicol. is In e. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. guggle. joggle. wankel. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. wankeln. Ihre remarks under gncella. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. Jickfacken. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. syllable clat . wavering. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. he who rubs. In cases like these. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. or omitted. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . g. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. to make a succession of shoves. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. jogging. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. rynel. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. and in as. kneel. by the side of wanken. dabble. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. others. dab. in Fr. shuffle. which. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. or by association. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. to move to and fro. to make gug. such asjlap. to bark like a dog. where all direct connection with sound is lost. a succession of cracks to rattle. miauler and beler correspond to E. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . or in e. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. crack. it. to rock or wag. to continue dragging. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. fickle. rubber. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. The Fr. draggle. waggle. to hand. bubble. itself. bub. miauler andpiauler. to make bau-bau. or Maori puka-puka. a from ayun. to wail woe . to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. as mAS. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. the lungs (the puffers of the body). to hand-le. to rock. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. The contrivance with any particular noise. as to handle. are to cry mew and pew . from puka. Piedmontese bau-l-S. mew and baa . although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. in some applications. without the intervention of the frequentative element. to make a succession of grabs . wagas ging.

the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. to cry ugh at. There is. to the separation between the broken parts. although it is not difficult. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. will continue to be felt in daily speech. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. it is obviously a mere chance how long. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. Dupe comes to us from the French. by a hard body breaking. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. deceit. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. or how generally. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. Breton. A gull or a dupe same sense. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. or in aptness to combine with other elements. on a moment's reflection. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. at was more familiarly known. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. and comparatively few easily deceived. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. known in Italian. which. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. the breach. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. which is the origin of the word. or in mode of use. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. moreover. Polish. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence.

but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. however.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. Hitl^erto. . the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. is. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. founded in manifest blunder. nor any limited of ideas. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. life. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. and the word is used in a secondary sense. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. language is . it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound.

Naturalist on the Amazons. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. i. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. of material things. If English. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . French. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. out. and vescovo.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. change. unintelligible to other hordes. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. hearing. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. circle perpetrates a new slang term. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. episcopus. guages in South America. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. and 'Russian. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. Welsh. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. evique. 330. compared with the duration of man. I think it very probable. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. therefore. in the course of many years' isolation.

But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. Cijlt. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. 9. i. A key must unlock more doors than this. 7. The combination of the symbols I and 2. to be taken (Prim. 6. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. or whatever the proportion may be.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. ancient Greek M . 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. ao8). which are idenr Figures 5. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. Nor is there one of the letters. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. it will leave figures 3 and 4. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. is MN. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. . and . The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. as shown in the subjoined illustration. 8. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. the actual it which would to represent.

had its origin in imitation of sound.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. his fellows. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. leading him to utterances. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. We must either suppose that in a civilised state.' should be discovered. what comes to the same thing. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. in the shape either of direct inspiration. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. or. known to us as yet." the use of a change of vowel in as. and the only safe beneficent Creator. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. for instance. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . which either by direct resemblance of sound. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives.

who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . or else. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. the conduct of Ixix life. and sooner or later. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. and when we look back as far as history will reach. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. for instance. or beavers. of using imitative conduct . of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. in the course of generations. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man .COMPLETION OF MAN. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. or not. and rose towards a higher state of being. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. race were speaking men or not. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. or of their own reflected thoughts . or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. by animal without a trace name of Man. that he started from the lowest grade. until the progeny. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. as elephants. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves.

V. Dief. Baile/sEngl. Cot. Cotgrave. at the end of Somner's Diet. E.-Eng. Diet. Castr. Catalan. Diefenbaeh. Cimbr. 1737. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Carp. Dueange. Elfric's Fl.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Diet. Grammar Boh. 1654. English. or Dan. Teutonico-Lat. Dutch. Dueange. Infimse Latini- D. Diefeiibach. Wtb. Bav. Douglas' Virgil. Finnish. Supplement to Dueange. Gr. Bohemian or Czech. Esthonian.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. 1850. 1857. AS. dialect of the Sette Commune. Danish. Carpentier. 1766. 1768. Bavarian. Romano - Cas- traise. Due. Provincial dialect.. Bremisch. Diet. Brem. ^Ifr. Supplement to Bret. .Nieder. Dn. Esth. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Couzinid. Da. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Fin. Anglo-Saxon. Fr. Bigl. dial. Dief. B. de la langue Cat. Cimbrisch. Gothischen 1851. Sup. Biglotton seu Diet.



r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. woman r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. katowai perairrantr.. baltresca nokkutomax. Blob plowied r. Askance woud r. haverie crtOT r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. r. cruccio deyrie.>. word allagerr. alUger ahaverie r. plowied budowaer. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. buque 118 brodiquin r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r.nokkutama willekem. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. sveritet Asknace r. cti. ^i?^i2! r.5 ERRATA. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . r.percurrunt kimista^x. (/ijtf r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. puHti r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. yjnaifia r. kilistaa bugiie r. willekom Blab r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r.


In Lat. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . plesyt him. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. as. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. sion of 'an abandoned character. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. into the Romance ftrseg . OHG. Jvery man shewid baft. particular 1 . orders. ar. this word beand Spanish. his. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. whatever he be. among. Thou spelds of mychty iction. Abs-. to subdue. announcement. rule. erwachen. and — Chaucer. command. Parson's Tale. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. The word Ban is common orders. downwards. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. a washing off to abstain. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. have entire dominion over. an edict or proclamation. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. away from. Passing tongues. bandon in French. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. ifter. Again. Lat. K . and secondarily in that of command. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. a/tan. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. in a manner other than it should be ablution. to arise. on. us. on-lic. onis aback. Hence on-bceftan. Abaft. be-ceftan. dominion. o/j of or . from. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. implying a completion of J. .DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. Thus ip N3S. 843. A. abs. compounds. to hold . said. Dent posture. until the event jlace . To abuse is to use iway. —Bruce. ur. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. "rom a height. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. baftan. ab. abaft. Ab-. on. vs. to awake. off. to sauff the king or spill. ir. er. dominion. AS. Immediately from Fr. Abandon. from a is to wake to abide. 244. of-dune.he Goth. power : Than Wallace thing. ibandonner. behind. the er. iway from. a. but now )bsolete). state of sleep . as. away. in the same sense. out of. alike. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. literally.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. on-bsec . AS.t G. in. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS.

baer. or admiration. Originally. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. R. confound. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. Beat. A. and it that that it — .down. burny. beer. overthrow. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. R. Bate. abbatere. of fear. 1 1 8. On the other in use as well as hand.' the surrender of a ' K. drink. Abbey. from Lat. Custom.— — . person. ais. impetuously. 364s. — — . Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. down. to strike sail . may be explained. esbahissant. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. adverbial expressions at abandon. or society of abbots or monks. Cotgr. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. and grooms besmeared with gold. where custom (Grandg. abaundunem-ent. to diminish the force of any. to abaw or astonish. astonish. abbattre. law term abatement. his eyen shene. to bate something of the price abbatersi.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. abbas. to overthrow.) . uncontroUedly. abbatis. bawi. See Abide. as ravish. iv. to take possession of an estate.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. Hence Lat. son bandon.On princes. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. merely the terminations ons. other. More correctly written abbat. terminedly. ne more vermeille. esbahissais. at his own the lips. to put to con. Milton. R. Hence the OE. In or. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. It. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. and that from Syrian abba. . with or without a final sh. de. bandon. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. ant. To Abate. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. I was abawid for merveille. abate. father. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. c.esbawi. to gape. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. abandonly. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. lish to abaisse orabaish. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. weaken. — Neccham. by Wall. . to strike Froiss. baba. Abbess. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. Wall. polish. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. to excite admiration.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. astony. Fr.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. abbatia. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. et prirent terre. castle. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. Hart in Jamieson. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. esbahir. Castrais. burny was formerly burnish . an abbey. so common in the found in the OFr. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. abbatere dal prezzo. thing abbatere le vela. Baba ! Mod.fournir. to happen. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. his mouth. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. esba. of the Fr. effect of shame. to light upon. in the active form. impulse.polir. d. to hit.— R.Prov. 1520. betrash. depress. And he thereof was all abashed. Abbot. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. vol. to ruin. and the verb was written in Eng. to beat furnish. from ravir. and sets them all agape. of wonder. See . faire tomber. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. shame. to astonish. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. to The . to make lower.

suffer b. to stay. ne wist what way to chuse. The white poplar. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. Quant voit le serpent. and E. badar. bide of the d endure. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. To Abet. baier compared with It. delay. ceive. deceiving. K. — ABELE Epiphanius. a right in suspense . literally white tree. in Dan. See Abide. exciter.) abayer. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. wait. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. Du. intent observation. to be intent upon. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . and Prov. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. badare. de Champ. abeter. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. E. Abele. 366. de Berri) Prov. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. which the mind to an object. othres abidan' The effacement expect. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. bocca badata. . us. to ance. abetter.— Chaucer. forbearance. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. to wait. which is certainly related to It. b^er. gola badada. or absorption watching. abidan. Ni engigner ni abiter. Goth. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. Thus G. inciting. abbadare. house. speaking of the Holy places. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. Gloss. listening. baier. endurance. abie. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. bialodrze-w. usbeisnei. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. abet. . on the one hand. to be intent upon. delay. abiiance. ' ' . have seen abide. Guernsey beth. F. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. The verb atwaiting. Ducange. and in E. Corant sens lui. or in Fr. the verb of abeyance. to look. to open the mouth. Pol. bhr. . qui iaaille. compared with (Bosworth). John. beter. to wait. to wait. to attend on . also to OFr. to It. 1 • . guardare. to attend to. incite . pense. m Abeyance. to desire earnestly. ^couter avec dtonnement. with open mouth . to desire. to expect.. suspense. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. OFr. Fabl. badare. Gloss. —Raynouard. In We .was formerly used in the sense of look. in Fr.— ^richer. aspire to. we sceolon ON. abSiance. Cat. Thus we have It. Boethius. to hook. were called Brothers. tenere a bada. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. tity of E. beijen. Cat. Norm. forms with the d effaced are OFr. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. beidan. . trick abetar. says. abaier. syllable ba. aspirer. (Vocab.— Roquef. look for another. inciter. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. verbeijen Sw. tempting. Abie.to wait. bidan. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. beijden.Fr. baer. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. bida. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. songer. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). to stay. expectfamily. take care. to yawn. bouche bdante. From abahier. Q. delay. abayer. covet. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. bie. bada. tical with It. listen. lingering. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. tarrying . bder. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. white. with badia. — II. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. attendre See Bait. — . Corresponding to keep in suspense. waiting. or do we AS. to expect gabeidan. a bay or opening in the coast. wait To Abide. abie. abet. beguiling on the other. to tarry. open the mouth. expectation. gridare. bie compared with Dan. regarder. and alluring to his own destruction.' is in AS. to In great amaze. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. Norm. baier. bida. expectation. signifies the direction of tend. to deanimer. . desire. abeyance. desirer (Roquef. to deceive. to mind. badare. beijen. badigliare. deceit. to abide . it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. ne chastised them. to gape . from Halo. attendre avec en^pressement. beguile. endurArt thou he that should come. warten. Prov. take notice. is idenwait. to open bader. while the monks under his control ing. to suffer death in Du. bana. bouche b^ante. beidan. to remain or endure. — signifies to suspend action. watch.

Merch. L. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. beidan. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. habilis is closely preserved. in for any special purpose. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. to redeem. or bie. must suffer for it. If it badare. to dress hemp. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. the Sir Tristrem. de la volatile. abidge. expert. suffer the Jul. The —Boucher. is the verb abie. Q. habile. Abie. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. sufficient. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. to perish. It. P. abie. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. atling hem to her proper offices.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war .ynes. have-like. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. Chaucer. bidan. R. a board. God. fault being simply clothing. Boucher. P. power. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. ON. properly abuy. For on board. abolir. Fr. and death for handsel pay. F. AS. as habiller du chanvre. purpose. 2nd Tale. abycgan. abicgan. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. fit. and Cr. Spenser. — e. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. adapted . on board . Milton. to . Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. the side of a ship. Lat. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. as E. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. Prol. to wear away. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. within the walls of a ship. being disabled in the highest degree. and the simple buy. &c. forbid for mother's children should abye. when compared with Aboard. bord. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. N. Innan bords. R. habilis (from habeo. abilh. abilej Prov. 2. powerful. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. abigg. the Fr. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. the Pardoner In the original. from AS. abie to Goth. was often used in the same sense. abeye. at hand). — Able. aboleo. strong. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. Tr. —Bacon in R. consequences of anything . able.^and to make his power knowne. i. Wickliff in Richardson. abide. to pay the penalty. without special reference to the notion of retribution. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. him with che. to pay the purchasemoney. to draw fowls. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. though sometimes confounded with it. ! ! Cotgr. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. within the ship. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. O If tion. convenient. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. from Lat. use. al- be found so some will dear abide it. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. Mids. Cassar. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. Fr. In this to erase or annul. Dr. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. She shall abie that trespass dere. God — dear. to have . durance in both applications. at kasta fyri bord. — P. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. . willing to schewe his wrathe. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. while in later examples As I . bide.

abrcBgdan. way Sw. The primitive idea seems that of beget. adolere. to awake. greu. nurse Lat. Prov. abracan.1. to aggravate. parent. to feed. from Fr. by the to bring up. See To Bray. to nourish. to start. below. kindling. Fr. abrdger. progeny. above.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. sec seftre — Chaucer. breaking out in language. motion. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. or cut short. .. to progress. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. around on the out. whence the Fr. OE. disastrous portent in some passing oc. ala. — . ufan.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. alUger. the idea of breaking about . Sc. for ligeth butan.. to break off. outward. the man dwindles away. boven. to rear. coalesco. In the same brevis . to grow up. literally. as withotityn and without. to AS. giving birth to. seems aras. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. gravity. becomes leu in Prov. the form a&^^. to grow together. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. be-ufan.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. AS. abbrechen. AS. Of these synonymous adolescere. about cockcrow.' Ymb hancred utan. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). side. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. Above. Tale. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. break out. to beget or give birth to children. hard. and alere flammain. the OSw. but from Lat. pedigree from brevis. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. and bidden him abregge. To Abound. draw out. gravis. So in Lat. ABOMINABLE adolesco.foda signifies to beget. is a ively. nurse. abbreviare. d. on high. to snatch. s —Casdmon. awaking. while the sense of beget. abowen. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. the identity of which with ting. Abrdger itself. Kiittner. abufan. ala is made to signify to rear. Goth. which may God avert.ger. D. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. abredan. and to do something to avert abbreviate. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. abominor (from ab and omen. OSw. Thence to regard greugetat. to fatten. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor.ymbutan. Virg. brood. common in Chaucer and Abominable. AS. oil. while the verb alleThe root el. is not from G. OE. en. . of any kind . without. as the duty of nourdisposition. af-oolden. alere capillos. natural ed direct from the latter language. to feed. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. to rear. currence. and also to abridge. agredge. bufan. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. a portent). to bring up. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. to produce. abutan. the vital spark. nourish. to cut short. explains soboles Lat. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. See -und-.aboon. butan. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. to main. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. Melibaeus. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. Lat. For on broach.— Abbreviate. — ' — — preceding verb. onbutan. levis to the Romance languages. To abray or abraid. to turn. The radical idea is to feed the flame. be-utan. Then. agreujar. and in-d-oles. to light a fire the Abraid. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. to let sleep. Severe the threatened evil. Thonne Abroach. life. Du.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. ol. titan. Finnish stock.' Parson's rence. af-oleii. Quod abominor. heavy.the older form. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. Gael alaich. snatch In English we speak of away. his contemporaries. alan. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. abbrechen. which passed into English under Abominate. full ofte his words for to Fr. from . alan. or young forth. vital PI. Abray. as AS.) . al is growth. Abundant. the hair grow. leading immediately to Fr. and also. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. that greatly agredge their sin.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


Apartment. gabeigs. as the Italians. but the expresent day. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. set aside. one at the least. a puppet or an anti^hona. such as savages. some one. as posticus. Percutere. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. aperio. transferred to the grotesque characters. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. Gr. to nourish. what Roman civilisation. Aphorism. a definite . something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. separate. like a jack-pudding. cenig. or antique single chamber. a block to hammer on. To ape. — — — . villan Gloss. ReApe. E. from in and cudere. post. three antike pillers. to support. before. Lat. Lat. separate purpose. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. Apart. ambeld. AS. from eigan. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. something ler in R. . younger child. Any. Fr. inAgain from the same author cudis. Lat. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R.—Aperture. from an. a few. before. incus. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. from ango. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. G. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. finally applied to a whether grotesca. verberas.D. Fr. In like manner. plenteously with red. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. af. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. whence anthem. anfilts Pl. Prov. whence Prov. apanage. to strike G. avri^ava. a preventative . apatiar. burnished. Apartment. as from as. in Shakespear. Anxious. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. white. Ilvtwotov. Gr.made out. swaged. to display pario. anxi. a small quantity. panar. part. a gift. to go in strange disguises. as we call it. from Stephanus. work. and devils. panis. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. AS. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. antifena. Thus from gabe. left as the . Ful- Apanage. Mannequin. Otfried. i. one having wealth. Hence the applica.th centuries the recognised models of antic. As the browcalled antiques. See Cover. fauns. were chiefly of the former class. to bring forth. and ig. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. to strike. andouillers. from. from the imitative habits of monkeys. aside. rich. or in a ridiculous dress. all of gold. bread. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. to sound in answer. To go antiquely. Antick. Lat. vex. Hall's Chron. anxius. trouble. Gr. surimitation of the ancient models. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. should be received. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. Jorioc. Fr. from. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. ab. Pezron fiUist.. from avTiipoiuia). —Spencer. Anvil. wealth. So Lat. strangle. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG.— . eigs. on. to strain. press. d.legacy of given against. apertum. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. a termination equivalent to Goth. Aperient. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. the anticks — behind. AS. were andouiller the second. and claret wine. Antler. stem. anticus. of. : . choke. which by anvild. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. one. d<popi(xnbs. from ante. from an and — - . Antique. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. anapoz.is to be given. to have. to imitate gestures. antefn. amboltj Du. Antidote. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. to open.

and in the sense of condition. a thing for one's purpose. approver.probare. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. peler. equal. iwKjToKri. known. to send to. From Lat. ai. — dirondtfiu. probare. to announce. poind. Cotgr. purpose. to catch hold of. Fr. Epistle. Appareil. An old appalled wight. to rate. Lith. to deaden. to — . quoth the frere. irpaiKOKiaov. par. to accord. to dress in this fashion. Cotgr. in commendation. peace.prix. one is in. AS. 23 .parecchio. esteem. agreeing with "LtA. Walach. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind.propius). to mark to define a bound. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. consent unto. to be open to view. and also as appraise. allow. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. to store or put Appal. 11. become dizzy . seiden of the stones. Parson's Tale. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. Fr. whether through age or sudden teiTor. from aTroorlXXu. to learn. aptly. H. from. to send off. appartenir. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. to fit. properly to join like to like. 'LaX. near. piteux poind. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. poind. opportunity. . trim. avail. to take away or lose the vital powers. 'L-zX. To Appraise. one sent out. apprentis. and appoinder (to find fitting. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. cepl. Apo- good time. A — . appareiller. manner. They were considered To Appoint. Fr. find Then like Fr. D. apar. of. in data. prize. ap. after his mind . to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. ciously than nede is. APO sentence opoQ. a crime. corresp. . is a man who has lost his vigour through age. despatch on some service. Gr. Apprehend. apal. to call. The PI. ON.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. apparecchiare. laven is used both as E. Pliny. to come near. to lose one's senses. —Diez.— . (cited by Diez from a late author). — Apprise. prover. Gr. pertain or belong to. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. Cotgr. prope (comp. order. Prov. N. to approve. jabloko. pragigua or prixcoda. The Fr. to strike down. Hence It. Apple. It. were formed appropiare ejar. from paix. Approach. Palsgr. horror. From Lat. —^Apparent. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade.pareil. appris. that it outfit. Lat. apropchar. APRICOT off. Prov. value apprdder. Fr. Appease. to deter- to strike. the good. a'^opi'Jw. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. proper time came. diroTrXriaatii. To Appear. to which it is often referred. set a price on. 5w. to call for judgment.parejo.—Apprentice. habiliments. to deem good. Friar's Tale. to set a price on. apin R. Fabian in R. w. habilUr.his giving evidence against his principal. in Chaucer. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. Sp. apprendre. Hence appoind. . pronounce good. e. — Appurtenance. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. ar. diroBrjKr}. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. apprise. mine. For their acquaintance was not come of new . They werin his approvirs privily. one for his defence. to suit. a price. taking. to disable oftat. appaiser.t. approcdare. To praise. Gr. make a composition between parties. Formerly apricock. i. Mod. En peach. ^wss. word was specially applied to clothing. I prise ware. or the like. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. kind of action. Gr. to assign or grant over unto. prohts. decree. and metaphorically to take the meaning. Ir. And whanne sum men Lat. Fr. — prehendere. or E. agree. away. to commend. S^. like. obolys. to Lat. aparelhar. plight. Nouv. to learn. dress. an epistle or letter. apprehendere. appareo. OFr. d-n-o. oVooroXof. preparation. : — — speak 'Lz. to make a thing Apparel. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. a learner. Fr. From Gr. appellare. apropid. And among other of his famous deeds. Yr. to approach. in fact. Apoplexy. one the MLat. lAfiaam. Apostle. apal. Fr. Yr. fit- — ness. Apotliecary. To cause to pall (see Pall). praise. case. Fr. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. to seize. array. xv. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. like. diminutive pariculus. landmark. to understand. whence the e. rise to \t. approcher. pretium. to finish a controversy. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. off. — Approve. in good season prendre son d. good. when the . to — — . pronounce fitting). Cent Nouv.

and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. arbitrium. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. and thence fit. C. a soothsayer. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. — . . delon. as ihe diminutive. a lot. however. aqua. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. account for either of these significations. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. and the one who gives oracles. nected. sorcerer. sortium ductor. hariolus arpelen. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat.meaning at Shrewsbury. It is certain that the apricot oracle. scr.shrubs {arbor). sestimatio arbitraria. 331. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. She made. Pr. wata. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. Flower and Leaf. Aquatic. symbol. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. Hall. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. Prol.] in the N. a river. ughe. most conspicuous situation in the garden . Gr. to plough. a lot. fastened close. Now we find in Fin. Thus we have natiger and auger. Albanian. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. conjicio. herbere. derived. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. arbiter. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. auguror. — napkin is Naperon. tion under trial. Naprun. Maan initial . is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. As is a pretty parlour. pracoqua was not an adapt. proper. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . Lat. OHG. 31. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. Now one of the points — — — . . Arbour. the spelland umpire. rofe and all. Lat. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. and a protection of the clothes. aptus. la nappe. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. as an eye-witness. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. properly the arwella. aestimo.sors. P. opinio. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. ahva. found in Fin. arbiter in re censendS. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. OE. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. con. aa. ap. or eft. Roquefort. aha. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. garden.o. From OFr. suitable. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. {mies ^=ia3. A. ear.. arpa. is taken in is a soothsayer.) E. From OE. P. a pleasure-ground. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. Freshly turnid Arable. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. divining rod. a lot. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. be That it inne groweth. It may be doubted. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. and with turfis new Goth. however. words derived from arpa. Beryn. man. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. conjectura conjec^ra. The loss or addition of n very common. . or barm-cloth. doubtless is the origin of E. and taken away before dessert. 2. . nawl and awl. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. and sortilegus ation. arwaus. water Which that benchid was. aro. Lat. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. quod he. short. intensitive of nape. of of divination arpa-mies. naperon.' —About. Pm. This path Aqueous. to preserve it from stains. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. J. arwelo. Arbitrate. Marsh. a cloth. to decide by lot. Alban. shortdr. grande nappe. arbitror arwaaja.

arguo. — Wtb. Ardour. forearm . an extent of flat surface. a. a court yard. whence the body of the nobles collectively. lofty. un petit rusd. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . Lat. and our army. Arcadia in R. to be in comp. as the arch of a bridge. Arduous. to be on fire. Sp. erz in G. erz-bischof. and Kpurka. Lat. i. 3340. sluggish. Fr. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. government. armada. arch-bishop. first. ardre. an arch boy.. to rule. apx^iv. to demonstrate. mischievous. Sax. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. and must be identified with Dan. signifies chief or principal. from nixa. arson. taxed with cowardice. shoulder.' Lex.In E. area. ON. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. erg. bad.' Paul Warnefrid. een erg kind. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. From apxeiov was formed Lat. adjective. Lat. the terminaGael. Uo^a^. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. while the Fr. apxtlov. raineno. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. arcA in e. earg. curved. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. Lat. earm. ardor. worker. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. Dan. in Due. gwyrek. a rule (princiruler. shoulder Boh. Arcliives. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. weapon may be simply an application of annus. bad. timid. earh. to Arch. make clear or prove. Fr. ramend). arm. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. an arch-deceiver . . apxh. by Russ. to dry. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. . are formed the participial nouns. Arch in composition. Fr. Gr. ancient. fabricate). vescovo. the most arrant trash. aj-f. morally bad. difficult to reach.is the natural weapon of offence. branch. Lat. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). which has been referred to W. arduus. Aristocracy. . ars. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. apxtipfve. ' — Argue. gwyro to bend. et vulgari verbo. patus). argvitugr. ein arger knabe. sly. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. arm'ee. Lat. Lat. a bow. Applied in modern E. an arrant usurer. weapon. ramo (pi. Brem. apxri. receptacle where the public acts were kept. aridus. Cot. G. AS. ardIn G. it signifies roguish. W. an arrant rogue. Ardent. Gr. Arson.4 rir/. high. a noble. kpxi- beginning. A construct. Du. arm. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. arga. is essentially the same word. . and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. Perhaps erz-wticherer. Du. — Architect. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. contemptible. to burn . arg. burning heat. the court of a magistrate. to arm. mischievous. faint-hearted. archangel. arma. It. exercise lordship). from areo. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. ers-betriiger. Gr. armata. ill-tempered. From the verb armare. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. ardeo. a branch. Arm. troublesome. Gr. arrig. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. fainthearted. D. ruling by the nobles. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. stuff. wretched OE. vocaveris. the a brute. a chief builder. as in E. There can be no doubt that E. a threshing-floor. . man. G. and not with apx. curved line. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. bad of its kind. det arrigste snavs. Lat. sly. And thou as arwe coward. Alisaunder.aioj.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. un malin enfant. The . arwe. * ArchjAiTaxit. arrant Arms. a burning or setting on fire. a bare plot of ground. bravest. malicious. which is derived from it. Arid. wanton. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. especially shoulder-joint. argr. armee.. 2. rame. the best. TiKToiv. arsum. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. arcus.' the Gr. ^Argument. Area. Langobard.— Army.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

a water-skin dim. to be ill. Du. a clump . a pill. a partition. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. ball. Fin. to pack Da. ballare. destruction. to Not sparing wight. maleficium. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. Ball. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. pallukka. See Gall. Sw. a ball. Rouchi ban. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. a clapping or flapping of wings. probably Lat. Hence. Gr. bal. dial. cka. Sw. a bubble. ball. bacgtteter. to ache. uveirs bolk. bielke. It. to on Holmedon's plain. . sickness. a washing-tub. Ballot. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. (Hesych. AS. bal-daed. bolker. balk. bolyatchka. floor. pilula. Sp.' speak gibberish champurrar. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. bolyaf. a ball. to avoid it. bold. Bret. to paddle in water . a separate portion. Russ. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. balk. bola. a together in the form of a ball. a ball or pack. calamity. hooting. a great ball. to see-saw.— Ballet. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. misery Du. a pestilence. ' is a piece or confused talking. Fr. sick. bbllr bulla J. F. at giore en balk. and the dim. palla. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. boll. to grieve . ban. Venet. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing.Lat. a skin. Boll. other while. balloon. bal. beaten road. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. wickedtorment ON. . It. a. to move. a globe. pallo. Bohem. 2. gen. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. torment. balka hopar. to roll. w. a dance. on the shore. ill. as we say. Grief. balka bunge. baalien. grieve . a ball.). ballan. baloier. balveins. a continued noise of waves gently beating . to dance. to be balker. dial. to bale out. i.—Ballad. ne leaving any balke. the beam of a ship. balkr. from the more general notion of moving up and down. Sw. balk. a boil. Fr. It. Bale. balge. balla (with the augm. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. balle. balva-vesei. balka. pallikka. Sw. separaison. ballare. and evil in general. to speak an un. says Ray. Ball. similar connection is seen in Sp. dial. Sw. a But making way for death at large to walke. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. a balk of foul weather. are applied to a From the same analogy. baler. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. pila. blister. hue et illuc inclinare. the ballet of the theatres. lealo. OFr. trouble. Q. N. Goth. A balk. to dance. to plank.of men . . which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. Fr. tum. on. It. ballone. a dance. balle. a ball balla. e. a division of the old laws. pallo. . to ail. Da. shouting. the breadth from side to side . balken. balken. balja. . bollr. G. vacillare. TtaKKa a pail or tub . bala. balk. OHG. a beam. dial. Sw. balle. malefacGower in R. ballotta. ballare. palcare. Pol. on. ing. afbalka. to partition off . Dan. to wave. roof. OSw. to rock. bolawy. maan pallikka. I. a wooden partition . a pail. pain. — A — — . Mid. bol. to shake or jog. bjdlki. heap up. ON. baalie. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . globule. taich. Sw. bdlkr. bealwes.ing. Perhaps on. Ballata. to signify washy drink. ballar). vcdra bdlkr. . sorrow. Du. wickedness ness . bol. package of goods. chapurrar. ball. * Balk. balare. E. a ballad. a ballot). .— 42 BALE to BALL heap . Baulke of land. bal. from bacquet. We have then separate dial. To baulke the Sir H. Ugutio in Due. on. with the perhaps from balg. G. boleii. a beam. plague. to cause another to miss pustule. to by beams. ballo. a scene acted in dancmg. the object of his expectation. 3. ball. may exhibit the original development of the signification. ache. balle. Da.Fr. as in a barn or cow-house. In like manner Fr. stage or scaffold. a clod of earth water. whether of wood or stone. to plough for a boundary between lands. To Bale out water. Gael. It. Sw. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). to stir. Wotton. weak liquor. Balloon. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. Bowl. The primary sense seems as in G. mass. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. a ball. palloilla. Hence Dan. ballet.

' And Kil. Venet. more serious objection is . while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. To Bam. from bara or vara. To deceive. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. a false tale or jeer. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. baltresac. command. a small balustrade. a nettle. or ballast of a ship. baUa. lastra. In OSw. . a fragrant gum. bag-lest. ranked on the outside of cloisters. the backload. 1. endormir par des contes. — — oltriga. terraces. Balsam. enchanter. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. The Baltic sea. explains ballast. railing around altars. Balluster. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. Report Pennsylv. for a load or goods (Roquef. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. But Fr. last. in the first place. barandado. it is forced to take in stones or sand. deceiver. the flower of the pomegranate. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. to enchant. Sc. Sept. To proclaim. bam. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. bamboccio. inutile onus. analogous to what is seen in It. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. ballustre) is a corruption. bumbazed. It is explained back by Adelung. also with flatteries and . Bamour. but loadage. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. Baltic. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. Lest. an Old dotard or imbambolare. Cotgr. from Lat. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. It. curse. If bambocciolare were child of one. denounce. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. seems the original form of the word. galleries. Sp. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship.Lat. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. a young babe. Dan. small railing. Lat. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. the act of walking. bag-las. bamein. To make fun of a person. mare Balticun. This is the backload. forbid. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. to walk. Ballast. Fr. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. a useless load. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. objects to the foregoing derivation. dial. balconies. to preserve equilibrium. fonts. . ^Arbuthnot in R. a duty on goods last. balsamum.000 tons. or movement of one who walks. of balusters. Bret. baranda. lestage. bertesca. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. bambocciolo. 1854. like Fr. &c. To Bamboozle. urtica. for want of other freight. The Sp. as he says. sorcerer. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. make fun of a person. A — — . Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. lastagium signified not only ballast. Mr Marsh whether the a load. baU. It. more frequently than outward-bound. barauste. puzzled. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. back of the ship. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. little round and short pillars.). ^a\Ba\iov. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. ballustres. lastre. Bret. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. 43 — Cot. inutilis sarcina. Du. bambolo. because. a rod. Balm.. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. balustrade barandilla. deceive. ballast. R. Fr. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast.that the going vessels. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. Said to be from balaustia. called Bait. When a ship discharges. &c. by met. astonished. Gr. age. a battlement . lest. To Ban. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. baume.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. is in Sweden and Norway. and Mid. i860. paid for the right of carriage.

Goth. It. Bandus. . change to the feminine gender in banda. A. to excommunicate {lysa. Spebifid. See Abandon. hoc est vexillo. R- He Translated by Chaucer. side. to unite with a band. says Muratori. those who side together (bande. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. sostener Torriano. whether by way of injunction or for- command. at his own discretion. 26. Bandear. bannire in exercitum. curse. bound. Fr. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. Se il — Romance languages. a coast. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. Capitul. summoning to serve So in Swiss. . The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. Car. bandera ground at his mill. to reprove. The to . and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. band. a company. banda the colour or material. band. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. bannire exercitum. flag. to side or to bandy (Florio). &c. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner).— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. Fr. Ripuar. border. and thence to any proclamation. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. to bring corn to be fahne. 19. It. etc. theodscipe ut abannan. bandi. region. bandon somewhat party. D. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. to publish) banna.^ bandy. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. bande. v. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. i. authority. E. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. to . is That with which anything AS. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. — To partito d'alcuno. —R. to ctide.is further developed. From the verb to banda. banda. ba?idare. populum. biddal. then the signification w. also the band or of marriage. It.. acquired the sense of proclamation. Thus the word is also used in both senses. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. To Bandy.Lat. banns pany of footmen serve. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. Mag. eiiseigne. to ban. There is some doubt how Fr. Goth. from at the Lord's courts. the ensign or banner. Cot. Wyntoun. bande.—John Villani in Due. Sp. bindan. Les saiges avait et les fols d. to form parties. OE. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. side. Band.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. banner marked the place of assembly. — R. Sw. Diss. banda. we constantly find the expression. Assises de Jerusalem. ligue Taboada). Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. and It. 813. — excommunication bann-lysa. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. 1. in Fr. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. parti. R. It seems this signification has arisen. power. permission. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. Sp. 2. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. tener da alcuno. &c. bann. bundun. margin. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. to take one to task. In Fr. bando. and in E. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . 'A son bandon. to follow a faction. he bannede his ferde. Leg. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. bande. faction. bandon was used in the same sense. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. Commun^ment son bandon. fahne. G. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit.e. 15. bannum or bandum. in hostem convocare. In a special sense the term company itself. ex. admolendinum. passing on from proclamation to command. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. Baud. he assembled his host.

—^Vocab. to join in league with others against Cotgn. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. banja. a bank. The child cries bang! fire. bang. . banco. band-dog. E. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. se reunir. Mercutio. ruptus. Bang. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. dorsum was applied to ject. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. bance. shoal. It. to proclaim. that the word is used by Romeo. canis vinculis assuetus. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. g. The ing. the back. to slay. Fr. the same verb the It. Banister. But natheless wife at I bank. Mid. beating. . The ridge of a hill is AS. Sw. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. a bench. Tibalt. language of W. bow. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. large dog kept for a guatd. bana. banke. among rotta. See Banish. From a desk . to foment factions. When a man fails Lat. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. bana. a rising bank. Bantze. Fr. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. destruction . s'associer. From Mid. bane. to beat. a de Vaud. banca his creditors. bannire. a bench. tumult bangas. banc G. has bang-bang. It. a long raised seat. . ON. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). Bacon in R. It is in this sense nounce. and bakki. banditti acquired the like signification. bank. AS. Diez. Banner. a i. bench. bank of a river. counter. Lingua. banc. Fl. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. outlam came to signify a robber. bankruptcy. Benvoglio. Diaconus in Due. to hammer in a nail. and therefore tied up. Lat. from banc. to knock. panca. Fr. benk. de- party. The word is in E. Africa. a bench. Benchi. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. banish. broken. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . se joindre. bana-sdr. ON. forbear this outrage. bandear. pastoralis. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. bandire. the former Fr. was formed the OFr. hricg. rap hatike et som The Susu. — . . 45 — — Bandit. To Bandy. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. a bankrupt merchant. banka. eminence. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. Draw. bander. as of an explosion or a blow. — Kil. put under the ban of the law. Bane. bana-sott. and hence. Roquefort. to publicly order one out of the realm. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. to knock. clouds.HG. roupt. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. — Paulus drive in a nail. beat. Banditti. Bandy. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. Bank. bank of Dan. a counter. Brewer. in the sense of a pirate. — Fr. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. follow a party. a wound OHG. and OFr. many a bang. banqueroute. desk. in the sense of place of business. bana. de sable. at canis peciiarius. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. AS. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. death-blow . Bandy legs are crooked legs. death-wound. eminence. to make a stir banke. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. home — Bandog. seat . a blow. Hudibras. and poise Their lighter wings. back of a knife. . bander. — — whence E. Your stool. disturbance banga. Du. Bankrupt. Goth. Dan. Milton in R. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. to work in wood. bander tin arc. See Balluster. Ripuar. murderer.z. the slope of a hill. whence the mod. bank of river. 2. for shame. bent as a bow. See Band. band-hond. to bend a. to cabal. bandi. standard. bench. It. death-sickness. banca fallita. in the same way that E. bank. &c. With many a stiff thwack.^ knock. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business.: . hammering. bakke. ON. a sand-bank. b'ang. distinguishes bekkr. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. stir. &c. a table. N. A Shipman's Tale. in R. of bandying words. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money.

Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. nestling. Celtic bar. branches of a tree {gwezen. Fr. a bearded or Cot. either in the Gr. banda. then branches. men. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. manu anto make signs nuere. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. and even of calling it banter. It. to having that signification. According to Diez the It. in Gr. banchetto. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. rod of any rigid substance. barbarus. sparro. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. sbarra. Barbar. a beam or long pole of wood. bar.cruel. and with an initial s. banneret was a higher class of knights. himself in Pontus. Hence ner. signuin. from reifa. banneret. barrou-gwez. Fr. of banco. ^oTrriKio. It may be thing. arineXov. wrapped. heri-pau. inur. and it was accord. a barrier or stoppage. The barb of an arrow is the sign . bannereti. of a sign in general. It.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. to wrap. probably corSymbol. Fr. rarii. 3. and the work is done. sparre. of wind. ingly very generally known by a name branches. Lat.8ap6^o)voe. OHG. In a similar manner are formed yearling. to bend. Banneret. iandvo. which is surely in barbed arrow. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. a bantling. says. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. G.— Swift in R. the word came to signify rude. hence a repast. &c. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves.. — We A . bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. then fell among the foot. barriire. Gr. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth.. &c. senhal. 2. Banquet. bandva. to dip. top. Flesche barbeUe. speaking of battle. Leduchat. Fr. indeed. Lat. barba. Hence Fr. a which the barrister addresses the court. ban- Baptise. summit. a ban. a sign.hinder. banne. sign. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. jSdirTO). would rupted from Fr. barbe. banniire. brushwood. uncivilised. an animal a year old. . To mock or jeer one. chan. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. Thus Ovid. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. token. ing term appears in other languages. benda. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. senheira. banda hendi. E. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. that the noise of voices Bantling. remarked. Bret. The spar. barre. Gael. privileged to raise Barbarous. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. and he would seem to derive Goth. a. senhal. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. E. and from ensign or banner Prov. The original import of their own banner in the field. jSa'pjSapoc. Barb. The origin is in all probability Goth. knight Bardd. or of this bantering. a bench or table . banner.46 BANNERET . a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. from the same source. barde. merki. senh. barreau. —Cot. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. OFr. Sw. to wash. a tree). period vexillarii. Fr. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. to beckon . Bap. a war-beacon or war-signal.aTa Kul nest. E. Duo. ON. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. Barb. branch. inferior to a baron. ON. To Banter. OHG. such as the Roman Eagle. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. A It. milites bannarii. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. out of a wound. barrer. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. Lat. barra. barbed or trapped as a great horse. Gr. bandiera. by a repetition of the syllable bar. It. as they call it. i. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. dim.the analogous syllable viur. Fr. barrack. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. Barbe. BARBAROUS reiflingr. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars.

Festus in Diet. albarda'ah. the quilted with.) .— Fl. fortia —Strabo. such as houses are covered Bardelle. borbotar. skirt. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. berj G. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. Cot. and foolishly. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. a long saddle for an ass or mule. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. to plash or dabble. Russ. barbaris. dial. twcEtta. waschen. open. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. A shrub bearing acid Diet. coping. i. stutter. jargon. upper chamber. Hatt-bard. Port. bardd. to bubble or boil. a jetty or outnook in a building. to stammer. barguigner. name Fr. unqualified. /3£pjSepi^w. to boil or bubble up . also to wallow like a seething pot. guaszare. It. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. Bare. and Sc. to make an outcry . Port. a tumultuous assembly. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. barbeter. gibberish. barbel. w. tattle. G. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. the beard. the flap of a hat. Pr. baragouin. Bret. barz. Mod. Barberry. Sp. Mod. back. quarrel . skialldar-bard. Lith. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. The Pers. twattle.— BARBEL merit of water. A7 to the and warlike. barbeau. Exposed to view. axilla. Lucan. to wash. small pack-saddle. barbugliare. Fr. Thus the on. bds. to chafbargain. . are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. in Fr. tree. a bardelle. borboglio. barbeum. barbar. guazzolare. to barbe or trap horses. barefooted Sanscr. — . scouthouse. ala. bardes. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai.) to wrangle. . mutter. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. formerly used in the sense of tattle. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. baares geld. haggle. is lb. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. barbacane. Barber. barbulla. Applied in E. bdsiis. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. bhasad. powdered all over. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. Barbican. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. barbier. barboter. used 2. uproar. skola. It. borbollar. speak confusedly.— — Pm. Etym. — . berries. barbarkama. Hall in R. to gurgle. An outwork for the defence of a gate.' Cot. baar. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. murmur . also to bind or tie across. on. borborinha. the edge of a shield hval-barct. But Sp. to prattle. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . the nakedness of a woman. boil. borbulhar. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. bar. muttering. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. Fr. skirmish. Lex. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. Gr. Fr. as well as the modern twaddle. Bard. Barde. saddle-cloth. and flanks. bare baskojis. Arab. in poetic language Bard for poet. Barbel. — — — men. bdla-khaneh. as well as thwcEtta. uncovered. a rumbling. barS. Fr. to mumble or mutter words. Gr. to stammer. g. Sp. Bardeau. brim. to grunt. albarda. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. Cotgr. in the sense of fight. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. — Cot. to rumble. brabble in the making of a bargain. Hindost. Cotgr. ready money. which was of talking. lb. Fl. grumble (Lowndes. Diez. to bubble or spring up. border. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. or more properly (says fer. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. Sp. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. barbelin. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. a shingle or small board. and in Flanders to vociferate. a pack-saddle. albardilla. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. Bargain. bdsas. horse armour covering the front. border of a garden bed. Barder. barda. — — Hence. barda. Etym. OFr. to It. and the word was used in OE. /3opj3opwJu.

a beak. — Zeuss. dispute. Port. limpets .Barum vel feminam. limpet. trouble. the A — Ihre. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. Du. baniffa. * Barnacles. . dial. tumult. is simply the Bret. and the word. Kil. and hence probably (by a metaphor. v. Gael. dispute . a load. Sp. a lantern. a baking place or oven. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. houbartij fsnile. brenig. as. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. a boat. bcern. baron. i. Sp. also a boat . a cap . barki. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. barretor. AS. baerm. to scold. Alam. bread-corn. Uzen. a place.. . beornt. Camus. baron)^ Fr. baragouin. to cheat. As Goth. Isidore in Rayn. barnacles. — battle. wine. we pass to the vert) barguigner. Manx bayrn. (Ihre. louzou. bern. entangle. dispute barattare. Leg. baarn. strife. ON. OSw. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. Barn. Originally man.) lihtes-ern. as in the case of Lat. bargain. See Barm. ON. E. lap. hladi. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. ON. kani. bread. ber (ace. — de Berri. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. a stack. bern. then honoured man. charlock. barn. fray. Baron. Ibid. berm. Spectacles. to shufSe. AS. baralhar. Vocab. barafustar. barley.. Bailey. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. hay-loft. Leg. Antiq. barlich. beorcan. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. So also ON. Port. and is probably a true bartig. skutr. prasepe . in the Brim. border. barizeins indicates a noun baris. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. bark . berma. and llysiaw. herbs. baratta. quant a perdu sa barja. baarm. the G. husband. hemlock. It. ThS man was not created for the woman. berm hoys. at barka. was barlic. dispute . to strive. baralha. dispute. a heap. bosom . Lith. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. hlaSa. a heap . the rack or manger. Gl. Dan. barii. barge. Cornub. aheap. barms. the fore or after end of a boat . skuta. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. in Nat. Provj bar (ace. am. confusion. To Bark. . —Bark. berm. barajar. name being given to spectacles. adj. Romance barsie. Swab. dregs of oil.' bardagi. Garlick. prominent part of a thing. to all the barca. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. and ern. ON. . giving rise to It. to rout. Rayn. strife. varen. OFr. barlys. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. barafunda.^Voc^. bere. a barn. the slimy substance brewing of beer. baratta. Tarn baronem quam feminam. barmr. 2. bcerme. 2. Barge. Du. spectacles. altercation. as well as Scandinavian tongues. commonly explained from bere. as baces-ern. bamagh. to chop. Prov. from an imita- Barley. From Fr. barley. Barbour in Jam. bosom. meta foeni. Acervus. barn. w. mhg. to wrangle. tion of the sound. the or prow of a ship. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. beer. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. W. Bark. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. barja. and 1. edge. quarrel. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. Bemiques. Dan. bard). — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . squabble. On the other hand. corn-shed. astringent. It. borkr. strife. plants). The origin may be throat. — Barnacle. contest. disorder. OFr. to skin over barkandi. as. baimeach. baaren. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. barone. Ripuar. quarrel Port. chaffer. and may therefore be an Eastern word. The Goth. So ON. barahunda. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. baaring. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. a. limpets. contest. See formed Yeast. Bret. barley. put to confusion. but the woman for the man. Sw. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. a lap. berem. barlys {bara. struggle. bernac. then the bows pectus navis. a receptacle for barley or corn. The older form in e. Sp. barnis. also to exchange. barn. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. one who stirs up strife.

noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. On chet — We — — their resemblance. baroncelli. by early examples. Russ. boar. Fr. whence Barrow. barrique. then traffick4 Barrow. breinej Du. perhaps through Prov. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. and in several instances. mound. It.parchanttuech. vair. G. MHG. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. barrack. strife. beorgan. barre. beorh. a barrow.. todtenbahre. baraignej Picard. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. w. OE. OFr. cise formation of the word. baronetti. Gael. Baron andfemme. tomb. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. staves. the braw. ^Barrator. uncultivated. to carry. bouracan. from a tree to which a man is hanged. G. Bret. barraca. especially those killed in battle. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. bera. Formed from Fr. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. Antiq. ^Vocab. Goth. calico. bahre. baronculi. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. became bidre. vir. habeant. over him. vel pretiosos burellos. barague. in the first instance. were sometimes confounded. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare.' that Barrier. signifying. D. whenever Barrow-hog. a castrated hog . It was not until the time of James I. an obstruction. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. It should be observed that. branches. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. man and wife. The feudal tenants next Fr. barrier. 2. fortification. See Barter. change of goods seems. facture. Bargus or moreland. qui have not much light on the pre. a hiU. a word is always used in the plural number. bara. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. composed of dry branches ofer. nobles. Sp. baracca. a barrel. S. a bar. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. alongside of barrow. seem to be radically the same with Lat. E. Barren. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. bearg . Fr. semen non accipiens landiEL.— Gibbon. barrique. squabble. 26. StiU he shows conclusively. Bohem. Sp. dispute.root signifying confused noise. from beran. Barrel. beorg.. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. (Schmeller). A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. garment still used in Morocco. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. A. fear. ibid. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. borov'. iver. bredhan. a hut or booth. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. brushwood. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. Sp. Barrack. shed. The Sp.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante.have been named from the haggling and gant. Gael. Barratry. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. hut. Barricade. gravis et authenticus vir. bier. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. baronuU. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. — Kil. Nominale of the from braeckland. It. which would barragdn. as cavalcade. bara. a bier. heap. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice.' Op. Bamnculus a baronet. Joshua vii. sepulchre. the two names. fallow. and not from Fr. AS. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. barril. berwen. Barrister. It. in Nat. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. a. berewe. booth. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. as. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. gwr. a kind of coarse camlet. a man. litter. to * Barragan. or simply bahre. baragan. AS. cover. An ing. barBombicinus. See Bar. to shelter. man. — A . — — 15th Cent. a. braeck. like bargain.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. from cavallo. barrila. also termed bannerets. barile. implement for carryAS. sterilis. bark&n. 1. barri. Bern. rolls of Parliament. barchent. a horse. This word introduced into Fr. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth.

mavult dicere Roma suam. Sp. a halter. peel. foist in bargaining. which covers the grain Ger. Du. mean . dwelling. G. . MHG. A fabulous serpent. fits de bas. bark. preparatory stitching. baraand especially teria. court-yard. ' He was begetin o bast. n' is n' is bacino. bast. the a wide open vessel. leviter consuere. imbastire. embastir. and tun. Kil. — hanging.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. flat. low part of the Hickes in Rich. Bartizan. Lap. submovet omne Lucan. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. the thin skin Dan. husk bast van koren. Newman. Fris. PaaiKhms. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. low. a king. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. at basta og binda. oe. Bass. i. low note. Sicamb. exchange. pressed down. bast-maatte. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. OFr. mock not. to bind hand and foot. berewic. according from Gael.looketh upon his eyes. /«r<fSp. MS. To Baste. the — — to kill those that look upon it. to baste piece of cloth. — Bassoon. bastear. also the demesne lands of a manor. The like property hath the iasilisk. inclosure. or wic. on a. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. lust. to long — a British word by Martial. Sw. HaUiweU. Sw. beretun. baratar. Barton. back. would be. besst-u-b£nd&t. barter. Barbara de pictis veni patch. exchange. a ftiesh. There is not one that. hoops of a cask. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). to bargain. the manorhousfe itself. Sylvester's Dubartas. baste. HoUinshed. fhe outhouses and yards. Apparently of Celtic origin. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. But according And Dan. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. Basilisk. a bastard. It. barter. Dan. It. beortun. to cheat. F.' Papias. ^Is de bast. corn-farm. It. Bast. Basket. Sp. .' Gl. cheating. more noble in blood than notable in learning. — in Rich. basta. also to Cotgr. as the diadem of the basilisk. a court-yard. crassus. HaU in HaUiwell. See Bath. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. bast. bdtir. said Base. from bere. which sets up its hood when angry. ohg. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. then cheating. to Diez. AS. aiKcig. It. basgod. stitch. Arthur and Merlini. The original meaning. thick. fornication. ing for profit. a bass rope. a basket masg. basta. baraet (from Fr. to baste. Isidore. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. shallow. BassuS. Sp. truck. bassin. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. Fr. unrighteous gain. piiiguis. basg. It is mentioned as . him. come near. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. pdrdt. scale in music.D. OFr. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. a deceiver. to deceive. low. partieren. humilis. from /3aR. imbastire. lift me above Parnassus. he. baste. Fr. To stitch. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. and Bret. a ipgli So Turk. . bast-reb. netting. but born in baste. plaiting of splinters basged. as It. 516. bestan. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. but he dreth presently. of the same sense. curtus. commonly A joined with the word binda. to stitch . Du. over-reaching. lattice-work. bast. Fr. bas. Swed. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. rope for — . descended of an honorable lineage. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. Lend me your hands.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. to bind. To Bask. baos.). God it wot. baratear. Bastard. See Brattice. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). Bass. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. tierer. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. beguile. Bassus. basso. baste. cog. to truck. Halliwell. chasa ogli a bastard. Pl. basso. bds. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . MHG. Al is dai. baxoj w. barley. discourse Nay. bareter. fraud. Gr. besst. ibid. binding. Dan. found in Turkish . fornication. or running away with the ship. chasa. bestcn. to bind. It. bass-matting. It. ' Bosworth. a tying. w. bran. to cheat.

to quilt or stitch wool into it. ON. explains Sp. R. All from bastir. Pr. To beat or bang soundly. 2. Sc. Cot. to give him a sound bastingi 3. the bat .-^ Chaucer. E. a packsaddle. erect. a bastion. 'iJipistreUo. 2. basa. a pad or packsaddle. the clapper of a bell. cudgelling. ari instruineht for beating. basto. dial. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. Pm. bast. staff. to set on foot a war Bastion.fortress or castle furnished with towers. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. To baste one's hide . compared with blakka. Sw. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. put it together. blatta. . iastir. baston. business (Altieri). stryka. blakra. blaka. bastonnir. p. bastione. from Fr. to devise or begin. bastida. is explained by Cot. Supp. Perhaps baska. a blockhouse. 11864. a stick.stick. also to cudgel.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. bastia. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. to drub. to flap. It. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. 164). vespertilio. 2. a. disposer. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. passage Imbasto. Sp. and Arabs. guerra bastir.stitching in general. packsaddle. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. translation to a bat. blows. in the Romance languages. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. and Cot. to whip. club. military term of a bat-horse). bastir. Sw. Fr. BAT neither. baston.. has bastine. contrive. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. badger. Derived by Diez from iasi. Sp. to Due. to pack a saddle i. to build. bladier. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. blakta. pre. bastimento. Fr. niammal. but this is hardly satisfactory. bastille. to rub. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . to thrash . a pad. back. For the loss of the / in back. bastear. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds.baste or knock soundly. It. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. like the owl and the bat. bastir. Sw. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. set up. provisions. stryk. basta. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. comp. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. bastonada. to stroke.— Bailey. a bird which. iinbastire. which to rest the load. to cudgel. a with a stick. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. — Bakke. blatta. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. Sw. I. whence ledrblaka. — — Fl. a barSp. dial. Fr. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. Florio. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. to teach one before. e. settiilg up. in the use of the E. blakka. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. bat. vledermus. . It seems to me that the sense of stitching. It. which in the E. Prov. set up. bak. to belabour. to build. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. Dieiif. frotter. vespertilio. bastonFr. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. bdion. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. to lay the Sp. quelqu'un son roulet. * Bat. frame. bakie-bird . : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. also the ricado. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. aftonbakke. Mid. Rayn. night-bat. nade. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. — — — . Fr. blacta. the night-jar or goat-sticker. the winged . the original has corneille. To donjon. a blow cloth for dinner. For the origin of baston see Baste. natt-blakka.'CaB. a sconce. raise. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. Antiq. worth (Nat. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. and ditches bastion. to rub gently. That yche blak y dar wel telle. devise. beysta. bastilde. Dan. Bastinado. flyinge best. R. to beat. beating. contriving. bastine. to spread bread and butter. a things prepared for future use.Lat. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. to beat. or implement for 4 * A . batta lucifuga.— . the E. as weU as besteau. Dan. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. ment. victuals. boste. Cot. liiake.

on the fire. Fr. I baske. pak. or a dry stick. to get better. Fr. Pr. G. To Bate. dispute. gabatnan. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. It. battle was used beath wood. badask. to warm. buask made like a fortress. badda. bat. makebate. fortress or castle. I. baquetazo. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. to refresh oneself in language. to betake oneself. Battlement. Mgy. bdda. a stick. whence the sun burns . bastille. In OE. Fr. Hence pro. battions. a Baiffi. also a sun badfish. heat. lessen. Bailey. Jeddris and covering. to warm oneself at the fire. beat down. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. Eggs. Gael. to feed. betten. allay . Battery. the root of e. debat. I bathe in water viz. baden. on. — Cot. Fr. adapted for defence. to heat. oneself at the A into faggots. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. E. to beath wood Battledoor. Strife. to dial. and with staffslyng. a beating. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. solbase. and as a verb. G. Sw. from on. dial. abattre. a band of armed men arranged basa. fashes basking in the sun squadron. to beak. Batten. baka. Baka sik vid elld. certain bend. to foment. wet linen in washing. to fire or in the sun. in the case of a wall. to fight. the heat of the It. to cudgel. a blow. beat. gebdck. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. flour. . batir. water whether warm or cold. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. Goth. bludgeon. battre. better. batte sig. Pm. bataille. a staff. badda. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. by projections or in any licoure. to for fighting. to fell. to toast bread. then to warm by the application of hot water. a great seems related to baden as Fr. solen baddar. Bat. abate. beat. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. Battery. battre las ailes. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. strife. Pm. 2. . more. tagUone. Sw. signifying to give repeated blows.Hence in the augmentative form It. a battalion. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. or make debate. a main battle. was formed bastilU. a stirrer-up of strife. also. an arrangement for giving blows. A Bath. Slav. bake. The bat with which a brot bdhen. quhar he suld assaill. PLD. baeddu. to foment.' Palsgr. batador.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. and milk beaten up together. In some parts of England it is striking.Bathe. batna. to beat. trahtr to It. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. from battre. Du. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. made of bats. to beat. a blow with a light instrument. Plkkis. To Batten. Ayenst the sunne. to foment with hot applica. dial. to warm oneself. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. e. to bathe oneself. and about an inch thick. It. altercation. battere. Fr. as wood-en. for biia sik. Holz bdhen. Sp. as E. bdda vidjor. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. bat-en. bdt. battre. bdhen. a from ON. quell. dial. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. Flem. to be profited. of bread is so much baked zX one time. See Better. cudgel. in the sun. to beat. . a battle. batterie. to bathe. dial. battaglia. w. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. Batter. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . Barbour in Jam.— . ON. to become fat. Battle. made of — A made by one Batcii. bet. battere. — — — ' — . to flutter with the wings. or break down. From bat in the sense of rod . Batyn. term in falconry . perhaps first used adjectivally. baz. G. Jurgor. to heat . squadron. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. to become convalescent. sich bakern. howis. to beat se battre. is a simple adoption of Fr. Battalion.— To Bask. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. a washing beetle. From OFr. tradire. Sp. as signifying warm baths. Pr. To thrive. busk. Bate. bada. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . hot. gebdcke. is in falling. batacazo. Florio. to thrive. remit. basa. Fr. — To . Bret. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. Chaucer. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. A batch as wood. Hal. as E.

to bark. Formed from baw. miauler.— P. represented by the syllable miau. a tassel. javelle. From Bret. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. to make the noise Baudrick. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . Piedm. is used for a sented by bau. Bagdad. — Pm. to the same origin. balbob. P. cluster. to cry. baudrdj OHG. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. a belt. as Fr. fagot. i. a tassel or hanging bunch . because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. a lump. to low or bellow as corn. baudrat. Cot. form with an initial seen in Fr. the white of his leg or foot. bobbin or cluster of thread. b \% bouala. In like manner Grisons filthy.. to bark . from Baldacca. having a white streak down Bagdad. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. to talk Lacombe.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. an object. fe bau. or toys. Pr. Prov. propugnaculum. was simply a field gold. faisceau. baban. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. to vociferate. Batylment of a wall. Pm. Baw — .' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. tab. baffe. Cot. filth. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. because made of cloth of white. dente. Fr. or sheaf of Bridel. Swiss Rom. 8.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. Cloth of gold. dung. lewd . on the face of animals. filth. an embattled wall. bal. ground. a horse with white legs. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. Cotgr. exactly corresponds Fr. whimwham. The It. bal. to play the babby.. fooleries or fond To Bawl. Fr. Irel. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. a spot. c. Jam. trifle. instead oi s. A name of the badger. BAWSON Swiss. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. rotten. —R.guage). also more Bawdekin. ! Bauble. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. The word may perhaps be sticks. s. bausan. Sc. It. Fr. pegma. dirty. a dog). fields. Fl. OFr. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. nastiness. collar. speckled. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. E. and Sp. divided between black and white. bad. vacillo. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. bauch. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. Bavin. tille. spot. Pr. Filthy. W. P. zano. sorry. ish baubles. an — — — A — g — — — . toys. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. to 53 manure the To baw. a lump or cluster babhaid. brush faggot. to void the bowels. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. the Swiss baben. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. P. disgusting.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. ballach. is Bagdad stuff. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). E. An analogous noisily. trifles. babsmall toy to play withal. obstrepere. Lat. bau. Ball-seirc. From ! an interjection of disgust. sword-belt. babiole. whence pouacre. dacchino.' ' Pegma. guigaw. horse. Hal. baue. a plot of Chaucer. Beaus^ent. from Fr. bablyn or waveryn. scarf. R. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. 2. balderich. Bawson. a white mark Bawdy. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. It. balGael. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. Gael. Ball. bow (as in our nursery Diez. dial. bauU. the face. Baldrick. a gavel. pie- . Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. baugant. bow-wow. It is all bawdy. dirt. baubare. Zalli. Descript. or Cot. child. excrement. and to-tore also. mew. spotted. ON.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. OFr. baw. also the canopy carried part of his body. librillo. It. bobine. E. to trifle away ment. babbole. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. a horse marked with a procession. to me-wl. baula. a zan. s. — — ' Lydgate. expressive of disgust. E. whence the E. ball. or the animal so marked. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. bouaila. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. in OE. and authorities in note.

especially beans. to open as a blossom. siege of Bayonne in 1665. A stag is said to stand at bay. yellow . OSp. put to his last shifts. Bayonet. from an imitation of the sound. Feb. overture. bagaid. to iiitent nected PoL white. ing-floor. open the mouth. in order to keep the enemy in check. BAY marked with bjly. AS. the cod of peas. corrupted into Bow-window. life. life. baja. —Diez. stare. a'uno. Bay. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. bate. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. badius. Lat. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. Q. bayo. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. a dagger. stood watching him stoop. house . Swiss beie. baga. Prov. To Bay. a hole. baier. bilyejiti. grapes or nuts. and keeps them in check for a while. watching intently. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. to mark. the laurel-bay. abbabayer. to amuse stare a bada. buidhe. Drayton in R. Catalan hadia. Gael. bioth. waiting . baher. by the term rendre les abpis. Mod. the step is the same as from It. bai.. . bdcr. badia to Sp. bacca. berries. Swab. It. bilyega. From the former verb is the It. From Cat.c. Fr. baca. w. Abide. desiring. It has been shown under Abie. See Bald. ist. to keep one waiting. Cot. baye. baca.' Bailey. or at bay. trahir. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. Q. beothach. buidhe- The ruadh. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. baionette. so called from its bearing bays. arose two forms of the verb. BE Probably conRuss. and the To bark as a dog. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. S. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. and zndly. living Ir. A hollow in the 'line of coast. bde. See Bawl. baccello. to keep at a bay. he turns and faces his pursuers. badarse. white. — A At Bay. to stand watching one. Gael. alive. Sp. bajo. beo. It. bay. a mark. bialo. living thing . the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. that from ba. as if to signify a window of curved outline. gate. Sp. which however. or recess in an apartment in modern times. when. . bijel. Such Antaeus seemed to me. badarc. tradire to Fr. to be Bohem. at his last gasp. bayen-stein. window-sill. like a pie. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. as gazing. to on anything. dehiscere . . A — he brought her to stand listening to him. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. 25. Fr. Fr.. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. bahia. Vielp. the world Gr. baie. to split. —Bay-windo'W. Sp. It. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. Gr. &c. BauSfi)/.— Stalder. Lat. Bay-tree. Arts.' — — 54 bald. or berries. — Schmid. beonj Gael. 1859. bay. or window ' (in Fortification). representing the sound made in opening the mouth. —F. berry. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. weary of running. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. to open. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. baiare.—Journal Soc. or to have been first used at the Cot. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. &c. a cluster of bacon. baya. a berry. . husk. the cod or husk of beans or the like. Serv. &. aux dehniers abois. Fr. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. baer. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. large window in a handsome . It. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. batibari. * To Be. to gape. expresr sion tenere a bada. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. It. bahia. a beast. hddhe-dhonn. 1. Fr. is perhaps not directly from Lat. The word bay. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. Piedm. barn of two bays. Fr. |8i'os. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. Holland's Pliny in R. window . F. See At Bay. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. from badar. dividere. The — Fr. laurel of the ancients. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. to betray. Earth — By Nature made to till. Bay./^ bau.

bohnej ON. bank. faba is Kvavoq. according to of Sanscr. like most nautical terms. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. to produce young. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. baun. Goth. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. Chapters on Lang. to bellow. a tree. Farrar. support. W. G. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. Catalan becar. as. — bedeau. Slavon. fero. ffaen. Gr.' adheres to the root. Fr. OSax. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. G. W. — to bow or nod . gebed. to wait-. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. signifying a point.. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. Be. as. Thus the final en. Pardoner's Tale. rising ground. backe. Gael. A Esthon. Bret. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. or any action done with a pointed thing. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. or breathing. ffci. which is. a curtsey. bar. Beak. ON. To Bear. Miss Gurney in Philolog. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. into France. It. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. Du. a beak. It. Bear.ad. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. beck. . bee. bydel. . Where it live ? where is it ^ e. beacnian. bek. * Beagle. as well as f& or fav. See To Bid. He says. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. bakke. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. a sign.fui. Sw. AS.fuis5e. beic. bokan. fora-bauhan. The nutu significare. a single bean. be. Bean. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. bearti. A two-year old nephew of mine p. fd or faVf beans. into a snjall river. badmr. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. Beadle.' Hall's Chron. beugler. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. bauhan. Beckon. Goth. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. AS. to nod . -phxr. signifying individuality. to beckon. beic. ON. The wild beast. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. beans. faba. bean. N.from AS. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. ohg. vii. pig. Boom. l^ax. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. a single bean. bob. to wait. It is BEAR SI court. Moreover the name. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. on. bM. It forms a. Lat. stock. an attendant. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. pierced for hanging on a string. a hill. The origin seems preserved in E. bidan. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. however. Fr. g. Netherlands or North Germany. Hackluyt in R. . Q wait upon him. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. baum. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. bead. atUndre. would say. 54. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. bagms. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. salve his hurts. beacen. tale of prayers or doxologies. a prayer. bdkna. —F. bairan. The immediate shore of the Menage. to carry. was introduced from England sea. a tree. or however. bedm. fromthe danger. bohne. becco. — : Beam.to have a French origin. vol. the part overflowed by the tide. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. nokkima. to nod the head. not applied to the yelping of dogs. Beck. and Lat. — Bellenden in Jam. bidello. boom. a nod OHG. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. bakkje. Beacon. or beic. Gael. a presage. Trans. Gael. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. E. «va\ioQ.fer-re j Gr. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists.' Suetonius in Diez. prodigy bauhnjan. post. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. Bret. Beach.

to sleep on. to those goods which endure for ever. bcek. burdr is used in the sense of a car. bur.of being very angry.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. bedr. i. slobber. Sp. dress with unbecoming richness . or special purpose. See Beacon. G. Beaver. a bank. Prov. bave i. or a feeling to be gratified. suitable. bavec. He becom on sceathan. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. Secondarily applied to a hat. to dabble . Now the Beast. connected with ripa. and also in that of birth. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge.' every way suited to a prince. receive. from beau. Thcem. to fall mode of being. It. biber. nod or sign. bestiaj Gael. byrcti. tidig. obtain. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. fallinn. and Fr. — . to carry. the beard. In like manner condition. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. happening as it ought. to happen. birth. Lat. Thus OY. agreeable. Russ. riviera. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. e. — A — A — . bobrowai. blast.AS. seemly.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. decent. the latter are derived It. gabaurths. to fall in with our bavard. Do no To It fallith favour. Diez. living. bava. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth.we call the arrangement becoming. To load with ornament. pens unmixed evU. talkative.getiman. The quadruped. Bo. barf. Goth. and on. as the babble of the child. gelimplic. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. babrad. to come to or upon. rying. fit. bring forth. limplice. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. to shore. barba. iida. bebrus. baurthei.S6 fero. if sound of a sharp blow. e. to attain to the lot of any one. The moveable part of a helmet. bard. to G. Slav. covered the face. an notion of being convenient. Fr. Boeth.fit. Fr. On the same principle. As rivus. to be a part of his to. G. ting. our taste. battere. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. E. fiber. Bedizen. to arrive at. G. limpian. Beckon. W. Dan. Beat. . signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. limpan. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. to please. dushmak. the ece thurhwuniath. to the brook itself. as. to assume a certain form or Turk. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. edge. See Bat. a lip. from baver. to hem. ON. opportune. 2. brook. to happen. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. Beck. ON. Fr. godum with ON. The OFr. a brook. The fitting or suitable. formerly a happen. nothing to thy name make. convenient. bello. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. bequem. ON. Lat. handsome. Fr. bib or slobbering cloth. to bear children. R. Cal. boroda. because made of the fur of the beaver. bekommen. ON. riviire. brook . from the same in the sense of bear2. to wade through the water like a beaver. dize or dtzen. becuman. I do thee pray. timan. Beauty. venient. now confined To Become. bearing. AS. chin. beatanj It. It. while from Shep. Lith. duty. Perhaps from Pol. AS. Lat. See Bank. to be fulfilled. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. bellus. produce. Bosworth. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. gebank. beauts. decorous. to appertain. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. border. it is probable that here also the to become. bach. pleasing. o. baba. to happen. fitanimal. bel. bett. comely. fitly . which. befit. 1. See becymth anfeald yvel. bobr. den. taste. befall. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. pretty. i. E. or river. Beck. to fall. and to acquire. That thou mayest attain Goth. Lat. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. place to lie down. to the good hapHalbard. OSw. becuman. biivre. perhaps a living thing. a. proper.— Kiittner. whence baveux. to get. proper . judgment. to happen.' are equivalent expressions. bart. suitable. to happen. but now a river only. tidy. G. g. to be incumbent upon him. bekkr. when up. badi. E. con. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. to live. bave. Chaucer. byw. a bank. name applied originally to the bank then proper . G. baviire. Prick of Conscience. get J ' He got very angry. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. agreeable. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. R. behkr. beo. ziemen.to clothe to slobber. Fr.' ' He became very angry. brada. gefallen.

bibere is a re. Beetle. It. from blood. bably named from the destructive quali| T. garden-herb. ir'm. a cover. bos. Ant. Fr.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. It. calleBedlam. 57 — Palsgr. betel. turn. bukva. drink. . a wandering Prov.ing of the word is curdled. imperative pi. The first milk after a dizen. 1 to drink. bitela. to curdle or lopper. to colour with lime-wash.' So Gr. a pillow-case. erroneously modified in form. batAfter mete in sale. a wasp.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. Beef. a horse-fly . waarin. to poordma. to become Beech. cousin. to rough- cast. Fr. buka. doubtless. bossen. bet. a pillow case. beach. turn (a garment).cz//aj. boytle. The honey-producing insect. door. Beet. Lat. piwo. Gr. prisons Venet. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. a Properly a cover that biiren. Dan. the ox. woman that is newly delivered. a stinging bieUe. in Nat. may be shpped on and off. bletumj Gr._t from the root pi. beost. cow has calved. G. Fr. Horn. kiissen-biere. bove. a malsense of drink. It. beest. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. bbtel. AS. an Beetle. fagus.). sela que environna la terra. madhouse. 1. Bethlehem. qui de lecto surgere non potest .ON. desert. taglio. an ox. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond.possible. bedawi. from risan. bovis. crespir. Confined to bed. de Fierabras in Diez. Slav. I put the flax upon it to spin. 1156. . blow or thrust. paralyticus. . clog for a dog b'oteln. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. and lebermer in G. a mallet.. red curdled Arab . stakes. to turn. Lat.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. thick. the meat of spinach. bedde-redirj ohg. GaeL bior. G. to knock. Let. to flatten In OE. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. case. . bytl. Bed-ridden. briesch-milch. Pl. Fr.^ drink. wedges. poculum. Fr. cogionare. beutel. a bed-tick. by the analogy of bedaivb. whence familiar. Grimm. may be from K. Bav. also bienst. whose face is clotty. from leberen. g. Rom. a bee. and in driving piles. by-flugaj G.'— GL ^Ifr. duplicated form of the root. an inhabitant of the desert. to coagulate. a wasp. . The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. G. as in It. trees in a forest . Cot. badigeonner. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. knock. cited by Diez. prigione. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. Arab.' the last word corresponds to cofly . Esthon. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. to fall. beetle also signified the impiti. Originally. a pad or cushion). as the milk of a that purpose in London. ProBeer. AS. as. buk. to beat bossel. fall. P1. briest. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. beyki. But possibly bedizen 2. I A pillow-beer. vaar. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. buche. which also 2. biene. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. from jtst-. the biter. kivih. Bernese. I dysyn a dystaffe. water. on. biiren. cushion-cover . a paviour's beetle batail. Gael. the loppered sea. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. from Lat. pital of St Mary. For that was law of lend. extant in Bohem. bette or blettej Lat. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. ris. E. The beer al for te shenche bate. Bedouia. AS. a clapper. a cup or implement for AS. bedskiissen-bUren. of beatmg. In a passage of an Old Fr. in Schmeller. a drink potus. to twist poorma. comprehending both wine let for beating flax.(paddi. to and ale. to change . cugino. to drink. Cot. from the hos. thick. ^. beach-each.D. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be.D. * Beestings. curded or beesty. biest-milch. speach. boeuf. pettiriso. The meanpainting. PI.— B. Pett. Fin. tree. pude-vaar. used for boull. drink. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. i. to parget or rough-cast . &c. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. E. beer. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. 1. a agulatum in the original Latin. comb. cozen. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. ' MordiThe Lat.— JI14. Bee. bitel. /SXirov. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. translation beOj. byst. sang vermeilh betatz. 'La Gl. . also the bite or sting of a bees. KXlvoTTiT^e. beta. D. mars betada. Fr.

sel. Bruce. ' Begone. 168. lapidicinus.' for ye shall lament and weep. Du. gan. P. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. a — wedge. can. signifying to conceive. Gr. 25. ytyvwfT'Kw. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. Mod. &c. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. gigno. duginnan. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. Deutsch. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. 'Dz. but in the same language from poc. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. ' ' . vir mendi. on further examination. Political Songs. ip AS. Du. also called Bigots. can. Ancren Riwle. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . Nov. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. Into the are D. in Lat. to be able. ysgrepan. It will . a wallet. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. beis- plement driven by blows. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. yiyvo/uat. in D. ' . That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai.— . P. from whete G.n. a bag . woe-begone. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. on the tramp. 2. He did alight. begging. yivwajcw. in E. taking up. 40. su with gold. Mundart. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. Lollards. beissel. ysgrepanu. a beggar . ken. P. ornamented phoc. P.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. be^nnan. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. anfangen. P. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. bag {baigean. one after that other. AS. air a . P. image is cleft out of the trunk. Florio. hags. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. So from Gael. word. chisel. on the bag. kind. a beggar. covered with gold D. V. appears improbable at first. to With hire belies & here bagges get children.quently used in OE. ken. a wedge for cleaving wood. beitel.3. oppressed with woe. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. to beg. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. When Q. it is both to acquire and to beget. to get children . above quoted to get beaten ON.' A. y/yvo/iat. a little bag). tale. beriolare. Schm. of Gr.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. but probably erroneously.pose. 'Aboutin undern monly. 1867. the fundamental notion of attaining to. seizing.bag full of the G. a bag or poke. beginning. V. krapszas. is com. Skinner's derivation from bag. Vocab. To produce children is to acquire. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. to reduce him to beggary. P. whence the E. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. aginnan. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. to take. yivtrri. a stone-cutter's chisel. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. at geta talad. steinbosil. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. 'ex quo. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. onginnan. touched with emotion — . To Begin. beitel. The tother seand the dint cum. to arise. Of brede full ycrammed. or Of a pure poor man. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. Barbour. a bag. V.D. It. Du. although it ' the future. P. Fr.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. 1430. & go a begging. a chisel. a scrip euXaiciJoi. capere. Si'Xa/coc. Beghardus. a beggar-boy. gen. to bear young. yivofiai. — Stillingfleet. origin. genus. Lith. to be born. to begin. chap. ykvog. 58 BEG BEGONE G. a scrip. baigeir. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . iv. to be acquire. incipere. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. begger. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. P. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. affected.' about undern he got down. as alighting is a momentary operation. From w. OHG. — yivsaiQ. viii. literally. giving in Gr. Creed. In Luc vi. and Lat. not began to alight. to cleve. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. cans. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. To Beg. 142. to know. Goth. P. pose-pilte. to begaan. two betels —a grete oke. to go a begging. beutel. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. bertola. referred gan this Erie alight. &c. Cold-begone. is formed pocair. fangen and Lat.

AS. Sw. behefe. R. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. AS.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid.— . by the compound observare. to gehouden. hces. to command. And so from hania. hove. Sw. behold. To Behave. to carry. promise . servare. or necessary. take heed of. keeping. the two verbs seem radically the same. to bring forwards. portarsi. or the hence advantage. The Lat. observe. premi curi alicujus rei. hafwa bort. beperson addressed. to carry. ifl fact. vow. to be named. heeten. hatan. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. heita. guardare.for throwing it. taking notice or care of (Gloss. Sw. G. garder. hafwa. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. furtherance. gecall. solicitum esse. han- — js Kil. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. se porter) to fare well or ill. to keen or hold. use. to be obliged to one. commonly expressed. or purpose. To place are most naturally ex. invoke. behatan. behete. as in the case of E. have the sense of calling or naming. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. to keep. at the tail of. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. OE. to lift. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. hevja. what is so required. behoof. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. hcef tig bort. to look upon it as true . hafwa. To be expedient. when the verb will hoof. injunccommand. is supported by many analogies. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . adjust. AS. right. keeping. to vow. hantyri. according as the * To Behove. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. to fit. to halten. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. holding is originally derived from that of looking. behaviour. a follower.to vow. Paladino. G. hafjan. to carry corn into the barn . to name. behces. bound. Command. —Hest. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. hovast. take yourself off. hafwa ram. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. G. to be be named. hofwa. to look. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. zu etwas gehalten haitan. tail. It. name of the head is used to express what hbva. to be obliged to do a thing. Goth. to lead. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. to call. zijn. Plautus. behat. from tragen. Thus in Finnish the heave. nittaa. betragen. to have. to regard. The It. us-hafjan. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . promise or a command. obliged. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. G.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. to meet. advantage. But. ge' hatan. Robert in Warton. the distance of anything. to follow. to be fit. the name adapt. to hold. beholden to him. hcefwa in seed. gehaben. ward. to tend. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. to vow. vow. to the equivalent of Du. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. gehouden. G.). is on the top of or opposite to. the equivalent of E. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. gehalten seyn. behind. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. At the back of The re. to feed. to bers of the body. and (as Fr. to be well pleased out. AS. laborare. habere. heeten willekem. to raise. heave. to hit the mark. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. To Behold. to heave. N. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. to keep. habban. To look steadily upon. fixed upon any object). healdan.the figure of throwing at a mark. Aan iemand bid one welcome. and their senses intermingle. and the E. exhort. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. AS. to lift. to R. Kiittn. to hold. — Behest. to turn one out . seeing to. 17. to call. is also found in the sense of looking. to cast or throw. ufhaban. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. gehat. promise. to carry. to behave. G. what he wishes another to do . K.' Richardson. on. to take away. to promise. The seyn. to command. hevja. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. to be suitable or becoming . tion.

and Du. cela est audessus de votre portde. to lay be- around. reach. Another application of the same word is in Pl. or high estimation. to protect. or a sconce. giving leave or permission. bolken. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. an implement for making a loud noise. to hit hafi. a tower. tain a certain end. Sw. to resound. a tower for defence . bettifredo. allow. to bolk.. galaubs. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. honoured. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. OHG. . berfroi.. precious. appearing in Mid. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. esteemed . OFr. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . a little shed. to fix a price upon one's wares. orloven. to praise. if a promise. — . to be required for a certain purpose. laubjan. Q. to praise. bylja. belief . a watch tower. were civil terms of address. on. border. to praise. laven. In the middle voice hofwas. beset. AS. praising. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. a. or house. is an easy progress. bercvrit. to believe. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. Pl.D. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . garnish. erlauben. and bergan. bellan. to give leave. if a narration. consent. certain rate. turris. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. bell. to estimate them at a To believe. —F. Fr.alyfan. portion. to extol the worth of anything. The word be- Belfry. on. To praise is essentially Xo prise. to befit. Fair sir and Fair lady. to roar. G. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . is used in the sense of approving. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. To Belay. P1. Goth. fringe. — mankind. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. . bertefredum. Pl. with the consent of the heirs.Lat. b'ola. bialla. legsel. stand.D. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. and E. battefredum. a vessel made for dishonour. permitting or giving leave. aim. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. to der swaren lave. AS. To Believe. loven. for purposes of low estimation . and E. and. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. are innate . are other modifications of the same imitative root. locus securitatis Schilter. ornament. to give leave Dan. In Mid. to promise or engage. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. to give leave. under the forms belfredum. moderation. is (Sternberg). loben.D. leaf geleafa.. praise. to express approval. bulken. to to make A Templorum campana boant. to belay. ON. reputation. beleggen. esteeming good and valid. — Diicange. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. To Belch. lov. Hence to simple approbation. ley/a. gelyfan. Du. to sound loudly . bellow. then. lofa. promising. Then. Du. measure. in nautical language. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. ungalaub kas. range. glauben. Northamptonshire. resonare. 6o BELAY BELL loven. to put a high price or value on. galaubjan. boare. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. bounds. beffroi. beffroit. to cry out bell. permission. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. It. to permit. then. leave . overspread. from mhG. Du. we have Goth. promiser. to believe. bervrit. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. Det er ofwer er hofwa. belja. to boke. laven. verloben. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. Bell. behove. beau sire and bel dame. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. true. properly belonging to the church tower. to promise. hesfa.D. fitness. lyfan. bealcettanj OE. to lay the cable round the bits. frid.Lat. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. filu-galaubs. to believe. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. mark ON. bealcan. loven. to sanction an arrangement. Fr. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. to make it fast. pro3. See Gain. met. From AS. to bellow. peal. satisfaction. ON. to a loud noise. . Du. distance to which a piece will carry.

' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. a kindness. to bless. — Ducange. Lat. benjoim." — — . disposed to oblige. — See Numb. are stripped off whole blase-balg. to arrive at. — ray. a leather bag. to do good to one . J'emboue. welt of a shoe gwald. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. bolg. to hallow. blister balgan-snamha. Lat. Beneath. Gael. to touch. Du. bene/actum. pino3. I araye. to bend a bow . See I . to concern. belch. balg. bilbila. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. dirt. is The word balg. In E. to. pertinere. bendan. to use words of good omen. se bander. est matris in lucem editus. bolg. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. See Bank. to attain belangen. ball. bellows. fyle To dirty. attingere. by itself. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. Kil. bimpsen. Lat. because bcelg. bilbil-goda. to stretch it on a frame.— Belly. gelangen. Quoth. Benignant. a water-bubble builge. bendaj as. bag. loubdn djawt. blast-bcelg. Eenison. as concerning that. as. . to say. Benefactor. an inflated Lat. to become one's property . Was das belanget. beneison. needs no ex. To Belong'. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. Gum benjamin. cod or husk of pulse. langen. from which is also bulbus. vulva. Benign. taken absolutely. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . well. I soyle it or araye it.' Palsgr. to make bilbil. pertinere. generous. bcelg. Fr. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. Lat. ' . bags or bellows. benedictio {bene^ and dico. the womb. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. Benediction. vulgarly the belly. To Bend. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. gwaldas. means seeds of plants. from cwcsthan. to belong. Benedico. attinere.Fr. The ing-skin. or simply djawt. I marre a thyng. benignus (opposed to malignus). zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. Lat. I say). From OFr. has assumed a plural form. welt of a shoe. fens et hie liraus. Bench. . or a It is times the to signify services. G. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. — root consisting of concentric skins. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). pod.videtur. benedicere. a round or bubble-shaped root. To belong is thus to reach up to. a blessing. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. Dozy. ray. Benefice. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. from Arab. on. was in Mid. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. bienfait. hem.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. ON. a benefit. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. a speaking well of one. a border. kind. See Bind. benehusk. becwathan. Fr. . Fr. .. bandoir. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. bander un arc. leather sack. to come to the crown belangen. Bav. one who does good. ON. bellows. a spring. a bellows . benaigon. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. to ring. rushes. to reach. wallet. from benedictio. from another modification of the word for bubble. to exert force.pinuz. Gael. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. Bent. poX^ri. . Bret. Belt. Sw. . or sometimes louban. a good deed. the skin of those animals that factor. bolch. a blow. binsen. G. Benzoin. OUG. See Nether. belt. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life.' — Hie fimus. rise against external force .polch. bimaissen. incense of Java. Javanese perfume.' The term had been previously planation. ' I beraye. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. binssen. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. a accusative. Lat. to touch one. belliJ Lat. OFr. To Benum. benejicium. G. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. Ptg. to hold to one. G. to concern. w. a bellows. pervenire. balteus . to attain to. border. is a kindred form. hence with ashes. belgr. attinere. . the word. belly. bless. ^To Beray. benir. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. or fyle with myre. skin. balg. skin. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. wallet Benefit. belly. volva. To Bequeath. benefacere. bell. benjoin. pouch. bellows.

but in practice. to be-place.irova. Sw. The origin is AS. to the place boarded off in a. to to deprive of. supply. het vuur The serise of Boeten. encouraging. ropahtaa. When men of mekeness him baet. dirt. Kil. as. to put on the saddle. To Gl. AS. roju. p. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. to kindle the fire. dust rojahtaa. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . to thrust.— VixHsm. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. a berry. is to perform a serviceable office to him. make better . same word with the provincial barth. boeten.bhaksh. to strip. Beit. think more probable. AS. See Better.fish the other hand.D. betan. to entreat. Fr. earh. So roto rattle down. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. Grose. So Lat. beorgan. the side bhakshya. buttafuoco. to mend. p. betan. arwe. BEREAVE Wall. botesward. to word is shelter. besIn sen. of ffeed a fire. what does it better a man. vol. buttare. The dry. sheltered from the wind. beseech. reafian. See Reave. or to bestead one. and on which the wager is laid. berwham. rubbish. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. bdt. the origin of which is to be found in ON. better. noise.iooA. it seems hard to separate as. in the sense ctf beria. The proper meaning of the bale.—^fake. as bouter selle. dirt . Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. put forth. To Beseech. supporting on the one side Lat. to make it. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. and also to entreat. Beet.• 62 Antiq. to stand one in good stead. to supply a want. making better. and Du. bouter. but it is specially applied mister. mud. ^akka. fall with sound. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. a place . besen. baete. fearful.ot-i. Zeitschr. Bestead. boteith Goth. To help. as. fyrbotare. R. or the space kept clear betan.— Hal. — . BETE dirty'. barthless. place. Ihre. G. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. boeten. improve. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. ^•n. * To Bete. preferably. broom twigs. berry. To Bet. as. Du. to fall with roisto. advantage. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. boutefeu. Tha het he micel fyr betan. scopse spartis. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. besje^ Sanscr. as conversely a besom is called broom. to seek. to light the fire . roju. — amendment. lewth. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. Du. Sw. Fin. or. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. burrow. a fire. On the other hand. Rob. Goth. ariierf to 113. dial. lay out. person to lie in. houseless. advantage. boeten. Beere. to amend. bal oppbota. roe. as Du. rods. stow. put. besein. AS. sets fire to. to thrust. to cast. Best. OE. E. as. as in growth. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. small eatable fruit. position. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. bereafian. barth may be for barf. hva mannan. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. stealth from steal. besmas. earg. — Biglotton. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. profit. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. sweepings. compared with bargham. the guardian . repair. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. bet. from It. basya. — bota. From abet. baete. an incendiary. bdt. reparation. It is the restore fyr betan. might have been . I from lew. peto. brem-bessen. . Tusser. barfham. Du. Besom. amendment. . — Chaucer. E. Fr. solicit. seems twigs or rods. Esthon. berwe. * Berth. from AS.t. basjaj Du. bestow. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. R. to exercise on a definite object. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. jnore. reparation. a horse collar. because used for making besoms. to To Bereave. besnij Pl. bat.X. eld up- On is to be placed A — . Du. bacca. an incendiary. what does it boot. To seek something from a person. to fire a funeral pile of . So too Yorkshire arf. To Bestow. bota. stede. Berry. to on the other Goth. from grow. To bete his Jam. dung . G. to defend. 3. Hfence backing. one who shelter. bur-we. to give a place to. Devon. ship for a make amend. vi. to make better. protect .

tradere. R. Fris. order. to fall. traditor. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. of quails. fate. springs from ON. Bevy. bibere. bat. riigen. are there Regt R. Thus from dbahir. ziemen. by two. proficere.— . betaemen. pair of compasses. tima. Goth. to happen. larks. Fr. — Betwixt. -to appoint. beuvrage. amidst. progress. e. is used for the — R. which may be compared as to form with amid. r'ojer dig. in the middle of two. Bav. afford. betweox. better. i. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. spritigs from schicken. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. G. It. zimet. Mich self a good glass of wine. E. a bevy. Hence last G. betest. From the former of these are AS. /alia. Lat. to cheat. to make forwards. dispose (whence schicksal. what does It is forward him. To Bewray. abash j from polir. I approve of beveau. A — drink. find it good: Goth. wrogia. Sw. from invadere. ON. more. betweoh. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. obdissais. deem suitable. BETEfiM translated. Fr. has — In a like sense tanie>i.D. to Hence It. ON. Fl. Ober D. ruogia. — that schickiich. i. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. baet.' Dialogue on Witches. sloped off. *Ah. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. bet. awry. it bewrays itself. AS. Better. In like manner from twain is fothied between. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. against. an instrument opening like a a thing. R. OE. Goth. tweoh. Det sig sjelft. thy speech bewrayeth thee. betwuxt. It. to accuse. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. advance. Percy Soc. his eyen sheen. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. said he. some attention. fitting. trahison. bevere. betst. E. Dii. for measuring angles. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. Best. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. beverage. to drink . bedriegen. To boot in coursing (i. betriigen. verbs in ir with a double ss. Du. x. kein leben mehrin no signs . be fitting or suitable. . from. On the same principle ON. as from obdir. vrohjan. G. E. or with again. G. whence beveraggio Fr. and thence twegen. better. of pheasants. evidence of life. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. find in one's heart. wreia. moveable and compass branches. fallinn. betweohs. Fr. not to have the heart to give up a thing. a different form of twa. batizo. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. Golding's Ovid in R. AS. from Lat. Now the stirring of an object. gatiman. Car son umbre si le trahit. as tlock. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. To Betray. e. treachery. a traitor. traitre. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. Ik tame mi dat nig.D. zemen. a brood. to deliver tip. bet. gesiemen. Pl. suitable. betray. to deceive. by a final sh. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. In the water anon was seen His nose. trakir. Slant. Sahissais. Pl. gezimet eines dinges. Friar's Prol. best. trahir. e. Dit tungomal rendered in E. bouter davantaige. to happen. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. beva. Fr. — See To Bete. dir. Between. 88. to Teem. tima. G. betera. to fall Some call it a bevel. in the middle of twain. betwuh. Buveau. are commonly to one's lot. tradire. in the same way Lat. trahissais. roja. taemen. taemen. suitable. from Fr. regen. twain. batista. his mouth. polish. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. R. — of the authorities. two. To Beteem. a drinking . make manifest. &c. In like manner folissais. Chaucer. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. The as. obeish. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. as trahissons. The inflections of Fr. bevde. To vouchsafe. as envahir. amiddes. roebucks. Tinia eigi at lata eit. to stir. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. is treason. to discover. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. better. deign. to deliver up in breach of trust. as one would have it fall. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. become. lot). She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. From It. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. the being pushed to the frbnt. Cot.

bisel. presence. /3i/3Xof a book originally. E. bebble. 78). bavon. bark of which paper was first made. convicts thee of being drink. bickelen. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. from pdd-. to cut in two. sbiscio. (according to the Fr. bible. a fragment bieco. one who drinks in excess. twice. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. biaiser. to give signs of life. ber-laita (for bes-laita). a bezle. roggle. evident. specially in a bottle. Lat. makes ble. To Bib. it becomes (Jz-. whence Du. kwijl-bab. sbiasciai. —Dozy. Bias. biberon. It.two. is explained to clatter. Bezoar. bes-azur. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. bickel-sieenken. bisdare. To Bezzle. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. metaphor). edge of a plate of looking-glass. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. Bible. bickai. to be a paring. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes.as in Biped. Dan. Sard. The train of thought is then. poison. besanca. him. expelling or preserving against. Ant. bickeler. bibaculus. —Bickering'. to tipple. reveal. bibo. lips.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. — Bi-. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. beslei. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. Bibelsworth in Nat. inferiority. like guzzle. to tipple. its clothes. Probably. Bezel. to dispute. sloped. To drink hard. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. 172. snout. In Arab. sbiescio. babbefore the eyes. Fr. bis. Schiitze. biais. to slaver . he is Wtb. An excellent Basil. Sardin. Piedm. biascio. sbias. tailU en biseau. Oh when shall I bizzle. . winding or crawling in and out. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. Pl. to a fight with stones. Fris. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). baverole. Sp. See Wriggle. Hal- — do something aslant. whey count .s bellum for duellum. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. to the stirring of their conscience. aslope sbisciare. . ground slanting from the general surface drinking. b&zahr. and zahr. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. rogge. slippery. It.or from obliquus. sbriscio. To bicker in NE. to stir up . rogt un bogt sik nig. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. Bib. sbrissare. Pers. sliding. or in and out. — crooked. a bibber. bring under ' Thy accuse. dial. a Galilean. to purl. to move. An inferior blue. Prov. Gr. Uprogen. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. two- footed. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. bescompte.{ioin dua. beregen. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. wraggeln. to stir. biax. baviere. misFr. The It. in two ways for duis. to stir. sbiesso. Jamieson.a. the word became bddizahr. to slaver or drivel.' bibble. stock still. Bice. sik beregen. . to glide or slip as upon. Diet. Bisect. oblique. per\'erted belief. Cat. pddzahr. . aslope. to Jam. used in precisely stone .' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. sbrisso. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. I Wallon. Fr.to drink much. to stir. bihais. To Bibble. bestemps. Hal. wrogen. Mantuan. Misc. bending. slanting . to it evident to sense. liwell. though such a change of form would be very unusual. biberer. discover. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. Fr. in Fr. To skirmish. or kwijl-slab. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). asure-bice (Early E. wrangle. it were the mouth. ice . or by any rapid motion. Ci^. In comp.D. sbieco. notice. Cat. OE. Lat. biascia. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. sbrisciare. love first begins to life signs of him. Du. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . has a singular stone-picker.D. petit-lait. kwijlen. babbi. kwijllap. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. a sloping edge.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. biberen. the basil Sc. by throwing of stones. It is especially applied in Sc. a slabbering-bib. a stone-hewer . . dial. pible. to sip. to make tongue Du. which good bibbeler. bias-wise. Fr. to well up with Cot. of the sliced off. bickel. the papyrus. Fr. as an eel or a snake. in him. crooked. to shake. Yes. To Bicker. to creep or crawl sideling. bezling or skueing. foul weather. Fr. Biseau. shows the P1. sbiagio. Piedm.

AS. The ON.peto. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. proud. anleta. Wallace in Jam. or. quiring something to be done. bua. to forbid . AS. Kil. G. faurbjudan. as G. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. biddan. Palsgrave in Halliwell. has leta. iiQ. to forbid . The loss of the / gives Dan. belly. as. from bidan. abidan.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. ten. swelling. to pray one to dinner. belly. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. or bad. BID of stone. Bight or Bought. Einem einen guten tag bieten. to ask. The 'La. buga. a swelling. bidan. consisting both of men and women. to bend. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. bugt. to abide or wait on. explaining the Sc. beodan. to look for. gebeden j G. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. ON. to offer one the wish of a good day. With respect to logical pedigree. bauen to cultivate. offerre. as tears from the eyes. A pose to one to come to dinner. Big. bulge. and yajiBui. to marry. . a suitor. to pro- command. to dwell. byggia. From Gr. forwards. 2. — To Bid. athird class. besides the professedmonks and nuns. einen vor Gericht bieten. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. Jam. cultivate. to ask. bygga. to offer. bced. ON. beidast. bulk. bolgna). to inflate E. porrigere. bug. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. BIGOT beidan. AS. — prepare. becoming in Lat. to move quickly.' Pope in R.. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. . to belly. an entire skin. bo. to curve.uddered len heart. to look for. and Gael. Du. inhabit. G. bidan. byggan. rising up. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. or third order of penitence. ' Bug as a Lord. The original Swollen. build. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. bieten. to inhabit. pressing on one's notice. England for swollen. pray. A bjudan in anabjudan. P. bolga. bat . bieden. the meaning of bid. to have one called before him. — — — Halliwell. to E. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. bulky. called the tertiary order. to build G. by seek and beseech. OSw. form. bolginn. Bigot. It must be observed that the word bidja. verbieten. boa. qucero. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. which is stiU. gebodenj G. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. to cultivate. Big-swol- . Compare also Sp. twice. bead. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. to solicit. are also used in the sense of asking for. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. to build. bigan. bi-. to bid one good day. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev." buque with E. to bicker. from seek. The ON. bidel. R. and consequently ordering or reGoth. swoln. ON. bidill. to build. bath. praestare. to arrange. balg. to swell. to start out. bow. Two verbs are here confounded. bag. G. to offer it to public notice. ON. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. to bulge. the belly of a ship. Hence Sc. of More ' in Richardson. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb.t. bulge. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. bis and in comp. bugan. OSw. bilge or bulge. bouwen. inhabit Du. repair. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. The . Analogous expressions are G. Bickelen. spelling seems to used in the N. related to big or bug. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. bend. who. be bug.' Addison. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. a flexure. may plausibly be derived from Goth. bugne (answering to ON. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. To bid the banns. To Bid ' Big . swaggering. Bigamy. biegen. 1. bidjan. a chip. and the Sw. W. bit- bidja. to presimpler pare. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. To Big. ewes. beadle. to bend.Leta). praebere. bedun. bog. from belgia. in the sense of ask for. bend of a shore or of a rope.

Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. ac labores manuum detestantes. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. absque votorum religionis emissione. A. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. natural grey or sheep's russet. alii de paupere viti. They wore a similar dress. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. From bigio. Bizocco. probably from biso. corruption would easily creep in.' Matthew Paris. alii Apostolici.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. as well as bizocco. begutta. a blockhead. beghart. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. A. vocati Fraticelli. D. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . Hence the OE.a.' translated by Muratori. rustical. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. and hence the variations bigutta. borel. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. sed maxim^ in muliebri. and underwent much obloquy and persecution.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people.D. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. author quoted in N. the other form Per te Tribune. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. Bighiotti).' says one of of bigio. 1243. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. biso. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi.. Beguttce. Bizoccki. and also unlearned common men. coarse woollen cloth.' says an Venet.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. In a similar manner from bigello. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. clownish. all apparently derived from Ital. and Q. &c. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. perch^ i Terziari di S. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores.— Ducange. 15 18. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. face VIII. ix. 1499.— BIGOT bigardo. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. G. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt.' Chart. aliqui Begardi.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. Bighini. dark-coloured cloth. grey. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. homespun cloth. vol. xx. bighellone. grey. Augustini dotarint. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. with reference to A. beghino. In the same way Fr.D. says. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. 560. Francisci communiter appellabant. bigotta. S. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. to adopt a similar course of life.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. which must not be confounded with begardo. bighiotto. both men and women. A. signifying bagmen or beggars. a dunce. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii.D. the nobles to Rienzi. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. bigio.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. was formed bigello. honesti plebeii amictus. Flor.

Kil. I. Sp. a shackle. however. bille. buie. 3. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. Bilbo. Prov. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. Billette. from OSw. Bill. the swelling G. Aurelles. — Cot. w. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. a devotee. Roquef. procella Kil. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. AS. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. bigot. bile. Piedmontese bigot. b'olja. billard also signified at billyards. The proper meaning bylgia. an ingot of gold or silver. obsolete. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. 'tumidi fluctus. a seal. So in Gr. an axe. p. bisoch. inscriptum. gleischner (Frisch). bigotto.' mariners. Bill. bigardo. to strike. beil. bil. that of swell. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. dziobad. a negro. a beak. bwyell. A slang term for a sword. e. the bill of a bird. bull-berries. bizocco. person of religion leading a loose life. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. to peck. weapon . An instrument for hewing. Fr. Sw. In the same way are related Pol. an axe. used in legal proceedings. Dan. boja. biilge. tepati.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. 5 * . to job. and dziobas. the trunk of a tree. horn of an animal. Mundart.' bilio. bill. a name given to a. belgan. In English the meaning has received a further development. boia. AS. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. an axe. loi. a hypocrite. a short note. bigot. clog to a fetter. e. bulghe. billot. billet. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. Fr. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. names bill-berries. bill of exchange. bolghe. bill in parliament. Fr. to strike. from the dark colour. as a bill of indictment. Lat. belghen. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). The origin of the term is probably from bole. an adze . bla-berry. Billow. of boja. a sword. 2. — bigardia. Bojce. a man who rests on a stick in walking. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. Bohem. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. Bilge. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. BILBERRY nated. might be taken to express a hypocrite. See Bulk. buail. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. OFr. — — ' . and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. is properly a sealed instrument. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. billard or billart. Dan. A lorum tam in — Diez. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. and in Lat. beghart. Langued. and a billard. a hatchet. a bigot or hypocrite. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. Billet. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. bulgja. Du. on. topor. Gael. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. of E. a of the sea. blue . su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. Du. G. Sw. blamand. Johansen. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. See Bull. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. Kil. in the sense of a writing. Ludwig. to pick a millstone. buoy [i. false pretender to reUgious feeling. blaa. dissimulation . the beak of a bird. .' in Richardson. from Mid. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. 2. boeye. Gascoigne in R. ^Billiard. deceit.. as craneberry. irons or set in a kind of stocks. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. Bigin. axe. Tartuffe. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. whortle-berries. abelthe fetter itself. symbolum. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr.— — — . the o changing to an i to express diminution. gan. Bilberry. top. plog-bill. To Bilk. Lat. crowberry. Thus we find in It. an ingot. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. a seal. bui. NFris. bila. ferrese quam ligneae. to swell with rage). while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. billet is the diminutive of this. an axe . Bille. dziob. Du. genus vincu- Bilboes. bulla. a floating log to mark the place of some. in the same sense. to be angry (i. bullet. . fluctus maris. To defraud one of expected sinking. The Du. Sw. fetters. AS. Deutsch. . where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. now A Bilboa blade. seems to be rather the unda. at sea Billet.

hiindiiin. vescovo. to bear. Goth. Thus I suppose the Gr. Fr. . AS. terial. or ben-wood. a little dog. Birch. bita. — Kil. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. ge- from AS. Then added division in a granary. I would derive the verb to knit. to bind at . a weight of 48 pounds. forth. pinnii. Lat. v. bord. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. See To Bear. To — — —D. pittjo. biclie. burt. To Bite. Lat. in Swabia. BITTACLE /Siof. habitacle. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. V. a gallinaceous bird. and of Fr. bigne. pundas. band. biccej ON. Sanscr. hith. Bitch. biscuit. to cook). pin-ti. a heap. a pig petz. to net. nodus. — See Bittacle. to knot nets for fish. bunt. . A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. binda nat. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. bij sienigh. an eagle's young G. i. i. bundt. by the verb knit or net. When compared with Fr. Sw. Bizened. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. propius videre bij sicndc. The term ON.' and the like. episcopus. Bind. expressed by Sw. a female stag. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. bunch. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. Bailey. Fr. videt. a corn. It. overlooker. Fr.. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. bindan. bund. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. to fasten it together. AS. bjork. . to hang. Lat. a brood or hatch of young. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. Lith. and especially to a small poor horse. G. Bisen. It. to form a knotted structure. to be derived from Ibfiaq. Bittacle or Binnacle. Bin. AS. lusciosus et myops. evegue. . than vice versi. Habitacle. bundle. Sw. or baked. G. a knob. bitill. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. bindan.. brid. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. also a stone weight. — properly near-sighted. a bitch applied also to other animals. berkas (z=:Fr. In like manner from knot. pinnu. piccione. a bump or knob. a house. properly a young pigeon. bircej Sw. truss. life. The bitol. from pondus. Du. a bunch. Lap. piiiti. or bin. EpisETTiTOOTToe.. AS. E. a female dog hindinn. ON. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. bin-wood. Bine. from Lat. from Gr. are commonplaces. to twine. AS. wine. from \t3\. sc. bundun. biscotto. a bitch. to bind together. beize. Fr. where the compass stands. We — A Birth. a habit- Binnacle. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. . is in Scotland applied to ivy. evigue. bunga. to bulge. to bring Biscuit. or petze. viz. admota non Bit. 'tumens sequor. a truss. H. a bear. a weight. Bird. fowl. bundle. . binge. Fr. G. AS. pullus. betsel. to build./«idere. See Breed. a heap. evesgue. bitacora. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. Goth. to wreathe. while bind-wood. beitsl. — Surrey in R. beisseii. earnes brid. isfiw. j). part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. bund. pippione. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. Sp. qui nisi propius Blind. beran. Bisom. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. bundt. an overseer. bikkia. doubtless a stone. IV. brut. twice cooked. is rendered in ON. to swell. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. beorth. Bing. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. e. The proper meaning is a heap. bunki. the young of birds . a hind or female stag. the young of an animal. bhurja. Bindweed. copus. poultry. &c. poule. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. a bitch. G. — — . Lat.68 BIN Bio-. Gr. Dan. ON. beitan. to plait. See Belly. Lith. which is expressed in E. bij sien. by binda. Bisson. bis-coctus {bis and coquo.

. from wachen. to talk much. beiwache. v. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. ON. stutterer. NE. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. Fr.plab is used to . beuni. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. blob. bittour. as of wings . apparently from its biting the tongue. blabbern. as of water gently beating the shore. pale. Hald. mouth. bihovac. beitr. corrupted in Fr. blanc. unintelligible talk plabair. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. blob. Je N.D. ^chops. discoloured . dark. whitish. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. blob. babbling. blakk. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. Du. ON. blunt we say it will not bite. 't huisje. as of a body falling into water. A a rail. fallow .' by Gudmund. shining. — Collins in Hal. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. white. Why presumest And laam's asse. AS. Mag. leohte . bitor. biti. Gael. blakki. blake. AS. a stammerer. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. plabartaich.' G. "uivac. to wax pale or bleaked. — Hollyband. things —Palsgr.. pale brown . iroxafealo. —Neumann. a* mast . The Gz. an edge is sharpest sword. bittore. to speak Dan. Blabber-lip. bitones. ' plabraich. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. round which the cable is made fast. Applied in Hin ON. pins of the capstern. first. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. from whence we have adopted the. Black. yellow . It. bleikr. pale yellow . gabble. as is seen in sputter and splutter. to babble. on. G. Deutsch. Cotgr. garrulous. term. Nagt huis. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey.— Blabber-lip. bird of the heron tribe. . 156. buft". bites. to bivouac. to loll it out. to let out whai should have been concealed. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. indistinctly. blepLith. whitish. Hal. G.' It would thus acle. ON. 'fuscus. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. to chops. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. I blaber. x. Sp. obscurus. blubber-lipped. bleich. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. a flapping. Sp. fallow fawn-coloured. The bitas. Mantuan babbi. an additional watch. bitr. out the tongue. white lead. bleg. to To blabber blabber with the lips. Pl. even humour seemed and beuin. butorj OE. pale yellow. Cot. quick. chatter babbler . faded. blank.. Alex. synonymous with baber-lip. baboyer. Fr. small guard-house. Again. Ai-mstrong. Bohem. Bivouac. yellowish. So Fr. Bittern. blobach. is placed. mouth. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly.€i. a beam in a house or ship. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. 't kompas huis. Hist. 332. blebberis. bitts of Bitts. a tati. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. a continued soft sound. dusky. gulblakk. night guard. his blacan light. shine. biacca. To Blab the anchor. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. In Legrand's Fr. blabbre. baitrs. plappem. blabaran. ^aj'/^r. light-coloured.). thoughtlessly . The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. Wit hung her mourn. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . — cheeked maid. ON. whiteness (candor sine It. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. in contempt. Bav. In a similar manner Gael. a fluttering noise. or water beating gently on the beach . ' Biovac. maculS. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). cut. a childe dothe gasouille. pale. blesmer. to watch. Se bleek.' by Haldorsen. Sw. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. pale. the palebleff. Fieldfare. to babble. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. on the one side.. Sp. mona mid Dan. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. Percy Soc. /ealo-/or. brunblakk. a babbler. white. a large lip. black. a shelter for the steersman. Bleak. To or he can speake. Gael. as in that of pale and white on the other. Lydgate. viz. . Fr. Sp. to the sharpness of a weapon. a large coarse lip . In like manner E. confusedly. faded. blabhdach. is apprehension of danger. blab. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. Mund. bitter. Goth. quoted by Ihre. Fr. babbe. blac-hleor ides.

blegen. mud. — . biastner.— ^o thehotsun. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. pluddre. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. also jabber. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. as. Du. 7. shining. &c. Blank "verse. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. The present forms then should be classed with blether. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. and G. 5/^a/^ of colour. Sc. as blader. foolish talk. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. or blafich. It. his meat burnt. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. —^Webster. pimple. tree. G. the origin of . piatto. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing.. to bleak in the sun. Eadmer. Perhaps from blegen. speak impiously. reproach. . blad. blank. which we . and wandering men and women. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. . The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. 1854. variable than the signification of words designating colour. flap of a Du. and E. and the agitation of liquids. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. to vocifer- — Cot.—Blatant. to To bellow. and he shall be sure to have O. Blanket. blahen. bladre. the leaf of a tree. from candere. to blow. blatt. Fr. white. blether. — Sw. Sw.—Blatter. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. to Hence Ital. a bladder or pustule. in R. Cot. to —Blaspheme. smother. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. dripping-pans. to blanch. The radical bubble. broad. board. tattle. to bubble. blad. plate. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. a white or unwritten ticket. smore. slush. blactra. — — — to jabber. But perhaps a more Gr. Lat. blaere. branches . to omit. Du. irXariQ. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. to shine. defame. G. Sir. blinken. Du. Hist. or as E. as Lat. Reliqu. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. chatter. vagabonds. Fr. mus-blackt. Fr. boys. the ON. plat. black. mud. pallido. also tanned by the sun. blister. and others engaged in dirty work. as scullions. blanqne. Sw. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. Dan. rogues and wanderers. candidus. 86. blister. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. sheet of paper. G. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. a buible. —We Bladder. blather. contracted from bladeren. whitish. To Blare. blather. Besides the examples of this connection given above. blanc. probably ate. Du. Play in Nares. a blanket a bed. bladder . The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. whitish. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. blanchet. Gr. and thence to babble. pass over. to glow. cited in N. biasimare. borrelen. commonly called the Black-guard. Now. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. blanchet. mire. Blank. D. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. polished. bladder. moere. I am degraded from a cook. blanchir. blatter. blaeren. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. name originally given Blackguard. bladdra. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. blasphemare. blame. to disappoint. a blank ticket. bladder. Torriano. as. roar. a. Dan. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. bladder. a boil. to shine. Du. leaf of a. PI. vagrants. Blade. pladdern. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. coat. blena. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. to make or become white blanc. bladra. e. a pustule . from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. blister. imbrunire. waschen. Bav. linkboys. madder. most complete example of leafy structure. pXaatpiiiiHv. also white woollen cloth . Blain. Jan.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. blegne. bladeren. livido . Dan. with all other loose idle masterless men. Wott. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. Blancli. or of an oar G. and Q. Blame. white. or a mass of bubbles. gabble. to dabble in water. to purl. blatter. See Blubber. a bubble. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. revile.. chatter. on. blein. leaves. To blank. — rura. a leaf. p. plat. Fr. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. dial. leafy. is identical with Flanders borlen.— Kil. blister. Bacon in R. a bubble. leaf. to glitter. . Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. on. skola and thwatta.

blason. g. blcese. a flame. blazen. pale. the noisy. blason. Du. live coal . as a verb. To blast. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. blase. or blazening. senses. embraser. bleis. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. to publish. magniloquus. a MS. redness . whence Blazonry. ventosus. Blanches illuminies. in the same way as we 2. to publish the praises. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. Sw. As Kilian. blast. Dan. each of boaster. much plausibility. — ' — stroy. Blast. an empty and two theories are proposed. declaratio. bldsse. an conium. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. to spread news. clamorous. kept up. Troilus and Cressida. Gael. blys. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. by stripping off a portion of the bark. If armour. The other derivation. stultd loqui. noisy blor. shield or surcoat. a shining spot. Golden Book in R. braise. visui patet. ON. Prov. proclaim the virtues of. blcest. AS. ing of arms. to bellow. brasa. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. Du. to blow . oron-blasare. to set on fire. is used in the sense of manifestatio. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. bles. G. blateroon. commendation blason funebre. also blazon or the blazSpenser. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. biter.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. baladrar. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. a whisperer. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. blesse. friend Cornelius. . Du. thraso. But now. i. and to make him word blaze. blaze. quus. used. gloriosus. might And sain. blasoen. a flame . AS. to cut off prematurely. Du.' to fastum . blaodh. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. is from AS. Blatant. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. — — ' : bless. might spring from the same origin by a . to proclaim. I. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. beast. laudes (Kil. Du.sound a trumpet. With inversion of the liquid.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. has also blencke. of an animal.— . oured. Sc. e. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. coloured prints. Cot. A strong flame. also praeblczse. Kil. it is manifest. and which. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . G. Sw. bliEsan. blase. She roade at peace through his heraldry. blaesen. abroad. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. the matter incendiary . was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. Blaze. blossi. a shout. blezo. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. to blaze Sp. blaser vid. — Elazen. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. baladron. blis. a flame. Dan. blus. 'op een trompet blaazen. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. blysa. among other . blose. fire. a funeral oration . blaterare. like the in English. To Blaze. or to the sound which it produces. The AS. to trumpet forth. a blast. a shield. a torch . brasa. loud . blasa.whence the Fr. Fr. blcesett. besides blesse. Cot. The origin of this exSp. blasonner. splendour. and. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. somewhat different train of thought. A gust of wind. blesse. blorach. a loud noise.). . Gudmund. on whose behalf the herald appeared. ON. ther it was erst not knowe. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. a torch. a coat of arms. to blow. ill-speaMng their proper colours . also only pains and excellent endurance. to blow.' painted or figured . To blow AS. how. blaeteren. . Fr. blatero. Du. light-coli. in that of praise. A blaze is so intimately Then. Fr. a lamp blasere. bawling. to de. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. blcEsan. Lye. abroad. See Blare. indeed. boasting. blass. proflare tues. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. First from the E. is the imme. magnilo. a voice Jr. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. OE. blaodhrach. blcEsan. — ^Jam. to extol. 2. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind.

p. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. or to low as oxen. From the OFr. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. And By a similar metaphor Pol. souiller. spla7nU sie.v. light-coloured. boggle at something.filerren. blarren. splamii!. blister. pale . c. to spot . to whiten by exposure to sun and air . blesmissure. . a spot. To salir. As AS. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. wanness. darkness of vices. ' He blarrede or roar. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. A Blab. BLENCH obfusco. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. AS. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. pale Du. — blink the question is to shrink from it. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. a spot. start vor den augen. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. a been distinct. wan. which are blurred with the have shewed you. confound him. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. in the expression reputation. a blemish in one's 2. sugillatio. blink. the livid colour of a bruise. exposed. tutnan is a cloud. as of dust or mist . 115. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. B. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. novice. See Blood. To totally different from the foregoing. blot. And now are these but mansbond (i. to blare been weeping. to stain one's honour or reputation. Blear. 242. livor. a fault. to soil. sinen langen tranen. Bejaune. tumanid. to wink the eye. . drop of water. while the agent ac- From . Sir J. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. a disgrace.' to deceive one. To Bleat. to cry or weep. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere.D. Ancren Riwle. from the than schal I go. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. wheal. is Blench. like one that has long P1. a spot.' the devil makes a vain back. to bleat as sheep. Bleak. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. to bleach. to disgrace one's name. what blenched him therwith. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. So in Sw. from on. plama. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. . a red watery eye. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. and thence to a bruise. (faith or creaunce) Be war. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. to start away from. to spot. ' — — eye. bldmi. blesmir. to humbug. Pol. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. bleikr. the formal equivalent of English wink. blemissemeiit. flack. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. a blot or smear blanking one. G. The term blear.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. . one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. Blemisli. Mac. or blemish. a blotch plerr. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. paleness. blot. ' . Bailey. — — R. geplerr. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. ' — — ' : — — . Manuel de Pecch&. Schmel. blur before their eyes. tacher. pimple . Blancher. dead-coloured Cotgr. A stain in a man's reputation. blakna. N. livid. Sw. Bleed. inflamed eyes. bleakness. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. to blear one's eye. See Black. to make him feel blank. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. See Black. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. Fr. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. blcecan.'he cried till the tears ran down. goda nainn. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. to wink at it. ^Xiixaoftai. I chaunge colour. Richardson. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. avoid looking it in the face. spSt. Palsgr. bloken.P. guenchir. blema. pier vor den augen eyes.' God in his wordes. ^Blencher. 419. Blear-eyed j having sore i. whitish. a stain. a spot. Gr. Bleb. to cast a mist before the eyes. . or blemysshen — blaken. to become livid. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. color plumbeus bldma. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. on. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. Gower in R. a boil. blench came to be used for a trick.

pale. to rejoice. csecubrandish. . blithe. AS. . Kiittner. . Nares. happy .' To — blunge clay. Pol. to churn. to consecrate . a flash. to bless. blazeny.corn. . a. blend.not sting thiiren. dazzle . to shine. to shut the eyes. blind. to glance. Dan. the G. blide. to be blind. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. blatida. money. Sc. — A A — . The inblissful. blink. a look. blindselen. — when he — Bailey. The term then self or others. G. . to shine. blicken. Du. OHG.nasal. blinzler. seems the simple netel. AS. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. also to wink. to bluiter. . goods. window-blind.eyed. Du. wink of sleep .' or Dat Koorn verblekket. ' Pl. glad. blissian. burn up. an entry which leads to nothing .D. doors. lightning sweet blago. blet. blahos. be glad flash. pockets. bleg. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. livid. to fall into water with a sudden noise. to dabble in water. to merry. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. blessed. or nettle which does form. happily. to make happy. as a blind entry. blincken. sweet. to blithsian. mix from blekken. to flash. to shine. moment. a blessing. and joys of Paradise bliden. F. make these hands 3. . blidu. AS.Q. to glitter ful . giving (Fr. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. Wtb. To Blend. trix. Du. as a vatn i vin. lighten. sertion of the nasal. Du. Bliss. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. ON. .blunda. — . blent. glance. happy . the verb to bless is some. . plotzen. blende.blinken. G. Du. 375. but by no means therefore a pre. to rejoice. to lighten.blinkard . blitzen. blotzen. Needle. blicken. glitter. a glance Swiss blenden. glitter. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. weaklaveny. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. The sound of k before an s. a wink With the bletsian. wink. to bless . happy . shine. mixing in general. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. as taschen. Blazena Bea. From the action of the hand making Sw. in potters' language. a wink. joy. blindr. blick. fortunately. riches . lightning. good. gives blinzen. tless —Gamm. I hold thee a grote thee. to shut the eyes G. Serv. the Slavonic languages. to mix. to stir or puddle. lovely Bohem. plonsen. glimpse. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. riches blajennii blicksem. readily passes into a /. joy. Sw. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. Deprived of sight. a glance. a. G. blaziti. graceful. to — make it thick and muddy. to plunge. thou knave. as in Du. Thence apblinds. although in the in the next article. —Brera. false windows. the sign of the cross while blessing one. to glitter . Blink. with or without the nasal. blahoslaviti to twinkle. Blight. to dilute too much . to dash cream up and down with a plunger . Tany. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. pearance of the blighted . liquid filth to bluther. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. j). A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. blinzdugig. to dazzle . blanssen. blinzeln. Owl and Nightingale. flash of light . — Goth. tative source of the word is wholly lost. as in the case of blaze. a nounce happy. a blick-ooghen. blithe blis. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. blich-fiur. joyful. glitter. Sc. lightning. blind- ON. joy . Swab. to pro.wink . blinde fenster. blund. blicksem. to bluiter up with water. To Bless. bluiter. ^Jam. Blind. to make a rumbling noise. blendian. vious one in the order of formation.blinze. (=bene dicere). well blagaya. blag. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. gladness. Russ. to twinkle. Biglotton. III. bliss look . is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. De Sonne ' verblekken. G. .. tire. bludder. a gleam. Swiss (obsolete). OHG. to act like a — . blogi. . is I shall Gurt. blink-eyed. blitz. sung. Paradises blidnissu. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. AS. blac. A . . a dead nettle. to glitter. blican. blessed. cascultare. To blunder water. to dash wine with water. well blahy blick and blink. blago.

to cure by smoke. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. as blinzeln. To Blissom. blot. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. as a blab of ink. soft. And so from squatter. — . strawclod. bloated. a blister . ^Jam. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. W. a bubble. blidr. mild. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. to dash liquid. . Egillson. bluster. blithe. a drop of water. soaked. in Nares. Fr. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. sloppy dirt. from blcsr. Boyd in Jam. and pisg. or is inserted or omitted. Dan. biota. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. or the mark which it makes. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. For this. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. soak in water cured fish. plub. pustula. Bleb. orbicular. It may be formed Blithe. shells. ON. must be classed with forms like Gr. blide. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. Kil.— Hal. soft. a bubble. to block up the way. . B. — — — — — From blabber. a See Blot. Jonson. blot. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. kostia. whence blast. Svt. ON. a dirty blister. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. blcesma. See Blot. is formed squad. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. Du. Ibid. B. light yellow. while Lat. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. viscid. To a smoking or drying by the fire. blote. to desire the male. as if soaked in water. having an unsound swollen look. husks. a little blisg. to soak. Blob. boucler. to blow. Gael. blinzel-maus. a ram. like clot. formed spot. Sw. to blow. to blissom. must be referred to AS. Blond. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. merciful ON. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. gentle OHG. Bav. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. an unformed mass. Sw. a bubble. —Bailey. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. and F. repre- pusula. it is must be observed. to bubble. and easily changes its place. The blow E. pusula. In Fin. to close it with a solid mass. blobbes or droppes of water. also to set See Bless. G. signifying in the first instance to soak. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. The stem or trunk of a tree. blaustem. a blain. Blister. blister blasan. Du. inde humiditate tumidus. Mod. ^vaaa. taken altogether. bausen.— Bailey. blab. blot. stone. in gusts. blobber. blautr. Langued. to swell. — Blob.pusta. or the like. G. round. Sc. . blubber. blijde. speaking rapidly any . any lump or mass of things. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. is also used in the sense of swelling . in the sense of a soft tint. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. bleiths. bluyster. a small lump of anything thick. Dan. a lumpish head plubach. to to puff and be noisy. swell. the unhewn bole of a tree. fiustula. Blob. pimple. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. in bulk.—Bloated. blad. like manner the coloured. blesme. blindsehn. a blister. Goth. a block or log en bloc. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. fish blind person. frequentative. buclde. Of sheep. bloc. blotfisk. blaud. blouca and Fr. joyful. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. weak. kostua. to steep. blond. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. blindman's-buff. pods. Cotgr. puff. A under this name was imported into England. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. pausten. Fr. a blot or spot. or bleb. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. and inarticulately.plisg. mild. Lat. blod. senting the dashing of water. Gael. Hence. as in E. bloc. . a . Thus we have blab and babble. The roots /. buckle. separate portion. or blinde-kiih. to breathe hard. To Bloat. — Sw. N. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. I believe. A solid blouquette blisters. lagga i blot. bubble and blubber. expressed by cognate roots. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. mass. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image.—Bloater. blister. Block. cooking. busten. to blow. soft. in the lump or mass of wood. and bouclette. Hence E..

of a blow with something lios. to dash down Du. bletister. ^Bleed. bldmi. ON. blosa. yellowish It's G. lidmr. bluish. fall down . a blaze. a drop of water or colour. ON. to sparkle. Wendish blodo. a Usaae. glossi. platt-voll. Stalder. ON. glister . en blau ach. a Schmid. lustre. Dan. blauwel. lump flower. spots in the sun. soft or flat. G. to strike . Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. to blaze. pladdern. a deli. bit by bit. blue. Blad. blus. to glow. . blotting-paper. Ir. flower. dial. Du. E. plotterwis. shine . Hatch. Blotcli. to patter. Blot. a beater. Fr. plants which prepares the seed. Blood. E. Sw. blatte. blaeuw. leme. kobladde. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. Russ. bloed. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. blois. Schilter. livid . Du. fall to overflowing. skam. a gush of milk . livid marks. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. Sw. bldts. cow-dung. a black eye Du. Harmar in R. to From . platz-regen. a lump. Erploten. G. Du. a nature. Sc. to flame. blad. blostma. great leaf of cabbage. Plots. Sc. The G. blowen. blaeuwen. . in v. . . AS. a flower.properly to scatter liquid . glasi. bloto. redness. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere.— . 2. Blossom. blase. blond is used in blatt. pale. plet. to squander. platschern. to be red with blot. platz-voll. — Cot. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. bloeme. — gush. bloemen. a blow. to be red. bloetnsel. Fris. gfyssa. to strike with something soft or flat. a Halm a.^ Kil. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . to blot the land was in a leme. a cow-dung. blawels. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. bliise. gammon. S-wiss pladern. from the bright colour which 7'vci. blooth. white blatte. glus. — Stalder . E. to glisten . a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). lump of anything soft to blad. bliithe. yellow.D. Du. blodelsa and blawelsa. blotte. PI.blauschlagen. to shine . to dabble in water . couleur livide. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. E. (of cattle) to dung. the bright to blot paper morsels. spot pletter i solen. —Barbour. ^lys. . to exists in biadetto. blou. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. to grow pale). blondheid.' the rain is driving and blue . Jios. a pelting shower). blady. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. platsch-voll. gleam. D. glose. OFr. blue. to slap. ' — . . pladern. wan. Dan. a. ])erly Du. blosem. — — . blond en blaauw slaan. probably connected with Pol. bloi. to dirty. fair in en blat vand. whence plader. a flower. — Blotch-paper. Lat. a torch blusse. plattata. See Blow. blue. from G. Dan. Florio). bloi. a water ploutsche. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. to dabble in water. . dial. to slap. to scribble.platter. blond. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. See Blow. bleustern. to dash down. dirty spot on the cheek. Wflz<^«. to splash. biado (of which the evidence plattern. blue . light. coloured (Diaz. bloi. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. a The form platschefz. blysa. E. pale tint. blaeuwe ooghe. brilliancy. to squat or lie close. blat. It should be of filth blak-blatte. Sw. blotter. kuh-plader. as the skin or hair. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. AS. plot of land is a spot or small rage. the bright colour of the cheeks . Ein platsch milch. or the sound of it . BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. It. Blow. bleistern. splashing full. Prov. Fris. pale biavo. bliihen. blose. Schwenck. bloedsd. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. bloutre. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. blust. E. mud. blomstr. blosen.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. to spot or blot. splendour . to strike with such these objects exhibit. blut. to blaze . clod. proto shine with bright colours . Schmid. Pl. bfys. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. colour of the cheeks. on. parallel form with ON. Bloom. blosma. j^ blottir. a flower. a blot or spot. plottra. blistaf. . blue. gloss. a spot or blot. straw. sbiadare. to blush .

D. blodyn. blois. Chaucer. 51. OHG. — . — — Mundart. red-faced bloted wench. Blue. boil. fiubbem. blady. dirty. into flower. blue. — To blubber. to guggle. to glow. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. MHG. to spot. blezir. toused. gloeyen. . puff. especially with respect to the hair. y\r)yi»v. to flourish. wan. glas. bloi. to gabble. closely difference in of blabber. a continued noise of agitated water. 92. withered. chatter. like manner Lat. and the forms mentioned under Swab. fqded. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. G. or gr. Sik upplustem. ' BLUE or guggling. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. |8A)'. to blow. blue . The radical sense is shown in Gael. blubbern. to fade. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. fem. the red fluid of the body . fied vowel. corre. Lat. . These are — Bludder. bloemen. OHG. flower w. Tumbled. Bret. Pl. Du. piusen. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. plodern. P1. The primary sense is to shine. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. to fade. It is howbliuwen. to glow. bldt. a gurgling . glowing coal . pale OFr. Gr. Gael. glansj Ir. G. marking some application from that bladder. to blow. heath. in rapid or indistinct utterance. to'disorder. and thence. to breathe bouteiUis. Pl. a flower. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. . where the word may be compared bliggman.D. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. little apparent resemblance.to blossom. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol.D. to beat with a mallet. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. to bubble up. bludder. coup. br. blosen. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. bliihen.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. bloeyen. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. grey. Chaucer. a blow. bluther. It. blduen. bruised Prov. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water.' Hamburgh Archives. Deutsch. G. and closely allied with Du. To Blow. blau. — To Blubber. bloes. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig.D. boasting. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. disordered. glaodh and blaodh. In agitation of water.Jlasa. —SchmelIt. To Blow. AS. to inflate. Kil. Blowzy. glas. blow. sound like water. in E. a paddling in wate r. bluh. to blow. disordered in head-dress. to beat. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit.xo'»'. to shine with bright From colours. Wtb. sponds with Sw. a. pale. blazi. wan. -ii. plubartaich. sense. Du. pale . Notwithstanding the We . Deutsch. . blust. blut. jabber. blodelsa. plusig. E. blau. bloom. a fat. to bruise Roquef. flower OHG. Pludern. ^Jam. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. blava. Raynouard. to hard. bluod. Jla-re. E. plubair. plubraich. to with Bohem. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. to make bubbles in drinking. blebber. w. — . to make blue. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. meurtrissure Roquefort. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. B. blubonciti. 2. gloeden. a Blossom. bloeden. bl. pludern. a blast. blazir. Langued. Danneil. blawan. glow. OFr. We . gliihen. . blaw j biavo. green. blubbern. to show flower. a bruise. v. bliihen. grow pale.nify bubble. — Bluther. is very frequent. to breathe G. 1292. . ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). blass. pale. florere. to Plodern. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. bruk. tache. may cite for example G. to puff up. to gush. grug. bliuwan. Bav. to fade. ler. bliithe. gUd. G. vi^ound. Mund. bledniai. And.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. d in Sc. blahen. The interchange of an initial gl. is confined to the — . foam. Blowze. a herb Gr. Prov. A. The aUied forms. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. to exhibit bright colours. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. to blurt out. Her sweet bloderit face. to flap like loose clothes. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. 1. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise.. plustrig. blao. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand.' — Palsgr.— . sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . blodern. /idXavoc. gliihen. glede. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. cheeks bedabbled with tears.

to become pale or livid. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. blave is moreover. or an abrupt manner. his business with much noise. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. Then with the nasal. like the Celtic glas. biava. Bluff. a boisterous violent man. The Du. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. and then generally idle talk. sense of yeUow. polterer. polter-hans.make a noise. biada. liebefactor. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . in the same way as from It'. plo-wy. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. It then signifies something done at once. and metaphorically. as well as biado. from the Lat. Halma. bUich. blond.//aay. It is remarkable however that the E. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. G. Dryden in R. Bladum.' trouble. Hence we pass to Prov. Du. blue. having a bluff forehead. trahir. poltern. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. blavus. from the brilliant green of the young E. — . The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. devenir vert blavoie. something. Pol. herauspoltem or sloping shore. Dief. bloi. Palsgr.. to work To blunder out a fronto. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. bullern. contrasted with the dle. I blonder. glundra. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. corn. pale straw-coloured. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. From G. to blunge clay. dial. like Du. Sw. disturb. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . to fade). — Pr. to puddle. a plain coin herausplatzeu. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. mistake. verdoyer. sbiavare. to blunder water. The word is here synonymous with amplus. all representing the — . one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. tradire to Fr. Blaffart. bleu et blanc. Dan. Supp. A bluff manner. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. Flor. The Du. in plur. Roquefort. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. pale. from an imitation of the sound. We Blunder. blunt. verdure. has donder-bus. 't — —Hal. find accordingly It. ploffen. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. herbe. Pm. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. and biavo (Diez). Ditton in R. to confound. fallow. Blunt. blanssen. bluish. sloppy drink. blahir. See Blurt. pale yellow. bawling. to dabble Biglotton E. Kil. fawn-coloured. used for the work of an unskilful performer. without image or superscription. a fore. Bodge. Lat. and bustle . tutte le semente ancora in erba.• BLUFF biado. Hence a Slcelton in R. to mix it up with water. non rotunda. to dabble in the mud. as well as sbiadafe. discoloured {plowiee. a blunderbuss. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. abrupt. flodderen (Weiland). G. superficie plani. and Du. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. See Blunt. rustic. Altieri. speech. Hal. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. blutter. a flounder. which is rendered by Florio. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. originally growing up turf and water. to lose colour. je perturbe. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. bulmanner. buller-bas.D. blunder. biavo. Pl. to become pale or wan. corn. - reddish yellow. blue. Biada. puddle. . blunderhead. Romance bluiter. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. mix It. yellow. Blunderer or blunt worker. to fall suddenly on the ground. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. falb. Analogous forms are Du. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. And blunders on and staggers every pace. blac. earth and water mixed together. a shore abruptly rising. . to agitation of liquids.in mud or water. glundr. — — — . Kil. pale) is provincially used in the. Roquefort. blunder. plomp. blue. pludder. Du. to plump into the water. planus. applied to green as well as blue. is. jaune. blake (identical with AS. segetes virentes. flav-us. buller-bak. Kiittner. To blunder is then. confusion. yellowish red. Blavoyer. OFr. G. E. and sbiadare. an ill-done job. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. to become pale. G. blaf. Bohem. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. in water dobbelen.— . In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. blandum.

a thick and will person. F. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. Blunt. absence of preparation. or heraus plumpen. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. A light blue colour. clumsy. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. ang.pludse. and hath swiche languor in his soul. — — pidus. Then cometh indevotion. A modification of the same root. a bluntie. that it not easy to discover the connection. It will be seen that the G. to blurt. insensible. with or without the nasal. viz. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. G. a simpleton. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. of a knife which not cut. to make a noise of such a Stalder. plump. G. poor Sc. Stalder. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. forestis. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. fling down . awkwardly. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. to plump into the water. silly. plotz. Plump mit etwas umgehen. like a thing thrown down with a noise. nis. Sir T. Plontp. V. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. blott. blue. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. or blab out a thing Kiittner . Kiittner. —D. blunsch. obtusus. dull. blait. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . Now the Swiss bluntsch. bald. raw. Ford in R. naked. as Sw. used in both senses. down. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. united in Gael. mit etwas heraus-platzen. without preparation. — Kil. Pol. Dan. blunt. Halma. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. nature. Dan. plump. edgeless. rudely. bluntschen. it will be observed. dial. . appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. as cow-dung. unfledged Sw. plutz T)\i. heavy. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. through which a man is so blont.to fall into the water. is thrown. —D. unceremonious manner. thick. and. blunt. fooUsh. Sc. Plump. rough. inaKil. Bluntet. and the like. dull. plonsen. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. inactive Swiss bluntschi. blat. ineffectual reason. Kiittner. seems to be derived. blunt. The blait body. V. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. pointless. Molof something wet. a portion To inquire for slaves. V.—D. from the loud report a fire-arm. plains The large bech. plump J to plump out with it. to handle a thing bluntly. blotta sanningen. azure. bare. blutten. blait. bare or blunt. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. and an unintelligent. void. platz-regen. sheepish. massive. homo stolidus. to bring it suddenly out. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. plumbeus. it will be well to point out a sense. bare. heavy. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. bloss. Q. plump. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. blatte. obtusus. heavy. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. without Maolaich. The syllables blot. exactly corresponding to the G. wan. . viz. plotsen. rude. biosso. blunt. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. pale. is The word dull. in Richardson. good plump person. Bare and blunt. without horns. without the nasal. unpolished. blunder. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . duU. pressions. naked. and in the same sense. Du. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. to make foliage. Probably radically hlekit. Sc. identical with E. Won by degrees. — blunt. Chaucer. unwrought. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. Sw. Woddis. plump. It is from this notion of suddenness. blout. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. stupid fellow. platzen. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. More in Richardson. figuratively. awkward. clownish. as in E. Swab. that the sense of bare.plompen. to plump down. biotto. Blaitie-bum. but of something soft thrown on the ground. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. naked. the absence of sharpness. to blunt a thing out. bleak. maol. hebes.— — — . It. naked. a blot. bus. blockish.

pluddre. my dear. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. — a blaze. P. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. a. a dangling object. blasen and See Burr. berd.plerr. large. . 29. borrar. Bot zeggen. a grows to a great bigness. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. to puff. V. bustuous. dial. a flurt with one's fingers. rude. bord. to make mouths. bobbin. Du. lindwurm. or backwards and forwards. stellio. blader. batello. blunt. a small lump. to blore. to puff. bausen. bladdra. is formed Du. be a crack or loud sound. a club foot . plump. The elision of the d is very to chatter. To Blurt. a tassel. boccheggiare. primarily signify loud noise. Explained by Jam. Supp. eafor. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. bar. this root are formed Sc. De Boat. . border. bdd. mire. Pl. fringe. blur. boistous. burra. to glow . to guggle. Lat. to dabble. . bluther. It. flat. cluster. See Boisterous. E. pausten. planks or boards. The to radical meaning D. 'Ba. Board. a blow . Bluster. Sc. to sound like water boiling. As the as. to spurt out. bot. and boisterous. blaste?i. Swiss blodern. to jabber. bit. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. to blubber. Du. w. pfludern.y. crack made by bursting open. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. literally edge-wood. then applied to indistinct vision . properly noisy. — — . — — — * Boast. bludder. outward edge. sudden. violent. E. the Brem. blose.—Bobbin. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. boord. to make a noise with the mouth. table. to threaten. brett. bakke bleustern. Sverris Saga. . blusse i ansigtet. beer. gabble. skin. c. coarse. to disfigure with E.plodem. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. acre. a short thick body. to dirty. 1. See Blossom. — From mouth. To brag and to crack. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. violent G. blubber.pusten. common. and Du. Halma.v. and E. bord. ever-swin. like the parapets (viggyrdil. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. imitated by has also In like . to be out of temper. a blotch. of the word seems . proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. botte. It. a bladder . Gael. or bog also thread. dull. and the latch . will fly up. Gael. to make a noise in boiling. Dan. pustern. puddle. and when applied to vaunting language. Schmeller. A large snake. Hal. AS. or blurt with one's mouth. stupid. cocodrUlus. . To tinct. to render indisbhir. bdtr. ground. blaustem. ON. margin. 9396. a torch blusse. — To Bob. To splirt. pludern. to blaze. Boost is used for the boast. rude. i. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. baban. to crying. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. Blush. blarra. Slur. blurra. Du. blosken. aper. cheeks glow. Wtb. geplerr. to give a crack. Boa. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. on. Kil. — ' Dief. and swimmeth very well. Sc. AS. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. bhis. baiag. strong. blaere. G. It. a board or plank. Fr. boot. e. to bounce. bora. BOB 79 — To Blur. a Jam. Fr. margin. to snuff. to rumble. splurt and spirt. Bav. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. bord. to brag grande loqui. to blush. Du. to smear. eber. a tassel. blotch and botch. to puff. planks raised up outside the roofs. to roar. Fl. &c. both used in the sense of boasting. dial. blodern. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. bobine. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. bleuster. an end or stump. margin. Pull the bobbin. beacon fire. Du. edge. to blurt out. G. to say bluntly. ader. voce intonare. Fl. Wallace. as splurt to splutter. to breke. blaffen and baffen. to talk quick and indistinctly . boa. Boa. bur. 274.the syllable bot. bliise. gabble Sw. chicchere. an ear of corn. blirt of greeting. a blot. bateau. Related to blutter.D. as in Du. hot. 156. Wright's ed. to blow. a border. edge. a baU of thread the mud. a mistiness. puffen. bluter. blast. the sound of a blow poffen.' — Red Riding-hood. bot-voet. pof. short pieces of any filthy mud. board. Comp. table. it implies that it is empty sound. AS. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. To blow in puffs. a smear. an edge. a mist before the eyes plerren. BLUR Boar. Du. G.— . little knob hanging by a piece of thread. Hal. to bark. To move quickly up and down. swagger. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. Du. to chatter. to endeavour to terrify. lacerta. whence bordvidr. a burst of tears. to blur. blot. bdta. to dangle. OE. whence bob. blot. bludder.

It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. meaning the round part of his body. Gl. biodeachan. '£. stitch. anything soft. to scruple. boll.rabodi. point. as a horn. barriga. to butt. Body. bot. gog in gog-mire. exhibit another modification of the root. daubed or dabbled with blood. Ptg. and the word is well explained by Bailey. to prick. And waves. Supp. . VI.\\i\c\iset. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. so large a feature in the country. a . belly. strike with the horns. moving backwards and forwards. the body of a shift gaguejar. Gael. whence paUchen. is identical with Fr. as signifying anything spherical or round. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. gagei. needle. . bogle. — 2. gagoula. unsteady. gebod. the trunk of the animal body. body of a shirt bol. message boda. a sting . Cot. to roll. butt. Bret. waving. BOGGLE trunk and G. a dagger. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. shake. bolr. formerly bodies. To Bodge. bole. corset from corps. Russ. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. gogach. then from the yielding. a cask. corset. Lap.' Bogglie. bodi. to push with the horns. to be uncertain what to do. To portend good or bad. Now unskilful action is conmire.hollow. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. bob. to bob. gago. to commit a blunder. busti. expression hogglin an bogglin. a ghost . Gael. Miracle-plays. nave of a wheel. The Sp. goggle. to be unsteady tich. ^Jam. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. W. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. to waver. See Baber-lipped. See To Botch. . bottich are derivatives. moist mire. Ptg. unsteady nature of a soft substance. a messenger . of broken efforts or brokeii movements. mud. bodat. Bog. is a lump. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. a quagsoft. . AS. stutter gogmire. gog. swelling. dies. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. rounded. toss. bodak. It introduced from Ireland. bodig. — H. — as well as the body of an animal. palleg. to make. In like manner E. a round body both. . Bodkin. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. bottig. bogadaich. bog..' A — Sherwood's Diet. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. corpses pot. bodhag. e. With With this we charged again We bodged again. a spur. arise E. boftich. * To Boggle. to bodge. to stammer. to make a mow at. stuttering. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. thrust with something pointed. . a body. bo tich. gag. bog (equivalent to E. as in stammering or staggering. potacha. To Bode. bodian. Lith. Commonly explained as if from Sc. to smack. potacha. to thrust. or bag. baboyer. quagmire). potig. precept. bayonet. move. Reliq Antiq. Banff. fickle . the belly. Shakespear has badged with blood. where bogs form Gael. AS. woman's stays. a prickle.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. quakmg. shaking . the body. or a pair of bodies. by the syllable patsch. bod. to stick. bodnu. badyti. agitate. a bog or morass.gmh:t. speak of the barrel of a horse. ON. — Grandg.! . rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. an awl. to fail. The signification of the root bot. the thick part of anything. bodi. See Bid. body and G. To make bad work. potahha. So BOB To Bob. the boss of a buckler. anything protuberant. round. Crist. bothog. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. whence Fr. barrique. a command. a prick.a (i\ia. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . Schmel. Ir. stumpy. to deliver a message. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. patsche. corpset. bod. bogadh. Wall. 43. bayonet . a puddle. cask bottich. unsteady. to blurt a thing out. from fitting close to the body. Bodice. wavering. . stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. or stem of a tree. biodag. pall. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. bogach. bodetz. To mock. . bog. . to fail. calf of the leg. bodies. French bouter. and E. bodilo. bogan. 3. of which the E. the stem of a tree . to start start and back as from a bugbear. a cask. an announcement. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. to dabble or paddle. Thy i. bagges. nodding. to stir. bodene. Gael. We . thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. Bohem.

the gurgling sound of water rush. a bump. Gael. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. V. or the like. bald. excellent. bolt upright. 374. hakogni. caput scapulse. Boystous. Chaucer seems Dan. whence bulla. chaff of corn siliqua. noise. up of bubbles. which are not used for a similar purpose. a bubble. folliculus grani. the lir. ON. cows the people from speaking. a swelling in ice. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. pusten. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . by which it is moved to and fro. a head . obex. as baltha. Daring. belc'hj. bola. Test. ON. the. stramenta. . blow. tartalear.palleg. the body . bal. G. ohg. insolent baude. as. b^gayer. the husk of nuts. from Du. sels of flax. bouil. .' Mrs Baker. scruple. tar. in the sense of handsome . Bole. courageous. impetuosity. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. bolle. he will speak out. perpendicular. ballr. a quaking mire. shake. bol. bulla. strong. to give a hoUow sound. balldr. to stammer. baud.— D. This iv. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. In the same way Sc. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. as E. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. to puff. boll. To Bolter. tartle. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). a bubble. swelling. bold. bagaji. gerade signifies straight to the mark. Da. to the belly as the or dislike. cheerful. free. used. properly represent belly. bealder. tomentum. ^Vocab. to stumble. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. ON. Westerwald bollern. notes. polc'h. Du. treated under Bowl. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. bout is explained by Kil. Fr. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. Chaucer.w. and then applied to other husks. bullire. pall. coarse. Fr. OG. wag. furfures. fiausten. w. bolt. bulr. also a blister. trunk of a tree . hero. bul. haughty. as. boystousnesse. Me doth awate. bulla. hollow. A. buller. to stagger. Sc. — — which the cushion is stuffed. Properly noisy. bol. strong. puilen. to waver or hesitate. to boil. round the first instance to the materials with . bolster. The bob. prince. bold. Lap. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. . Du. then violent. strong. confident. to be at a loss a shirt. Lat. See Bulk. tartajear. glass phial. roydeur. pustule. globular bod)'. bold. bok. E. bolr. repagulum. — 6 .D. bollen (Kil. bolzen. E. rough. Lat. OHG. Du. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. a boil or swelling Du. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. The round stem of a tree. may be identified with It. quick. intrepid. Sw. merry. as those of nuts. a fastening for a door. To Boil. Mund. Goth. 45. from the branches. boss. a cushion. bolzBold. animal as distinguished from the limbs. is probably a modification of boll. bochken (titubare. see Boast. in speaking. courageous.). bald. bul. G. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. Boil. bolc'h. boggle. flax-boU. The term applies in — — impressed . bog. Kit. bog. G. a bakazikni. Bustuous. proud. i. but that Bolt. bolleken. capiing into a cavity. boutpijl. chatter. Pm. Du.. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . Pr. buile. huge. Stalder. bola. * Bolster. ON. stud. stameln vel bochken. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. * Boisterous. Fr. Wall. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. tulum. bSlstr. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. ^Boistous. bula. bag or bog are derived Piedm. balder. It. G. boil . Boll. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. puile.rounded part of the body. pillow. styffe or rude . Bret. bout. to stammer. the body of a man or of ter. pimple ON. to swell. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. Swab. a bubble. bolla. bolstar. Love. Magy. Cot. Kil.Du.— — . stutSw. 1430 in Deutsch. dint in a metal vessel. boly. bald. (of Mons) b^guer. gluma. bhster. to be prominent. capitellum. beule. Sp. brave. bol. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. 304). — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. to tattle. — ' — tagliare. swelling. and manace for to de. biiilen. poppy (Bailey). warlike. . to hesitate from doubt. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. bolster.

polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot.D. OFr. to bolt flour burato. clump. as snow balling on a horse's foot.nature of the operation. tuft. gebolder. a rattle. ler. taratarrum. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. burclct. swelling. Here the radical image is the violent O. . a sod (Schiitze). And as the agitation of cream in . bortelen. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller.through a cloth of loose texture. a club-foot. hulch. zen. Lang. pull. we have Du. poltern. small heap. a clump of turf. bolzauget) Sp. clattering other of a series of projections or emi.D. to significance of the term was overlooked. blotttre. sestuare. holier poller. . with E. Supp. So also we pass from Lat. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. The ulti. to talk pulzen. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. tantara. kloteren. poll. to start out. jolting. uneven. boss. the wheels groaned. abolter. Hence. to start with palpitate.protuberance. rugged. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. pattern. bulio. buideln. Hence Palsgr. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. as Fr. a small portion.clack. . bolt-foot. crod. baruta.i5a//^«. series of jolts or abrupt impulses.). pultare. Sanders.by forms like G.D. Pl. Schiitze. to knock. beliitea. barutare. hulter de bulter. bulk or quantity . crash. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. buletare.fe/2?. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. bultred. The ment and the operation. Brem. bolzaugen.On the same principle. . Champagne burtcau. Bulte-pook or bulstar. Dauphiny a sudden movement. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. a millpoltzet augen. Wtb. hump. we pass to Du. barutela. In the next place. beluter. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . to shake. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. to come rattling downstairs. a bunch. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. or ill. or the like. as above explained. taratantarum. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. the sense of right on end. OFr.as the essential element signifying the talum. to form lumps. or a racer from the course. bultig. a clod cloth. from G. Pr. . tumultuari. barutela. lumpy. — — — . MHG. a bolter or implement for bolting. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. a clod. buUire. bulstrig. cruddle. to make a knocking. fied bot. buletel. mole-hill. ex•wagen. Bav. and the Thus from So. on the one hand. to agitate. have Lat. hammer. projecting eyes pul. I boulte meale in a boulter. crotlar. a clap of thunnences. P1. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. rugged. OFr. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. Prov. . hammer. a bolter Prov.. agitari (Kil. budeln daz mele . Sw.) E. racket gepolter.. grasbulten. a crashing or racketing noise.thump or blow. . bulk. Dan. bulla. a round glass ending — bultig. croler. then to knock. / is transposed in Fr. On this account Mid. knob. bolzen. a rattling carriage. Fr.u. poltern. a . bolt head is a retort. Mid. die treppe pressed. bluter. je bulte. buretter{CQ\. to bolt meal barutel.Lat.noise {brattle of thunner. uneven. projections. brattle. to E. to spring forth E. hole. we der Brocket). Pl. ' — — ! ! : — . zare. in S'W plotter. loud and fast. . Du. tar. also to curdle. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. It. to become lumpy. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. to coagulate. representing a rat. tling or crashing noise.agitation of the meal in the bolter. to clack. by the representation of a racketing sound. btilt. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. staff which sounds tar. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. bolting to that of form. to bolt meal barutel. G. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. and to crash. Lat. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. cro. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. bullern. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. bolt. to bolter. curdle.D. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. as a rabbit from its baritel.— .). vessel with narrow opening. as of a trumpet. taraabout. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. one after the other. 2. Du. we see that the one consists of a words. Pm. protuberance. ' Holler poller / bulter. : ' — — .

to cast to and fro. tiffany. thick. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. bombdra. a stock. . bombast. is supported by the analogy of G. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. bone of the . Mid. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. bambagino. bond. 83 Gr. bunden. to ring bells. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . bauniwolle. bommen. to thump W. and in fact we find the and Du. bindan. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. Dan. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. and also the leg. Du. silk. to resound. stump. tie. It. baun. coarse. In legal language. Gascoi^e in R. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. and that from Fr. a churn for butter. beuteln. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. a bone in general. — bombast came guage. stuff. a baker. butteln. 155. Banstead. iuttern. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. sije. E. banitola (Fl. Need you any ink and bonibase. It. Fr. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. a stem or base. a beacon. from teu. Antiq. barate. to which the leg. It. The material called by this name. bulter from It. When ture. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. . also thick-shanked. basin. bande. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. Castrais barato. bwmbwr.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. boulenger. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . the leg. gossipium. buidelen. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. Fr. bein. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. whence bomme. . a —Bombasine. to shake down fruit from a tree. lana lignea. thick-legged. G. term is appropriated in G. cotton stuff. bombase. It. Schm. PoUitriduare. bopin. borel. Bibelesworth in Nat. Bonfire. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. sericum arboreum. breast-bone. bolting-cloth. bureau. band pi. G. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. as Banbury. bonfras. again. a word of which we have traces in several English names. and Mod. a thundering noise bomre. bombasine. bombasin. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. ties. sye. Kil. i. the murmuring of the sea. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. silk-worm. Moreover. a drum bombammen. the contracted form of Du. Near 6 * . . bureau. q. bonog. bambacium. from boom. booming over the water. buttel trueb (of liquids). assuming the of leg : special signification W. baum-bast.) . Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. produced the Pl. a ligature. ^o/j. or trunk word in W. — having a stem or stalk. tie. Bone. bombicina. buidelen. band. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. been. rimbombare. bombe. . has repeatedly varied. Du. and Du.). and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. — Bombard. the silk-worm.Lat. In E. the shank the shoulder-bone. crook-shanked bondew.^Altieri. bombice. raw silk. a string. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. beil'n. an implement of binding. cotton. — AS. bras. however. as in . brust-bein. band. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. ODu. to shake. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. biire. to bolt meal. and Bond. tree. Du. derivation. e. achsel bein. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. Butterglas. Dan. .bast.Su?. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. As cotton was used for padding clothes. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. beuteln. Fl. bommer. . to thunder. &c. It.D. to boult meal. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. OE. builen. bonds. and called in Mid. From builen. to beat a drum. we speak of a gun to resound. It. bombarda. bon. bwmbwry mar. bambagioj whence It. Bomb. a boulter of meal. must be explained Fr. bongam. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. agreement. thick from shaking. a hollow sound. d. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. the Fr. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. to shake (as to shake the head. to bind G. HoUybandin R. butteln. G. bomba. burato. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. gunpowder. sijde. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing.

Perhaps. . ben. the scriptures bokareis. dress. often cut for burning and lighting fires. Basa. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. although in the OG. To Boot. The i. writing bokos. . — e. Fr. dolt. to set in order. litter. ganian. — From the participle present. bobo. AS. boubair. to ask. the possessor of the farm. till. a letter . gaby. swinbusa. Hal. — Bailey. a dry stalk. Boot. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. bos. . . from beida (E. stabulum. Jr. Fr. gehyred. feu de behourdis. Schm. A favour. dial. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. bas. 232. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. Pr. buch-stab. booby. one who dwells nigh. but stall. by itself for head-dress. Busk. and fig. G. bossen. literally cow-house. ON. bAkva. But bosg. are formed Fr. clown. boutig. N. a scribe G. Pm. bobo ! interj. botta. . Thus from the syllable ba. Bonnefyre. See Butt. Trans. . prayer. tigh. till.—Bootless. hu?idbusa. the alphabet. in Phil. to dress. bowwen. a bonfire. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. which one gaping and staring about. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. foolish. master of the house. a silly fellow. pig-sty. a lying-place for dogs or swine. a. dog-kennel. Bootless. w. boia. gawney. — To boot. bds. . of wonder On the same principle Sp. in w. babau. Sp. and Ban in w. bose. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. whence ban-ffagl. without ad- . the word may signify merely a fire of buns. however. as the Brecknockshire Banns. bid). simpleton. wall hangings. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. boandi. to cultivate. bauer. busu. a hollow skin. tall. Gl. bosih. ass. Kil.^ —P. b'ukvdry. countryman. reparation. bolt. dial. chaff. a simpleton. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. Fr. high. boom. boo. at everything. boten-shoen. ON. E. build. a vessel for holding liquids. bauen. a good turn or re- meaning. — . the stubble of beans. signifying beech. badaud. petition. is Du. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. short boots. A stall for cattle. remedy of evil. the first consonant of the alphabet. . nachbar. Kil. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . AS. to aid. Palsgr. bonnet. bonad. bota. bua. bosig. biikui. boer. bd. a head-dress. by arbitours sholde bote the P. bommen. . house. bote. to gape. set in order. E. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. a tree. as a lying-place for cattle. From bo. The character of folly is i860. a letter Russ. Bonnet. netis stall. — — . OSlav. buandi. * Boose. babb^o. Mrs Baker explains bun. It is commonly explained as identical with It. \ais-band. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. Boor. blockhead. a stall. and from AS. b&ber. Bun. gaping hoyden — Cot. beam. b^er. prayer. to cultivate. and Gael. build. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. See Bown. botte. to yawn. Binau Brychyniog. Thin ben Luke i. The origin of the word is probably the W. Wall. G. or Vanns. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. to gape. the name of the letter b. been. The latter is the original AS. where a cross (or a gun. inhabit. Mrs Baker. the cultivator. a lofty blaze. to strew with straw. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. betere thing werse. baier. help. a bag of skin or leather. bua. Booby. ON. quest. bonad. relief from sorrow. OW. succour Bailey. babin. boubi^. to prepare. boutig. a. the mouth. ty Gael. bdn. from Du. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. It. bonaid. 13. — — — representing the opening of the mouth.Boos. Ox. petition. . generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. Goth. from gape. tapestry. botte. comes bondi. beiSne. Fr. Du. p.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. dress. Hal.. See Bomb. lofty. ON. Gael. letter. boa. to litter bosu. from badare. In nautical language. wondering signifies not only straw. Prov. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. Du. Boom. pole. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. A peasant. desire. head-dress wai^g. pero. Build. Hufwud-bonad. Du. bene. fool.n. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. G. inhabit. Swab. Boot of bale. and thence Rouchi baia. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. Book. remnants of hay or straw. also called Brecknock Beacons. Boon.

Compare Manx birrag. boards. borino. a booth or shed. bora. a shelter of branches. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). repair. to expiate boeten den dorst. lappalare. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. to build. betan fyr. See To We speak in E. to build buda. baete. borracha. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. Gael. amendment boeten. It is admitted that Fr. to foam. sharp. remedy.par. puras. purra. The as G. Fr. Du. cup- awl. . hem or gard of a garment. G. furni. . baara. dust. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. 3. Palsgr. an engraver's chisel. to swell. limbus. bdt. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. cure Sw. and thence to eat build. purra. bothag. Booty. bothan. to bore. extremitas Bore. to boot. welt.. bottino. purro. from deila and skipta. a word.—Burin. To Bore. ora. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. beute. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. limbus. from bord. Pol. In the Fin. nor E. scalpo.. boeye. or anything pointed. pu purro (saha =: saw . drillen. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. bardure. . ON. See Bower. bata. a granary . bauen. Bete. to bite.por. mat-bod. Bohem. a great bur. a tusk. which are probably from the same root. pointed. Magy. to surge. hut. as afford a satisfactory explanation. Fin. 1. and E. to to . bower. a leather bag or bottle for wine. a bothy. burin. boete. botjan. kvit-bara. fimbria. And so in ON. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. a borer. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. fire. 266. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. a hut or tent. in Ihre. p. . forare. struere ignem. reparation. OSw. a border. . making good again . uzboro. are parret. a. to pierce. from borra. in Lap. Burke in R. scsdes-bod. tent. BoracMo. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. to mend. Booth. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. a cupboard. to hut. is purin. rof. BOOTH vantage. a shop. chisel. to quench one's thirst . cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. or the gradual working a hole in anything. a shop budowati. and meta- Fr. butin. Alexand. dens mordens vel caninus. budka. boeten het vier. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. better. N. to stick unto as a bur. budowai. chewed food for infants. a sharp-pointed tooth. bohren. a responding forms . sculpo 05\xiik. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. pi. edge. terebro. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. wine-skin. Fin. bauda. to anything Neither G. Esthon. of an edge that will not bite. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. to bite. a hut. puras. AS. byte points to the verb byta. It. to divide. and parrets. Gael. A phorically a drunkard. to The Sw.— Return from Parnassus I inR. to importune. bud. The Fin. Gael. sawroot. Kil. Another derivation from Fin. &c. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. puru. abode. bolino. bordi. a shed. to profit. a chisel. a bladder. lappolone. amendment. admovere titiones. yfirbdt. cellar. margin. cottage. — ON. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . Fin. . exchange or divide. butin is explained by Flor. Mag. The ON. Sp. bite. furd. to bete the properly to mend the fire. biorag. batr. the . bord. aid. borracha. Fl. Esthon. It. and hence to fine. to patch. boede. differs only in termination. piercer. ON. swell bara. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. OHG. urboro. . See Burgeon. make . both. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil.. to . to profit Goth. Border. . The cor. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. a borer . recovery bata. Lat. comminuted by either kind of action. to repair. Fr. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. on. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. • — To Bore. are derived from G. a borer. to restore. barn. bdra. . wave. Du. a wave. ON. puru. But probably the E. terebra sculptoria purastoa.

coarse cloth made of the Du. a wen. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. or perhaps it may be See Bury. projection. to give bail or answer for an. cnag signifies both a clergy. while Gael. boss of the side. ON. butsen. borg. burel. a citizen. vain. (Bridel). Du. unpolished. . boussi.' or system of bail. which now signifies a knob. poor. cormpted. or perhaps also To Borrow. burgess. plant. the must have arisen burgensis. borough or chief constable. botse. bunch. Du. formerly used in the sense of knocking. AS. connected. The origin seems to be the Goth. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. is probably radically Boss. i. storm. loan. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. botsen. And that unsittynge is to here degre. Altieri. . and borough in the sense of a town. Jam. to save.mass. or head-borough. Borrow. ' — — . to strike so as to Bureau. an eminence. /3oraMK6f. Bunch. a herb. to pick or cull plants. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. So Du. a boor. beorgan. knocking. or because a blow berga. (1867). Fr. V. from AS. bosseu. rustic. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. &c. a tower. borealis. pego. by which of or belonging to plants. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. bierge. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. tive idea seems to bring under cover. without. knock and a knob . cob. pitch. the N. bossen. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. Jam. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. the hollow between the Borsholder. to save. primarily signifying coarse sound . as if from the verb to hold. a city . boschen. basse. the sun sets. Turk. to knock or strike. . cnoc. boss. burh. Newbury. to keep. Sc. botch. bos. Fr. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. into borsholder. butse. AS. a knob. Gr. when that system was forgotten. clownish. knur. a little blow. a blow. bergen. byrig. bussi. useCanterbury. gum vocant. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. empty. nonsense.vr\. bosh. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. Botany.any round sweUing. Lang. Russ. Lat. destitute. D. Borough. bourg. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. bussa coarse. to protect. bourgeois. beorgan. busse. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. to give a hollow bizo. — ' wind burya. cnap.. huschen. hollow. It. that which biirge. Boreal. bosse. of bail throughout the country. northern. borei. bttssel. Hence knot. as we speak of a thumping potato. bundle. to contain. to conceal. boss sound. undyed wool of brown sheep. a boss. surety. ^ma. Bailey. secure. — — — A — . borough-holder. to strike . bos. E.bucklers. was origin of the term is the OFr. a citizen. to protect.' the chief of the ' borh. knob. Cot. borel. ' pledge. bump is used in lump or piece. In like manner It. the North Wind. is used in the sense of bussare. in the body struck. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. a giving rise to It.' if thou give money on loan. and thus could not shake off the old burr. The other. Borowholder. borgo. G. Goth. Swiss Rom. bom. Hal. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. empty. tempest. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. bump. the ordinary a swelling. in instead of without. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. empty. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. AS. grey). gesylle. Bos a surety. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. rude. bail biirgen. blow on a hollow object. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. plain rude fellow.' Vegetius in Diez. less. Bosh. boss. tuft. boss or knob of a buckler . borg. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security.ribs and the side. poor. viipyoc. agrees with E. whether from the fact preserve G. to take in.' every man be under bail. one who sticks to you like a bore. See found in Bav. Hence borhes ealdor. a bunch or hump. the Sc. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. . 106. a. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. brown cloth. ^o^^flj. borh. head. to save Sw. The primi. a surety. It. whence the burg. striking. from their grey clothing. Fr. a pushing or striking out. borgese. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . a bouncing baby . baurgs. to become is emitted by a hollow body. pegou. botch. f graauw. I. hollow bucklers.

to work without order or know.^Dec. Du. by met. Fyre to botme. bundle. batschen. — — A 2. potra. biissen. what pushes outwards. blow. for a bud. to smack. abyss.D. whence the name ol pool to podge. any round ball or bowl to play withal. butse. A — oba-dwaj Lat. disturbance to . to knock. — Dief. . of botta. bund. Judwi. bativa. bot. abbu. to put on a patch. bottigUa. a bundle of straw or hay. burgi vel pontis refectionem. corresponding to . N. Fl.) . Diez. Stalder. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. ing out. a wisp. a slop. botch. we two. boiteag. to simmer. bossu. AS. the first rough draught 2. botm. stock. disturbance. botola. A horses. . The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. Bochu. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. dim. schuhbosser. buts. See To Bodge. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. ambo. See Boss. Boa two. Leg. stock. Podge. Du. bdt. boiteal. dabble). Canut. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. On — Du. a cobbler. AS. pocciar. Lat. podge. to we have OHG. Bret. Lith. Dan. is boteau. gen. Parmesan poccia. bodem. &c. an abyss or bottoniless pit. Decorde. — — .' to the fiery Csedm. to make a make a noise. round lump. the other hand. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. fire-bote. bethia. pimple. a boil or swelling Halma. Hal. botte. boitean. ixorapudder. nets. as Fr. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. butsen. a bottle. AS. to botch or patch. botse. a cess. . . a waterfall. Gael. . was called a push. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. — Fl. Both. bSn. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. boss. G. Bouteille. whisper. or plague sore . to from the root bot. — . To confuse with noise.— . It. Jtidu. to make better. bots. botel. a bunch. the science or knowledge of plants. Fl. It. — Jidwi. bulderen. bosser. bozza. i.foundation. bouteille. a pit. bun. Bottle. hurly-burly. botte. House-bote. It. And so we speak of an eruption. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. any plain round viol glass bozzo. stroke. and ajSvamg. bunch. mend. we have Swiss batscken. Hal. ON. blister. in the sense of mend the fire. pozzanghera. to mend (kettles. a lump of somebatschen. to podge. ON. ON. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. a tinker schuhbiisser. Kil. is also a bubble. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. — Bottom. Bouds. to stir and mix together. boil. botsen. mess. abbi-diwij Slavon. Mudu. a depth. a humpback. Butu. gling piece of work. . Fr. ' G. a cask. bile. an imperfect and bunbutt end. knock. dial. a bottle. botus. bottom. they two. to stir and mix together . — duj Lett. a patch patschen. bAdtr. kessel-biisser. stem or base. See Butt. ba.— Swift in R. patch. both. as a push or windgaU. w. btitse. putra. a bump or swelling. a slop. to dash about . a pit. contusion . boden . cation of which may be preserved in puddle . turmoil. Again. OSax. BOTCH understood). maggots in barley. a bottle of hay. bdsser. bozza. tumour. bulder. to bcBta. See Bound. ledge It. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. to strike . oba. Danneil. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. e. mess. A bottom depth. ubhau. repara- — — See To Bete. Wedu. Gael. I. G. beggtaj Goth. gipuozan. noise.of a ball of thread. and E. to fall : with a sound batsch. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. 212. * To Bother. Fr. The Gr. Here the radical image seems a bubble. boute. a maggot. — . to give a sounding blow. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. from the dashing of water. buddl. Ancren Riwle. From the dim. botte. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. baiothsj Sanscr. abbution. bide. you two. abbi. to rage. . the bud of a flower . a bubble. mutter. stump. bluster. a pock. ^kvBoQ. buazen.ments of the same root. a. empty or hollow. to dip in liquid (to Gael. buddeln. To Botch. Bailey. a knock. the lowest part. scuohbuzere.— Hal. botel foenn. a bott . On the other hand. Botcli. butwo. signify a in OE. noise. — — belly-worm. a root. especially in Gael. j3i/9os. Lith. Pl. buideal. H^cart. to froth as beer . a botcher of shoes. a vessel for holding liquids. a plague-boil Kil. puddle. pother. botn. pozzo. however. • Bott. shoes. a cesspool pass. blain. poltern. E. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. &c. thing soft batsch. to mend. fundus. Prov. boccia.

carpet. boujtce. Mid. ing. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. as that of E. limit. to thundering big one hum. the larger kind of pebbles.D. p. 2. mere. — Take care my house be handsome. a boss. as a nosegay. a large stone rounded by the action of water. to turn. Raynouard. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. knock it sounds again. Bonny. an occasion. The W. dial. he fell so that it sounded. buUersten. Boulderstone. The branch of a tree. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. 3. a bud. boriie. bons.' B. or Bow-pot. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. So It. bunda. bullra. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. bolder. From Sw. round. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. the smaller ones. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. Bowlder. strapping. — — Bight. bouton. Bough-pot. — No i ausiratz parlar. To Boult. bend. Probably from the Celtic root bon.' round and round in similar circles. Fr. — — leap. iv. pothel. . The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. see Boss. Alpine Re- — gions. gulf. Sw. The Bight of Benin. to resound. See Bunch. And the new stools set out. from bugan. the verb bondir in OFr. See To Bolt. language a * Boulder. came home with his face all to-bounced. the bay of Benin. bog. baby. a bouncing apple. a round body both. a turn or time. Brem. bunsen. Bought. bonna. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. boundina. Du. a bound. Q. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. turn. Halma. its kind. a boundary stone (men stone). tnndo. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. jump. like bobbin. bay. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. from AS. . And in the spreading of a bough-pot. 136." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. botwm. Bound. bounbounejha. Ni gacha cor bondir. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing.>a bout. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. whence buj7isen. bun. Pm. has hot. bend. Primarily to strike. Pr. jungen. by Bujns or Buns. bondir. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. Fr. Bodinare. root (see Bottom). I assure you.— Cot. a stock. contusi. the hollow of a bay.— F. in the absence of actual e. as a bout of fair or foul weather. to set out by metes and bounds.'— Charter of K. bonndn. of thread. and F. ni frestelar. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. a large pebble. Bout. dial. boh. a blister. Bunche. till The dat et bunsede. volta. A Langued. geration. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. signifies a sliort thick mass. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. bodina.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. Bough. E. thumping. winding. boss of a buckler. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. Coxcomb. frequently used in the same sense with bound. to knock at the door. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. to thunder. mcn-bomi. to spring. Bret. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . nor horn sound. pimple Richards bothog. suorum recognoverunt agrorum.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. bumper. to bow. Webster. bonzen. from volgere. a button. ni motz brugir. bone. bottom. to set bounds. bugan. Dan. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. To Bounce. to make a loud noise. Wtb. To Bound. debodinare. bugt. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. to hum. Fr. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. nave of a wheel bothel. Nor a centinel whistle. to spring. march. — strike. to knock. an de dor bunsen. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. in contrast to klappersten. .xperience such sounds as the foregoing. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . butina. signifying in nautical coil of rope. to fix limits.— Boundary. Ducange. and Prov. bamsen.— — — - 88 BOUGH . AS. a blow..

Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. to swell. to our bous. hence musical accompaniment. identical with E. pot. Dan. — — — A pare. of the ON. Gael. game. It is the participle past buinn. to draw a deep breath.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. . staff. and not in the sense of curvature in general. is. burn. different modification gives ON. brunna. or of an Gael. bending. tinton.bass of a stringed instrument. Bret. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. a mill-post. a jibe. bordone. a jibe Shaw bururus. Bourd. bordo. btiga. set out. bog. i. Du. Goth. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. bommen. . burdan. sotich. Sc. whether by sound or gesticulation. a go to. a bow. Fr. So Sc. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. bow to shoot with. epaule du vaisseau. must be referred to the same root. bage. Burgeon. to — Hal. to drink deep. biugan. brausen. it is probable that the It. Swiss bausen. grumble Sw. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. bending of a joint knie-bug. Bourdon. kroes. ready to pike or spear . bogr. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. verb bua. the Bourdon. . and that probably from a Celtic root. The meaning of bound. . bourdon. burlare. bend. Du. warbling. Chaucer in R. Bounty. like quaff. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. curvature.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. purlBav. lance. bunaiteach. to drink deep. a. also the humming or ON. brummen. steady. has also buirleadh. Gael. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. the shoulder of the vessel. A water. It is bov. an arch. Gael. bogha. belly out. a — — . and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . Sw. sport. to bow or incline the . drink deep. a drone of a bagpipe. Cot. G. Du. the big end of a club. purra. When used alone it . As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. bue. . a humming noise Macleod. joke. whence buysen. bugan. mockery. firm. ^<7r«i?. burreti. buzzing of bees. Fr. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. bov. bwa. w. to mutter. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. biegen. a sing-song. bound. Prov. a brook. to bulge. a corToward the garden. sausen. Sw. to indulge in his cups . addressed to. drone of a bagpipe. borne. Lat. taunt. g. a cup kroesen. are applied to the bow of a ship. bausen. the ting of a bell. beogan. buzz. pared.which see. that ON. bourd. buys. trick. to pre2. flagon. address. to banter or laugh at. from spring. springbiirn. pre. ready. The foregoing derivation seems. Dan. language of folly or ridicule. sense durd. AS. bending. puff out. bog. ruption of bonne. bend Sw. potio. bourdon. to trick. As the Gael. prepared for. . Dan. Bourdon. ing. a prop. Bow. analogous to Fr. bontS. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. a from Du. bonus. buigen. Bound. bogna. bagna. spelling the word iox bound. to hum as a bee. Sw. patesten. to take deep draughts. It is remarkable that we find vary. a drone or dor-bee. A —Cot. a pot. in Fr. burt. bourde in the same sense. Eown. repartee. burdan. buga. bonitas. Immediately from Fr. Fr. shoulder-blade. bordon. crutch. cudgel. the burden of a song. schulter-bug. to bow. as was for. a. bogen. bugna. It. Cot. Gael. Spenser in R. a humming noise. bugne. pusta. to take breath. explaining Sw. on. gurgling. souf. to take one in. Du. head Fr. fresh* water. G. spring. schenkelbug. drunken. fun of one . which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. Borden. burd. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. hous^ Man in the Moon. buyse. beygja. G. — — . to tope. bovne. bdgi. the fixed. Dan. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. Gael.. Comp. to draw a deep breath. G. to hum. bugna. Burden. pausen. their time -With "wailful tunes. And there in mourning spend Sw. Sp. good. when we speak of. a well. limit. deceit. ridicule buirte. jest. to tipple. cheat. on the whole. buizen. bug. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. — probably through this latter signification. a for New York. to tope W. saufen. . way ba7n.

a buck. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. buis. bog. bwra. Fr. a bubble bolli. bugyani. and to a coachbox in particular. spring as water bugya. fyn. Bret. Bohem. head of a cabbage. Sw. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. tumour. bulb of an onion bolleyield. ken. inclinare se (Kil. bubble.a. Buckle. . kupu. . ON. ON. buk. bola. ttuJic. bollen. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. bock. . fata-bur. . then by the loss of the /. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . to bow buck. . budello.. to yield to one. cumena-bur. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. a stud. . boss. a. buga. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. bowl . . utibur. . hollow place Fr. hollow.\s. swell. make obeisance. OE. a pot. globe or spherical body. pocket. bhugna. to bulge. give in to. in both senses. koziel. a sleeping-room . the bogna. . knob From the former modification we have bolla. boel. W. boxtree. bouellou. belly. acsian. . polla. a wardrobe . The / a bow. . kupula. peated in Magy. See MHO. ON. a box. buello. as well as the name of a. a iDubble. the head. a hump on the back rossbollen. to raise the back boll OHG. to buckle G. zich onder jemand under to him. bwr. a wine-can . bossola. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box.cup Du. bolle. painter's easel. hiidel. bow. a boil. bhuj. . a separate apartment . a box Lat. a round glass or bolg. bow. a swelling or rising up. trestle.). a bubble. AS. a drop of pullistaa. bouzellou. The word may probably be identical with Fris. botulus. buckel. signified by forms like Gael. round glass phial.flask It. similar shape. purse. Thus we have Esthon. in walking appears in a . A . the box-tree. round bead. to guggle. * Bowels. bouge. (in pass . From the other form are G. bulla. bolla. biisse. &c. a sack. to bend. hill. PLD. w. water pulli. beuz. . bowels. a ball . . blister. lump . prominence. Bav. Cable. hollow wooden case. . globular. Gr. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. beutel. kuppelo. bur. different position in ODu. as in E. honse-bur. at the e. an outhouse AS. . an inclosure. to stoop. anything globular. bogla. belly of a cask. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. bubble. to stoop biickling. Dan. See Boil. ^o«/«. bending. . . mausbollelein.). to bubble up. biiske. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. busskai. Bowl. bucka. . bent. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. ask. Dan. the head. and on swollen. or. . a ball. buxus. Fr. a croft by a house. Pol. dial. a ball. swoUei) Lat.. a bubble Fin. pusspan. . box in both senses. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. with inversion of the round. to bend down. a protuberance. box. convex. to puff up. tumour . to make crooked . stream forth bugyogni. bugyni. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. to swell. AS. Hence. bulcken. boxtree pusska. buigen. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. Du. boss. bowel Box. bugy. OFr. crown of a hat. the crop of a bird. Boll. bolla. Sanscr. Fr. a parlour. E. boudin. bulk compared with Sw. belly. heafod bolla. bocka. Lat. convexity. intrenchment. compared with Fr. or in e. of a wooden ball to play with and — . a box. . a chamber swefnbur. bulge. Sw. bug. to puff up pullakka. biichse.) to incline oneself . Du. Sw. Hal. without the and grits. Sp. a bowl. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. spherical Dan. globular body. buckelig gehen. a bud. a thing of liquid. a little box . the box-tree and articles made of it G. boucle. the skull or brainpan . as in AS. gut. a hen-coop . a black pudding. crooked. puffy. A Bulk. W. a box. a polla. pullo. kupukka. Bower. G. See Crab. bol. buchsbaum. iri'iaQ. bol.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. sausage. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. It is more probably from the G. the box-tree It. bolgna. bolne. guestchamber . folliculus . ku^o.D. Bret. bugna. ^o/a. boor. ne. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. bosso. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. bugyola. . In like manner the Pol. Du. the barrel of a gun. a bubble. boil. budel. busse. a box. a bundle. bukke. wisp of straw . witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. bog. biicken. . bulka. a knot. bulla in aqua. is applied to a coach-box. bur. bulne. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. G. passing on stud.

from a root brak. parallel with OK. It. brae. his eyes are failing him). breach. to want. cramp-iron holding things together . briche. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. V.. want. compressing. defect. Thus brack.D.— D. To brace is to draw together. The different meanings of the brageux. to be wanting. Brack. brae. Prov. an languages. OFr. Cot. Sp. OFr. — . bask. and then Pl. I sal slyng. strike. bou^ba. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. Rouchi Then as an adj. La ville ou y avait Brace. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. bube. Ptg. land spoilt Kil. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. clay. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. Prov. Kil. babble. to crack. bragos. a grown youth Cimbr. a sounding blow. To fight with the fists. disturb. want. Brack. race. quarrel Bohem. merely in our mode of considering them. as noticed under Box. bracket. defect Du. to smack the hand batschen. rack. flap. brostia. bresta." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. baukscheht. bracco.. damaged board a ship. a comworld Rayn. Brak-goed. braque. dirty. brack. bracha. Fr. AS. . Brackish. OE. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. bracer.D. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . Swab. dog that hunts by scent. brechen ihm. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. brakke grund. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. baske. . a bubbling dura del mun. Kil. A to halt between two derivations. let. Boy. breptati. loud smack. ON. bracke. To Brabble. to give a gebrechen. BOX To Box. salo sive aqua marinS. to burst. Pm. unmarried man . then from break. wrack. jabber. break. ON. G. . Brach. the arm. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. braca. braic. by an overflow of sea water. taneous talking. the first instancebya physical tie. ratch.puddle. See Brake. to stammer. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. ing from a mixture of salt. brakke Bracelet. bracon. boy. MHG. 91 the Dan. — . brace on and Du. Pr. in R. Fr. Du. s. to slap. armour for the arm. a crack. bruxula. brek. brassard. rakke. acidus. . to Swiss batschen. Swiss bub. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. in R. and F. brae. s. One girl. — . mud. need. boussole. . bue. &c. fault. braco.nated by dirt. bracil. On the same principle from the buksteht. It. bitch Du. flaw. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. Pl. a bog or pass Fr. to fall. land batsken. a girl. whelp as. Water rendered boubo. to give a sounding blow defect. ' — A — — — . brack. posh. confining.. root). mud. a pair of braces. boy bouba. variation of babble. or bracer Cot. ghebreck. Du. by the same inversion of J and k. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. In like manner the It. dog Sw. suppuration. rakki. A — — . filth .' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. which sigof straining. mud. Prov. brasselet. wristband. wnzC/J. Lett. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. dog in general. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. moral or physical. brageuses. pupus. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . braquet. Fr.with a noise. boiste. brek. foul. a guard to torf. Gael. buah. See Broker. or defect. bouibo. A brace probis. a box. to give a blow with the fists. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. con. defect. is a rope holding G.. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . Sp. refuse. braecke. brague. brae. pube. to stutter. flaw. . salsus. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. — . corruptse. murmur. want. Sp. . Heligoneed. a braceOFr. Bracket. . the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. which has many representatives in the other Europe. Prov. youth. Kil. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. matter. fault . . spaniel. Hdcart. isolated part of the text. — . odorinsecus. brec. — — . Lat. to box the ears. braco. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. rakka. Fr. lalear-eyed Prov. a boy pupa. brechen. pus. bray. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. to is derived brestr. breuque. thwack. It. breach. Swiss Rom. brabbelen. G. Bracelet. fuse. beagle. brago. priated to the original sense. and string of his bow. It is B.

a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. and it is very likely that the root brak. would be to brace. used in the sense of force. From Fr. slight modificajoining the two legs. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. vanter une chose. It. fine.. ative fellow. showy bravery. Hecart. Chaucer. a noisy talkboasting. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. boast.aburst. brabhdadh. Wallachian bratsou. was formed brayele. —Spenser in R. brave. to crack. a carriage for breaking in horses . flaunting. brav. confining. gay. to swagger. well-dressed. gallant (in apparel) also proud. fine. bravado j Fr. Walloon bress. bullying. binding anything together. See Brace. gallant. handsome. swaggerer. fine. empty pride. Bret. noisy ostentation. is identical with Gael. crash ON. bully . bragio. brag. finery. stout. fine. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. breghe.breeches. breach. Faire le brave. braga. spot. to shout. proud.. Dan. called by our braggard. to Rouchi brMer. to flaunt. subduing. drawers. brao. compressing. make a noise .i5nz^. to strut. Cot. strength. . Hence E. also insolenter se gerere . swagger. brabhdair. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. bravo. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). From brayel. an inclosure for cattle . — . .^ Sp. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . blusterer. to cord a bale of tie up. Turk bazu are used in both senses. braguer. or by gaudy dress and show. 92 Cot. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . bravache. brag. crack. to boast of his own worth. Fr. Primarily to crack. The plant y^r«. h-avare and Fr. cry. breghen. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. excellent. braga. the arm. in the sense of the Lat. and that from e. brazo. Thus we are brought to the OE. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. brachittm. Dan. goods. Sp. . AS. to unbrace or let down the breeches. to sprout malt. Brail. Lith. valiant The head are sumptuous. brave. bragging. Brake. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . i. bra!. bravacherie. dhbrailler. Fris. crash. gayly dressed.%. ^Brave. braicli. gorgeous.hy which this idea is con\eyed. braw. breagh. From sprouted corn.—— . Brake. se donner trop de licence. Lat. BRAG Piedm. subigere. braegenj Du. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. smart. See Bray. boasting. The meanings of brake are very numerous. brake in the sense of constraining. torture . It is certain that the word for arm is. braggard also valiant. in numerous dialects. bragaireachd. power. brave. an iron for holding Zalli. to make a noise. se pavaner. Bray. expensive. courageous. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. to rattle. brails. brave. about the hawk's fundament. se parer de beaux habits. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. braszketi. braies. also derived Fr. Fr. — A — . To Brag. brake is. . in order to prevent its catching the wind. idle talk. braka. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. vaunting. the feathers ON. To Brail. beautiful. — From W. is Cot. To Braid. flaunt in fine clothes . to brail up a sail. — Equivalent forms are Gael. brae. 2. affront.^Vocab. — Chaucer.Shepherd's Cal. Brain. be noisy . Thus Bret. also tion of this was brayeul. braver. breyne. be found. A — Hal. brayete. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. as the type of exertion and strength. a roisterer. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . to stand upon terms. Langued. . de Vaud. stately.explosion. to boast or brag. brave. bragd. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. braske. Sc. that will carry no coals. braske. &c. hectoring. riches. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. bragging of his own valour. w. Cot. . brag or jet it braguard. The meanings included under — Bragget. . the opposite of which. bushy . Cot. Brag was then used brisk. vain glory. Rom. braga. braka. Bret. splendid. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. gay. Haldorsen Gael. . or from braie itself.

In the case of the ne. Gr. brolium. iSpsx". gebroge. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . brage. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. cover G. broillet. riguus. is braukti. broor bushy place Hal. brake. might come to signify a swamp. broeck. a marsh. brog or brake. quarry from Fin. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. In like manner Lat. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. in usus braca. Prov. tnurdma. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. dial. and when once thrown down. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. as well as in the case of the e. casser le \va. Dan. a brace on board a ship. to subdue. murran. The Fr. break of such a kind. farinam in mortario subigere. a fen. frangere linum. briser. —Ovid. in northern climates.' It. brook. 2. t° moisten. gebroge. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. to stiffen against Taboada). to brush. to bend or direct a cannon. the original meaning of G. the lever by which the string was drawn up. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. or a wood in a marshy place . braken. brogille. brambles. We — . To the same bend a bow. Lat.— . Biglotton. break flax PLD. a harrow. broil. signifying to sweep. brego. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. flachs brechen. and Lat. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. bruch. 3. ing of flax or hemp. to head must be bit. tris). as in Sp. bush. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. bushes. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. e. a spinning-wheel. In ON. bush. to knead or mix up in a mortar. Corrfeze bredgea. a swampy Mid. It may be sus- . braeken. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. brook. and G. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. where from Esthon. brambles. de Vaud. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). as in Du. Dan. to distinct. a thicket. gebrUche. thicket. to break. . murtaa. game. to bray in a mortar. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. It. it is not surprising that the word has here. breuil. broken fratta. bregar. copse-wood. braca. to break or fracture. broilium. OFr. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. gilum. to The ON. brog above mentioned. broyer. — — .. to bend a bow. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. brage. a horse's a horse's twitch. or A A ' . — Fl. to fracture. Fr. murrokko. bregar brake. braka. el arco. Sp. glebas subigere.D. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. Brake. marsh or swamp. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. Swiss Rom. braquer un canon. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. thing is brought under control. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. gebroge. a stream. as in the case of horse-breaking. Pl. been confounded with the verb break. is formed murd. Gael. briers. low wet land bruch. marsh. Dan. brcekke. breaking in the operation. brake. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. Fr. gebrUche. gebiisch. to row. brega. word. brak is a frame in which strip. to rub.D. BRAKE to external force. watered. In the sense of a thicket. bredza. cetur. to harrow (Lat. brog. Fr. conSo in G. have thus Du. Voc. to exert force in different ways. bregille. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. P&. brook. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. nemus. for — Due. braecken het vlasch. or overthrow of trees by the wind. to break. pasture. referred brake. to pound. G. properly braking or subduing them. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. fratto. brushwood. ^raca.bracan. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. subigere. It. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. Brake. —Bracken. any thicket of brakes.

brein. as AS. piece of anything. ground full of briers. hallier. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. Broom. branco. broust. also pfriemkraut. brenda. restrain. from brug. a dunghill. bretnel. in the same sense. to -brugen. 2. Grisons bruch. brank." The bmno a • on . Branch. bran. sprouts. brem. that is to say. . in the sense oi fern. to burn. . titio. brushwood. Brank. a shoot or twig. Bret. cabbage sprouts Fl. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. a briery plot.D. a burning fragment of wood. heath ON. piecemeal brindelles. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. G. or other plants of a like nature. broccoli. a small deri\'ation . brancas. Pl. a roA. brenn hesken. pfriemen. bruch. bit by bit. a bridle or bit . Then by comparison with claws or arms. cack. AS. In like hrst. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . Bramble. It. G. Brancare. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. bracken or fern . brug). also a marshy low ground or fen . brano. E. to or iron. briars. Bret. brandmurk. a bud It. brouskoad. bronbo. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. The naof strain. brejo. iii.). a bud. As ON. &c. bruch. apiece orbitbrandone. brin d. dirt . berneux. w. So Swiss gaggi. sweet broom. broussaille. bruk. gebriiche. constrain. broom. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. Fr. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. brosst. G. brandello. brok. a thick bush. from gaggi. the thorn apple or stramonium. That beareth the red hepe. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. is the draff or excrement of the com. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . or with It.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. brass. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. brandr. brandiiialil. thorns and Gen. from Servian pnit. Pl. 1 8. what is cast out as worthless. a heath. Bret. . a rod or twig. . It. Rouchi bren d'orMe. brugek. to bridle. to gripe. prufye. breme j Sw. heath. bren. brank. Gael. a shrub from Bret. Diez. bran. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. branche. chaff. brenna. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. Fr. clutch. ordure . compress. A mark made by burning. Brand. wood composed of twigs. But we find It. — branca. pfriem in the sense of an awl. brand. brenn. It will be found that shrubs. braam. breun. —Ducange. Thus in Lat. Fr. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. Thornas and bremelas. pected that brake. brake. and waste growths. a bud. and E. heath. Bret. brin (as It brano). to brank. a firebrand. from brand. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. braeme. may be so called in analogy with Bret. virgultum.D.. a shrub . gebroge. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. i. bro7n. broem. broom. the bull-finch. . See Brush. breanan. The same form becomes in It. Dan. heath.G. a vine twig Bav. brang. snotty . young twig {brom-beisser. &c. Fr. . Thus we have w. Sir Topaz. bromboli. a halter. bren. stink . it glitters — — . that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. or ling. young buisson fort epais. . branchia. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. brous. thicket of brambles Cot. brog. nasty. brug. from virga. bramble Du. broembel-CBppel. . from Lat. Bran. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . w. as. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. brarn. bruskoad. heath (Bret. the branch of a tree. pfropf. ear-wax mud. Serv. heath. bushes. a shoot. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. bruk. burning brennen. bruk. brom. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. brin. Gael. and thence a shoot. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. brughera. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. Port. Piedm. a single plant of heath. — . . brambles. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. brwnt. Bav. sawdust. G. Russ. excrement. sedge burkni.

faire fracas. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. noise. brin. the spelling to kindle. spirit distilled from wine. e. Jam. to shake. brasca. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. to make shine with shaking. — . Bailey. brasa. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. bragale\ wood. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. brandiller. brazil. WaUon. to shake. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. and branchis shaiand D. as Jamieson explains it. became ashes Pied. to brandle or The It. bransella. was in use Fr. Brase. to brandle. from used in dyeing cloths. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. put. Brangle. brouir. to Bailey. to brustle. to and fro in the hand. bruire. braser.pan of coals. live coals. distilled wine. G. d'Angl. So. as again by well as the blade of a sword. It. a stick. a roaring fire. not. brush. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. ish. bracia. to sound of the Fr. To brase AS. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. — . De Barros considers vinum ardens. splinter. to roar. incendium. a round dance. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. set on fire. shake. Thus the bound up again.well. before the discovery of America in the brandir. to brangle. The corresponding form in Gael. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. De Goes. to glisten or flash. The tre brangillis. brand. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. brandiller. hoisting to the fall. to hurl with great force. to quarrel. to shake The word brisil. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. Sw. It. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. bruan. to bicker 2nd. braise. bra?ier. Manx bransey. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. brazeiro. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. n. Brasil. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . to rustle. given to the country. firewood. N. brandigh. Diez. It. to dash. brausen. crackle. brandolare is exbrandish. — . E. in Marsh. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. plained by Florio. brustle. to burn. bragia. Fr. Ija. make an outcry. branla. Guill. brennen. is bntan. comes from thence. to French brawl or brangle. a fragment. bracea. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. or in stick. Port. — ting to confusion. Fr. Fr. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. totter. from to vociferate. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. morsel. to crackle . a pan of hot coals. Kil. ist. to murmur. weinbrenner. perplex. Fr. To brand. Braser. braza. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. fire-wood. The name Brandy. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. branler. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. apparently very distinct from each other. Lye. In the same way the set on fire . to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. and bruir. Chron. Formerly brandy-wine. hot Fr. bresil. E. embraser. so. to braze or lute. to make display . Sw. brus^.^Brandle. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. to burn. billet. Hume in brand in ON. a brusler. and scold. V.. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. G. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. a To Brandish. urens. crackle. brascct. forms brasil. brasa. prasseln. the colour than hitherto known. to blaze. bransle. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. bruzi. flagrans. bryne. then brandr. bum. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. Chron. glowing embers . Du. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. Bret. to make sense of a bright red dye. brangle or brawl in E. all. Fl. eldibrandr. gebrannter wein. brandende wijn. brasca. to confuse. AS. With top trimbling. to distil . to solder iron. to shog. du Roi et laine. conbillet. brane-wood. braise or hot coals. aqua ardens. braise. Fr. branler. to totter. Gris. briiler. 59. Milan. firebrand. brasil.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. brastlian. make a — . as Fr. to burn. stake. bruciare. as a nasalised form of the Piedm.

bretesche. Brattice. to braze. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. Jam. frequentative of braire. squall. breyon. It. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. apron. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. Gael. le repasser un peu sur la braise. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. slibro. slakker-bortchen. OFr. from Sc. pil. ON. contignatio. bronze. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. as criailler of crier.— Braid. braoilich. boutures. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. Dan. — Deutsch.— Remade. a battle-girdle. bronzacchiare. Cot. brailler. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. as rashers upon quick burning coals. Sup. Kil. a parapet. or whether it be from Fr.— Diez. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). bradlete. as scrawl from scrabble. calf of the leg. breyon de kinds of . braede. brett. Bailey. discord. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. a rag . — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. frame of laths. braion. The same correspondence is seen between It.D. coassatio. The verb is probably derived from the brase.D. is The word — uous name for a woman. muscular parts of the body. ^Altieri. Cot. It. a fortification. a rag. brazen. Bartizan. Pm. bartising. buttock Sc. brat. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. to solder. KiL Prov. whether contracted from brabble. Swiss bradle. the buttocks. cloth. to cry. bretesque. solder. A dispute or squabble. then a parapet. A. a contemptuous name for a young child. brces. A land of dance. braon. bradon. a lump of flesh.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. strepitus 2. ni autres choses sur Due.D. any piece. —^Bronze. a rag . ferruminare. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. noise. a loud noise. a plank or board. to copper. brdto (ace. bred. to talk at bralle op. Westphal. luncheon. braodhlach. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. So also See Brag. to scold .— Fl. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. boarding being sbranare. equivalent to the Du. a cloak. Circumeunt cibertesca. Du. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. For the application to a^child compare Bret. See Bray. Brawl. bruir. brettys. to tear piecemeal. fraiche. slibro {neita. braser Fargent. bras. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. the calf of the leg. Cologne broden. at brasa. Sp. to Gael. A.brettysing. a lump of flesh. breyon d'chaur. Fris. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. bratidone. Paris. lat'te. 1224. G. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. a slabbering-bib. &c. P1. slut. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. a. bratach. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. braeye. a Lap. cob. It .96 Roquefort. OHG. bralle. W. 1156. a — A from the confused noise. . esbraotier.propugnaculum. breteque. a clout. a patch of cloth. 2. Mundart. Betrax of a —^Jam. Pisana in Mur. from branler. in the first instance of boards. tasce. to carbonado. especially that used in the working of iron . roar. 368. bartisan.' Hal. Brawn. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. pan- — Rayn. Brass. as a brawling brook. deblaterare. bronzare. berd. a contempt- banner.' BRASS BRAY et AS. bmhon for brado7i. OFr. bas morceau de viande brawhng. bratdn). borderinge. bribe de viande. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. a lath. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. AS. from Fr.walle — Pr. saillies. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. as lattice. Sc. Fr. or on the top of a wall. Wall. Lorraine bravon. — . ship. brat. I. Fr. bratid calf of the leg. Brangle. burning coals. Brat. See Brandish. Math. Brave. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water.^ — Sverris Saga. The muscular part of the body. brass. bretays). Florio. Many gambes. neita girl). ' A vraale. brandillo. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. —-Jam. bransle. branle. a wooden tower. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. a lump. Hist. calf of the leg. rag. and bronzo. to shake. flesh of a leg of pork. Certainly a little girl. brat. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. a mantle. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . braiio. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. trul. baltresca. Fr. bran.

twist. crepo and E. to sound very loud and very harshly. i. Swiss bratschig. ON. Bread. to smack or the eye. bratsche. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. brak. riAprjyvvfu. e. verb to break. — koa. to cry Port. bruzir. bragd — ON. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. — . soft . to tear Bret. to t. D. The Lat. ON.^ Fr. 145. to start. augnabragd. as OE. broad. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. Chaucer.' To Bray. to bawl. disturbance. gestus. 2. on. mos. V. R. braidir. a brack. and make a hideous noise. to resemble him. I'll live and die a maid. to work up in a mortar. the clash of ai-ms Dan. to braid. noise . instantane. fish. will. Prov. breche. in Jam. V. braa. broyer. braire. to have the lineaments of one's ON. roar. the sound — of arms. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. bradar. Beryn. brak. a mill. the miller's dog. a breach Cot. fragor. which has given much trouble to commentators. bregda. to pretend. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. at a braid. And with a traid I tumyt me about.y. E. appearance Hal. a crash. with or without a final d.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. Bret. upbraid. bray. to break. to bray like an ass. Cot. to bellow.g. bregar. ing. to crash. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. a wink. to The cup was uncoverid. to roar. To rub or grind down Sp. cyprinus latus. weave The ON. Then is simply.ch. as the notion of turning crack. crackle . starts crackling up. to scold. D. to break. breach. to cry out. to rub Fr. bruire. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. Fr. braidar. imitate or resemble one. to snatch. brugier. Q. to rumble. brand. Chaucer. brage. to break Fr. Then. G. father. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. Dunbar braessem. brame. ^p&xia. and fracasously. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. Du. to braid the hair. and to signify the fracture itself. &c. abraid. brot. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. Bailey. to break. . twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. And at a braid he gun it bende.fracas. baiyl. brice. ybrayid. ser. Fr. F. 7 . See Brake. roar. or wound. Fin. to roar or bellow. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. R. G. . bragd is also applied nets. braea. plait.ear rog. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. bru. to bray in a mortar. rustle. to N. Prov. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. &c. W. paste or dough. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. to the seijauntes. Bread. to cry out. a rent. V. crash. kind. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. to rush. The same He might don us both a villany. &c. explaining a very obscure application of the E. To Break. regi. . make a disturbance. From the or brack in a wall. iU-favouredly — in Jam. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. yell.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. is . to roar as the sea. AS. Cat. the sword was out break. turn. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. k.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. breuan. at braga eftir euium. resound . at once. fractus j Gr. as the voice of the ass. bragr. a rag f . and frangere. vapna-brak. Wal. to crash. rogi. braid. crash. rangere. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. Ppvxia. OE. to resemble. a brake for hemp or flax. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. Gr. father. brechen. The ON. Lat. to resemble. yell. braa. brikan. a . paxog. D. bregar. or cry out loudly . In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. to braid acquires the sense of bend. to braid. — — — explained motus loud noise. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. rattle.. &c. to knead. Goth. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. Breach. relation is seen between Lat.

to rattle (as hail). broza. brasiuiii. brdtschen. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . Hume in Jam. to fry . but more probably the E. w. The Breech (Prov. brisd. brusc. bruzun. simmering. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. It. Du. Piedm. burst. of straining. — . — Halma. To Brew. and E. dial. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. brijsen. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. forms analogous to E. from AS. clout for a child. brcekur j It. . Bret. braux. to fry Then from a Gl. Gl. of trees. Prov. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. Rom. G. G. Dev. singing bone. applied to shivering. Bruise. rubbish. fastening . forms. simmer. to brew. brisoler. briosat'. bruc. to bind. Compare OE. switch. coaldust. E. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. breme. braca. . braca. — See Broth. to buzz. briosa. a cold and windy mist or frost . Prov. Briss and buttons. OFr. brumtnen. to brew. Fr. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. See Brick. sheep's droppings bruss. Breeze. brok. Du. broil. bra. met de bridse slaan. bridsen. as commonly explained. braie. Originally probably the word signified steam. noise. trembling. Lat. briosa. brimsa. bandage or truss for a rupture. as the G. braguier. a twitch for a horse. scent. binding. to bray. siibligar. Breast. b}-as. to break. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. breost. broden. body brostia. or the blow itself. xyligogio castigare. corresponding to G. fitzen. Goth. braucn. G. a girdle. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. Brize. briiz. murmur. a gadfly. Piedm. britze. the soler. braciarc. braga. Du. brisciare. to whip. brosame. . of E. to feize or feaze. orts. then to broil. brustia. to breech.vare. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. G^nev. drawers. to simmer. and brought beneath between the legs. a cool wind. braia J OFr. grillare. de bridse geveii. brcEth. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. trusts. rubbish. an into shiver. also to chill and shiver with cold. to crackle. bris. malt. Fr. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. as in the case of twitter. Swiss AS. so AS. brijselen. breath. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. breinse. Lat. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. representing the sound of a blow. the bust. Gl. brodem. a to lay fly-flap. properly to crackle. an odour. brezling. bruise. a crum. — And blood. — . with It. Swiss Rom. the dry spines of furze broken off. Hence the Lat. Breeze. Bracha. remains of leaves. to roast. — — strument for smacking. brasser. to resound. chilly.'— Gl.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. Breeches. to hum. Breath. brinisa. i5r(Z^. may be from the wurh fesser. Isidore and Tatian./ssus. Fris.t. bracecs . breson. . breeze. to crush to break. QNtsterviald) pritschen. brache. a box. Biglotton. E. bark Fr. We bragezj on. griller. in Schilter. brciz. brist. brodel. grillen. Swiss brdtsch. einem de britze geven. &c. brezzare. a cramp-iron for holding things together. — Brist. G. fail. a smack. to shiver for cold. bruzir. one on the breech so that (klatschet). are in like manner ' . to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. . brimme. The Teutonic verbs. Du. So ON. little bits of wood Berri briser. zare. brison. Dtyden. as. AS. bratscher. bris. G. chillness or shivering. broiiwen. the breech or buttocks. as by the Sc. to be misty and cold. polenta. brasiare. braga. briig. sprouted corn.D. Gael. brezza. bre- I'os qui bresole. vapour. bresilles. bryi^ga. a crum Du. bremse.britschen. and other rubbish dibris. braies. brire. . brew. break. crush. AS. —Briss. their stings draw . bris de charbon.98 borst. Gael. Dan. braies. are related to Prov. brossi!. brise. de Vaud. as. cloven. grill. peitschen. Sw. windy withal. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. Russ. /esses. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. to smack. morsel. point to G. briste. Bret. to burst. braich. bragues. subligaculum. a horse's twitch. from brace. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. brugga. Breeze. from ligare. Fr. to murmur. murmur—Vocab. brissle. bretilles. brut.). malt. instead of being derived from 'La. PI.

to press. Brief. Thom. . owned also propriate. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. to boil. Rouchi brife. ap. gf2o. . . The origin of the word is the w. bruith. but to a paved road.Fr. E. a sow. sponsa. a crum. hlafes brice. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . breve or brevis. bricge j G. So It. Brier. Diez. in the sense of OSw. bably contracted from brigantine. brigantine. fastningar-ol. brocaly. imprint. as. ment of anything broken.. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . and ODu. bridge. Dan. bread.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. broken victuals. Lat. . a crum. graf-ol. Brigade. The Sw. Diefenbach com. Goth.pritil . jipaaaiii. bygga. berwi. from Bret. Fr. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. the newly. or brizo. Sp. . bruk. betonica. bryd-eale. Fr. a bride. company. a briole. w. bruarium. bryd-gutna. consort with. collect bits of food. a beggar. division of an army. briicke. ' . heath. Ducange. then the marriage itself. a quoit of stone. Cot. lipdZu}. groom (mab=:son). Mid. any jot or crum. of burial. . the marriage si in brigata. from Bridegroom. A — A — . A bribe is A — — arval. feast. Brique. masted vessel. appropriate. a heath brughera. bitill. to press in. a lump of bread. Bribe. bara briw.gfiugga. — . crew. the equivalent of to the dial. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. peculiar. brique de pain. Bridge. bruyere. betony brulicame. In the G.bergantino. fragment. bro is applied not only to a bridge. broken. to break. Gl. stone-bridge bnikkoti. ibrukkti. Hdcart. In E. boiling up brocoliere. to Isrew. brug. guma. and berweddu. to circulate. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. to brew. son. E.rough with brambles and bushes. malt. funeral. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. priod-ferch. buckler J ON. ter-in-law. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. to pave.privatus. barren land priodas. fraoch. birbone. brittil. Gael. . priod. bruskr and buskr. married. Brewis. Du. a little king's writs. a cheat. a man. brigata. . conjux. brasser. AS. brygga. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. It. brigade. to stamp. served (Patois de Bray). bro. malt. and that from It. Neumann. bo. In the patois of briccia. Pol. two-masted vessel. grug. especially to a letter or command. AS. brahi. a proprietor. httle bit. brieden. sugga. a bride Brig. bride. brar. broosekens. to meet together. AS. to tlie brico. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. Bridal. nurus G. OHG. a rogue. It. a married man guma. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. a lump of bread briber. birbante. the Fr. Gael. brood. Ihre. bribour. OSw. brice. AS. pavement brolegge. bruk. frayer. — — — — — — . arf-ol. bulicame. bretonica. AS. It — is Kil. brau. brilt. brukkas. piece of burnt clay. a wedding priod-fab. fervere. but probably Bricoteau. whence berw. Walach. to appropriate. — . feast of espousals. pier. briiths. E. Due. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. bidsel. bridelj OHG. Lang. to rub. a fragment. a brig or priodor. to beg one's bread. a married man or woman Lat. fit. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. E. broken bread. a lump of bread. buskins. briwo. Pro(merch=:maid). Flor. to pave brukkti. Fl. briw. as so. brakes of high-grown ferns. a heath. brutg. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. bricou. Applied ous words derived from break. bribe de pain.groom. troop. Brick. braut. to boil. beaten way Dan. is still used in this sense. remarkable that the Gr. So in The Prov. corresponding or letter. brere. G^n^v. Trovarfor bride-ale. See Broth. Bridle. brA. AS. Grisons bruch. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. BRIGADE dead. which however is undoubtedly from brace. W. bro. a bush. If the foregoing were not so clear. to prepare. it is applied to the letter to OE. from bit. a fragment. ' — . a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. jetty. thick appropriated. a bit. a boiling. with transposition of the r. berwedd. one's ovin. Priodi. Bridal. bride. pavement Lith. brughiera. to break to pieces bricalio. Fr. has briguer. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. Hence OE. pavement. . a Bride. to boil. from the last 99 of which. privus. twopares Lat. daughheath. a rogue . ON. would correspond in like manner to the Fr.It. from the Normans.

312. to bend a bow It. a glittering. Florio. to glamr. — Briganbriga. Gr. It. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. The primary meaning of Sp. a noise. at a later period. with respect either to sound or colour. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. and secondly. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . loo BRIGAND lor. wilella.— . etincelle. brebrigare. The E. brigan. manifest ON. braid. Brilliant. brigandare. See Brake. to cry. bracht. rixa. clear. brdgen. is easily understood. to sound. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. combat. in the first instance.dorem clarum reflecto. moment. riis ' — Chron. to rove. bright bearhtm. — brigante. Adelung. to reservavit. brigare. dine. tinnitum clarum movco. lay was sung. . to resound. In Fin. in the sense of a robber. dine. glir. representing a sudden noise.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. It. to rob.' torum. labour. glamm. clear sound. twinkling. bragen. cange has 'Veles. clang. brigant. noise. brcEhtin. malandrini. Due. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. to cry 'Schmid OE. that of Fr. — Due. rover either by sea or land. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. Flor. and. praht. Xa/iTTii). splcnornd de brigandine. a brigantine. to ring. tinnitus. on his — own account. Wilista. briegen. clear. glbram. to make a loud noise. tumult. Bav. the bench-notes resounded. Mid. and to associate with them.shine. Bright. bray. tion. outcry. tuilahtaa. — brigante. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. 1654. hell. Beorktode bene sweg. the gleeman's song. \oice. shriek with laughter. kii:'a. from hall. to shift for with care. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. inde squammatus. AS. Schmeller. . briga. XafXTTpoQ. — A A . in later times a robber or highway-man. then. bregar. brak. to glitter. there are many armour. Gall. schateren. and ner me hit iherde. a pirate. brawl. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries.glampa. himself to serve men of merit. glitter. and the E. briga. Brigata. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. show the origin of Lat. to piracy. willata. Swab. — Brigantine. seems to be to exert force gar el area. speech. OHG. In the same way to strive is. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. So G. Du. A. to contend with another. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. 1351. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. They or brigantini. the grew high. splendour. bryhtm. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. a sound. secondarily. and led it away. clangour. transparent. bairhts. A strepere.' The passage from the sense of a light. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. kilistua. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. also called briganders. jurgia. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. necessary business. sound. splendour. strife. — Beowulf. clare lucens.' in Due. to shine. to shine. — — .D.clare ^tinniens. Goth. glamra. clarus. Brigand. splendens .' The sense of strife or combat express. brigare. schiteren. Lat. may play the pirate or thief at sea. pugna. Heo — song That AS. squamma . The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag.pracht. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. tinkle. and hence be explained glampi. and diligence. It. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. From ON. clear. a spark. beorht.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force.Lat. — Probably then to strive. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. biartr. a small light pinnace pro. The Ir. It. to strive for. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . Owl and beorhtian. and. —Capgrave.

its vent in cries and roaring. a borDu. To Brim. Brem. A . that the original meaning of the Sc. to sparkle. barm. In the same way Sw. Supp. on. breziller. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. to wish or covet. rym^. the heat of animals. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. from bringe. the sow is brimming. The identity of ON. burning. greDiet. fringe . bramar. der. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. to shimmer. clangor tinniens. glisten. — . rugire (cervorum. a rod. brandr and Fr. to utter cries. — Rim.ioTiviS acutus. the lap or bosom. tience. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. bresoler (Gloss. to broil. brmdottr. brisoler. Lith. kimista. originally the lap folding over the breast. sparkle. komottaa. brumft. fire. broiled. ring. post. as in Langued. an apron. crackle. brand-krossottr. bramer. chime). grdzil. which seems identical with rim. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. and corresponding to these. grullo. Brimstone. rugire. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. Thus Lat. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. to creak. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. brullo. to quaver with the voice.' Elyot in Way. glit. and 1. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. to glitter distance . strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. bramar. a long. Dan. Tresiller. brim Magy. identical with passion. to resound. to make a crackling noise. crackle . voux. brame. reecho. broil . brant. fringe (Lat. brommen. In Fr. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. Tutschek. FJ. sonitum edere bremen. grisser. vigorHal. brame. frequently interchange. to crackle. to parch. Fl. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. bry7ie. 754. the eye-brow. excited. as is the case also with Pl. brimmen. Sc. griller. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. fimbria) . Subo. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. to glitter. Streaked. to shine. — — — . leonum). to storm. to sound deep or hollow. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. noise made by meat in broiling. brinfire. ON. (poet. ous. brummen. bar.— BRIM .) brimi. Fr. ardere desiderio. earnestly . brunft. Sc. lap of a garment . border. dial. Swiss Rom. to long for a thing. striped or streaked. the meaning is transL' amour. kajata. AS. brissle. kiimottaa. ON. lip of a vessel. from brandr. vattubryn. to fret . greedily to covet Cot. 154. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. of the eye. to crackle. Rayn. beam. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. Prov. barmr. perent. cross-barred in colour. barm-cloth or barmskin. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. brow of a hill. sprainged. brennistein. to twinkle. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. small gravel. Kil. the verbs Flor. Du. to creak. — g. kimmaltaa. have then in Fr. finds the Fr. to shine. — — So Fr. brastlian. brillare. shine. furious. breziller. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. komista. the heat of animals. margin. breme. 1.). is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). bremmen. Dief. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. edge Pol. brdnnsten. griller d'impatience. briller. Sw. It. Said of swine when in heat. .— Brinded. breme. as of meat in broiling . as well as bl and gl. is used of raging. to make bilbil). border. Rugere. the edge. gresiller. G. Brim. briller (related to each other as OFr. burning stone. The expression is now confined to the sow. to burn. brim. bray as an ass bramire. a border. rut. : ' — bone). to . hence the bosom. It. also to reflect. s. Langtoft. pMiller. AS. fierce. . brama. os qui bresole. surface of the ocean. Hence with an initial s. s. kimina. brezil. griller). ling noise and a sparkling light. the singing of Sodom — — . to shake. kommata. ON. with an initial br instead of gr.preni. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. a streak. to roar. Closely connected is OE. brummen : de soge brummet. parched.' d'etre marie . bremmen. coloured in stripes.D. gresiller. It. . spraing. bryn. a stick. lap. whence bilbil-goda (literally. 1 1 64. Wtb. bramire. bremas. whether of desire or anger. to shine. to glitter . grisler. The meaning of the Fr. E. to roar. Brindled. border. briller. or violent action. The E. ter.

). stitch. a button broche. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. brioshko. Gl. e. — in Due. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. a rod or twig. rash. humorous. brusco. to goad. and hence. Liquamen vel garum. a belly. It. . craw of a bird.. — bryme. harsh vin brusque. ' . In the N. is to erect the hair. It. thick — A elastic hair. borzos (struppig). bristly . bros. a deluge. . the surf. bricho (with the diminutives. Sw. trembling. wine of a sharp. bresk. fiscbryne. brindelles de balai. startling. emotions which produce it. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. whence may be explained the Sc. Brisket. sour. brocar. borzen. of E. brickie. to thrust. a morsel. Breeze been connected with the Sc. The Pl. brim (poet. fantas'* tical. bryne. a crum. Fr. Port. birssy.g. Brym. brim. See To Brim. and. breidr. Bohem. ON. bringe. brodden. Brickie. brocciare. lively. brandello. brezza. roar of the sea saltr. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. rebursiis.'— Vita'abbatum S. bruckle. a fragment. Walach. flame. Fr. brisk in taste. or the full • . to be compared with the cold bleak day It. brittle. Alfr. to put one in a rage . a brad or tack. as unripe fruits. as. brust. See Spread. brot. to broil. brusk. rude. fragile. to turn up the point of anything. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. from break. sharp. grim. Compare also E. Brooch. brich. to break. expression. Zeuss. very salt brimi. crabbed. to spit. Prov. strong itself. aculeus. to stitch. Swiss to stand out . fierce. to burn. and forms on. spricka. from brande. broccare. NE. britar. birse. sticking up . See Brand. briser. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. a stitch brocher. to set up one's birse. brocco. borst. Salte sand is called brimsand. as a noun. to break. Brine. . to stab Gael.' Nat. to crack. brichet. i. bros. chest. a stormy brimsea . Fr. to roar. brockle. brissle. Brocade. brin. broca. spur. a cold and windy mist or frost. Dan. of astonishment. . to spur. form bris. broccata. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod.rcendij'i. /3pE^m. to spur. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. brocher. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. and Sc. breaking out into growth. to break. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. Bret. briota. sprout. briocho. a skewer. a clasp. a projecting tooth It. like the Broad. Du. Then as the effect of shivering. brog. bryde. byrst. Sp. man's throat. It. to scorch. a peg sbrocco. 222. reburrus. against the grain . Fr. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. brimhliod. broche. Lat. sprocco. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. brijn (Kil. a bud. bronchus. prick with Sw. britchet. setting the hair on end. setting the hair on end compare It. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. to broach a business. is called a birssy day. to shoot. sprouts. Gr. rebrousser. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. G. a morsel . brcit. the surf. broca. brime. Prov. Brittle. a bit . ribrezzoso. smart taste. Berri. to begin upon it. Bristle. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. to shiver for Sold or for fear. the brisket or . bruskett. It. brezzare. to birstle. apt to break. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). Cot. brote. a rebours. Formerly written brotil. an awl. as. metaphorically. brissko). ' breast. Fr. from AS. flames. borstel.. coli. has under It. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. cK) the . p. saulmeure.procio.D. bringue. Hence ribrezzare. Da.Lat. brusque. Commonly explained as from Fr. Ptg. Fris. — . breaking of the waves brim sior. Boh. braidsj ON. brisciare. brytan. Pectusculum. b. eager. breast. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. a spit. Du. Palsgr. suddenly angry. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. a slip or sprig of an herb . brocco. brittle. broc. brocchus. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. shoot. brimme. 'V^. . a shoot or sprig. . Mid. Prov. Hal. or — . angry. Sc. birsle. birstle. ruffling. Bret. are used in the sense of brittle. Russ. Sc. Brisk. Fr. to set it a going. bruched (Fr. brddj Goth. hot-tempered. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. Russ. briota. britar.). a bud. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. — A . to stick. the twigs of a besom. bringe traced through the brano. to bud. Antiq. a brooch. birs. quick. Abroacli. as. — — . brim.

B. to instigate. a fallingThe sense has been out. broc. noisy. ToBroider. sting. onbryrdan. fundamental origin. a border ornamented with gold. brasbrasciuolare. speckled. to stud broccoso. with Sc. here. a freckle. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. Thus brod. storms. grislement. froco. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). and w. to On the other hand the Sp. a brouhaha. broice. b?-od. broil. parch. to crackle as a shell in the fire. to broil. — Fl. creak. to prick. parched. trouble. Gael. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. to burn. point to an origin in Bret. Sc. Fr. freckled. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne.. — Gower in It. brucilare. briz. houx. To roast upon hot coals. trouble. speckled. or salted fish on coals. of pointing out their latent defects. broccuto. shuffle. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. — brissle. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. motes. q. — . braird. borprick. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. to spur. E. brod. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. a mole. parti-coloured. — — . But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. a border. Ihre has guU-bord. grullo. Broker. brullare. Florio. tori shows that. or glowing coals broged. It of br the Fr. Cot. Contracted from Fr. brizen. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. Ptg. thread. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. W. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. frecSee Brawl. a quarrel. from the white. Surrey in R. scorch. Bret. frocadura. a brecJi. brusuole. brych. badger . piebald . bordar. brodio. a To Broil. 103 embroidered. It. A badger. brustle. broud. spots. margin. brooked. knobby . AS. a badger. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. — The proper sense is that of Fr. and bord or bred. bmsciare. or It. brasuole. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. prod. embroidering. hurly-burlies. ornamented with a raised pile. embroidery. to crackle. to crackle. a point. brasiller.— B. Fr. sparks E. to burn. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. to embroider. ciare. the shoot of corn. tumult broighleach. spotted. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. gresiller. brouda. brindled. breard.. precisely analogous to the Sc. broiled. a flock or Gael. Hal. The Bret. carbonado. to darn. broglio. brychau. a freckle. and AS. border ornamented with silk. Gael. From direct imitation of Brock. broukit.sound.tumultuous. bruler. brusler. prasseln. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. the line of development has been something different. to streaked or speckled in the face. Fr. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. to boss. Compare G. broil. to crackle. agree in being the extremity of a thing. brastlian. So from Pol. briefh. gold and silver. hart of two years old. a flake of snow sion. bj'oil. bram. or roast on the braise. blusters. whence broccare. confound. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. A fried or boiled steaks). broc. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. birsle. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. atoms . v. to knots or loops. Sp. rinj'. a peg. tufted ornaments. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . a confused streaked face of the animal. brocach. Compare also AS. bramowanie. brasiller. . It. or snag. initial . broccato was used to signify stuff . In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. brasolare. Here to ornament with needle-work. broighlich. noise. to embroider. border. Brocket. Icnotty. has grisser. forming to jumble. rustle. a brim. a prick. a b?-ustolare. bordo. to crackle. broder. Dan. brocart. brocco. age was termed a pricket. to scorch. dar seems derived from borde. stump. an edge. streaked. kled breac. bawling. brouFr. Grisons brascla. Sc. parti-coloured. . silkes-borda. The ON. Cot. brerd. brucach. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. R. bustling. to parch or broil.

D. damaged. racher. and fishes . Abbronzare. Bronze. or brascla. inspect. filth. faulty. i. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. On • tliis principle the G. pan metal. vrage. cast Lith. brunds. vile. wrack-good. It may be compared with It. to sort brakovanie. a cough Hal. Alb. Pl. stain. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. an operation performed over hot coals. Grisons brinzla. an . Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage.— Lib. Alb. and as an adj. to reject. G. Du. keep warm. in the sense of rejection. Sc. brokers' goods. bronzo. mediationem quorundam J. wraken. embers. slaae vrag paa. brasa. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. brid. to pick and choose. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. bracker. to be hot. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. refuse Fr. brut. 396. phlegm. Jam. analogous to Bohem. a chicken. whnake. w. abject. abbronzanchiare. brieden. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. refuse brakovat. find fault with. S. try out. bronze. This word shows the same relation to It. sbrinzlar. Pl. — broeden. find fault with. from makel. wrak. racaille. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. brackefi. to roast on the embers. inspection. hot. to garble. rejected. Bronzare. to be wanting. try . has exactly the force of G. dial. to sparkle. a fault. a broker. to sort goods . insects. brwd. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. mud. whence the modern courtier. Pl. — point out the faults. brass does to Sp. sunburnt. For the same reason the Kiittner. Lat. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. Russ. progeny of birds. tussis. and to reject the damaged and unsound.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. ordure. designation is indkler. raca. bronze. Kil. spittle.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. : ' . Tooke's Catherine. brokoti. refuse brakowad. braken. glowing coals. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. as. • . bric-a-brac. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. merchandises de rebut G. couratier. a brood . hrak. brydio. sort. to sit on eggs. fermenting. goods damaged by sea-water. an outcast or rejected sheep. to — garble. hraki. Sp. burning. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. criticise (makeln). of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned.D. See Brackish. the young of any animal . broen. Dan. embers. warm. on.— — . Per manus et old worthless horse. brakyne. hot. cherish. bridde. raquer. to criticise. to throw blame upon. to spit . but from the primary sense of the It. fault censure. To correct an exercise is to Lib. which E. G. matter of blame weak place. refuse goods. the spawn of fishes. brod. nounce unsound. brae. See Wreak. correctarius. 38. brumo. to copper. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. bring eggs and spawn into active life. brak. refuse. In the . brack-gut. Bret. OFr.D. bronce. Teutonic class : Du. to braze. Pro v. . To blame mens ware. ON. et A. . . Prov. . vile. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. from break. Fl. bredan. Du. brod. reject. . to hatch G. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. spittle . buy and sell by commission. briiten. G. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. selection. brack. brasa. Adelung. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. wreak. braeck goed. brot. brack-gut (Sanders). brak. brechen. to hatch. find fault — — — fuse matter. bronze. to brew. refuse wares. term was correcfo^ir. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. to pro- to reject . to blame. make out. See Broth. broiid. e. The use sunburn. — . ODu. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. a breach or flaw. a makeln. trumpery. to pick. — Fl. with.D. screatio Junfus . If to vomit . embers to brund. In those countries the term braker.— Breed. refuse. . to emit sparks. fish-spawn broden. cracker. tan. want. brokas. to hatch. It. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. to . damaged. blur. — a spark. Brood. brands. The Langued. to scorch. corrector. in which sense the OHG. lack. to nourish. rejection Pol. dirty. Fr.

infusion. broden. shore . a hut or cottage It. noise. sordes seu strigmata young branch. brushbroccoli..D. brushbrothas) gives the OE. Pl. . broieii. brad. Commonly Teutonic. brouskaol. Wtb. — exiit et heath. breg. riviere. perhaps burnt coloilr. brow of a hill. surDu. Kil. dialects is very different. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. But the Walach. sense the Sc. Bohem. Bav. brothas. brabruach. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. broccola. sap. 'Lzt. bank. It. brun. brd. who is steaming with sweat. cia. brdtaj Gael. To digest. broeye. to Pl. brewis. brusmalt. heat. brost. circuindedit cum familia.' Due. brov. bordeau. bor. brouic. frater. infusion the barley bree. a little house or cottage of timber. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. to burn. eminence . The meaning of the word brook in the low G. (for brodem). t— Cot. as Fr. verge. edge. and Slavonic families. borda. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . brocco. Prov. brotar. braussa. a sprout. surface of Broth. grow brossa.— Overyssel Almanack. the colour of things burnt. shore. eye-brow. and also border. Serv. sprocco. Catalan brossa. . bryn. brosses. grow into a bush. Du. the bubbling or springing up of water. brodo. Roquef. brstiti. pfriemkraut. brukjan. brouser. hot. brwd. steam from heated bodies. a hill. a sprig. to roar. riviera. rage. Sc. low The AS. hovel. spuma. bruich. broth Brown. frucius. or shoot. Fr. — ' . &c. . bank. brmi. of which the variety of forms. to boil bruithe. eat. juniper. to boil. bree. chen. Sanscr. thicket. buds. to browse. bros.) . wood . shoots. a bruth. forms appear related to the Ir. brouter. to spring . broc. Manx broie. to use bruks. bros. may be connected with Russ. &c. Browse. bntdien. It. shrub with leafless pointed edging. . from ripa. Fr. bregh. to boil. brpuster. briu. waves. broud. . OHG. a shore. . heath. Russ. seethe. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. to use. . Bret. to shoot. Gael. or bushes and scrubby growths. brouches. boiled . brouet. ceales briw. thairj w. Prov. kail brose. bruscosd quam de arabili. bruno. heat explaining the Prov. bank. sprout. AS. iVlanx broogh. fabric consists. Ger. properly boiling water briihen. broth. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. eye-brow. Fr. 105 Brook. bruithim. Limousin broudi. briar. mettle. simmer from the murmuring AS. eye-brow. rerum decoctarum. &c. augen-braune. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. The origin is a re. a little . breg. sprot. to bubble up with noise. bruddeln. Here we find throughout the Romance. vigour. broth. margin. brogues. braun. strength Ir. brew . It. and Sc. Dan.brons. strength. brotar. Gr. Du. brau. bank. bryii. Pol. browys. Brothel. a spring. in which brinnan. house of ill fame. warmth ch'an. a bud brous-koad. G. Sp. brost. edge. Lat. . A — . awl-plant. a source Gael. broo. brosses. sproc. . eye-lid. protecting the eye. See Bramble. brawdj Slavon. broi. and It. Bohem. a hill. Celtic. broth the ocean Sw. OFr. bruitheati. brio. bruth. b7-un. to scald. The softening down of the consonant bud. a river. brow. to boil. breg. brosst. bruach. Brow. braew. broem bark. to murmur. shrubs. bhratrj Zend. . a . of plants broust.spross. brous. to browse. heath. eye-brow. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. Gael. BROOK brook w. . frui. thick bush brousta. brudi. ale . Ppim. a confused noise of winds. brodem. vigour. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. branches. brauwe. was originally used in the innocent sense of . Fr. sprouts .D. G. pour boiling water over. Mid. cabbage water. brink. bruith. sprout. broth brothaire. from Goth. G. break out brewet. border. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. w. brue . Fr. a bud. shoot. bruceti. . Gris. broza. AS. . as rhododendrons. It is Brother. pith. signifying twigs. to border. brlgh. as small-pox. broth is sometimes used . brus. face. w. bushes. sodden. juice of meat. braces. plants composed of twigs. brennen. fur Broom. juice of briars. signifying low wet land (Brem. G. a shrub broust. eye-lash . — ." Serv. bryn. to bear patiently. The AS. enjoy Goth. on. bud. briihe. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. on. Sp. broca. bruich. Gael. brass. Due. Gael. has briw. Bret. brucan. spirit. hut. . borde. eye-lid. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. Tam de terrS. pottage. . a caldron. — . a derived from the boards. G. OHG. brozia. to use. cabbage soup . bratrj Lat. bordel. breh. or broken up . to sprout. &c. meal. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. Cot. bruc. broit.braubiti.brink. laissent Domunculum. dumetum. Bohem. brst. . Russ. useful G.

bruis (sing. and sighid therewithal. bruskr. bris. quasi twigs. brik. AS. shoot brouskoad. Sw.— Palsgr. broza. to crush. a rumbling. into a multitude of points. Pr. and in the second place a besoiB. brosst. it schall be al Sw. In E. rubbish. brosse. a brush . Pm. crum bit . The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. Diez. brous. sordes. brisar. bruit. Bret. orts. bris. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. a brush. fescue . tuft of grass or hay.). bruc. Fr. modification of the same root which gives the E. irruo. brusg. bruzir. K. brista) or breaking out . . To brush then would be to dust. insultus. brustid. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. B?-usske. brushwood. Brush. Palsgr. . shivers. 174. heath. chips. Hall in R. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. to break. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. rods. brMt. rubbish. tremely. twig. flax-comb brossettes. borste. Gael. or sodenly comyn' dust. or shoot. 201. blow burcar. bush. . twig. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters.— — i. broken. Cot. brugir. a little brizal. to butt. brico or brizo. borste. brit. brise. Fr. — a bush. a brush Swiss bruske. E. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. abroncar. brusc (Diet. remnants of hay or fodder. broust. brusco. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. a briser. Gael. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. fragments. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. . broza. brosse. fasx . but on whom it schall to brisen him. bruscolo. to strike the foot against an obstacle. brizeto. Fr. brust. Fr. borste. detergere . splinters. a shrub composed of small twigs . Lang. briiis (in the pi. ling or heath for brushes. bricalio. an enmy. brossar. to stumble. to break to bits . Prov. —Chaucer. brosst. Sp. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. escousse. —Fabyan. burt. Cot. G. brossa. Pr. Wicliff. . Lang. Alexander. E. brunt. briser. borst. p. biirste.).! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. 134. brossa. and It. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. and . brottcher. bris. mg Cat. Allit. wool-card. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. appearin Goth. . brist j Port. brousso. Broach. Pr. — OE. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. also a head-brush. See next article. brist. Sw. NE. Bav. bruiser. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. brustia. brist. — Fr. borste. It. quisquilise. wool-card. a brush. rubbish. Beryn. brusca. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. a flax comb. It. burs. to break. brus. brist. crush. wool-card. break. and Piedm. to brush. Gael. of twigs. bruscolo. And that best is. a — — (Agea) said.). and also Brush. seems named from burst(on. britar. bruscia. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. The same relation holds good between G. bruise exOFr. to break or burst. * Brunt. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. brous. Fr. Castr. dust. desbrisar. a bud. Text Soc. Piedm. dust. a bristle. . ca7-bo>i. brikan. a blow. bruito. dust. A. briketo. On the other hand. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. brisd. to make brusshes on. brysan. brusca. a mote. Pm. biirste. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . dust. broustia. Gael. The Lat. field. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. bris. a noise. effort. insilio. Bruise. to cleanse. brusco. as It. G. — those signifying a sprig. a bud or sprout Bret. Poems. a brush . Prov. bud. OE. a tuft of heath . The Bav. a brush. ON. a bush of hair. a brush . and actually come in collision. Brunt. E. bross. bruyere. That in all haste he wouli. wood composed OE. borste. Piedm. bushy ground. a bristle. Prov. Brunt of a daunger. a brush . Fl. bruire. brustia. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. Bruit. Pr. shock. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. to make a rumbling. a horse-brush. It. coal See Breeze. Prov. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. Port. britar. a crum. bross. OFr.

bugada. faire la lessive. bugd.byka. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. bokni. a bubble. when soap was tion is commonly taken. tuft. to a place used for the mouillir. mieknad. pokka7na. Etym. boil animals. it is beuchen. the upper for coifee. See Dupe. to soften. to butt. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. This bubette. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. to bump as a bittern. as a buck rabbit. a hole. boucaner. a steep for flax. soft. lye. wood. to bubble. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. who resorted to the islands beichen. . News. a fescue. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. Fr. and as a verb. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. also applied Una. The place of such a 2. pup. to soak. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. soft . bucquer. buerj It. thunder gently . watery bud. mollire. as G. to wet Pol. mote. tender. hog dressed whole). a push. Magy. to soak foul linen before washing. to butt or jurr Dan. designation of a knob. bub. Bohem. bifbel. The cipally on the Spaniards. to Gael.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. bube. bouc.tare. byge. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. boc. blast or strike with the forehead. and then to other wild tumour Lith. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. — . either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. very generally designated by the same puk. — — ' A : ' ' . Dan. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. was called in Fr. at a door. colada. or mok.D. Formerly. — . a ashes. It. bwch. buborek. bub. to soften. says Laudon. bubbola. to buck. . But see Bristle. . They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. Bohem. bog-aske. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. Bret. is 1. Sp. The natives of Florida. drying of produce. Pol. . bubseti. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. 1857. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. does not hold. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . from weich. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. The male goat. lye. bublati. bucking. erweichen.' Palsgr. to filter.derivation has been much discussed. From an imita. de la Floride. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. The word was very generally Buccanier. . rap. Pref A. moist. w. to butt. buck-ashes. set of pirates in the spread. Bubble.to allow a free current of air. bucaIndies. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce.buchen. bubauti. caned' Hence those who established them. It. a knock word. mokry. . boh. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. soft. bukke. soft It. March 28. was called bucking the linen. bduclien. open lath-work. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. because bucare does not in Marsh). to soak.— . tap . to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. Fr. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. of wind. knock. . hump. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). and uninhabited places in the West Dan. buchen. and Fr. In G. Diet. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. to soften . tender. the first wheal. or projecTo Buck. Gael. bubiti. A . a. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. pukkata. to strain. Fin. moczyd. w. bubBuck.boukaat. maban and baban. to which in their language they call bou. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. blister. the lower soak in lye. Esthon. in which the flesh dish. buck-ashes. different form. boc. buquer. bucata. Illust. BUBBLE bruschetta.wet Lat. I. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners.lessiver. plied in the W. Pol. ac. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. hump. bouk. 17th century. a. and the bunch. Cot. a to the male deer. and exercised their cruelties prin. top. not so plentiful a commodity. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. Magy. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. soft. The name. The term bocan is still ap. It. the linen at buck. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. to murmur. Sc. a bubble . tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. molle. to stick. buquer. .biiken j Svi. from colar. a bubble. Fr. Sp. 1586.-wtt miekki. Bret.steep or soak.

a servant. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. call. motus creber. bouge. Fr. don't stir from hence. with let. a navel. To thrusting part of a long body. . to un bout d'homme. * Bud. Du.— . pwtio. bedde. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. put.' Boccaccio. Russ. bug. boucler. Cot. water message. rabodS. ' . of a surface. having a boss. case of leather . to pen cattle. call. a fold ceilio. Fr. mani. swelling. agreeing with Gael. bul. Sw. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. bogla. boss. the word w ' — . like a bean. boaLat. were To Budge. Buckler. . probably from the notion of bubbling. bouljein. bog and G.stumpy man. to butt. built. bod. become bochen.. fur. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. . where the G. of bouge. bo. bub.) as to soak. a boy.' Hal. butzen K. Bav. from Gr.n. the radical image seems to be a set plants. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. Hence quel. The knob or projection formN. and weichen. don't a baby). stud.chissima.. sboge. a small shallow and open tub. belonging to the calling of the chen. Fr.' And this sacrament bus have dial. bucherame. with a central boss. a budget. a shield. pote. A water-plant with leaves and gille. to boss or swell out G. a bud. jSouKoXiKog. pulga. a tuft. a budget. Du. bod. a short thick man. butze. stroke. boiling. See Bulk. Buck-bean. ' . a ring. Lat. . and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. gjeit-klauv. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. brobrocchiere. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. Bus. cattle. It. bukke-blad. weichen. NE. boucle. It termination is lost. boglyn. and of the Lat. a pail or flowers. call bo. a stump buckle up. The Fr. bocla. pulga. ornamental stud. bunch. Bret. of bac. potz. II I'a feru desor I'escu. thrust. Pied. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. Mid. turgere buczendig. inboachen. bulais daqui. ON. Dan. bloquier. bucket Fl. bdden. a trough).goa.). prick in a target. as in Fr. — . is doubtless fallacious. . or male of to boil .pode. need. Wtb. The dressed fur of lambs. to swell. skins pushit'. bullion. a curl. soft. boss of a shield. Bret. It. bugnir. a shoot. weich. Bav. Fr. with which it was ornamented. seen in Hesse botz. imbuere. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. ble. dim. Prov. boulj. bolgia. A buckle or fastening for botch. butzen. K. and the reference to It. a buclder or shield budge. from bo. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. w. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. butz. no wheel bogeilio. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. bolgetta. This expression boglire. above mentioned. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. to stir. blow. . weich. Prov. butzen. lump. a wallet. boucle. . bouger. — — . It. The word is a ddyn. bouter. a cowherd. Swab. stir. protuberance. w. child. bulb. wallet. a boss. a pustule bout. the root of the Slavonic words gran. to bud or bocla. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. macero. botzen. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. to word. to thrust.r//'. — . to 'soak. Pol. a bubble three thyngis. Budget.may probably be explained by N. set of a plant in bulk. butt . budge. bloca. bulka. from bugr.stuff. boach. crack. bucolicus. bouk is a pail and with the dim.. clump. scion. Sp. rump of fowls . knob dwfr yn boglynu. a boss. boqueranmis. It. Behoves.t-le!L{ * Bud.anything short of its kind. a little coffer or turgidus. great pouch.' Schm. In Lat. no business to do that. to budge. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. Budge. . bump. . in the beginning of to pierce holes. a dumpy gin. Bucolic. Hardly identical with Fr. words is converted into b. to move. excrescence. — — .pastoral nations of Slavonic race. loud Cot. OHG. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. bulga. a leathern sack. a buckle or protuberance. bollire. OFr. ' . boucle. Mid. Gael. goat's hoof. knob .Lat. knock. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. bucherare. trunk of wood covered with leather. also a leather tuft . boccula. buckel. pwt o Fr.) . butzen (Du. bougette. bulla. . material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. G. dinted. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. bouclier. * Bucket./a. to line with fur. ein. bouprobably identical with inok. bougette. Fr. is to shrivel up. * Buckle. botzen. whom it is still much in use. dint . W. bode. Prov. The entire train of thought is bucket. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. Dan. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. boucaran. to boil. swelling. Port. male or botzen. push forwards. to graft or bud trees. clasp of a book. bud butzen. a .poot. a bump. to poke. bunch . buachazlle. So on. noise . bouton. Fr. bloca. explaining Fr. hump. convexity. Fr.

to rePl. bau ! children. Cot. a puff. buffet. buff leather. — retailing buffeter buffetier. human. a bugbear. tastes. to give a as of a blow. to signify an indefinite object of terror. and in Fr. mingled with water. a cuff or buffet. buivol. Fr. wauwau. or wild ox. — thence it has been transferred in E. baubau. to bellow . to a representation of his voice. Fr. to puff. also the skin or heck of a buffe. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . Bufetarium. ' They rether puffed at him. to blow . A blow. bobaow. popo. from souffler. a goblin). bufHe. bauwi. een duffen toon. buffen. either alone or with various terminations. as from Lith. Buff. such as that conjured up by children in the dark.' perfield. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. From bulga. air. — La Crusca. A puff with — Fl. buffare. From buff! of terror. . have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. Cot. — Z. a buffle or a bugle. made to —Bugbear. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. breath. bwg. Thus buffet would a tapster. —Boggart. bolgetta. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. It. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. buffeteur. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. by metaphor. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. W. blurt or puff with one's mouth. Buff. bumann. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. Buffeter. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. to give benti. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror.D. to beat. bouffer. to puff. dial. bubaRuss. sounds. A — Bug. buffle. from It. duff^ dull. often covering his E.— Buflae. stupid. botffon. Swiss baui. deadened. buffle-headed.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. &c. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. him but Boyd iugges. buffalo. le reste emplissant d'eau. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. buffet. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. Teet-bo. buffetto. as wine that hath taken wind. buffet. puff. to blow. Lat. things in Jam. also a G. Mid. Fr. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. a hobgoblin. Lat. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. It. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. a skin. for this purpose is very widely spread. senses. Esthon. confused. bufogni. Gael. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. boman. a jester. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. yar^aa. w. boo. buffare. E. Buffalo. Hence the E. bw! It. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. — Bogle. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. a dull BUG From 109 — A . dull sound. Romola. mumming. wine may The verb in taverns. bubus. to strike face to represent the unknown. thus be translated to tap. the buffe. It. to jest or sport. bugle. Pl. bukow Ikow. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table.—Buffet. Sc. bubiti. to excite terror in Macleod. of colours. btifetarius.' La Crusca. Fl. — — — Buffet. smells . a clap. a In . leathern bucket. dausinti.D. bw. 265. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. as Diez remarks. God's boast seemed feare children. buffets. while in Sp. Buffoon. Sc. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. dausa. as emblematically making light of an object. buffer. caupo. a side-board. tabernarius. bugbear. rebuff.D. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . The children were playing in an oppocomer. bo ! an interj. pulse . to marre often tasting it . scarecrow . The use of the exclamation children. bubach. bugs. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. to frighten . Lith. colour. G. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. to blow souffleU. Fr. a hollow sound. Pl. Lith. made by a person. Limousin bobal. buMagy. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. It. the place whence the wine was drawn. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. a budget. often blown upon. or hath been Cot. site The two — — iii. word other cases. bouffer. buffa. bufogni. a block-headed noddy. cuff . bolgia. Magy. Fr. soufflet. The cry made to excite terror is then used.

bold.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. buggabod). . Bug as a lord. a goblin. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. a boogg. w. tion of the beetle tribe. swollen. a silk-worm. insect. : no BUG . Lett. Stalder bog. E. and bugle. a bugbear for children. a buffalo. vermin. long. BUGLE Tentennino. great or bug words. bugler. 1551. is very common. boa-peep. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. Swiss booggen. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. especially to beetles or winged insects. the black a maggot. . The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. mask ' . thus connected with bug. the word is lin) bbgge. Illyr. Magy. iv. a beetle.loud noise. superbire. Chaucer. with more or less modification represents bau. bauginti. to roar Aasen. Russ. a proud overbearing man pujat'. Sw. boo. a bug-bear. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. Bogge. fierce. Lap. — . to frighten scarecrow. paws the ground . scarecrow . pujalo. — boogg. Hence bugle-horn. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. bbgni. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. Big. Fl. The name of bug is — . and a boggarty ing. Grose. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. bucula. bwgwl. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. Deut. to take fright. provincially an insect. bwgar. bogk. coco. insect. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. ghost. fette. bukashka. fear. Bug. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. bok. worm.— . bug-bear. An ornament of female dress condread. The w. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. bug-bear. buffle. also a bug-bear. Swiss ing. baco. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. given in Chaucer. an insect. used in the same sense. bau (Pureiglia. bogk. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. affright. Bugle. proud. rose-bug. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. 2. Mundart. Mid. It.3uhtii&:. Cheval de trombugti. to take fright. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. buculus. bugbear. terrifying ward. Fl. oxen. to creeping things. a rabme. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. Same as buffle. bogil. Magy. bugar. W. i. quos what produces dread or disgust. * 2. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. as Buffalo. bobal. to origin in the expression bugs words. — — . — — terror. also a baco-baco. and is Deutsch. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. and in child's Magy. dial. Manx boa. biignt. larva (a bug-bear. xiv. — — ' . or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. Lith. roo. high. Grisons bau. earwig bau da grascha. booggen. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. well as the terrific object. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. See The name terror). Lesachthal. blustering. to take bug. of bugabo was given. banian boube. beugler. bogle. pugaf. poggl. 493. Schmidt. any disgusting animal. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . il brutto Demonio. Swelling. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. bukati. The final guttural of W. and in Lat. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. an object of terror. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. bug. threatening. (Spurrell). Parolone.. big. Sp.Lat. boeuf sauvage. troll. also a bug-bear.Fr. 3. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. b'dgni. the Devil. a bug-bear.. bug-bear. bwg and E. I. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. saucy. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. bug dung-beetle. threatening. as an object of dread. forSc. of pipes sewn on. buba. to bellow. protuberant. . A similar applica. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. monster. then a horn for drinking. tumble-bug. bugle. Serv. Bible. disgust. to bellow. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. Hal. roarHal. a misshapen person. hert. bogil bo (e. shepe and gootes. the buggaboo w. a. It. . is the dim. language any kind of insect. according to Coles. Bdronie. high-sounding words. gad. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. pugalo.

as well as is very variable. Lat. trunk. G. tumeo. in Sc. hold or bilge of a ship. to bubble up Pol. It. bale. bol. Lat. bubble. belly. — — . The radical sense is shown in Russ. balco. bouk. . husk.' Fl. bulkaf. knot in thread. a globe. belly van de kerche. blister. beuck. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. blow. — . Muratori. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. ' . lump. Dan. blister. bulbe. Pm. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. as it was merly written in English to bylle. skin flayed whole. He found a country fellow dead drunk. the contents of the hold. Bulge. knob. bilge. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. hollow. compare Da. Bolke or hepe. domicilium. bubble {palgan tiisge. . boa.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. cumulus. bulked or bumped out. See how this tode bolneth. acervus. In the representation of natural sounds. OSw. tumidus. m um Placentiae. bulki. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. to throw out a convexity. w.pulks. bulgen. bauen. . Hal. to swell. boulge. swell. skin of an animal. . Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. ON. Sp. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. ' . a. a bunch. Bourser. bubble. or. to belly out. a tuberous or bulbous root . leather sack. bulgen. Ptg. Dan. . . body of an animal. pod ON. . of an inflated skin. bua. balg. G. swollen. bolgna. bolnyn. of E. — Bulb. Pr. the body Du. has bulbuk. MHG. and put it home. Bulk. . bolgia. crowd. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. hull of a ship. thorax buick. — . belgr.' Festus. a. to bol. lump. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. the capacity or burden of a ship. to break bulk. Palco. nave or body of the church van 't schip.— . turgeo bolnyd. were a habitation. the womb. jnake bulch. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. bulk is a partition of boards. bulk or capacity of anything. a round bulky body bwlgan. Hence e. bladder. bwlg. body. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). Lith. to gather.'— Cot. bellows builgean. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. a stage or scaffold. Melancholy. balcone. See Bulk. and N. formed a farm. Jno. pocket. anything prominent. to bubble up. cultivate. gebolgen. Gr. sedes. To Build. straight will he 2. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. bauch. A — ' — Bulk. belly. on. belly Sw. The Walach. biilken. bulbe. boss. bulne. swollen OE. Othello. — — . . For the latter sense ' — My . a water-bubble). bolle. bag. unevenness Sw. the head of an onion. ON. to puff up bolginn. a bubble Gael. projection. or feminine termination gives Bav. bulwis. boss of shield. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. bolgetta. The addition of a dim. the position of liquids in the word In English. Mandeville. chest. in vessel. . habitaculum.). bulka. a leather sack or budget Fr. bukr. it again. van loock. to raise a habitation. the potato G. pouch builgeadh. bulcke. belly. a leathern sack or portmanteau. swell. inhabit. Bulch. Lett. principal portion. stuffed bag. Here stand behind this bulk. puff. the belly. byli. OSw. body of a ship . bouge. dial. belly. a heap. a straw corn-vessel. bulle. a bulb Du. Lith. PoXj3a. Gr. trunk. a dint in a metal . balgs. G. boss. .' Cot. Pr. buk. belgja. swell. globule bolg-lhuingey. whence bylja. bunch or projection. Kil. bullka. pulkas. ball.' Palsgr. to swell. or cargo of a ship. ' . boss of a buckler. the carcase. to undo the cargo. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. . bugue. bubble. — — . knobby. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense.d. head . herd^ swarm pulkd. snorting on a bulk. bolle. (3oX|8oc. at riufa bulkann. Boss^. buhe. mass. bole. bulge or bilge. buc. villa. balg. knob. as water beginning to boil bolg. to spring. bug. ^ — . or of what is shaped like a bubble. Bav. Pm. bolg. bo. . A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. be protuberant. bulge or convex part of a cask. bol. a protuberance. pimple. See bollekeii next article. womb. bol. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. . . the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. From till. Mister. bolso. bulg. or bear out as a full purse. blister Manx bolg. With these must probably be classed ON. bolgan. and bulbukd. belly. a prominence. to build. to blow. skin bag. bulk. ne. 1388. mass. vulva. wallet. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. bed of a river. I. bubbling up. . a bubble. in bulk. a lump or mass. bulbus. .' Anat. trunk of the body. belly Cat.

which may probably be the origin of the name.lle de fusil. The final element tergeist. The male W. ba.. bwla. a tadpole . ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. as a mill-dam or the like. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. lumpish. thick. as geting. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. from baula. bulla. any great-headed or studded nail. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . is called a ball.Gr. Eullrusli. from Lat. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. bullus. G. Gael. bullern. blunt. It. pollach. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. and vellon in Sp. 3. dim. to emboss . bwlas. Du. boss. w. of Witchcr. whence Mod. bouillon. Fr. a seal. polten.. bole or trunk of a tree.D. brass-headed nail . And The word bullerbak. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. w. Lith. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. Terriculamentum. bullos. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. boulct. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water.'— ' Palsgr. bugbear. billoti in Fr. a beam or rafter. it is boulet de canon. The bullfrog. BulUiead. however. a hobgoblin. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. Pm. bolos Fr. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. hhint. a bowl. blister. a blockhead. to boil. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. and thence terror. bulloi. See Bowl. to seal. Bullace. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. bollar. b2iggaboo. the matrix or die . Bullet. Cot. G. a hobgoblin. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge.. /SouWivu. to bellow. — A tition in a ship. stud. boss or stud. baula. in the sense of base metal. eth and frighteth. bulke. witches. large of its kind. many to protuberant objects. Fr. from Fr. a bull Swiss bullen. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. Dan. &c. pwl. bellocier. a cow. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. a scare-bug. a noisy violent fellow. signifying roaring. bwbach. . bolli. bubble. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. poli-cheannan. The wild plum. is of a class with Pl. biitzibau. beams or boards. bollon. any embossed work. See Billet. the seal affixed to the document. stud. as in E. balgeting. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. also a parFl. Bullbeggar. a bul-begger. A lace tree. 2. sloes. i. large. stupid . buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. a seal. 2. child by the represents the hobgoblin. bouillon. Sp. of boule. urchens. as It. stamp. bulk of a thing. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. it may be observed that a bullet in E. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. Scot's Deso. a stud. bullocks.D. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. poltern. N. stamped money. bauli. A papal rescript. spirits. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. Bullfrog. a hornet. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. G. leraures nocturni nigri. coarse. a bulox polos. Bully. as the ornanails. from the use of the equivalent terms. of the ox kind. ON. It.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. tition of deals instead of a wall. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. bullebak. dial. but is more probably iden- palchetto. bollos de relieve. bulderen. bulle. penbwl. billon. poll-cheannach. boillon. This word is used in several senses. Du. W. bietebau. round glass phial. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. — Fl. bulk. a tadpole. a framework of balks. a bull..Fris. Bret. bolli. bulla. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. embossed work. also of the tadpole or young frog. assito. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. from the noise. in N. Gold or silver uncoined. scarecrow. bellow. — — Bull. bolla. from the Lat. I. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. whence bullire. pimple. G.' do not go by the dangerous water.D. lumpheaded . Du. to bubble. bal. to tical with Sw. BuUiou. a little fish nearly all head. a wasp. on the contrary. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. elves. Du. Pl.

&c. 2. to dun. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. G. 2. IV. The Stat. — Bumto . bodem. to make a droning Du. sound. 9 E. then in general a rampart. ON. — Boom. 4 Hen. G. on the other hand. G. 1305. For bottom. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. bulderen. droning. buller-bak. noise. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. Fris. buller-bas. III. blaterare. D. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. bolderen. — bombam?nen.. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. boene. a hectoring. From the notion of a humming. block-werck.' Again. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . ^Bully-rook. boulevard. 1687). up was termed monnaie de billon. bustle. provides. beat a — Hal. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. Etym. buene. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. violent. Bully-rock.D. a boisterous. To bully is to bluster. a blunderhead.' for the purpose of exchange. Fris.' reals of standard currency. c. Du. to . ground.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. c. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. A. legaggio di metallo. ierd-beame. — Bump. Sw. debacchari. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. 2. hum. boisterous fellow. Fr. scaffold. argentum and silver. Hence bom and ban. Thus ' ble. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. To Bum. or work of defence. It. Miege in Hal. 10. buller-jaan (bully. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. intonare. BULLY with which coins were stamped. 14. Kil. polterer. Bailey.' agger. resonare. and porter au billon. clamour. bommele. John). then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . The 27 Ed.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. bottom. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. Bum-bailiff. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. IIL st. to drum Lat. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. AS. provides. a bumble-. is called bumping or bells. a noisy blustering fellow. Bully. vallum. propugnaculum. minari verbulderen. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. The Sw. The decried coin. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. a stage. a floor. primarily the ramparts of a town. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. ierd-boeyme. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. bombilare. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. a. Du. botm.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. baluarte. Hal. Hence — . buller-brook. Kil. un faux brave. To bum. — — plate d'argent. violent overbearing person. to terrify by noise and clamour.' ' mettre au billon. 'lega. honunele. Kiittner. Bum. bol-werck. poltem. agrees with e. bottn. from boden. the soil. The cry of the bittern. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. bastion. Philip le Bel in Due. c. bomtnen.d.the ramparts. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. is bullion — A — buller. or a humblebee.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. blunder-buss. biihne. furious man. buller-bas. blunder-buss. Du.. St. by corruption boulevart.D. perturbare saevis dictis. but now is the central part of the town. to make a noise . vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. ^i^/«. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. To bum.' Stat.

Pr. to strike so as to give a dull sound. Bunch. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. &c. bottom. so the form btmk. a hemp-stalk. a wallet. pompon. truss E. — — de dor bunsen. bulse. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. bmidt. . to . — stalk . a person employed to dun one for a debt. See Bounce. Bung^. an old stump of a horse. stump. Radically identical with Dan. . the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. Fr.D. a heap Wall. a heap. . . to swell out E. Sc. Probably from bump. stock. bulto. a bag or sack. hay stubble . bune or boon. Thus e. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. a Sp. Kyx or bunne. large. bonge. Holland and Flanders. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. bump. w. BUNCH bum-bailiff. butt end. Pl. bmike. also for taking a pilot to a ship. trunk. gibbus. bun. poumpido. pumpa. a into Dan. Bun. . bugnet. calamus. Bumpkin. bunt. are dim. a bump. Gael. banke. any round knob or bunch. A Du. bumtel. bunga. awkward.D. a rabbit. — round fruit. strapping. a purse . bu<rnone. Bump. Hal. hdk passing and E. to thump. one ever saw the word in that shape. w. a. See Bunch. a heap OSw. Du. banga. stock. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. a hump. lungeous. bull. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. a boil (punkos bot. bunga. Pm. from bunsen. . On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. Dan. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . to ' . See Boss. especially girls. . as we have seen E. bugno. bun eich. ! — knocking. It. bundle. a pocket Sw. Forby. Fr. . a bunch Magy. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. a boil or blain. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). applied to young persons. Bums it's hit. Bunch. a tail (Macleod). Pl. a knob . root. Ir. clown. 1. Mrs Baker. bamgetroffen. bonuach. to beat. forms. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive.' Bun. bannock. nor would it concern the public if he did. . Lang. . stalk. stump. Bunewand. Moor. Bunk. throw down with a bang. To bam. Hal. a pumpion or gourd. a knock. signifying one who does things in a thumping. Bony. callus. a round mass . S. bun with ON. gibber. Probably for bun-boot. a button. knuckles. poumpi. seems to unite Gael. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. root. Bumboat. to bang ON. a knob. pwmpl. protuberance. the tail of a hare. E. pumpurras. abrupt manbuns-wise. a bunch. dial.. buns.D. Li cake. bunka. knob or heap. Dunchyn or bunchyn. a swelling. a bowl P1. tundo. or to the mass by which it is given. — — — — ' — knock. Pm.-^Fl. passes Sw. a swelling from a blow. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. Gael.^Cot. as in other cases. pompette.D. bung.' Palsgr. to beat. He buncheth me and beateth me. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. to bang.. should probably be a short tail.P. bon. bunke. dial.— Bunnion. pwmpio. a lump on the foot bunny. pwmp. lump. bottom bun feoir. Daal bu7iseti. stubble Manx bun. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. Hence E. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. and related with ON. stem or base. a. E. bum-boot. Bang sen. a knotty stick) Sw. and signifies consequently a mass. botn. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. Again. boi7ieog. bans. bunsen. Bumsen. ner. a dried hemp-stalk. to . clumsy. strike E. Manx bonkan. to knock . to bang down. bunny. bunken. or grete knobbe. awkward clown. a heap. bund. He fult dat et bunsede. bignet. a large . bulscha. binge. — Marine Diet. bunan. Hal. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. bunch— Hal. — — Bun. bonnock. bungersome. Then.! . inconsiderately. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. bunkc. foundation w. OSw. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. bumsen. while bulch was traced through Gris. — — Bun. A clumsy. H. explaining E. . the Pr. any round knob or bunch. Roding. knochen. bugno. bunki. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. cluster. . a heap or cluster. E.' he fell with a bang. bottom. a dry No . . mto Sp. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. bugnone. il me pousse. a knob. —Bunny.S. from knock) It. Hal. Pm. stubble of beans. Suffolk bonnka. noise. a bud. round mass of anything. Dan. a boss Lith. a rabbit. Fl.— Pr. Sc. lenten loaves. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. bongie.pummel. . blain. bolsa.). Related on the one side to Pl. bunnion.

— . To do anything awk- wardly. do a thing bunglingly. Pl. to push ghebondte. would be the earliest float for an anchor. or tuft. a cork. unskilful working. bunta. bang. to stop. bummle. a boye. bondel-loos. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. halm-tapp. the middle part of it. Prov. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. especially in wood. Fr. also a piinple in the face. sprig. Fr. Kil. stocks or such OSw. Burden. bon. Burganet. boil or bubble up. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. Palsgr. bui. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. to in to stop the hole. So in Pol. burion. clogs. buret. klempern. to bungle. Fr. to hum. on. The Fr. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. B. bondelj bundell. See Barbarous. bonde. tapp (whence tceppa. Fr. to gingle. noise. to gingle. Sp. bourguignote. dark grey bura. driving in the bung. A bubble. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. Burble. to botch. klimpem. to work at carpentry bangan.Fris. rumble as the bowels. that the primitive meaning of shackle . something bound together (Mrs Baker). the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. Rietz. la Borgonota. generally known as the material of which bud. to stop. Sp. byndel. bondeau. to shove. burboloti. See Bourdon. AS. fascis. biirde. Lat. buove. bourjon. G. bimge. Burden. boucher. to strum on an instrument. To Bunt. borgonota. So Du. . or putting forth of a vine. B. dark. Sw. — — To Bungle. Sw. and now more Bailey. ' — work . To bunt. Bung of a tonne or Lith. The Italian buio.— . AS. however. bundle. coassatio et Du. whence bunting. anchor or of a net boyar. to cobble. * Buoy. gyves. Burly.punt. The Magy. A load. A Dan. a bung. buie. to bud forth. Bung. bongani. to float. was formerly pronounced buro. byrthen. — btiruii. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. bond. to bolt meal. whence in bure. bunsen. to push. and the Sw. bou^e. dial. 202. bondir. and E. reddish brown. banga. loosed from bonds. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. Compare G. dial. shackles. boj. bungande. OFr. and Du. clumsy performance. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. OFr. russet. bundel. Sw. racket. bove. bury. Cot. bote. to kick. are from bouscfie. bommen. — — . — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. OG. See Bun. racket . in is Fr. N. stiimpeln. Bunting. a water bubble made by rain. Sp. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. Hal. The word is flags are made.' Festus in Diez. bindini. borboUar. G. . Du. Russ. bangla. knock. to resound. ho-tapp. bounta. to hum. and bomme. boei. bourion. Bunny. to stnmi on an instrument. Banff. of a song. a bunch. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. is originally a wisp or bunch . Muratori. banghagr. guggle as water. Bret. shove . bourgeon. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . Johansen. bouchon. bongun. . The belly or hollow of a sail. the bung of a barrel Lim. bondon. a drum . to Somerset is to sift. bang. to pype. an anchor buoy. and van t' vat. bolting-cloth. Cat. The stopper for the hole in a boia. from beran. the loose open grow big about or gross. — Bureau. bonde. Biu'geon. a sort of helmet. working in wood (especially with an axe). to hum. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. bangla. ghebundte. properly a Burgundian helmet. . the noise of drums. a bunch Burbulas. To burgeon. modem bummle. to knock. to bear. bundt. Prov. knocking. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet.D. See Borel. the young cloth used for sifting flour. to work ineffectually. stilmpern. tinker . to knock. Fl. a botch. tinkle. tap. punishments for prisoners. p. . bouche. the float of an bundle. Sp. boya. a bungler. the stopper of a cask). a wisp of hay or straw. Bunt. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. knocking. buret. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. E. or used as a receptacle for papers. Bundle. fetters. colligatio. It. dicimus rufum. on. with the head. bag to catch the wind. to push with the head del. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. contignatio.

to burn. The in. to swell oneself out as birds borras. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. brun. — . ridicule. brausen. barrel. Pm. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. to Gael. tahkoa. he rustle. like the wind in trees. So also Sw.). a gurgling ^. to roar. brAler. Cot. ^ttsa. in Schm. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. to polish helmets. — — . to give an edge to. See Berough. brima. laer. OE. de Vaud. and the Burin..or bubbling up. — — . It. ' rugiens. must be explained on the same principle from G. born. &c. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. to effervesce. brinna. crackle wood in burning Hal. to burgen or wax big. burn. to ridicule. — . knob. swelling borr-shuil. bourd. brustle. A — — . burgi latro. a blaze. bremmen. Goth. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. Hence Bridel. See under Bore. sicut sound. bud or sprout forth. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. In the same way ON. compared with G. bouril. boure. to puff up borr^ . Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. to ridicule. From the same root E. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. brusler being a faulty spelling. bunch. It is probable indeed that Fr. to swell.' a jibe.— . to roar. sbornoi. like. Bestiary. Burglar. Fr. ON. Sp. brunnen. . bururus. as Diefenbach bud.bryna. burgen. brynsten. a bladder. burren. abourioner. to grind on a whetstone. de Vaud. Sw. Compare also Piedm. brunnr. brunna. like straw or small . brase. with little iron nippers called burling irons. sea. and the Burnish. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. bears.. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. mockery. lorra.. purra. — Han to bruser op. to sharpen. water. brinii. to roar 5. which has given much trouble to etymologists. become big and proud. bourou. . buirleadh. Bav. spring-water bumach. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. Pren7ien. brim or edge of anything. to fiy. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. explaining Sp. is connected with brim. as the / in purl. and OG. Dief. is termed burling. to bouronna. dial. Burgher. to polish. roguing beggars.' Cot. to tell lies. purrata. an &c. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. to polish. tahko. j. A legal term from the Lat. borr. Bav. A burl. 56. pur (see Burgeon). burle of cloth. from the roaring sound of flame. a bubble. Probably. Fl. fires up. occupying much space. See Burr. brimmen. ample of polishing metal. a spring a robber. to hum. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. lerre. Schm. from Lat.). The Gael. sidiary element. briis^. Limousin bourdo. leo Fin. and Dan. 122. Burgess. Gael. brunir. to have acquired the sense of polishing. robber. to bud . blow. joking. embraser. to swell with pride. In the manu. the roaring surge of the — — — . schleiffen. G. to set on fire. with Dan. Prov.ireui£r:e. bruzir. The primary origin of the word. burlare. Sw. Lang. It. to puff. a prominent eye borracka. Burler. Nat. brinnen or Also ein roar. borujon. bururus. . brustolare. a margin. angular . a jest. the J in OFr. Antiq. a bubble to spring as water. ii6 BURGESS Gael. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. it of the knots. Pr. condemnentur morti. jest of. surge or dashing of the sea . Todd. singe or scorch with fire. purling. Swiss Rom. Burgh. brasa. . to roar. Burlesque. See Burgeon. a bud. Burly. a whetstone.— Pr. an edge. to murmur. to surge.. swell up or strout out. grancelli. a wine skin. as of suggests. to sharpen on a whetstone. taunt.Ps. burly. Bret.). has also borr.j'own. OE. protuberance. explaining the E. bruse. Probably a modifica. boiirre. Swiss Rom. to burn. language of folly or ridicule. a lie. BURNISH i5«r/. fire. a purling hiwe brennen. the er is a dresser of cloth. OFr. brook. to roar (as lions. boura. toast. pressa puret. OFr. ends of thread. Fr. from bryii. as in cousteau. Burryn. Burn. watery. brandung. bourglairs. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. a well. Castrais bourril. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. to rub. It. Walach.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. a knob. borrelen. borracka. tumentum. to bourda. repartee . From Fr. i5«r4 biiirte. flocks. to roar. ^Notk.sharpen. is an Thus G. Lang. burgensis. warbling. Fr. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. borni. Supp. Fl. Bouffer. a fountain. a jest. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. burgeois. big. G. thence. ends of thread. the word seems Pm. N. — — .. tion of the root which gave the OE. to To Bum. the flocks. E. broil. to make a So from Fin.

as it is still pronounced in N. the — — castle or fortress. prsnuti. Shelter. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. Burr. from Fr. a. bur. Beowulf. bourrelet. whence Kil. bourre. 2. a purse. Sw. preserve. In OE. brjota. a morsel. whirr and burr. signifying protrude. idiom if 4. be more in accordance with AS. whirr. from AS. g. beurs. OHG. Cot. burgisli. Fr. chips or anything else Fl. bourse. and met. brittle. Sexy. preserve. dial.. beorgan. force. Du. Jam. leather. a place of defence. bristeach. to bury . byrgels. some people in pronouncing the letter r. Hal. bergen. Burser. fortify. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. shelter. also ' any such trash as chaff. . Compare also OE. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. skin. . the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. brista. iii. borra. to stuff. barza. from whence we pass through Sp. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. a purse. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. birigean. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. to mutter Sw. A rabbit burmotion. ' ' — — burren. Burse. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. brown. to buzz. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . To Bury. bolsa to It. brest. foretell great storms at 3. impetus. AS. The root forms brik. brit. shuffling. It. swell. hair. casting bullets. straw. Brun on bane. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. Mid. -Grisons bulscha. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. byrigels. 5150. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. an annular swelling. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. Burr is related to buzz as protect. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. a sepulchre. brickie. its own protection. borsia. as in Northumberland. byrgen. perruque.' edge grew weak. Burrow. 225. shearing of cloth. a port. britar. explained E. borsa. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. brist. In a met. bolgia. berstan. byrgan. Sw. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. ptcrren. karborre. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. appears under the Lang. birr. and spelling. brittle. shales. coo. — Translated by Kemble. ON. and. and thence flocks 'of wool. AS. briso. bourse. bourlet. I. of a body hurled through the air. of England. bersten. Port. G. mentioned under Burgeon. to P'air. tomb. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. borsa.Lat. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. i5(7&a. but it is more probably a development of It.' Harris in Todd. borre. brisdeach. break . Dan. brico. briser. a barn or cupboard. ber•whirr to whizz. a wallet or scrip. borre. This word seems safety. .' The same word with burgh. bur. brast. OHG. burial place. brizeto. ultimately resting on the Gael. to burst. — Clare. Fris. any kind of quilting or stuffing. brisd. caer is a — — — ' ' : . talk fast and indistinctly. the officer who bears the purse. makes the disbursements of the college. bris. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. pipaa. &c. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . root borr.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. dial. brist. a harness or collar maker) . peluca to Fr. buscha. &c. cwning-gaer. an exchange. Gael. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. Burial. bristen. bris. Bursar. Hence Fr. Fr. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. briketo. G. borra. brokil and brotil. burra. moss. See Bulge. a rabbit burrow. husks. S w. Du. Fr. to hide . birgan. any rapid whirling biarga. burre. Swiss burren. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. stuffing. as for the protection of a child's head. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. to break. To Burst. ON. save. blurra. -burse. a pad. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. purr. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. as from Sp. when they spring So in W. verbergen. bres- — tan. that birds make their nests with. byrstan. ' BURR AS.— . borrow. See Burgeon. byrsa. keep. to save. cover. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. also all such stuff as hay. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. to hide. bourrer. It. E.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. Burse. With a slightly different ghen.

hjul-bosse. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. borghen. bush. boissa. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. brake. Harold G. in the For Skirnis . . The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. a troop. clusprobably Morocco leather. bustellus.' sheath. Fris. roquies. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. thicket of thorns . a bush. whence bouchon. knot. boistel. occultare K. or — Busk. induere vestes . a grove bosch van haer. Sibriht that I of told. Sc. a tuft. They busked and malced them boun. To Busk. or the like. a bunch of twigs. box wood to bush. and from the Fr. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. whente beorg. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. bundle. : — . It. Ptg. bosc.fiasc. il fut couch6 l^jkema). whence at bua sik. diminutives. Sir Tristram. The radical idea is seen in Goth. ' . In to Brutaine. buskr. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. barst. The word frequency with which to busk is used. dead. which would later have truast. and not directly (as Du. to enclose in a case or box. sur une litifere. projection. apparently a secondary verb. signifying to entomb. a wisp. ch). foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. Le roy Richard mort. bossida. G. BUSH hreaw. bairgan. a box. barsc in Heimskringla. berghen. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. a bush. borcegui. It. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. protect .P. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. bosta. bos. make ready. verb. brodiquin.) to hide in the ground. . bousse. And her ful sone tuft. See Box. bussare. for at buasc. the idea of knocking. boiste. a been written buasc. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. aheap of stones. in OE. . mount. the past participle of the same verb bua. bossen. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. as synonymous with to inake one boun. So from Fr. to turn. . Prov. bramble. a -tavern bush. bulk. to betake ' Haralldur kona box.Lat. —Busk. tow. bush. Thus Froister .boisteau. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. 'at bua sik. buysschen. ' . Gr. a bunch. Du. a little box Dan. busk. boisseau. to sepulchre. OFr. oneself. from the ON. borseof trees. a bundle.' a box. to bury. AS. Sw. thicket {buski. boxta. cluster. buxta.— ' ii8 {chreo. Layamon. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. OFr. to dress. truasc. Du. and thence Mid. to direct one's course towards. iriCtf -ifoe. defence. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. abdere. brodequin tout noir. ' . Brunne.Lat. 2. a rampart. Bouchet. a tuft guini. bussel. basse. a box. beorgan. a hump. to prepare. besom). to bend one's steps.gur bidst austur um EySascog. Mid. bousche. busken. burial mound. -idis. bua. bausen. grapes. lump. bousIn the other copy ser. Malberg. to forest of Eyda. Fr. Du. AS. bosch (a diminutive ?). Brunne. a tuft of hair. R. 410. a tuft. is thus accounted for. fiast. buxula. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. a gun biichse. To prepare. van wijnbesien.' The word is explained by — — .' The buskin is said Bret. bundle * Buskin. as boun is simply buinn. the land. See Bust. hunch Du. a corpse). bunch. then a tuft Sp. to stop. . bouche. basse. and he cites wisp bauschen. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. bustula. . with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. Bush. biichse. bulge. a box for measuring corn. gave Lat. Thence byrigean. to bow. and we actually find bushel. ieorh. boucher. preserve. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. bussellus. The bone in a woman's stays. ' —P. that the lend had lorn thorn.-^Bushel. to keep. tuft. at buast. Bush. rad. buxida. ' . to dress. wisp. The primary sense of hair . a clot of phlegm sart. we have Fr. at bua sig. busse. condere. qualster-boscken. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. to swell. the Moors and of Morocco. bo7ich (Fr. the deponent form of which is represented by the E.

btcc. employment bisgan. forest. biseg. buquer. or avutarda. smack. body of a woman's dress It. small. Hence probably au-tarda.' ON. abutarda. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. cata — . prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. bus. bussen. busche. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. a tree. or chest in which the vitals are contained. I go strepo) . the long. Fr. windbutsch. a projection.' Plin. On the other hand. trunk. beezig. Busitiess :c3iVi . forms morseqiiill. BUSS Dozy from Arab. utarda. a. Hal. bus and Pol. a ship of some size. ' BUSY 2. log . crack . 10. ship Sp. busto. Busy. ON. ON. fe^a. Cat. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. bnist. love gestures. a bust. . Du. tarda. business. to bustle. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. mouth. made stiff.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. — Thus we should have mocherqui. body without arms and legs. Fr. a fishing vessel. buyse. also a flagon. to occupy. would explain the G. a mouth. body . snout. putschen. Bustard. body of garment. statue of the upper part of Fr. bisgung. Fl. The form brust. besongne. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. Nained from Proximse iis zia. signifying trunk of a the body. ViM. 1372. — — — — It is like the smouldering. an ostrich. mosequin. busch. — — difications of the same word. Sp. To Bustle. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. Fr. bust. trunk of a tree. of a doublet. knock. busch. hipista. Xerqui. Swiss butschen. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. bucha. beso. geidha. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. body of a man. Sw. and also a sounding blow. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. and then with avis again prefixed. to knock .d. pussa. brusc. busq. Bulch. 2.— . a bunch of flowers . Lindenbr. bus. bust. a great billet Cot.bezig. to make use of. Prov. bukr.> Also written buskle. So in Fin. buta. lump. The proceedings of Parliament. ottarda. Lat. mouth. Cot.Lat. besoigAe. The Prov. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. arbor ramis trunGloss. bisegung. kupata. Bust. Bav. a Mid. and supposes that the common Arab. I bustle. chest. a bush. A great sluggish fowl. B. vessel employed in the herring fishery. kiss. otarda. a bulk or trunk without a head. sunt quas Hispania aves . a stroke of wind. ^A. plated body or other quilted thing. So Wes- terwald munds. Bust. borcegui. — hardly be distinct from Fr. lips. of the human body (Grandg. busta. stem. A wisp. to Swab.pjik. body. bacio. lip. kiss. Pol. Sp. mohedairova. but.D. bustla. sera. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. — . 22. . morsequi. or Cherqui. body. occupied bezigen. inde discurro et operosus sum. 2l box. in Diaz Gris. outard. a kiss of reverence. outarde. a blow. Sp. betarda. as in moharra from harbe. especially of a woman's dress. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. its slowness of flight. representing a blow. Business. a large cljest or particular applibox. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. Port. a log. occupation. 7o\. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. to make a splash in the water. Gael. abotarda. worn to make the body straight . A A busquer (Sigart). With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. To hurry or make a great B. Rouchi. box.). 1555. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. Walach. also a busk. knock. trunk. an affair. a kiss. also a It. trunk of Cot. 119 bi{tr. bist. bysgian. bu. from jnund. baiser. buc. Buss. the point of a lance. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. austarda. Fris. With respect to bust. the body without arms busque. basiuin. bisg. says. AS. bussa. and by transposition morchequi. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. as in ON. work. ' bistardej It. brut. a backstock. busc. mogangas from gonj. Edrtst. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. I. Busk. a kiss. Namur — Champagne Fr. mons. a boat or small vessel . buc. bulk. buz. bruskras well as buskr. Comp. a blow. Fr. the breast. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. the trunk. — clattering about. a busk. See Boss. busy. lip. Prov. stir. Box. Lang. Prov. avuDiez. a sleeveless truss or doublet. bysgje. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). buc. I. thick end. putta. stump. a kiss. butz. stump. brostia as well as bostia. biist. tuft.

ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . It. hollow case.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out.' ' write. the jug and in E. bountifully. be out. . ways.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. the body of a tree or of a man. boteria. rotundity of the body. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. the full expres. besides that . bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. bola. large barrel. hull of a ship. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. a goat (and not besides . a budget. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. the servant in charge of the original object. also a hollow vessel . body of a shirt w. collection of casks. Buttery. Ben-house.' — — ' . binnan. of the wine and drink. bute. beyond the Piedm. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. bhcciero. and the real origin of the and within . boucher. Fr. a small winebag. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. bous. that which would be translated by Fr. bol. — we acle for liquors. As a conjunction but is in every portion. except. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. the Perhaps besogne — . Sp. those in beccaio. mais. a wooden cask. Prov. a butchery. outside that moreover. without buiten-man. But In Sc. So in Italian from becco. the body of an animal. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. bodifie. Butler. a barrel. in addition. Wall. barriga. to-boot. ont jhi^ton. earthen which the debtor has adverted. without the house kept in bottles. ' There is leathern bottle. Sp. But when will you pay it ? the belly.in which his brethren are included. botija. a leathern bag. — . a baiTel . belly. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. AS. skin-bag. tinction between but. biitait slaughterer of goats . bouz. butan. boquier. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. and bot. trunk. OFr. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. by the mode in which he is treated. Lang. add. bochier. the principal apartment. bout. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. belly. ox. then hoUow trunk. bitlga. an outlaw from bouche. beta. the precise correlative of but. belly. without punishment . Here the but implies the existence of an.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. Lang. The E. rumpf. moreover. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. is well explained by Tooke. we find ben. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . from as. Where at an earthen jar . ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. bag. beccaria. and with It. bolgia. equivalent of AS.The Sp.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. botilla. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. (children) boc. the store of ten. the name must have arisen before the within. A A . from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. original sense of without. a bottle. are. gives at least two pounds sterling. similar train of thought is seen in ON. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. bocin. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. butan ce. viz. bole of a tree. as Pantler. bolr. .' there is really a negation to be supplied. a cask. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. Sp. Tooke's dis. able. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. without law. is put in a class by himself. bounds of.streets.jamin. slaughter-house. the belly. the bottles. Fr. my is called the adversative use of but. Butt. botte. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. beccaro. If that where now we should compiler. sup- meat and drink. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. bisgung. Whatever is in addition to Butler. bouteillier. "PLT) . Du. or what in in charge of the pantry. calf. Butcher. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. young mais. the mouth).' Thus Chaucer says. calf of the ' say. wooden receptthing to be done. being wholly unten. Fr. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . buta. a butcher. But It. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. G. a butcher . viz.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. ' Besides all that. the present day we should say. properly a butan wite. but one thing. a goat. from boc. without care. which the word corresponds to the Fr._ bitten j biiten door. the trunk or body of an animal. without. bitten dai. boccino.

the prick in the middle of a target. a bolt. suddenly . bocsam. to butt. caput scapula bout van f been. Fr. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. a mound of turf in a field to sup. boter-vogel. Gris. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. stump of a tree Fr. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning.putan. e. The Bavarian potig. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. : . used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. W. Kil. Mur-buttant. bottig. of the present day. It. Fr. fowl. butt. a leg of mutton. boil. an etwas anstossen. butter. See Butler. Du. Fr. to blad. a buttress Cot. Du. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . stump. from notirrir. so as to make a sounding blow. botta. bouton. strike. bocgsuin. bodi'. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. hillock . coxa. Cot. nourrissons. Button. Gr. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . boteria. a barrel. from rejeter. the thick end. pwt. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. Buttery. Schmell. a wall butor butt on. as rejeton. fle>(ible. botten. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. a little push . bot blijven staan. a large belly. a scope. a mound. a cask. of E. the edge forwards. on. as in G. bouter. — . bothog. Hal. So in English pimples were fora clod. — . the thigh of a goose. &c. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. to strike. To come full butt against a butts. a boss. ment being supposed to resemble butter. i. a boss.' thick from shaking. bouton. from the large knobbed head of botto. to thrust. bout. nourrisson. To strike with the head bags. a stump or club foot. give way. but this is probably from Fr. boutoir. oir spike with a k coup . bout. Boutant. a blow. a bot. as if from Povg. Buttock. to femur. butyrum. bata. From Du. a dle . AS. in the R. a but in the W. leg of lamb. butte. Schmell. poke. butter un. boding. From the noise of drinkables in a house. * Buxom. a hill. — A . to push earth . short thick thing pimple. -ez. but. humble. trapu. a heap of merly called pushes. tress. to boult flour. rabodd. to throw . botte. buhsom. . submit shaking up salad sauce. The word body itself seems identical with G. Boutje. aim whence to make a support to a wall.arbre. Butter-glass. butte. to bow. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. a stroke di animal. a ribbed glass for dient. botwm. to cast. An erection built up as a Fr. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. Fris. botta. both. a bun. boter-schijte. a. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. Kil. boutis. butt.to push. by boE. obedient. to thrust. and the true derivation boar. to abut on. Fr. thick.rejected thing. any small projection. dripping. Fr. G. any short thick thing. geboogsaem. — A . boter-vliege. a button. to thrust Fr. Du. from bugan. . able that Chaucer. buttock of beef is called butr. Butter. butz. butter. courtaud. thrust. a button. to so close to the Fr. to abut a stone roof. bodi. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. &c. the Butter-fly. Sp. Btetter-schmalz. clumsy . the trunk. Bav. what is kept in a blow. thrust forwards. bot. from stossen. end . obeto shake backwards and forwards. to thrust. the rosebud. Lang. put. Buttrice. butt. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. a button. bot. gigot. w. a blow. . tout seat or breech. or or shore post. to heap up earth or ihrust. is formed the augmentative buttatich. at. a tub. buter. butteln. pied. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. Bav. buttare. Du. Grandg. Buttress. Fr. nursling. Kil. Gael. W. from bouter. then the thigh or leg of an to push . Fr. buttern. large head.. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . boiUer. the store of while bottich. buttals. bott. A — — — . lams-bout.thum and not button. To Butt. pwtiaw. povrvpov. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. From Grisons biitt. Du. Bout van het schouderIt. grease that sets by merely standing. Buttel-triib. R.against another which needs support . bottich. a buttrice. a. or person Schmeller . a thrust the thigh-bone. having a rotundity . to thrust . butt of a person. to be con.. clunis. striking end.— BUTT leg . to touch at the end. waste ground. bouter. a corner horses' hoofs. bud. are the strips at the edges of the field. signify a cask or tub. — — — — . botto. potacha. a flying buttress. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. Hal. Halma. Perhaps corrupted Lat. an ox.

to pass by. bees. cow-house. . buzarg. bozzago. & Q.P. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. frabttg- To Buzz. and would have been lost in E. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). Then applied to speaking low. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. bylag. AS. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. ON. farm. bar. The sense of buxom. a buzzard or puttock. who makes abigg. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. buzac. harty prayers and God speedes. bei. from whom it was addressed. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. Mercy hight that mayde. gracious. town having separate jurisdiction. Many good mological explanation. CABAL Goth. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. abozzago. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. p. also say. buteoj Fr. ii. The ON. a meke thynge with — alle. to wit. as Fr. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. P. groat in token of his good heart towards him. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. as in Da. as heedless as a cock-chafer. leges urbanse ON. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. good-humoured one. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . bycgan. Cabal. and boxome of speche xviii. called Cabala or Tradition. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. OE. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. iii.busardj Prov. G. to purchase for money. buso.. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. favourable. bygge. a borough. See Abie. 116. A ful benygne buirde. to swear with him by . bugjan. Du. byar-rettr. A A We — — — days' wonder. tions by one. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. — 122 BUY P. A by. 21. It. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. buzzicare. Goth. son. Sw. jus municipii. 3. To Buy. to whisper. to sell. bauhta. bi. bi. Lat. to jan. Verstegan in R. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. village. lete. —gracious of speech. Byre. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. to stand at his side . big. bylove. train of thought which has become obso.— P. \s\xy. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. Originally the law of a particular town. a town.— Diet. Dan. a by-path is a side path .. from by. and it is of good will. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. By-law. Etynj. blessing me with their of side. depends upon a esteem in falconry. 200. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. to buzz. stall. . indistinctly. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. bohte. Sw. . byar-log. byr. confusedly. Buzzard. Pecock Repressor. AS. favourably to a petition.in N. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. 519. It. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. lb. a beetle. bij.

Cabin. cabuyskoole. chabla. mdhaigner. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. to keep or Du. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. dirty.Lat. Fr. disgust. headed or cabbage lettuce. disgusting such an engine was exerted. would correspond to cable. chaable. cabasser. signifying properly a rope's end. the Slavonian. capanna. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . and the Arab. .Lat. maim. a head (whence cabochard. serious injury — In like manner It. OFr. Etym. signifies down. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. Coticesserint Swiss aa. a rope. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. caboche. or cadable. and Or. Lat. kabat. aak! tandi like Fr. Item habeat vocant. overwhelm (Diet. surripere. OSp. the Prov. name of the projectile engine. accablcr. headed. cab. cabane. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. havyar to caviare. a rope or cable. has kabbel. bad. manticuKil. OFr. —Diet. to hurl down. Cabinet. cadabola. — the ON. nasty. cadabalum. Sw.' Due. to hurl in Nat. &c. Very generally used. gaggi.. cabo. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. Finn. kakaloH. &c. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. vincially used in E. Common to Lat. capuccio. hut. cabus. as it must have stood in French. cabulus. lactuca capitata. It is remarkable that the Esthon. Capstan. Brushwood — — B. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. and Finnish lanLat. E. string. — . cacare . from trabocco. Du. su/Furari. cabas. — Tarbe. to chatter. a cloak of felt or Cack. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. Mid. a cabbage . secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. for the origin of which see Carabine. cabo. Celtic. Tugurium. Ptg. prostratio ad terram. Didot. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. Mid. and as we find stones Mid. cabacho. ! — . caable. wilful). or as an interjection of disMod. caqueter. precisely in the sense of the lari E. a headed cole or cabbage . a rope. a booth or hut. Choux cabus. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . case. OFr. filth. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. Due. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. origin is the OFr. akista. aakkat'a. to strain in such a manner . Castr. Mid. cabaii. From It. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. a covering.Gr. aeggi. It. The double a in the OFr. cabarino. geese. properly windfalls. heady. an engine for casting stones. It. — . To Cabbage. form kactal. covering. manganare. brassica — capitata. a rope. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. Sp. Cabbage. Cot. The name of the engine.ticula. as an expression of Gr. forms indi. stercus. chadabula. gaban. hoard together. especially shepherd's frock. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. main. Gaggle. The Sp. cdble. is probably unconnected. Du. cab lis.. . . laitue cabusse. ckaable. Lith. Due.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. Cablisb. a shed. Neckam — by the wind. from manganum. 'habl. — Ibid. Kil. to crush. as Diez supposes). whence Lang. Fr. round or great headed. agga. band. w. dirty. giiare. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. cadabulum. cacare. ceach / exclamation of guages. deponat a store closet. Katr-iT-aKt. kabaSsen. Cot. in which sense are explained The the OFr. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. and Ptg. To steal or pocket. .). . cables. Lang. come the Fr. E. Fr. cabuccio. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. cadabula. as Turk. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. cabre. Sp. . Du. cadabulum. kakla. gatsch. originally an Gael. gaggele. it would seem fundain children's language. cabbage. capo. : — from violence without blood. the bowels. Fr. Cappa in OSp. chaable. calabre. disgust cac. cable . whence Fr. caables. a frail. a tunic. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . a jacket Fr. to put or pack up in a frail. cabre. It. a car- We convasare. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. dung. caable (in legal language). vile. agge machen (in nurses' language). caable. It. Fr. overwhelm... Imitative of the cry of hens. kabane. Antiq. or rush basket. agge. gabardme. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. head. hovel. (ca/coe. — Kil. kabas. dirt and the Fr.Lat. traboccare.

capitetum. from calendcE. is probably delusive. Russ. Lat. gabble. Cauldron. to sleek hence a den.Gr. En kaka br'od. pi. Sw. the calf of the leg. cadence. kdfich. Perhaps from w. its mother. Gael. hence musical rhythm. a loaf of bread. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. Due. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. Turk. Lat. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. bad . Calocli. gabbia. especially of something soft. a tea-chest. frisky. a circle. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. ' . caldaria. so gabble corresponds with Fr. of oxen and similar animals. limestone. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It.— Cot. to heat. calcis. —Atkinson. loss. a waggon . a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. Cadaverous. kolyasochka. lindrus. calculo. calamitas. an ugly waggon kolaska. Fr. calesa. the bore of a cannon. caioler. boy. cauldron. just falling. cageoler. a fever. gabberen is identical with E. Cadge*. . Pol. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. As Du. calendarium. chaudron. the pith or soft part of wood. or smooth Hnen cloth. (in the augm. whence calash. frolicsome kaad mund. pet lamb. kolo. hot . To Cajole. kauwe. Calf of the Leg. ben- kalf. wretched. lord. to compute. calf of leg. N. cuttle-fish. from the ink-bag which it contains. Dan. a calesh. on. disease of sailors from tivus). Cadence. cadere. ever and anon. Cajol. Du. Fr. a wheel. A — fall. colibro. of which. a car. kolo. a cylinder.uv. caldarius. Du. It. reed-pen. a counter used in casting accounts.— . a falling. a wheel . kat. chaudiere. kalb. It. rattaat (wheels). coop. kage. or prattle. to — Fr. Caldron. the younger son of a family said to be from . A cuttle-fish. KxiKivh^o^. kakulla. gavia. dial. Lat. cabdillo. Du. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. calamus. master. Fr. pith. without loss. Lat. calpa. Fr. kaka. &c. a roller. kukje. a small stone. Caddy. a vessel for heating water. cykevie. Flo. when they are said to poor. to gabble. — in a kiln. Lat. a corpse. calidus. The Lat. calba.warmth . Tea-caddy. Lat. unruly . 124 prattle . It is more likely a word formed like cackle. cadenza. a hollow place. misfortune. Calamary. coll. pen Mod. whence Lat. form) calderone. B. calibre. An open travelling chariot. Calcialate. kola. signifies a waggon. . marrow. hot. kaad. and troublesomely attached to. Calp is riadh. See Kiddier. principal and interest. kuchen. Lat. cage. Du. kail. To Calender.— Calliper. from the Chinese catty. It. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. to treat like lime. From lerie. Caitiff. koeck. Calandre. joyous . The Calf. a wheel . calentar. ON. taking it Sp. a wheel . of the nature of lime to calcine. naXaiidpi. . prate. javioler. calx. kalfvan hout. chattering. calibre. or colpa na coise. capCalenture. caliche. * Cade. cha'cmie cadence. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. calidus. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. cake. a cake or loaf. Calc-. calentura. It. Calamity. from Gr. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. a calash . Cot. one unduly indulged by. to . Sp. dead body. a caFr. Dan. lime whence calcareous. to prate much to little purpose. to cage. Sp. a low note. A hooded carriage. kdtr. It is another form of the E. loss. A . Arab. Lat. from calculus. a reed. cage. Sw. a dence. . prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). to cackle . kalem. It. gabbia. captive. calendrer. Fr. Sp. Cot. It. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. the lump and the increase. . Cot. babbhng. gaggle. little chief. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. cadaver. calessa. Originally from a Slavonic source. Fr. Roman reckoning. desire of land. kolasa. cadet. a mischievous dial. Lat. Serv. Lat. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. a lump or large piece. safe. Gascon capdet. the pi. cavea. kolo. * Calibre. gaggia. Mrs B. a common cart. Cake. — — — Dan. roller. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. KaKKat. kolesb. wanton. Calash. Sw. for green fields. Turk. Calendar. cattivo (from Lat. incolumis. The young G. kolesnitza. Fr. Cage. Lat. to throw themselves into the sea. ratas. G. collop. a wretch. In the same way Fin. chetif. kaeckelenj Gr. Fr. jabber. Cadet. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. an inkstand . G. kalfi. kolyaska.

of the bore of a firearm met. calvus. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). u to an I in such a colubrum. a feathers. ululo Turk. . Derived by some from Arab. — Fl. licht stuk The change from a. The reference to heat is preserved in. calgua. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. to abuse . So It. longior. a last. quality.— . culverin. Lat. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse.en~ kinds of firearms. It. to say. KaXka. chatter. done with heat Alt. alta voce ploro. heat. whehce it was first brought. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. Heb. calme. to call. calibre. the heat of Now these Du. Gr. Fin. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon.' Whitby Gl. a. Turk. scalmato. Dief. harquebus or handgun. hot. to call. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. piece of bigger circuite. Sp. cauma. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. the Fr. and dragon. Fr. Kil. an adder. caillette. or caliever. caluw. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. a soldier who the It. harden by pressure. prattle. drive. calare. The primitive colubrina bombarda. bombarda Cauma incendium. E. coluber also. callum. tittle-tattle. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. chatter kallen. can be distinct from ODu.(jaa= ice). to rail or scold . femme frivole et babillarde. Fin. Lang. serpens. To Calk. According to Jal (Gl. to cram. Fr. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. sence of wind. to prattle. glotton. Sc. to burn. kahcwe. on. however. Calico. CALICO Calliper-compasses. push violently. calibre. a drab. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). Mid. * Callet. hallottaa. try. brawny. given. which has its memory preserved in Du. To call. Due. form. dial. having a thick skin. kind heat of the sun. of a column. caliver. moso. voice. a good calling. . to callet. but is only a jda-kallo. coulevrine. Calm. to be of a good or bad quality. the day. kael. sclopus. calcare. calcaich.meaning of the word. ' rine. ' pert. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. calat of leude demeaning. qAlab. 'A callet of boundless tongue. abto suppose that E. koluvre. whence couleuv. Caliph. or languishing drought is . Ptg. which is as much as to say. kol. calk. klover. vulgo Coluvrine. tapulta.' But it is hard Du. couleuvre. callus. to calk. word of mouth . dragoon. and heat. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. calma. coluber. i. Mahn derives it from Lat.' Slange. calicot. colubrina. scold. calleting. Gael. Fr. kalla. skin hardened by labour. to hear. Kil. AS. Bi. faint. kallo. gossiping. oldire from audire. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. quA librd. Sir John Smith in Grose. colubraria canna. hollaing. to tread. To drive tow or oakham. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. trull. ram. The origin is Gr. them &c. overheated. donderbuchs Sp.from Ka'tm. calo. to proclaim. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . Ca.piicede Lat. the latter of chamber. whereas in troth it is not. Callow. Unfledged. Hard.. bald. kil-u-kal. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. calma. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. to affirm. serpentina. Lat. faint. * Caliver.Lat. fistula. calor. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal.' Chaucer. — — — — — . in which dangerous to place implicit faith. cahna. a successor. Kavfia. Mil. kal. sestus. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . Probably from the sound of one hallooing. overscalmaccio. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. 125 Prov. saucy. sound. water-tight. and E. depreciatory term for a woman. Ibid. To century was Squalibre. diameter of a ball. by many that the weapon Callous. dragonder. Sup. Sp. Call. or mould. — — — — — . NE. from Calicut in the E. Antiq. moist. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. the Fr. form in the kalib. cotton cloth. cauque. and sometimes a handgun. B. The word was also written cawme in OE. nautique). quiet. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. Among these were the turn. Du. calca. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight.' Winter's Tale. the hard surface of the ground. a round of abuse. calc. khalif. heat. Diez. the scalp or skull. Diet. people's remarks. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. Fr.position is much less common than the geschut. kal. calclover. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. Indies. CALM to press or stuff.

Properly calver in the field during a war. a. — B. It. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. to the force of the wind. Turk. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. Pers. kanna.— B. the spersed with white flakes like curd. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. In a different application It. Canine. Fr. to glow. lie level. Candy. on. whence the Fr. See Canker. cancer. It was distinfrom work. Lat. cambr^. camp. chommer. An eater of human flesh. India Islands. canna. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. Or the word Lat. It. champ. nia. Sp._ kamm. Lat. salmon. the bed of a stream. crooked. Camlet. the salmondis faillis thair loup. a may have acquired that signification from plain. Peter Martyr. It. It. cam^e. camisa. Canal Channel. It. an eating. Bret. B. arched. camafeo. cambren. cainahelus. Lat. the calix. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. catmneo. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. KafivTu. Cancer. cup. cambrer.Gr. The Grisons cauina. properly good country. Lat. spot for cattle. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. mg Canister. fair. Sanson khanda. when its substance appears inter. Fr. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. different sections of the like the Chinese. It. Mid. whence the noun signifying an applicant. to jut. callar. Arab. Kakoycpos. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. camiscieia. a goblet bud. Lat. camaien. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. camber-nosed. to bow. white. ation. good. to warp. Camp. se cameloter. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. at the ends. camelus. From fluting or furrow in a column . thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. Camel. E. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. from xaXbg. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. a large drinking . Calumny. champagne. would plenier. is Candle. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. died in 1526. toile some of whom. — — — A — — escume de saumon. a. camelot. campagna. field . B. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. Cambrav—Cam. Gr. crooked. cup. Mod.— Chandelier. canistrum. cancello. aged. w. paign. canis. hooked. to break. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. higher in the middle than Fr. also an eatmg sore. a' Sc. Fr. Lat. camisade. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. lattice. Candid. Fr. to bend. sugar. Cambrel. Caloyer. is Cambering. Fr. Cann. Fr. candela. a dog. Cameo. chandelle. a field Greek monk. and yspiuv. a basket. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. the heat. Canibal. — Lat. aspirant.' Forme of Cury in Way.—Candidate. canalis.. campus. Camisade. a crab. Cambric. had no r in de bric— Cot. campagne.Lat. campagna. the space of false imputation. co7nbar.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. E. KafitjUe. campo. camiscia. brought from Fr.— Hackluyt in R. Sp. Lat. camahutus.' ' Quhen a lattice. chamold man. Ptg. chaitcre. arch. or Caribs.who their language.—Jam. campo. or hollow of a flower. to avoid enemy in their shirts. Canker. crook. fresh. callour. Fr. Palsgr. Calyx. Sp. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. icaSoytipoe. the type of a hollow pipe. — Cancel. lame. crooked-stick. slander.—Cambrel. A — the Cannibals. a caught. Cot. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. Fr. campren. bis. to bend. . having an aquiline nose. From campus was formed Lat. samon. . cere : Lat. calj'x. monk. ckaouma. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. unwater chamelot . campaign. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab.conduit-pipe. whence Fr. from candere. ko/utuXoc. Cambray. Campaign. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. Calver of cane. Gr. sore. frank and sincandidatus. arched. cAouma. E. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. candidus. open and level ground. cambre. clothed in white. crooked. across — Bellenden in Jam. calutmiia. water chamlet . a piece.

To canvas — . border Dan. Again we have Lat. the part easiest broken off. The — . Kil. Gael. capace. a ruler. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. A piece of anything. Fin.Gr.— Cot. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. cover kapi. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. hirnschlapple. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. cappe. cantone. Canon. Canopy. cantref. W. a small boat. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. canteau. . Mod. It. cane. to con- rummer. chanteau. Canvas. kynnel. cannabis. carcase . a — A — Cannel Coal. quarter. has kahn. region. the tried list of saints. signifying cover. schlappen. say. that the G. hood. rumme. being a yard or thereabouts . coarse hemp. B. canvas. is found languages of very different stocks. he discourseth of dissection. cantle then is a corner of a thing. Probably only the augmentative of canto. canevas. Picard. can. covered. a cane. cape. &c. canapa. Capari. Cope. cantina. a drinking glass. to sing. a cantle of bread. a scull- — here. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. schlapp. cope. it would have been found in the continental languages. a hunch of bread. and hence a gobbet. tain. Of vena cava and of vena porta. measure for cloth. canoa. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. a torch. regular. root cap. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. &c. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. Fr. See Capt-. canonicus. A . or hold. from . Alamannis. kq. language. leiwan kanta. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. the quartile. a horn of the moon . quarter . Cant. A slow gallop. able to receive. haitt. or cantell of bread. capevole.Gr. cheese. clqse. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. Sp. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. name. To his judicial And trowl the tile. It. also a measure.CANNEL vessel. as a cantle of bread. edge. Wtb. a cover Turk. Canoe. caparazon. cappa. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. . Canteen. Palsgr. cappe. a reed. and tref. Cape. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. canon. to contain. coarse hempen cloth Fr. to put upon sacred writers. coat. a boat. gnat. kwvwxIi. a cloak kapali. from Dan. a Fr. It. Cantle. chantel. a reed.^on. cannu. Fr. Jonson. Goldast — in in Schmid. was formed Kavtiiv. a corner. a division of a country. kanta. cane. From Gr. See Chape. a gelding. a tube. a cap. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. territorial hundred. Fr. It. a wine-cellar or vault. cantred. corner. and the sex- &c. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. the heel. and met. KCLvva. a pipe. capax. to shut. cover . cane. a side. a rule or standard of excellence. cane. a cloak. from canna. Prov. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. lump. hemp. Swab. Germanis kdppen.n. kyndel. from cant. shut. call. kandt-broodts. cannone. Sp. hamlet. kand. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. hemp. canton. Capable. border. chape. It. a hundred. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. To Canonise. Du. . astrology. KaTTiram. trine. quito curtain. canapaccia. The meserseum and the mesentericum. . But it may be different source. capa. Cot. kapamak. pipe. Hence Lat. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. kaput. canto. a door . An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. It. like a torch or candle. It. Sp. Diez. margo panis diffracta. a ship canot. speech. From Lat. which is not the case. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. Mod. side. Lat. Cannoii. cannevo. ON. kantr. contain. from a Canter. canonici.. If the word had been from cantherius. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. Gugel. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. properly a large Prov. capello Italis. a straight rod. Canton. Esthon. OFr. Capacious. cainnt. Kavt\. Schwab. The word seems to be taken from Gael. N. the heel. part. as. cannevaccia. Coal burning with bright flame.

It. shivering. . greziller. caj)o. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. cover of a saddle. also the capriole. cappriccio. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. algabr. brisciare. Unexpected pleasure. or.' Cot. frort^Lat.' — (Supp. riccio. kid. to desire earnestly. to crackle. crackling sound Cape. erica. Fl. a yearning through sudden fear. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. rihrczzoso. curl. capillus. a ch illness. See Chief. humorous. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. to parch. and 7tucc. a little head. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. as Fr.— Fl. ziki. to . heath. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. It. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . of a fowl. roughening of the skin. brisciare. ericius. Fr. arricciarsi. p. gricciare. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. bristling. according to the Hindoos. to ruffle the surface of water. frissoner. II bresole (Gl. caprice It. compared with Bret. toy. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. It. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. a head.— 128 CAPE a rustling. explained by Diez from capra. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. as in Lat. It. It. brissle. and with an initial gr instead of br. Fr. a . a chevret. cApre. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses.'— Trev. with joy' Vikram. end. Fr. capro. grug. hi. chief. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. horripilation. grisser. a buck. Hal. as Fr. Acad. Caper. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. to broil. capparis. It is probable that Gr. A headland. s'hdrisser. Lat. brug.standing on end. Torriano. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . sault. capitalis. the hair to stand on end. brezilia. Sp. Genevese bresoler. to from capitulum. to broil. to shiver. knis. Caprice. as the means of earning profit. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. cut. I have shivered with love. of a tremtdoiis sound. frizzle. frisson- ner . w. gives rise to Sc. So from Sw. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. A . Capers. Lat. a caper in dancing. Mod. prickly husk of chestnut. To treat Capitulate. then to be in a state of vibration. a kid. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. the head. <I>pi'?oe. It.impressions on the ear. principal. capriol or caper in dancing. caper j caprio. shrub. they longed extremely to see it. bristling. to fry. ^piKos. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. the hair to stand on end.). for which he cites the Comask nucia. CAPRICE twittering. The true derivation lies in a different direction. the initial mute of forms like Gr. knis-hujwud . Hence capitalis the sum lent. — — A a hair. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. rissoler. a capriol. capar. Capital. or other things. belonging to From caput. the head. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. fansuddenly angry. aggricciare. G^' Many words — ' ndv. or represented by the syllable e. ribrezzo. curly. castrated. ticchio. Fr. caprice. Lang. birsle. The same imitation of Capon. a separate division of a matter. or Lat. to twitter as birds. frisser {frissement d'un trait. as Fr. chattering of the teeth. gricciare. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. a caterpillar. hedge-hog. to crackle. — to yearne. bruco. eruca compared with It. a goat. arricciarsi. 75. capitulare. the singing'bone). where Burton adds in a note. castrated cock. gives rise to brezza. and OHG. abridge amKoTroq. cut off. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. then to shiver or shudder. h^risser. of a coach. Hair-like. Lat. Griller d'im' patience. grisser.) d'etre The It. It. horror. Lat. or goat's leap (done by a horse). the principal part of the debt.Gr. greziller. Arab. wriggle. a young kid met. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. brisciare. grillcr. to shiver for cold. brisoler. Cot. is either wholly lost. It. shivering. airoKOTrrw. Capillary. then find the symptoms of shivering. a hedge-hog.) grezille marid. upon terms Sp. hair. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . capriole. And similarly to yearn. to shudder. curling. herissonnement. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. capriola. alcaparra. and his body bristled We to castrate.

and of captus to an e. cabrestante (whence e. It. and has accordingly been lost in E. at least. of capsa. Lat. intercept. In cases. Fr. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. Fr. and tropically. precept. to receive receptio. perceive. recipio. a hood (dim.). hold. — —Diet. concipere. . capra. Du. Fr. Carbine. karista. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. a reception. receptus. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. conceit. accept. chirriar. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. commander. Kiittner. Castr. or the (capo-riccio). cabreia. G. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. also to carry on a car . as the dragoons (Du. a fantastical humour. Thus the musket. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. a windlass. caThe hrestante. Du. decepte. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. latterly. recepte. except. Lat. — — Capstan. karrende waegen. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. In the S. shivering fit (Altieri). cabestan. Fr. where it forms a very large class of compounds. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. to take. chevre. box. Fr. a capuchin. capitis. It. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. verbs gives rise to the element . Cot. capitano. sels. capuccio. to creak. Caseneuve in Diet. concept.or -cib-. tnoschetta. di cappa. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. i The meaning Car. a sawing-block or trestles. charret. Lat. captive. a cloke) capuccino. an engine for throwing stones. desire. Capstern. calabrin. It is a standing crab. caricare. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. carabin.. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. a. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. It. kerren. to take to. concevoir. calabrino. to accept. Fr. capp%tccio. as in accipio. cabra. concebir. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones.s. recibir. Lat. Nordfoss. crab s. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. to this is It. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. and has thus descended unaltered to English. It. crepo. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . 129 — receive. a sudden fear apprehended. charger. Carry. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. contain. Capriole. seize.of these compound verbs. oisr. It. cams. deceit. deception. to take baclc. -ceive. Fl. captivate. a head man.. &c. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. de- price. Capuchin. krul. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. Derivatives are Fr. Sp. carretta. charrier. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. acceptus. as in OFr. fantastic. from head. capio. bock. a. recevoir. a taking back. a sudden will. Fr. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. trestle. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. also tresFl. karra. fancy. Carabine. &c. capsula.). Crab. karren. was originally a missile . a hooded friar. &c. Cart. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. a she-goat. Capsule. Carabin. however. -cept. Capt-. one odd. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. char. OSp. conception. It. Sp. recipere. conceive. See Caper. The It. a coffer. Neumann. a cart. was converted into -ceb. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. cabestrantej Fr. of the Sp. Cot. also a kind of rack. captus. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. to load . was a kind of horse soldier. to carry . Passing on into E. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. a creaking waggon. caput. the -cevofthe Fr. chirrion. Fin. strideo. to please. case. It. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. -cept. carro. whence capture. caprice. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. dim. a kind of torture. Captain. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. Etym. to creak.

cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. boch. a coffer. car. cramp.. a goat. restraint . carquan. Carcax. I. Carbuncle. to comb wool . Gael. Cat.applied to a battering-ram (G. a collar or chain for the neck. decanter. of carbo). . carabe. constraining . The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. burning coal. caraffa. or framework. to hiss (as gee^e). Cot. properly a siege machine. Carcase. kard boyd.charcoal . cabrita. a twist. the shell of a torcarcasso. card. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. . Lat. Carbonaceous. Carrob. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . to card wool. in the same way that the Sp. bock and Fr. Gael. Lat. a quiver . black dye. Caraool. a case or chest . to creak. a dead carcase. carmiiiarc. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. Arab. mural attack. Fr. See Carpenter. matter. turn of a horse. a quiver . There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. a quiver. kerwan. alia sunt majora. cerran. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. Ptg. a snail. also (as Gr. p. the carcase of a fowl. cabreia. carcanet. a battering-ram). to comb. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. a machine for casting large darts. caravela. a skeleton. garafa. karra.Gr. a firelock. kirat. the trunk or chest of the body . carcaij. «capa'|8i. From the battering-ram. confining. carbh. carcanada. is the word used in modern Lat. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. karri.Gr. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. a wool card. a small weight. ON. . carquois. &c. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. &c. the husk or cod of beans. for a gun. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. a he-goat. designated in the case of G. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. Card. Carboy. vitriol. the . Gr. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. to curry horses karsztuwas. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . and catapulta. The Trjg xeXwwac. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. AS. . cardo. skeleton. the case of the flesh. Fr..— — — . to draw in. It. ' Vasa vitrea. a card or comb . a crane. Parmesan cassiron. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. word is only an adoption of the Turk. OHG. cassa. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. a ship. a ripple for flax.' From the same source are SicU. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. carta. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. a prison. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. cdrlag. of the same Caravan. winding. It. seed of carob. Caravel. Carat. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. Derived in the first edition from Mod. carbunculus (dim. carabba. a thistle. . caracal. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . Sp.. a lock of wool . KtpaTwv. the dead body of any creature. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. Exot. coming to four grains. is the chine. krciti. carbo. It. copperas. case. silique. It. the carob bean. military engines made for hurling stones. to card wool. Lith. a gem resembling a live coal. carcasa. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. curry-comb. to turn. caraffe. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. It. avSpaS. winding carach. Comp. skeleton toise. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. espi7igarda. bend. to ripple flax. the name might naturally Mod. Bohem. poison eiz. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. W. carate. Venet. karszti. also a small weight. carere. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra.. an ulcer. the core of fruit . chevre by the name of the goat. &c. Sp. turning. eitar. — seems to be something holding together. carcame. ancient springald.. Mod.z. Gael. Gael. quse vocant karabd. a quiver. carch. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. shell. carquasse. contract. Sp. tcapKaai. Sp. Gr. a kind of ship. an engine for hurling stones. quilato. cabra. a thistle. Cot. fire . wool card. Pers. Sp. a winding staircase. The radical meaning . carduus. eit. skeleton. Fr. An implement for dressing wool. Fr. casso. wine- bottle.

beans. scharren. Lat. cura intenta. the keel of a vessel. and murhet. quarreG. male person. crowl. weyes. an endearment. Champ. that Fl. Fr. sensual. immediately before the long fast of Lent. carian. careless take care of. winding. — — — : Cardinal. Chart. voce strepo stridente. Sp. or grumbling —Due. caru. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. Fr. — — — Caress. to load. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. from Lat. W. quaver a lazar's clack. It. &c. Dan. to load. murista. . carena. to love. Sept. Bret. Sp. 273. From. W. place for exercise on horseback. W. carriire. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. murahtaa. principal. strideo. kumra. wool cards.— Charter. carriera. in N. combing them out like the knots in wool. hoed. soUicitus OSax. a highway. Cot. Fr. to clean the bottom of the ship. sorrow. carezza. from caricare. Cartel. caMid. essere in carena. love. Cot. Lat. Fin. Groler. carch. charg. astutus. karry. cura may be ror. Peas steeped and fried. to card wool. fleshy . gakaran. a man. in St Jerome. Bret. the keel. Carl. Fr. kroU-erbser. and compare Bret. road. croller. 8. . karrig. cardinis. msstus. to growl. Carminative. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. appertaining to the flesh. four. from carus. carnal. sorrow. to take Goth. Charnel. carminare.' Slceat. Probably the origin of the word is the . to scratch. Fr. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. mutter. Carled peas. — — Diez. Cath. bottom. A medical term from line —Boerio. Caricature. to eat flesh. G. also a career on horseback. tuorfurcm (Burguy). tremble. intrasset caro. care on. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. Carlings. de Parthenay. parched or carled. Carnage. solicitous. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. charnage. grief. affection. dear.Lat. . the flesh of animals .. and G. as carminare. to lie on its side. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. It. OFr. Fr. caricare. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. at murmuring. see Garble. charneux. as quadrivium from Carnaval. Care. zanken . a card. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. an overloaded representation of anything. & Q. kurista. Fin. and sum. carnalis. Carenare. kargr. cardo. charag. ignarus. to load. a hinge. rixosus. Cark. meet at a head. No ' place there had. quadrifurcum from quameet. the time during which to Rom. Mur. like connection may be seen between Fin. For the root of carminare. niggardly . Coll. a turn. to rumble. Cargo. carcus. to distress growl. chartre. moeThe Lat. care. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. charta (Gr. p. Card. giierlir. Venet. camovale. 1S66. in Carp. tenax. piger. . or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. A place where four roads Mid. — Carfax. that on wliich the matter hinges. — To Careen. from the keel to the water . carFrom carrus. ON. stingy. Carnal. A mod-carag. It. the load of a ship. morosus sum. from carrus. cearian. G. carener. Trin. carnis. surrata. kummer. ceorl. caresse. — — .— CARD karr-kambar. to shake. whence carricare. grolU. crawl. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. kribina. cargar.. to whirr (schnurren). Properly a car-road. ress. AS. AS. cdrle. stridere. karg. Translated in MS. carina. to comb flax or hemp. . . one of those ac- 9 * . Fr. be anxious. karantez. Farewell flesh. charnel. . compared with Fin. regar. record. the hull of a ship. graller. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. . OHG. to scrape . caricatura. murren. car. to fry or broil. is to say. to parch. crosier. charie. Fl. carena. It. karista. to comb wool. cargo. kara. carnavale. Bois crolant d'un ladre. carcare. clown or churl. or street. carrefourg. x'»P'"^s)) paper. It. a deed. charger. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. act of moaning. karout. the old theory of humours. caritia. what is felt as grievous. ON. AS. It. Cot. to fry.Lat. Fr. as peas. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. Gael. cearig. A quirito ut infans. It. morosus. w. E. carnasciale. 2. the several meanings of the words above Rom. and thin. Properly. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. karl. is This however Shrove tide. sgritudo animi. Ptg. fundamental. to care unkarja. Roquef. asper.

cxciv. Fr. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. pluck at. I drink all out. carpenticre.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. Lat. carpentum.' says Motley (United Neth.'— Stat. 1 1 30. of Guiana. i. charpentier. zimmerspan.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. CarTo quaff carouse do use. litter. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. Ein we find the signification transferred from . to dance.Why give's some wine then. carbh. a carder. balade from It. i. culcitra. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. ship. Other names of the sea. tymmer. garrulo. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. Properly a round dance. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. to pull asunder. The karole of the stones behelde. Carpitam habeat in lecto. fabulor. Sup. lint. qui sacco. Dief. a wheelwright. chatter skra/a. a song accompanying a dance then. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. Pref.gonnella. at midnight which derivation from kroes. Fr. A. linteamen. differing To Carp. So gone they forthe. Shrove Tuesday. I quaught. and F. carpende fast Carol. Pm. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. Palsgr. Sp. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. carpat (Stokes).Lat. and Carnem laxare (It. Analogous R. Mediol. to talk. Here's to you still my captains friend. koroll. krapati. Biheld within. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. in Carp.' Reg. Carnevale. Pr. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. Carpenter. Nomin. 2. a dance. tattle. garrire. as Fr. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. a plank. Carnelevale. ! Carouse. 760. course. as E.Lat. Gower in Way.Lat. sense. gonna. peta. In Dominica d'autant. all aus). yede tham about. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. worker in timber Fr.D. ' ' — . On the other hand bumper to one's health. bier. used for stuffing mattresses. to reel. as the Lat. carpo. is erroneous. chirp. carnelascid). as carnaval from carnelevamen. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. a wheelwright. Cot. 94). The tippling sots. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. cited by Marsh.— Patriarchi.' Ordo Eccles. carpenter only in the latter sense. or loose as a couch without further preparation. — . carpita.]e bois Carnelevale. chatter. skraf. Mid. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. carpetrix. Alluz (G.— R. in Due. to gather. Discov. . querole. on that. krapanj.— Neum. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. Beggars Bush. whence the form carnasciale. to chatter coroli. The custom. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. Bohem. ballare. Carpet. chariot carbad. to rustle. Carpyn or talkyn. carpia. The ' ' a chariot. Chanson de carole. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. pluck. carpetam (a quilt?). Teut. or a carouse fully drunk up. Lat. Lat. was formed Mid. cardos. vel coopertorio carebit. e. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. In a MS. Bret. to find fault with. — — ' ' — — — I — — . 216. biheld without. maker of waggons It. Templariorum — ' — Due.' Raleigh. 2. carpenta. carduz. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. On this. Carole. Mid. act of drinking a full Eq. The word seems of Celtic origin. W. . a drinking cup.: . ON. Olr. quoted by Carpentier. Gael. From Lat. carpere. Ant. gar aus / all out is correct. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. a car carpentarius. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. All out B. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. to dance. To pledge them thou refuse. .— Drant in R. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. in Nat. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. charpie. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. zimmer. to pluck.

of carta. charogne. caroche. cascare. See Card. and that apparently from capio. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. card. to convey in a cart. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. casitiste. break to pieces. tion from Sp. It. crush. vault hole in a fortified wall. des rideaux A'carp^ie. like all the names of tendon. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. coffer. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. Cash. Rouchi carpHe. To duash. casualis. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. packing ' cloth. Rouchi carter. from Lat. Rouchi caroche. Fr. corresponding to the G. from It. Preparatory drawing of a It. carroccio. Lat. a chance or accident. Cot. Cot. Du. something that actually occurs. to crack. to dash. and matar. to an- — Kil.— Fl. Walach. cia. Cascade. cut with scissors. Rouchi carone. also the carriage. afterwards any written challenge. a chest. a coffer or small case for jewels. — Cartridge. one who reasons on cases put. augm. blotted out. luggage. casa. subject for a picture. a car. Lat. ignominiously exposed. mord-grube. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. kerben. caro. case. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. empty. cartouche. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. Fr. cashiered. Carrion. carota. Cassock. Case. to notch. as we . It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. carretto. caisse. carrosse. The carrying of anything. to — — also casse. cancelled. Cask. Lat. discharge It. a paper case. a hut. void cassare. a canonry or slaughterhouse. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. It. carogna. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. It. cartella. mata. Sp. cascade. See Gristle. caxa. It. the charge of — — Fr. To Carry. It. charrier. To Carve. a long coat. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. properly to convey in a car. the money chest. a of water. kasseren. shell or carcase of a house. caisse. cassette. Casual. a car. from the sound it makes when Alban. quash. casuelj Fr. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. gristle. annul. — FI. to break. — — . cassere. caisse. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. Fr. Casque. ceorfan. AS. cancel. Fr. carreaggio. bitten. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. gristle. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. — Cartoose. kerven. helmet. Fr. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. abrogate. casacca. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. caroach. kerpu. cassa. to hold. made void. charrette. cassa. As defence from shells became more important. cartone. Fr. Fl. Gael. Fr. casser. coffin of paper for groceries. Sp. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . turn out of service. The Sp. cartilage. It. krat. casso. casco signifies a skull. To quash an indictment. Case. casus. Fr.to annul. It. an act of falling. Casket. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. fortuitous. Lat. casag.' Bailey. to fall. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. not reaching to the height of the ditch. AS. Cartel. cascata. case-maiej Sp. It. ' Casa-matta. hung up in some place and to be removed. of carro. carriaggio. To Cashier. — — nul the proceeding. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. Cart. and the OE. Fr. carroc- carrozza . house. G. cascar. mord-keller. to fire on the enemy. cartoccio. hull of a ship. long man's gown with a close body. for the security of the defenders. Du.' Cot. a loopscale the wall. to shear. augmentatives of carro. Fl. to bear or carry. Casuist. a fall. to cut or carve . Flor. crown of a hat. from casa. casa-maita. carretta. Hence casket. casaque. quasser. kirpti. an augmentative from Lat. Cartoon. OE. bag and baggage of a camp.' Fl. Ready money. hollow. paper. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. CartOTicli. capsa (Diez).. Hence a challenge openly hung up. a merchant's cash or counter. from It. Carrot. slaughter-house. Fr. Carriage. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. Probably.' — Hdcart. to slay. discharge. Lith. It. See Case. Fr. where Fr. dim. Fr. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. cassus. pasteboard. fall It. Case-mate. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain.

ichasses. fer toTa. to cast or beat to tioner . making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. casulla. B.'— Pr. Gr.. away. OFr. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. Gael. puss / for calling them. race. The E. speak of dashing a thing down. like that of It. Fr. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. R. same word with break. cacciarc. casupola. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. ecrevisse. to bring to an crack given by the joints. kotas. by the loss of with several pitched cords. Fr.out cacciare . Fr. KaTappaKTrjQ. chasuble. kottr. Fr. 120. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. to crackle. katze.. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. . castana. Cot. casule. kasi. handle of an axe. shaft of a 1 push. Fr. To Catch.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. catar. V Lith. — We a cavity. a Cataract. kaJoivad. of sarabands does Gr. KaTaarpifm.the / or c respectively. force j Rouchi equerviche. 134 CAST Catacomb. on. puras E. tails. Lat. name. cat-o'-nine. to turn overturn. to clack. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. punch. image accasciare. perhaps from which we have E. to crack. Fr. cojz^/a. or Rouchi cat. Cat. in the fire. V.to drive out. and from the castus. signifying breed. to end. casipola. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. a thump. cascar. to is Essentially the Sp. squash. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead.Lat. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . Yz. to dash. while kiss / Pol. Castle. and KviilSog. to scourge. Roukind. was introduced. to look at. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. Pic. . It. Catalogue. to drive Cat o' nine tails. the earlier sense of catch. and tomba. a vault. a cat . to torture. the ground . The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. chasser. &c. coming to us through different dialects of French. Fr. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. sue. a garment for performing the mass in. Lat. . 'Vaaaw. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . cash. Hence castaneta. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. a chesnut . cacciuolo. Pol. of castrum (castra). down. So also from It. being Fin. mino. burst cascare. to hunt. kat. kic' kicil are used chasser. to drive away. castanetazo. Sp. to hurl See Awgrim. down. castellum. ' Catchyn away abigo. Etym. torture. Hal. the castanets for or implement . chat. chasser. The Diet. fall. KarapaKrr]g. dashing it to pieces. bot-kotis. to Fl. squash. or bruise together. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. a little house or hut. Others explain it from Kara. an enumerlist. Lang. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. ating. Cast. represented by the syllable quash. to break. kotas. Fr. Chase. _G. dashing it out of the window. first made ordinary Fr. Sp. It. cat. which. n. In the dialect of Picardy. a fortified place. casser. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. cast. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). castello. Brunne. . To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. Castanets. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. the stalk of plants. lance. catch. cacciare fuora. castro. Thus we have Caste. Mid. drive away. . crush . the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. kasta. probably from an imita. To It.Rouchi Scaches. follow after. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. stilts. KaraXoyog. accastiare. It. second chase. cassa / cry for the same purpose. is not satisfactory. klakka.— Fl. koshka. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. or comba. kakka. Fr. a cat koshki. Catastrophe. to make clean or chaste. Isidore — in Diez. however. heat . to fall as over a precipice. Gr. kissa. a whip on the other into latch. rack. under chi caleur. arpi^m. from the first of Castrate. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. Pm. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. to close. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. execu. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. which has been retained in E. dim. to lash. ON. from water Karappaaaiii. dash. chaleur.

snatched. a whip. with and without an / after the c. Grandg. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. verberare kUts. Metivier. Claucht. ' ' word catch. catc?u. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. — with a whip.P. — Catcli-poll. silkworm. companaige. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. . ecachoire. bicho. . latch. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. Sp. flap klatsche. . in order). called in Fr. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. Diez. or any kind of relishing food tuals. — tinman.V. is said that he got a claucht of it. Fr. a whip. seize. cagnon (a dog). G. KaTtix'so. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. Guernsey chafer. Sc. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. chink. the distance to which the ball is struck. from Gr. a whip Rouchi cachoire.s. Tutschek. Du. Du. * Caterpillar. the OE. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. smack. Kariicatching one a box on the ear.' ^Jam. Wal. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . Swiss Lombard G. Chate peleuse. a — gatta. klatsch. called dog or Galla catchamza. to the crack. Kil. wild-beast. Kil. happe-chair. icarrix'Ki^. snatching. the elements of a science. chassoire. Cot. a smack. GaUa catchiza. a cornIn the s. a. pedes. a little dog). and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. gliong. woodlice. formerly called cliket. chasse. Kartiyopta (/cari. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. instruction in forms. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . to teach by oral instruction. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. Du. glcu. caker. chase.yopl(. the the same principle he was Fr. which all . klatscherei. to crack GATES cache. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. resound. to A bailiff. ketsoore. Guernsey pilleure. devouring mite or weevil. . chatter . as of the latch of a As ! — . an officer of taxes. s. to chat.) . an accusing. from shutting with a click. blow. OFr. . clap with the hand. to kythe D. to harangue. 'Bxn. caucht. catch-flesh.V. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . P. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. Gr. worm. predicament. klatsche and Norm. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. children's name for cat . chacepol. head. c or ^. snatching it with a any one. ictus resonans. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. Rouchi clincailleux. millecaterpillars. gingle. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. catch. to take. chenille {canicula. to clap hands. a whip or Kuttner. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. — explained. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. a caterpillar Milanese can. a pill. ' Fr. cat is not apparent. and answer.j. kletse. apprehend a person. weevils. chachara. Cates. to catch strength. klatschen. claquer. — B. to snap. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. Caterer. to snatch (said of dogs). i. Ptg. Gael. clatter. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. — Kiittner. E. cache. clap. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. In the XV'e.. insect. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. dainties. Fr. fragor kletsoore. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. Gael. latch of. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. * Cates. e. de Bray. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). Cot. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. a clap. 135 — Aasen. sound. E. has both or of charming by sound. — . compare G. E. whip.' CATCH Fr. a. klinke. ArbaUte de courte chasse. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. chatter. 'Horxa. dainty vic- a form lash. kaetse. a carter's Pat. kletsen. quincailler. Fr. bichano (pussy). catch. door when it is shut. e.from Bard and ayopsw. resono ictu lash. to chatter with the teeth cake. gattola. On Catechism.

Fr. having the property of cleansing. cauHs. katteken. Manciple's Tale. calqada. . Cauldron. the stones of a street. puss. calceta. cheval. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. shaled or picked Fr. rete A — Prov.^ acheter (Lat. cavus. little cat. from chaud. Dryden in R rete. otherwise written kell.Y\\Xea. It. to shoe. That he was ay before in his estate. catkin Magy. is Prologue. what . For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. Port. calceata. — . catkins . cal^ar. Jonson in R.—— — 136 correct. a receptacle for small things. cat maczoka. to shale or peel. Fr.Lat. a kind of skull-cap. Cattle. reticella. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. to shoe .. quire. primitive is meaning a shale or off. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. Fin. Russ. Gr.' B. kocie. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. 2. to ac- — Fr. catkin mitz. koparet. chevalier. It. whence cathedralis. • — — See Chattel. Fr. . Bessie of Bednall. a mare. Catkin. Cavity. a pulpit. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. On the other hand. Fr. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. Cavern. — Cauterise. Lat. kassije. Cave.Lat. via strata. Cathartic. a horse. puss. hazel. Fr. Cavalcade. chatideau. adcaptare.' Elyot in Way. CAVE Caul. It. from delf^gato. Rete. chair. Lat. caldo. the. the caul of the liver. is used in the sense of cat-skin. Cause. Fr. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. achepter. chauderon. Causeway. fur. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. cabbage). chaudroii. deyntie meates. Lat. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. Gael. causa. net or caul-work. cavaliere. . It. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. G. from KaSaipio. accapitare Rouchi acater. Caballus. to burn. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. The word — . and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. ce^l. . Diez).. to sound like a blow . macska. catkin Pol. a road calceata. A warm comforting drink. Mid. chausser. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. acater. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. Kil. catons. chaussJe. green husk of a calon. hot. Lat. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . kopista. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. Jaubert. caudex . Pr. lamb. a The peel. to buy. hot. to purge. Richly she feeds. Palsgr. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. a pavement. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. Fr. puss. from caveo (p. It. KaHSpa. kocianki. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. mutz. — — cavallo. caballus. B. flock. walnut with the husk on challer. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. Kavrfipiov. mudet. make clean. w. kobyla. Cavalier.^Hal. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. Provider. Fr. despencier. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. KiwariKog. caple. Lat. a horseman. also to pave . cale. ' Gr. Gr. flue. to beware. cautus). cabbage. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. . a kettle for heating water. challe was ther of a temple. Boethius. OE. Chaud. Caudle. katte. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. kaussijde. little cap is . Du. &c. Wyatt in R. kin. Thus Bav. Delycates. Fr. dumpf tonen. Kavrijp. kautsije. kdtzchen. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. a stalk. choufleur {choii. fur in general. by land. KaPaWrii. . . Cavalry. Caution. Gr. cabbage-stalk. calotte. cautis. minon. 4. klopfend knallen. Ka^afriKOQ. Pol. a horse . CATHARTIC sense. Fr. hollow. capull. any Fl. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. Lat. a seat. a paved road. but the acates that are sent him. kobuiV. kopano. chaudiire. Palsgr. a horse . apt to burn iron. accattare. Cathedral. Caustic. Sx. and hence a skull-cap. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds.willow. and at the rich man's cost By sea. Mid. and spareth for no perell. acaptar. calidus.p. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. cale. kitten kotki. a branding from koiio. Du.

komo. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. 43. to panel or wainscot MHG. a hut. a canopy. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. proceed. wall. thil. curved. Cede. cesso. dille. B. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. and then to gape. -cess. a plank. H. hollow ice . decessus.'— Z. ciel is so unbroken. ceiling. crooked kopio.' Marriage of James IV. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. hollow.' del. cease. The importation of Fr. a canopy. a board.' — Gawan . — . Lat. door-sill J Sc. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. heaven. rafter.. a log. ceiling. . to go forth. Fr. It. IV. In the same way G. . 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. . but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. syle. the testern of a bed. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . semely on syll. Lat. And seik — Cessation. to canopy siled. koppeli. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. Cease. sill in window-sill. cavezzone. . post. Cam. a boarded floor. Fr. Gawaine & Sir Gol. plank. 5. -ceed. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. succeed. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. a log. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. jaa. thiling. . Sherwood. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. to plank ON. exceed. Cavil. Sp. The sense of roofing. thelu. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. —Decease. dil. in Hal. were met. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. The line of descent from Fr. Wore. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. dayntily diglit. -cease. hivtmel. sill. the roof of a coach. the deck of a ship at thilja. . beam. a fir-plank. a planking or boarding tkilian. a beam. Ceiling. . dScis. to cut. thilja. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. Lat. -cede. in Jam. and Gol. . komista. to argue capto tiously. . The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. that. &c. CAVESON kopera or kowera. is applied to a canopy. &c. or of a bed. in Jam. deal. and zaum. Fr. The It. plank. departure from this life. board . cyling (W. caveqon. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. . &c. Sir 137 pit . p. to plank or floor with planks. wainscot thiljar (in pi. tester of a bed. cessum. cabegon. thil. sky. Cot. as if from happen. selar.. augm. E. an aquiline nose. of cavezza. departure. the inner roof of a room of state. See -cede. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. also a seeling of boards. heaven. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. give place. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. — . sus-lambris. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. of E . menuiserie. cedo. VIII. wuoren komo. canopied. ciel de lit. Soc. syl.j have come from this source. death. to seele or close with boards plancher. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him.). cielo. . hung. empty. and that from Sp. — — — toyour soverane. Hal. coffer. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. del into English without ' translation gave cele.' Cot. To seele a room. selure. a severe bridle. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. A — A false accommodation produced G. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. sybire. applied to a canopy. So from Fin. recede. little house. with their substantives concession. cellar. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead.' Rutland papers. bridle.). sounding as an empty vessel koppa. a log. lambrisser une chambre seeling. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. a halter. thili. — komo tain). thel. Boyd in Jam. . In the N. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. column E. 32. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. yield. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. lambris. a head. but hang around at the sides. nailes will begin to cling. Lat. pp. cavillor.' Hall. cabega.' Ordinances and Reg. seele. kommata. quibble. flooring E. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. as. step away. Plancher. Fr. Hence concede. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. &c. kapp-zaum. p. excess. 7. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. hollow. .

Accelerate. celeber certus. Cell. -ceive. Fr. ciglio. — A . Ta^oe. — . Gr. To chafe is for wine. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. family. swift. to heat. Centre. Centurion. to sleep). judge Lat. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. censura.' Book of St Albans. -cepere. . In Celebrate. -CEIVE a shaft. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. pick out. Fr. a hundred of what- — . and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. to blindfold. -ceptjun. Incensum. to set on fire. to distinguish. cerealis. crevi. OFr. guish. 1.. Lat. a registration of one's self. Celebrity. -cense. ceremonia. to course of people. Censure. a tomb. estimate.ing a room where there is not fire. we have a modified form of (of a place).Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. ' . assess. census. Assess. to celebrate. to warm. oil. Lat.). See Cede. materials It. irot\oe.— Chafing-dish. as entering largely into the derivative certo. sile. value. Chafe. Lat. abundance. make angry. a religious observance. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. Sc. Fr. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. the place where the de. calefare. Certain. stones to the production of heat. from Saa-rw. to burn incendo.j 138 thill. concernor. to concern. cigliare.). in accordance with the Fr. Lat. conceipt. with the eyes. cillier. concerner. and thence to conceal. Fr. in comp. appertain. cceremonia. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. siller les yeux. Lat. Assize. -oept. decebre) . rubble. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. cella. to rate.of the r. for building. cretum. mortar. single or unwedded life. For sess from assess. Cess. but was gradually lost in conceit. Celerity. and so of that other. Century. as in some places burnt. the point round which a circle is drawn. caber. keep in It. to contend. Lat. — . thence belonging to or connected with corn. &c. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. Gr. criticism. — . The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. Fr. -cipio. hollow. Censor. Fr. -cebre ifoncebre. cilibat. It. capio. tax. to incense. to seal a pigeon's eye. judge. an eyelash. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. receipt. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. -ceit. . and thence censer.unmarried. — . and — — — possessions. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. celer. to attend on object with. the hollow the Lat. a valuation of every man's estate. chaufferette. sacred show. zens according to their property. calefacere. to be regarded as one celebro. Lat. To Incense. Gr. camentum. to think. a prick. to -sum. from censeo. Cereal. a hundred centuria. is totally distinct from the foregoing. a Cemetery. candeo. Cot. -cess. Prov. Lat.— Cellar. ciller. a solemnity. Lat. eschattffer. cenio. quarters for slaves. KsvTpov. to take. {cori)cipere. parted sleep. -civer {conciver— Roquef. decide. Take the nedyll and threde. judge. cencer. to separate. to rub for the purpose a hut. to seele or sew up the eyelids . encens. &c. tax. to chafe. Lat. observe. being taken from Fr. S. heaven. oil. contend. Lat. distinIt. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. -cevoir. also grave opinion. solemn (of per. what to set in a chafe. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. then to rub without reference Cement. Lat. see. or expression of Ennius. festive. rough from the quarry. Fr. in Marsh. Ceremony.. Coehim. (and thence also) to hoodwink. syll. concetto. to take. the talk of men.' Celebritas. deceit. to prick. to bury). sure. cot. census. centum. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. blind. renown be embodied with. and put it through the over eyelydde. Sherwood. The term cilium. -i^oivre. — . or any bird's. riscaldarsi. the officer appointed to take such returns . — . become heated with anger. sift. Cij(fe5j. Fr. age. Fl. Lat. is the opposite of disora virum. -cern. Gr. a shaft horse. /ctj/rsw.cern. with transposition hence (of a day). -cepire. to glow. to visit in numbers. to sepap rate. Census Censor. Censer. Cot. See Celibacy. chauffer. eyelid. of heating. — — Cenotapli. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. point. empty. and met. thronged the participle cretus. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. a storehouse Chafe. a numerous con. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. a solemnity. in comp. his office. capturn. goad. dchauffer. -ciper. incense. much frequented. To seel or close the eyes. to twinkle darkness. confounded ist from It. sting. deceipt. It. K^'ivut.

E. to action arose. OFr. cadena. Lat. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . to gnaw. shaIt. calumnia. tattle cheep. on. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. De Ir4. kuhista. Cot. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. have a mind to parley. with a:n arched roof. ing a hard case to their wings. Prov. avena vilior. ON. limare. and signifies to consume with anger. chamar. The jaw chafty. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. chafeter. Cheffern.' Rayn. 35. chafing. grief. to a seat. in a cana. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. to sit. chaulx. care. chaffare. yap. havOFr. rustling motion challenge. dispute. dongio. — — — . of. as. jaw. rally one. a goba rustling . a double operation * Chafer. crooked. khah. chicane. vis. far lima-lima. Lat. fern-chafer. chatter. a jackdaw. in a monstrous fume. cadena gives chain. Halma. camera. and as this was the beginning of man. calonja. to institute anforensic action. taubes korn oder hafer. contestation. G. to move the jaws. breathe KaOa^oiiat. Chayire. lime. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. place See Cheek. false accusation. a pulpit Cot. Perhaps Pm. Pat. Du. to caw chawer. to buzz. So from dominio. to tattle. refuse. Came. From the To Chaff. To buy and sell. Fin. P. — — — — — — . idle words. p. kaff. often puffing. In like manto huff. muzzle. cathedra. green sagrin. cam. sagrindse. vel susurro. Adelung. . to Latin calumniare. chawe. a pulpit. cauvette. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. — — — . Fr. any insect of the beetle kind. breathe hard. gewolb. chagrin. kaff. calice. swelling with anger. sagri. cadera. Kuttn. hordeum vel let. Fr. from Swiss kafeln. ceaf. Fr. to fret inwardtronfo. kever. de Brai. Pers. chaine. From Port. kahuja. or puff with snorting. to chatter or talk lightly.. a prattling woaction. ing rapidly repeated cries. kdfelen. Fr. Cot. much more Genoese sagrind. G. kahu.sure carriage. fa sagramen de calompnia. keuchen. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. much blowing. clamare. call in question for an ley). Fr. kuhata. to calumpnjamen. kauchen. from of the G. . preise. Pr. to babble. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. Ayenbite. KoBiSpa. Fr. Du. chambre. sborfare. Kaiiapa. snort. Lat. grief. Chain. snuff. now a chair. Wall. ^Altieri. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. kiamta. quisquilise offence. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. Fr. Bouffard. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. Fr. thick and short. chaise. kedja. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. puffed or ruffled with ly. Gr. chaene.— — . ceafer. to bark. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief.. signal by drum or P. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. — . From to go to law. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. Hal. hiss. calx. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. kiqfta. kuhina. kiaftr. Lat. Camera. B. Fr. bargain. to call. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. rustling corn. leviter crepo Then. tronfio. difficulty . Fl. Piedm. chayire. hght Chalk. Chalice. . kuhuja. Prov. . fume. In this application it is the correlative Chaise.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. chaps Chamber. to pant. from the shark-skin. Probably from According to Diez. — — ' — — — A . to file. also to prattle. baras of ants. puff. 11. In vulgar language. to ner It. Prov. haggle. &c. matter by combat. Lat. Lat. lime . talkative. a vault or arched roof.nium. to puff and blow. songe. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. calonjar. kahista. ple^. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. tattle. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. (ca'e'ra) to chair. rustle Challenge. to dispute. great chafe. charge with. keffen. without chap/are makiinde. . cup. Gr. chaire. Lat. cathedra. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. refuse barley . dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. kdfer. Fr. that leneth e per I'autra. cadieira. Bav. calix. a chain. catena. to gnaw. ckapfare. Chair. Due. Chagrin. as a carriage is a moveable seat. chalanger. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. a chough. a rustling noise. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. care. to claim.

champ. kampen. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. to hollow out. . campear. kampa. termediaries between them and the judge. ciambellano. ciamberlano. champion Du. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . campus. difficulty . Champarty. kabinti. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. jeu parti. Prov. chdance. to fall). The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . as swine. to bevel. hero Sw. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). to hang. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. . kriimmen gebogen. gewolbt. dial. from Fr. The G. . chanfrein. to smack the lips in eating. accident. therewithal. Sp. a game at football. kiammi. dricka i kapp. Carpentier. to fall. Chamfron. to groove bevel off a right angle. act of falling. fight. ON. To Chamfer. broil. cadere.' SherI'altro ' ' .edley. kippo. to flute as a column. cample). hamper. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. kapp. as in It. sukibti. a court of justice. kabMe. to talk. kabe. a horse-race. to strive at games . kampeln. schmatzen s. Ptg. Gall. campar. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. dial. Sp. chamble. to fasten oneself on to another . prize-fighter. Dief. Champ. Fr. a hook . cancelli. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. dispute Hal.—Charfron E. to cample. Magy. certare. cahir. cempa. pinch. Fin. contention kappi. zs jeopardy. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. kablys. campus partitus . camp. chajnbellan . gekrUmmt. who stood ad cancellos. fight. and mesUe. G. wood. fray. to debate. mesleiare. to hold . an athlete.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. to excel. kibti. to slope. athlete. kimpUma. kempa. at the railings. luctare. kampeln. To cope or contend with. to — — champ. Fr. champ. slope of a bevelled angle. Prov. Chance-n3. chanfrar. pedilusor. . — Hal. to chew. kanip. chance. kinipen. chanfrein. . champ. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. move the jaws. camp. — Ch-amberlain. Chancellor. to stick to. e. Chancery. to slope out the . to . boys speak of capping verses. E. Fr. Lith. to to chew champ. or player at football. chaude mesUe. a jaw kianisa. Commonly derived from campus. champ parti. — masterly Sp. to move the jaws kiamt. Fr. Champaign. ON. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. So in e. from cheoir. contest. keiiipe. to happen {ad and cadere.Lat. to quarrel (comp. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . to wrestle. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. Campar. The E. a feat. cazer. kappd). contend or argue G. compound. Lat. Hence (with the nasal) w. to fasten oneself to another . Chancel. Get campers a ball To camf . game campio. . a field of battle. When the to quarrel. . an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. — ^Tusser. Sup. ing. Fr. dial. kimpustella. — KiL . hng. ON. bundle. CHANCEL It. kabintis. excellent. a warrior. top of a borehole. Lat. to paw the ground E. to be eminent. to tread The sound heavily. Lat. combat. the chafldn. a scufSe. —Chamfrain. kiinp. jocus partitus. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. received the petitions of the suitors.' ' Pr. The happening of things Chance. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. Meleare. Lat. a hollow chanfreiner. chain. calida et sans aguet. giving rise to the as. or less ignorant. See Camp. from chaud. Partnership. dial. kempen.' melleia. i. champ. head armour. to Hal. It will. Fr. is explained by serrarsi. to wrestle. calidameya. bickering. cameratus. dial. E. chanfreindre. Champion. camp.—Tutschek. surpassing. s. zampettare. accidere. kimbu. Pm. chamfrain. hot. reusement — fight in single combat. a bundle. tsammogni. and acted as inofficers of . divided game. fighting place.140 CHAMBERLAIN . to fasten on. camerlengo. escazenza. The word is preserved in E. caer. chance. M. kimppu (Lap. tsamtsogni. Du. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. . nels. rare. To hollow out in chanPtg. which seems another form of the root.

to cut. And N. Fr. properly in a hard body. a chap is a crack or fissure. cangiare. chop. and the modern canal. Channel. Hence It. A fellow. to paw like a horse . supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. leather. cobio. throat of an animal. Walach. E. exchange. gab. kiceft as well as kjakje. Da. any hollow for conveying water. W. Hence chantry. to plate. hard bodies. It is also used in the sense of the E. I. or the like chapar. Cheek. the loose flesh of the cheeks. to deal.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. Russ. prune. — . Chap. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. chapelete de una bomba. Chaps or chops. 140. hack . changer. to plate. to chap at a door. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. 2. chancery. from canna. — : Lat. Compare chark. Aasen. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . See Chop. chandelier. cheek. Commonly derived from capella. to strike. as to chap hands. and also to chap or crack. a small plate of flat metal. chop. exchange schimbatoriu. Probably from chap. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. kiceft. like the knocking of hard things together. ^Jam. ceaflas. Fr. Sc. Chap. not a soul. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. waterconduit. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. Man of Law's Tale. a dealer in candles then. kennel. to — cut. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. Sp. a money-changer. skipta. Prov. a pipe. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. the gutter that runs along a street. chapeletas de imbornales. to peck. to cut up into small pieces. clapet. to truck. cambium. Hal. Chandler. chanter. wood. kjaakaa. chaps. klepan. are kept. the chaps . In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. Fr. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. Chap. to peck. Da. a strip of metal plate. canalis. jaw. to cut off . cambiare. exchange. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. Chip. ceaplas. a reed. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. lips of an animal. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. schimbd. may be compared with ON. the mouth. to strike with a sharp edge. Chop. flat . chap. esclapa. . The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. to coat. schimbu. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. to apply one flat thing to another. to strike. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. the place where candles ler. . To Change. chapeta. the clappers of the scupper holes. to swap. to creak. chancellerie. debeant conjurare. . while the broader vowels a. surfaces striking together. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. to change. chapear. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. as It. extended to other trades. from chandler. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. kapoti. That wide were sentin their spicery. a small metal plate Port. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. from clap. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . chapa. esclapo. or the cracking of one. chapilla. to put on fresh clothes. to break . . Chapel. AS. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. — — —Marculfus in Due. a jaw. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. . kvar kjceften. Bret. to spht a chip. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. Fr. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. —Ordericus Vitalis. Lith. as corn-chandChandry. also a clap. kappen. kemma. Molbech.^. See Chant. as those on a trunk. Hal. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. as skin chapped hands. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. to sing. Lat. shift. Lang. to hack. chiappa. Du. jaw. chap. is used in the same sense . cambiar. as chancery . muzzle. ON. Sp. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. kaupa. —Chantry. camjar. Chape. cantare. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. In like manner Walach.

a The OFr. charlatan. Boh. in To ness Charity. from gadai.' Boccaccio in Diez. beloved. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. Fr. keeren. be- e. to load . occasional turn. to dove . czurksti. Deutsch. go. Charcoal was ciarlare. Lat. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. cluck. It. Lith. surris seu Lat. capella. talking. creak. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. kirkti. From Norm. to prattle. a hood. a cricket karkti (schnarren. schreien. of chapel. from capitulum. eyre. cha. in turns. carus. affection. Sup. Sp. Prov. An enchantment. twist. chirk. from cape or cope. a verse. In that work the verb is written caire. czurliwoti. cerran. . a rhyme. the nature of a thing. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. a garland of roses. Chark. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. It. enough. . capitolo. cearcian. to love. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. Lat. AS. a head or division of a book. dear. charade. it is my turn.charme. Chare. properly to place — . Fr. Character.). cedeleac. 2. to talk . a charm. karout. the turtle pitre. for the same reason rosario. Chirk. corona. cam. to chirp as sparrows. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. creak. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. prattling quacksalver. to turn. Sp. carmen. charcoal burners. as. carregar. Mundart. Macduff. eapitulo. It. seems to be derived charade. cluck kirklys. Gr. canne. Charlock. w. Lay on. &c. chara. Lat. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. Mid. To Char. charge an enemy is to lay on.Lat. Lang. caritas. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. Fr. . to turn Gael. clack. Justin. wood to coal. char. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . bler. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. carmo. decken. carricare. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. a merchant. ciarlatore. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. Charade. babbling. siarad (pronounced — sharad). — spell. chapitre. charlar. Chapter. gnash. capital. a riddle. to tattle. from carrus. as a beetle. Fr. gaggle . a riddle. Hence carminare. Fr. dear(in both senses). Charlatan. to croak as a frog . jabber. as Pol. to chirp. used in the sense of magic Fl. a dispute . Cot. caricare. chirriar. Du. turn about. tegere. to prattle. a mark of a mountebank. cher um cher. ject). The crash. tattler. —— . hiss Lith. to sing or chirp as birds. babdistinction. * Charcoal. return. And damned be he who first cries Hold. grave or make incised marks on an ob. See Charlatan. called kedlock. twitter. to . (eucharistie. that turned decken . from capa. dim. Ptg. Bret. wreath for the head. kurkelis. chapel. ghirlanda seor garland. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. colliers that charred coal. to converse. It.. chapelet. es ist mi cheer. a turn cerran. chatter. turn. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. A weed among com AS. a mark made on a thing. capellare. Yx.czirksti. called in Sp. Chapman. to chirp. car. charger. to of the governing body. 370. . from Charade. charer. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . chirlar. .whirr. Inst. czirbti. hadka. The G. ceap-man. Charge. charitas. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. — — — turned to coal. condo il volgar francese. which was incantation. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. AS. OE. and in It. pohadka. to creak. gadka. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. burning without consuming the substance. to charcoal. Sp. kurkti. cabildo. chatter. w. Swiss. — a car. krachzen). chat. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. See Cheap. Chaplet. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation.

Kil. Russ. also a youth. an enchantress. See Cistern. Fr. as. G. whence a charm of goldfinches. Parallel with E. It t. a twig Suffolk chaits. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. gazzettare. See Catch. It. Cot. So in Gael. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. clear. splinters. chisf. It. to set a jewel. Cot. Fr. Pol. chykkyn (Pr. An imitative word. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. the young shoots . Pm. To chip is then to crack. chit-chat. or the cry of a bird or the like. csacsogni. speak . csacsogany. incassare. Lat. to care). To Chasten. to chatter or prattle . or a bird out of the egg. g. to burst open. to cry as a chicken . cyrm. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. — We ornamental work the to signify E. gazzerare. to chirp. clack.— Chatter. schioppare. the bird is iiown. i. clean. pure. to make a noise. or equivalent forms. the calix of a rose. as turnip-chaits. fragments or leavings of food. Fr. carme and Fr. in Jam. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit.house. chits. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. make a noise as birds do. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. kata-kata. — = Chats. also to germinate or spring forth. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. flesh. B. ferire. whistle. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. CHATS fit 143 to name. — sharp sound of a crack. charmer. clap. to crack. chaste. pure. discourse. To Chase. Chart. racket . Du. — Yorkshire chat. warble. a branch and a young female. chat. Gr. —Charter. to crack. chick. See Card. chit. Fl. Diez. cearig (from cearian. It.a. czysty. to chirp as a bird to cheep. Chasm. D. chair. niggardly. a chatter-box. Chat. chick. karg. sordidus. a gap. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. gazzogliare. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. magpie.). Hal. From carinen was formed It. To chit. Chaste. pure. jackdaw . — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. to which it bears the same relation as chape. chatter. chit in the latter sense Du. chary. the cry of the bat. To talk. root of the Lat. caro.— Chit. enchasser. knacken. is to represent the chamier. — Hal. chip. kata. Lat castigare. a flock of those birds. — The . to baptize. It. prate. ch). from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. —Chastise. to cut and faggoted. occasionally Forby. To Chase. To chitter or chipper. clean. warble. the handle of a razor . V. little sticks cudere. carmen is presented in AS. csaterdzni. Chamel. Fr. as in the E. to chirp. chip. nommer. a yawning. Malay. to clap. OE. gazeuiller. kippen. To work plate as silversmiths do. crackle. — Palsgrave. be wide open. —Bailey. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. chaste. Pol. Chat-wood. careful. a shrine for a relic. letters p. nome and . converse. castus. carnisj bones kept. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. cassa s. to talk. or suckers on rough borders. — Fr. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. noise. scraps of for fuel. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). — — . . kastaa. also to hatch. gaddc. Kil. shout OE. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. from purus. Chary. Magy. xi'i-'^vui. In like manner Russ. used to represent a sharp note. chikat'. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. talk much . a crack or a flaw .ppen. limpid. kna. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. shivers. as we speak of olive branches. blackthorn-chats. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . cs E. or pop. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. eclats. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. a young man .. gallan or ogan. to enchase it . karigh. prattle. from pure. knatiern. a plate of metal. talk. tenax. —Jam. a word. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. charm. geug. Fl. from xoAn. noise. csatora (Magy. . gazzolare. to gape. a branch. as from nomen It. snap. %aafi. ch&tier. The egg is chipped. chip. germinate . parcus.). as purgare Fr. gadu-gadu. clatter. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. the noise of birds. s. fragments. clean. castus. a churchyard or charnel-house. to separate in morsels. la chasse d'une rose. to wet. tittle-tattle.

s.. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. horse-couper. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. a dealer. citello. Hal. to deal ON. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. CHATTELS has ciio. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. favour. choule. — We ' . retching. cachinnari. a rogue or person who used the canting language. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. G. See Chess.—Choke. to — . countenance. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. capitale. the Lat. catalliim. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. welcome heartily. to fetch the breath with difficulty. 144 the It. a tavern-keeper. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. chavylbone or chawlbone. kakaista. farm for farm. teeth . Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. . from AS. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. kaupon. Faire bonne chire. stuttering. jaws. bon marche. Hence to cheat. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. cheeks. Then.' kezen. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . — To check an account. It. snout. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. the tongue. sum in a loan. thers. Cot. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. Bav. price. to chop and change. the Confessor. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. kaufen. Bohem. us. to buy. Ek dry and hard. and. to act as a rogue. goods. gagkezen. Chattels. the principal ' colloquial E. Pm. kak. cita.— Chole. gagkern. &c. to negotiate. . Cheat. in Fr. truffa. aspect of a man. OFr. with Dief. Pro v.kakot. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. Fr. . entertain kindly. to make inarticulate sounds in . to cough and hence either buying or selling. dchec. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. kauf. Modern Slang. whence captale. a cheater. prattlingchete. a repulse.. Lat. Chear. sob E. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. et juxta catalla sua. a young boy or girl. caupo. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. entertainment. cattle. chatel. which is used in the to stutter. kik. kakkaset.— Cattle. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. Gr. jaw. which is the word in ceap. stuttering. Cheek. giggling. kaupa. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du.-^. . catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. and hence the E. giving or taking in exchange. to clear the throat . chop. NE. mandibula.. goods. in widely separated languages by the Lat. gig. CHEEK zitella. cara. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. ceaflas.ing. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. exAS. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. force of the word. a willing look and unwilling heart.' to exchange to gasp. e. upon a checked cloth. syllables ^ag-. a canting knave. Chew. tradesman. It. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. to stutter gigken. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. to vomit. Pr. See Cheek. chaptel. ku. Slav. chapman. chire. kok. chatal. are represented piti. equiva. Ingulphus. Du. any cheating.— Chaps.of the throat in coughing. chuckle. the countenance Fr. a dealer in horses. visage. to laugh. while it Bret. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. Cam. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. ceap. koopen. to nauseate (to retch). kaupiti. — — —Chowl. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. changing. keck. society. cera. KaviiXog. OFr. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. to cluck like a hen. chear in the sense of victuals. Soc. lower. laughing. Fin.— . It — Brompton in Due. ceafl. frown. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. from Lat. Check. cattle. Fr. chiere. to swap goods . lead to OE. kichen. 'li^'opa jord i jord. sale. hawkmann. cozener. . to coff—Yisi. with the exception of land. kikottaa. sense of bargaining. agreeing upon. Fl. kek. The gutGoth. to . look. to coup s. cattle. ceahhetan. Sp. the face. Sc. to buy. a piece of moveable property.

' to w. the mouth.cirieggia. the throat. Da. See Alchemy. To make a shrill noise Chest. for cheese itself. mouth kek. gabe. castaneusj Fr. geagl. to geahl. Sw. ichec. E. Lat. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. chops. to gasp. scacco. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. jaw . treat with affection. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. whence kasa-leipa. It. whence czypulas. E. as. Kil. kikna of dorum coacervatio. To Cheep. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. Du. E. rennet. cheek. skratt. cheeks. cufd. to swallow. An imitative word. czypti. .Xo belch. chevir. a chicken. Fr. the final guttural is retained in writing. Chess. E. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. to kep. to belch. practice seems to have been communiChevron. Cherry. /Ji2^/(W. frame by which the exertion is made. The Sw. ost. gaghel. cheek. kok. cherir. Lat. chops. schach. giffle. Hence kikna is identical with OE. made rancid koka. It would Cheese. chevron. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. — — . Fr. jaws. Pm. . prevail with. CHE. throat. to prevent the attack of cavalry. Achievement. chaps. — 10 . the hke. (Kil. Du. ceaflas. cisty G. ON. incaseatus. to bring to an end.pose of acidifying them kasadr. cams. AS. jaw. the neck. caws. to choke with laughter. Pl. to year. to heap up such things for the purchoke. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. to boken. geafl. cough.peep in the same sense. Analo. from the cry of check 1 (Pers.D. achever. Fr. &c. quok. The name of creak as shoes. the palate Chequer. ca' — . kistej Lat. Sc. the loose the game of checks. clear the throat. Prov. Sp. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner.EP CHEVRON 145 on. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. old bread. chAtaigne. subacidus. In these latter forms we see the transIt. G. kdke. gullet. Chef. kjceve. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. Sc. chesten. F*-. kapen. the The use of the word kcesir. kaecke. cese. Cherish. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. Sw. gap. Chevaux de frise. cista. to hold dear. Lat.. to gape gab. cheken. Fris. . kasiiUPr. dersen . to make a noise different word. Cher. food. — — . veluti piscium. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. Fr.). chests in OE. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. by laying up in a covered heap. N. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. schach. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. ceac. cabiron. accomplishment cayed. make an end. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. w. cabrio. things Da. a rafter . cegio. From them the plish. suffo. Lat. xaque. hasten. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. jaw. caseus. jaws Sw. kirsche. AS. cerasus. kastanie. mollium congeries. Lith.G. king). jouffle. Tutschek. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. cheek. nish source. Prothroat of an animal .their struggle for independence. takes place in the formation of cheese. . See Chess. Lith. rattle in the throat. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. to accomThis they call hdrsk. a heap. . rafters in heraldry. kesten. by laying it in come to an agreement with. Chemistry. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . X'C&s. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. condition of being taken. kopen. kikna. kdkel. kjcebe. e. cireggia. kjakje. — — .D. kces. ceaplas. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. a cricket. G. carnium. chasi. OHG. Fin. to kasa. Chevisance. subjected to this process with that which the throat . Thus "we are brought din. See Case. w. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. kasa. Fr. w. gill of fish AS. AS. like a young chicken. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. equal squares of opposite colours. Hence chesten-nut. to choke. ation. to love.koppen. gapen. quoka. gous forms are G. as meat and butter. jowl. ceocian. caru. then end.. Sp. kastr. Jam. Chekenyd or querkenyd. dear. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. throat. cyse. rupted into chess. acquisition.perly head. ceg. squeak as a mouse. chiffe. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. cerise j G. As the board to gasp i.

cabar beinne. De chic en chic. a finch. chavel. E.). Chimb. alter. kimista^ . chaps. horn wood. killen. s. captain. to titter is Du. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. a hen. then cold. tiukkata. kauchen. Gael. caprioru. to twitter. are formed Du. Imitative of a loud clear sound. to use the jaws. to scold. jaw. tiuk. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. Swiss kiden. Walach. pululo. antler. kuwe. a chicken. the same principle I regard On birds. or qf people talking rapidly. chimb. Chitter. Prov. E. the cry of young . to go. . kauen. chieftain. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. knarren. from little to little. kidata. pipe. knit the brow cib-led. — Fin. choule. Chief.^ Hal. to crackle. to Du. W. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. Pl. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. — It. pole. a cup cibaw.. or the broken noise of birds. hiss as meat on the gridiron. tiukka. keichen. creak. head. kieken. caput. as. The loss of the syllable it in Du. in Walach. by driblets. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. machouere. kitista. a jaw. the head. a cup. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. knirschen. and not vice versd. kauwe. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. to contest. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. cidan. to chime. or as E. Chigue. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. a head.. Chaw. w. The Pl. Chick. chill. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. kind. . capu. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. to smart. while the Magy. strideo. mountain top . branchy. See Chimmer.— . queror. capete. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. Du. quivering sound which passes. Chill. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. chicken. horns of the house. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. or chick. kimia. a chicken. kouwe. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. cica cica. ]). Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. Magy. grelot). signifying properly shivering. cabriones. Fr. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. k'imm s. : — a lump. term is ssaru fu. chin. stake. ach. pipio. cebr. Pm. Kil.— Cot. to chirp or peep like a chicken. deer's horn. a cup. kindeken. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. Russ. Pr. AS. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. as pointing out the origin of the E. Fin. To chitter. chew or chaw. into a continuous shriU sound. beam. pi. chic. a quid of tobacco. chillar. 146 brial. twitter.D. chillrar. tremble. jaws . — . to the brim. also the horizon. Palsgr. crepo. to chew. aner. Chime. chef. then as G. chillness or shivering. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. cheek. tyuk. acute. Da. kibr. mouth. gosling. from the second Lat. zitterti. kilderkin. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys.. — Du. Bret. kop. jaw. kippa. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. ' . Tintillo. cib. chicaner.peep. rafter. cabar. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. CHEW . Fin. to contest about trifles. E. chikat'. And hence. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. De finger killet mi for kalte. killen. the jole. tiukkua. Fr. Probably from Fr. pip. G. the young of animals in general. a chicken. kime. a young bird. Brezza. the Ptg. to raise the rim. chiler. klagend tonen. and from the third E.^ to resound as a bell. tremble with cold. kaau•wen. Pm. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . Fin. Gattel. Child. lead through the synonymous E. It.' my finger tingles with cold. cabarach. Pr. to pettifog. Payer chiguet A chiguet. has probably the same origin. the least imaginable jot. Du. a small cask OFr. czypulas. CHJME the radical form is unusual. chiquei. ultimate origin of the Mite. Lat. the rim or edge of a vase. chol. Fr. caferu. Fl. Now gan some courage unto him to take. . G. greloter is to shiver for cold. For the see word Doit. rafter . a little bit. chavel. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. sonorous. rafter . Sp.— Gattel. gills of a fish. kinderen. to gasp for breath (Hal. kopf Du. chicoter. To Chide. Fl. Halm. pipio. 'Among these the G.. chawbone. when the vibrations become very rapid. kimme. kaw. cild. tintelen van koude.-ill. capo. cap. A To Chew. — — Mother Hubbard. the throat. from the first of which is Lith. while didder is to shiver or citteren.D.

crepare. — . Chytof J^ to sk is singular. as the chink of money.' Phaer's Virg. It. Sw. Cot. sparkle. to open chirriar. schrick. kink hoest. Sp. Huloet. Fr. ter. the whooping cough. Gower in Hal. to creak. Chink-cough. Chyrme or chur. ykvvQ. a chap. — . Lat. disCot. to prattle . Prov. and from a similar sound to boil gently. from Lat. cheminde. komia. to squeak in It. skina. fissure. cisello. cincel. Chintz. a hall Mid. Caminatum. AS. See Chats. from 10 * ' Chia. twinkling light. to chirp. spina. Hindost. a surkik hosta. clangor tinniens kummata. Fr. in Hal. Chip. G. Chin-coug^h. Magy. to prattle czirpti. E. eschine. hiss Pm. To chink with laughter.to divide or Du. See Chap. then to any narrow crack or AS.). to tattle. . is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. gen. i. as the/ is preserved tering. komista. quivering or shakyng for colde. tinnire. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. the chin . Bret. schiena.schricken. but or cry as a parrot. to murmur. the jaw. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. the cheek. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . Fr. kieck hoest. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. Chimney. backBut she withal no worde may soune. sonants. hiss chirlar. to chirp . E. stridere. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. also vibrans. sound on beginning to boil. To Chitter. clipping of coin. kumista. hollow. zirken. esquena. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. pare also Walach. a Kuttn. chirp. to simmer. keich husten. genou (pi. See Bright. flaw Hal. as birds the mouth. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. chink. caminsects. — . also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. Chitterling. Diez de. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. yivtiov. — . Chink.Huloet in Hal. kumina. a crowing sound in recovering breath. Sp. G. as a bell kommata. to sound deep or the Gr. .. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. Chit. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. In the same sense. eschiner. vincially used in the sense of a crack. verynge or dyderinge. to sizel. tremulous motion. do. Chine. Primarily a shrill sound. zirpen. shiver and the chyver of Pr. all these imitative terms being minata. ciseau (for cisel). — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . KinneGr. gena. Sp. part lion.Lat. cleft. . dial. and the Du. spina. Chymerynge. the jaw. bx-eak the back of schena. Fr. chits. Pm. then of a fabulous monster part goat. chhint. rustle. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate.to chirp. a thorn. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. Gloss. Pr. Chisel. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. simmer. to gape. as a large bell . Gascoigne in Todd. tschirpen. . to chine. companied. ciarlare. to sound. caperd. It. up and down. the chine. A . to chink with laugh2. to chirre.. Chat. j^lf. chatter . to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. have been used to designate the spine. the mouth (jaws) . chick. killed by Bellerophon. schina. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. sound. fyr. clashing of weapons. epine. The change from the sound ter \s. chin . backe.sharp. Kil. sonus the backbone Lat. Ptg. hus. representing connected together. See Chark. are In like manner E. — — — — — . a thorn. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. resonance . genawi. to chink. Chimera. eschin^e (de pore). It. Chitter. It. and light. schetteringe. To Chimmer. cinne. to tremble.er. a szemrcU. esquina. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. sounding deep. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. klincken. cinan. quavering of the voice. schetteren. squittire. a chink or fissure. Fr. tsengeni. 147 kimina.czirbti. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. tsongeni. caminata. The desig. a fire-place. Bav. and chim-mer. or chyFrigutus. The small entrails of a hog. in the same crack. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. cheek. to creak.iron. Sp. from the geon's lancet. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. et garrire . bone . kinne. which differ from each other only as Chirk. Du. czirszkti. plodere. It. . and bodily movement in shimm. twitter caminus. cisaille. To chirp or twitter. Lith. name Then. pork) . applied to tremulous motion. Du. the cheek (jaw) .

to taste . a wine taster. keuren. chawdron. to strike hands . select. &c. the small parts of the roots of plants. . pluck. fresure. . by the vibrations of sound or motion. * To Choose. are used in the same sense. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . civette. kiusan. chimp. and N. ^euw.' At last he dwelt .— B jag E. Choleric. or original meaning is preserved in G.. gusten. . shiver. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. anger. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. — Chock-full. from chevalier. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. keypa.' Verie coinme Cot. Prov. a chive. then to shiver. kalbs gekrose.freze. to taste. See try. taste. kiusan. to try. chives. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. chife. The manners and senti. chock full. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir.vonic languages are Pol. kiezen. cape. okusyti. to experience. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. Cavalry. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. and Vf. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste.' who shall not taste death. Chuck-full. G. prove. Schmid. Goth. crammed Choir. x^poc. — — — . kieser. to taste. word is more likely to be from Lat. The I go to prove them. signify to kiss. a calf's chaldern of E. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. Chives. koren. to taste. kaup. heaped measure. the inwards of an animal. chippe. to prove. rare. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. choppe. %o\ifa. ON. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. Swab. a small slice or slip of anything . Fr. Gr. Jam. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. The .yEuffM. scheve. it is probable that the root kus. Yr. Fr. whence choleric. haslets. Chives are also a kind of small onion. a knight. — Cholera. coro. chaup. to hack. to taste. Fr. kbhren. The Sc. to tempt. then to try. to ^cleave . to Compare also Pol. Warwickshire coff. approve. a fragment. curly . Serv. To Choke. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. xiv. g'schochet voll. . Choice is probably direct from Fr. 19.ffrill. try. cive. a goose's giblets. —Chorus. propagated. chorus. Chap. To Chop. schiefer. kushevati. wrath. ruffs. to shiver. &c. called cMtters in the N.V)^x. all seem slate . to choose. as with a blow. and in kosten. Choice. gdnse gekrose. ments of the knightly class. disposition. I. and in this sense the * small pieces. coup. try. shoot . chap hands. kiesen. specially with an application to theatrical performances. Equivalents in the SlaFr. to exchange horses. gustare. As kushnuti. Swiss kust. G. OHG. causir. Enn Sigridur sem ' . of an angry — — — ' ' — . to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. . in the same language. as green as leeks. kushati. to try . kruszki. a company of singers or dancers. chattering. to turn. a scale or fragment P1. also calPs. to try. cut up into — See Chats. from kraus. to break off in small shive. bile. to try. CHOP kros. . arkiusan. cepa. ON. to ing is doubtless to taste. a twittering. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. and It. a young . to clap up Hal. i.. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. schevel-steen. a heap. Gr. caperd. choix. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. taste. kausjan.D. to taste. a ruff or frill.ceosan. an onion. friller. of E. Chivalry. Walach. kusid. schoch. cke. developments of the same radical image. full. full to overflowing. Gr. fine threads of flowers. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. •- Russ. to chap. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp .gust. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. wkusit' prikushat. a calf's pluck or chaldron . . chceur. to stop geschoppt voll. whence Lat. a rag. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. Luc. ^S. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. experience valerie. Lat. from %u\i). stone which splits off in shives or shivers. krussyi. wein didder for cold. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. chibble. chiffe. lead us on to Lat. a ruff. — See Cheek. the ridges prove. kustigen. chatter. skifa. by which they are Fr. to chap at a door . to wrinkle. to palpitate . Boh. pieces . gekrose. a blow. G. Body and Soul. kor6n. ent quarter. seallion or unset leek. 2.

because she would not endure this husband chopping. Chough. — . Cot. xpi'^lia. overset. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. gold. i. chatter . capitanus. kaulhaupt (club-head. From the Turkish Chiaus. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. a lump or piece chump. to cant.— Landnamabok. clogs. caker. Gr. for to defraud. See Chaff. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. whence — E.—Chuokstone. chapin.' They are forebuyers of quheit. Du. Chub. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. chroniques. cambiare. gull. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. — Dief. applied to an owl in that language. Alchemist. chevin. Confounded with the bullhead. Chord. civetta. Chuck. Du. kaufen. If I discover. the intestine of an animal. to turn over. sent before him a Chiaus. Chopino. E. to speak thieves' slang. Peace. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. chronicles. To Chouse. thumb Fl. cauvette j Fr. plump.\^s. claquer. a thick piece. Kil.povucd. To coup. Gr. G. chapineria. cow-couper. Fr. to clack. syllables chat. clat. —Shakespeare. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. Fr. klompe. kaw. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. chub. cangiare. -chron-. Fr. a stump. Madam. OE. See Change.. kubb. e.' Jam. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. To Chop logick. dealing. whence e. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. . to overturn. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . Jam. one who buys and sells horses or cows. chouquette.. cheap. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. high clog. cavena. 4. E. capitone. In the Alchemist. cheviniau. kolbe (club). where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. that will thank chiaus — you richly. to strike in the hand. P. fat. as in Fr. a The What dhy ^. chevane. kowe. Gr.). quappe. thick-set. AS. which was written 27. time ra . kaej Lith. ley in Giiford.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. 49. whence apparently the Sup. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. . cresmeau. Picard.). caphatenus.X. Wall. capita. — Quabbe.— Chevin. Lat. slipper . ON. caqueter. I bring you the Cloughs. dial. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. Marin. — Chrisom. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. to knock. from kloppen. noble Doctor. Gr. an offence against the fitness of times. klopper. we find the following passage Dap. gull. peace. Chrysalis. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. Come. That Face. soul-couper. in Chaucer. the teeth to chatter . E. chouette. p. A fish with a thick snout and head. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. Borgoens happen. chrysalis (Plin. Sw. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. Nominale in Nat. chack. In Sc. E. A jackdaw. kauwe. kobe. kowej Sax. Ant. Sp. cauc. What do you think of me. Chronicle. chevane. kubbr. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. chrisme. ceo. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. who took in the Turk- clack. The Turk was here As one should say. merchant. gobio capitatus. by the Robert Shirley. ' ' What's that? Dap. — — — . as Du. the string of a musical instrument originally. xop5>}.(. prattle . short piece kubbug. chapma?i. capito. Fr. cob. forms are Chrism.sohola. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. connected with G. bearand aits. a trafficker in souls. chuet. Fr. koppe. &c. the same word with the It. chop. traffic. a small fish with a large head. monedula. a bullhead. XpvaaXic. of which such strings are made. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. equivalent to the E. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. dial. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. in i6io. Anachronism. a messenger or envoy. and we actually find champman for chapman. whence the Fr. e. xftovoq. choucas. yiSA. to chatter.• — . CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. or miller's kaycke .

to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. has been impugned which it has really no connection. cheek. thence a belt. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. kern.' he adds. Diss. . swollen or puffed up Cot. to fall. geaflas. cinis. a miser. Da. a man. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. so as to make the happen . and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). to form grains of butter. to determine incision. Wall. chuffy. a girding on. surly. ashes. but by way of explan. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. sicera. .analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. joufflu. ceffo. from Lat. In Sc. chaps. The derivation from Kvpiasov. to churn. calculus. -cido. sintel. that the word is an adoption of Fr. jaws. Wall. Cieling. To chuck in the fall from. Chuff. to Newsp. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. to separate the kernel of the milk. as water running over rocks or stones. to To Chuckle. whence church. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). to sparkle. a douse on the tores.^. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. with It the Lord's house. sinter. Lat. . Du. whence ON. -eris. Cob. to make a rippling noise. joffu. kjami. to fall at or on. a man. -cis-. Ka-^aiva. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. Lat. cheeks Cincture.for the residue of stone coal..— . See Cheek. ceaflas. a cutting round. Gr. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. C^z^j^ churHsh. flower. to cut decide. a lump. marrow. to jaw chack or snap. Du. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. kakka. to gird. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. cinders used disjunctively. have given rise. Sc. a pebble. cado. See Cheek. i. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. log of wood. in the face. Sw. ccedo. kerl. incido.— Chu%. in circumcision. Hence -cid-. the snout of an animal. &c. G. ciuffo. as a board.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. as Epkema explains it. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. ladre from Lazare. 24.' And cold.V//a'6'?. male person. It is certain. . to him a sudden blow. ChurL husbandman. spuma metalli. See Ceiling. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. -cise. Chunk. a rustic . a pebble . cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. The origin ation. chops. cendre. sindel. chack-stone. a cutting an old chuff. * Cinder. however. to strike clatter. chofu. tie about). Gr. ON. -cide-. dial. Lat. chack or stane-chacker. ceaplas. Aasen. to turn from blossom to fruit. a husband. karl. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . corresponding term should have made its way among to G. sive piratiam facere sciant. kiorne. or. Fr. . — — A — ' ' — . to cause the milk to grain. calx. ON.rendered by Kil. chofe (Grandgagnage). -cisuiri). Ir. ceffore. scoria.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. countryman. Church. or choice part of a thing . . a man. Fris. kirna. dust. to fall upon decide. The spelling of chider has Chump. e. in Sc. Fr. cidre. domhnach. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. kaerle. to throw out sparks. as Fr. e. the kernel. a fellow. pith. cinctura {cingo. sindr. cut off. sindra. G. blow on the I io6 in Mur. chakil. As AS. Probably from It. &c. Cleland in Jam. AS. Cider. OFr. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . klakka. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. lamak. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. pp. we have to chack. — of the two words. ceorl. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. set kerti. Gothic nations. an old man. from Lat. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. then the on oh StX iv roXt. KvptaKolg. whence deciduous (of trees). because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. gffe. ON. Jennings.D. Lat. residue of burnt coals. Sicerawry face ceffata. comp. fat-cheeked. KaxXij?. x^^i?. as in E. cinctus. kernjen. to make a aiKipa. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. tindra. — . casum (in comp.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. i. giffle. Du. a resounding object. AS.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. chife. accido. Churn.

klak. . clamare. crack. . Hence Incite. . circ2tlus. 'mass. circum. civitas. klqb. klopati. — (Dozy) ing blow. cisterna. ON. prattle. a knob. sphere gleba. Du. Citadel. mass . tinnitus . klumbr. cifra. klekotati. We . . chest. to chatter. The notion of a lump. City. a citizen . globus. Fr. lump. Lat. klappen. bunch . a Lat. to summon or call on. Dan. forms — — — parent plant. a rattle Fr. From Arab. circum.. lump. smack. claquer. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . to call by name. biw. creak les dents. lump . to gnash the teeth. E. clack-box. clog. The syllables clap. to cleanse. or quill to draw waier through Fl. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. clack-dish. Chaste. Clam. Circum-. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. may cite w. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. klimp. a lump Lat. accordingly find the roots dab. glambar. W. Alt. klap. clatCot. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. to go. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). klubb. a hiding-place. Fr. chupon. and E. To Clack. in the frequentative form. bunch. Citron. to chatter . . a circle. civilis. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. gutter. Fr. The Gr. a pop-gun. a block. klemte. . a boss . to knock. noise. crack. clump. ON. kringr. a kind of rattle. castus). Du. clamp. city. whence cistiti. babble . * Ciplier. lump. to toll . the door was slammed J slamem.to suck. Gr. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. . cito. from chupar. sound of blow. Comp. ball kloben. ern. a shoot. clapper. a city. Cite. or split with noise. uproar. a whip. to cry out. to clatter. to cluck. a kind of pipe. Lat. or clap-dish. prattle. claim. rattle . a cistern. cista. a young and tender plant. for Cion. and. as. with an initial s instead of c. G. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. a loud uksa slamketi. to appeal. . Gr. chupon. chijfre. log. klepati. Circle. hringr. sindri. circa. to chatter. a clod. wasserkasten (water chest). striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. Clump. suck). to set in motion by means of the voice. sound- — hands figures. excite. cit^. klacke-busse. noise — — a cistern. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. We . belonging to cities or social life . crack. outcry. Hal. a circle. a rattle . To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. . lash . ter. about. dob. cion. fall. as caverna from cavus. citrus. ciste. a. cluster. * Cistern. a lemon tree. glamm. clap. around. It. a reservoir Probably from Lat. civis. circle. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. E. cittd. a clod Russ. vociferation. KpiKoe. -cite. a block. Du. clap. a circle. cion. a split. Lat. to clap at a theatre. the place of . scion. clamer. a cleansing place. klammer. -cis-. ring. Lap. a mass. clamras. to mention. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. a Pol.' sione. to strike. slam. Gael. clapping of klacke. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. cittade. lump of wood or with the nasal. rattle. It. Arab. cry. glam. claquet de moulin. See -cid-. as in Sp. lump. parallel root is slam. Fr. clasp. clot ON. cittadella. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. cry out . G. to call. a ring. area. empty Golius. To Claim. klompe. lucerna. chatter . sifr. the tongue. a ball. —Circuit. —Civil. CION See Tinder. a city. Dan. claquer crash. klabb. to clack. klappe. cisterna. Clamp. sip. ON. sprig. to call. klater-busse. klateren. clack. Lat. domern. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . Scion. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. compared with It. and clash. to be empty. a for water. . trunk. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. Lat. Bohem. sajira. Recite. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. around. citujn. clobyn. It. cieo. scion or sucker. klamp. Gael. to bawl. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. a lump Du. . ruin. and Sp. Lat. stimulate. a ball. a judgment cern. Sw. Cot. a place See place hiddern. clangor avium . klacken. sound. klambr. dim. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. claquer. twig. Sw. &c. kringla. Lat. kluV. See Circle. clat. clamp. is traced by Gr. radical identity of the Fr.— . Sp. Excite. a'upiav. clambar. to make to go. See Crankle. klump. of citta. So a light. In Fr. a whirlwind. clack. Mack. KipKog.

kloben. To Clamber. stick. klibber. massy. or klamp-vogel. run to lumps Clandestine. klemmen. clasp. to climb. dial. G. kleppe. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. clangor. gliong. knocking. sound. klavre. clann. dapi^. . gripe. anything hidden. conceal. cramp. a loud tingle. c). chief. to knock. kleppe. — Lat. to clutch or cling oneself up. dap up. — — . to claw oneself up. tattle. Swiss kletten. AS. Sw. to climb. scendants. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . as the Lat. The root which gives rise to klibb. klemmen. Dan. buckle klamp. to glue. klamre. daver. of which the locative case. klebern. G. who occuG. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. to clap. in a hidSen place. substances of a stickydam. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. dee. clang. a claw . The Fr. Dan. clav\f. beating. to. klemmen. from birdlime. viscous. uproar. to glue. a noose . klampen. chatter. Lat. klynge sig op. Lang. crowd . . . clink. dam. bond. tremble . to climb. tinkle. a burr. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. bandage. dapier. where- A — unto they retire themselves. Russ. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. to hold to pinch. klippe. Clamour. a place underground where rabbits breed. for tame conies. klynge. to stick conceal. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. Bohem. celo produces Fin. — with hunger. to cleave or stick. B. dapier. klank. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. to pinch. These are imitations of a loud. to cling. a craCmp. glambar. klette. grimper. offspring. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. kluppel. klubber. accent. Clink. adopted Lat. kleben. — Cot. to clap on. compress. to clamp. to starve. and hence to pinch . a heap of stones or other things piled up . to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . dang. Gael. Fr. klammer. narrow. &c. In like manner Du. klang. dam. coagulated cream. dientes. brawl.' to take coals to Newcastle. cluster. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. gum. To sticky. tight. to Sw^. a whip. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. klobber-saen. clibby. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. sound . hold. cleave. tenacious. to hold fast with the . Clan. klepel. children. OE. clajnmy. dem. dam. Halma. to climb.er. to patronus. . klamm. a rattle . — . G. klappre. yf. klepati. Clapper. G. Du. apprehend . dren. dia. dienklebber. klam.. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. clap. and that from celo. whence sala. with cramp-irons. as the clapping of hands. strait. klimmeii. dink Du.p correspond- ' without order. G. klam7n. damor. . ring as metal. is a nasalised form of gripper. a sound made by a still .' klibba. a trap. club . klatten. Dan. to daub pinch. clapas. but perhaps not directly from it. . G. salaan. Clamp. viscosity . is used in the sense of secretly. pressed close or hard together. descendants . B. rattle. E. dank. dam immediate modifications — . a sound. clear sound. tone. Du. to gingle. G. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. grasp. dial. clandestine. take hold of. compression.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. sound of the trumpet . beat. and hence moist. Hence the Fr. privately. closely analogous to that of the fast. To clap in E. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. klepanie. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. klopfen. E. klappen. Mampe. dandestinus. cramp-iron. of the children. a heap of stones. children. diver. to stick or glue. Swiss kldbem. clap. clammy brace. clamber. a claw. klettern. solid. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. sticky Hal. Clank. the in many languages. rumour. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. klammern. The equivalent of Lat. The E. prison. to beat. dambar. Dan. These words To are closely connected with damp. Clap. damras. hook. Du. of money Gael. E. ney. to climb . cream Manx doan. cling. a bird of prey. pinching. chatter. sound. hands or claws to grasp. A i. clapper of conies. E. klem-vogel. strain . originally a heap of large stones. to Hal. seize. Du. a stone See Claim. to hide. salafa. resonance klingen. — Climb. nature . See Clam. to hook things together. to seize. ancestor. a stick. also to clog up. to dame. to climb. klappen. holdfast.1. contraction. to knock. Bav. to do anything with a clap. a sound made by a lighter clink. tingle. Salainen. klamme. sound object . kleppen. Clang. a hawk. from the w.

as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. Analogous Jam. to fasten together . to end. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. klampvoghel. ivy. to clap . schnalle. From clairet. forms are the Du. and clavis. to shut. &c. klatschen. teren. chiaro clear. we pass to the E. Lat. klijven. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. clas.ck a whip. the primary origin clapa. bawling. chiarino. and through v into a. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . Wyutoun in Jam. a water made of aquavitse. locket of a door. Eau clairette. Eya-klasi. he of white and red grapes mingled together. to cleave. fragor . skeria-klasi. ghespe. cluster. clavus. Clause. vin clairet. chasguear. classis. clamp. globus. In the same way is formed the OE. klos. a. gaspe. —Kil. biichse. to draw it up into a bunch. mass. an ending. From claudo. as Mod. as G. clausula. kluczka. klucz. pet. Fr. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. from the resemblance to a key. assembly. in the sense of a claw. glcis. Du. a lump. clairon. Clavicle. . &c. Lat. E. — tells us. Du. 269. to snap. flap. a nail. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. from clinging to the tree which supports it. a clasp. a key origmally a crooked nail. insularum nexus . a key. globus. to knock. clausum. — Kiittner. Class. KXeiSi. clew or fasten upon a thing.Z. thence a definite head of an edict or law. to ring in such a manner for the dead. under three modifications dava. chiizjj-o. as it is written by Chaucer. Claret. syrtium junctura. also a knell for the dead. rubellum. klampe. Du. klamme.Gr. straight-mouthed. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. The collar-bone. row aii/iaTos. clarin. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. a. a heap. ictus resonans. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. It. diver. biichse. i. clatter. It. a claFr. klot. or as G. Thus from clamp. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. Du. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. But clasp or elapse. klc^i. Rayn. Du. Serv . Dan. fibula. klase. klouwe. Sw. crying. K\a. an on the one hand. to do anything with a . compression. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. a bird with powerful talons. stop of an organ. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. Lat. a claw. buckle. vin claret. nail. The form clew. a little hook . Nightingale. klauwe. which signifies a ball in E. The b readily passes into gleba. mass. applied in their harness. In E. Originally clasis. to animals Sp. from scknallen. sauna de classes. whence kleuer. clopa. a lump . klaequivalent to clack or clap. clump. cloi. klatschen.w or u on the other. with a reddish tint. and shrill-sounding trumpet. it is called clamming. claw (what fastens together. in the sense of a mass or lump. klaskad. klatsche. Commonly made. climp. Clatter. a ball. fracas.oi. seizes) . a key KKtitid. claret win e.\x\xvn. kletse. and old red rose-water. Clew. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. rion. hook. clarinado.).to cra. Fr. is used in Sc. a sphere . ansa. clairon of a trumpet— It. Fr. thwack . klaterbusse. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. subrubidum. Clasp. to fasten. chatter. cinnamon. a bunch. a lash. Owl and that by which cleave to. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. chiarello. klauw. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. noise. kleeven. a buckle. is preserved in Lang. puUs.— CLARET clamp. waU. Du. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. e. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. sound of the foregoing description. Claw. — Clarion.. Clash. Lang. . So Pol. Pol. the cracking of a whip. dap. from its use in fastening things together. Nawith stavis. a clod. klatscha pop-gun.It. nawith stanis. contraction. clavis. To clew. a complete sentence. Kil. somewhat clear. clair. to patter. Russ. hawk. blab. sphaera. Lat. Thus from Lat. a kind of small. — Clarinet. kleuen. Sp. Mask ! plask ! thwick. the collar-bone. pellet . to rattle . vinum helvolum. a distribution of things into groups. to clash as arms. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. a club or massy stick. kiosk bicza. uproar. same class with w. G. clew. Cot. Gr. Identical with ON. klouwe (Kil. klaeret. Prov. Klatsch- a pop-gun .

famous. klouen. G. voice. pellet. — : A rivet. sleek. kleevig. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. Sw. dams. clear. klafwa. and Celtic glan. clout. from the clinking of the latch. bogs cous. to cleave. pure . Clinch. chaps in the skin. klov. glatt. klijveii. klinken. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. clean. daggy. clibby. Du. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. a cleft or fissure. sticky. a one end. 154 CLAY dutch. explained from the klinken. glan. Da. and Dan. hook. dench. to Brilliant. from diquer. glent. AS. Sw. clash. neat. rift. Cleft. dag. klor. kla:g. clean. a lump. to shine. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. kloue. glance . to tear or cleave asunder. W. G. Clear. Du. gaklankjan. a plate. klinka.' was nailed to a rock. glan. The Dan. kleben. Du. Clemency. ON. a noose. to shine . glbr. ON. 2. Bav. an object is simply cleft. to clinch a nail. kleg. cloven wood. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. clear. bright. glbram. to separate into parts. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. klouen. kleg. doggy. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. the original . mud. sticky . or from being divided into two parts. kloben. See Clam. E. to fasten. polish . a fissure. provinciaUy termed dout. klinken. kldnkelein. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. klag. rive. date is AS. Clay. diquetcr. geklonken. klirre. clean. klank. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. Da. river. glitnir. to stick to. as ON. dut. Du. clemens. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. as Fr. Gael. glint. dial. to stick or adhere . pure. pretty. to 2. Dan. a key. cliquet. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . kluft.— . viz. a cleft. a mass. lump. klieben. dags. glan. conserere antklankjan. Omklinken. danche. viz. a lump. . This is probably one of the clean. clay . The proper meaning of the word is shining. as Lat. Cleat. clear. Lat. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. klinken. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . vice. vissticky . Du. clean. split. kloben. Kil. a fissure or division See Cleave. The word may be — . doff. glandse. klink. to dag ox dog. the To Cleave. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. together . To call. See Clog. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. klove The Dan. gleit. smooth. Mar. Fr. or of a tree. to sound or make a noise . or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. dinquet kleeven. kloben. to clink or sound. radiant. neat. seem formed dial. the two parts of Du. glindse. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . a flash. it cleave together. a claw or talon. pure. a mass. From dob. speech . shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. Sw. klceg. . Halma. klincke. klirren. shine. give a shrill sound Jr. This word is used in two business is finished off. a in that of sphtting. gentle. E. klinke. a noise. is fast and sure. as explained under G. Du. kleverig. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching.). splendid pohshed. gingle. klinke. . and E. From clap. to clench. Sc. to clinch GB. that was a striking proof. opposite senses. found in other cases. Thus from G. rivet. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. klieuen. that was Torriano. a bunch of When flax). clink. to fasten. kluyte. door-latch. . G. Da. loam. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. B. glorious. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. cleave. A — A Clement. deot. a — — . merciful. (Cot. holding together. of iron worn on shoes by country people. klyft. and. calm. the fork of the body. G. . i. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. Die zaak is zS. ON. Probably a modification of the word doitt. a cleft. in two ways. kluftholz. either by the coherence To Clepe. kluit. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. klinke.Q. the latch of a door. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. words applicable sight. glor-mhor. a clincher. Lat. to fasten E. polished. sticky earth. bend in a stream. celebrated . tongs. To Clench. Clean. Axletree clouts. to glitter. Sc. glitta. . nitidus. The word is . to be composed. dedgy. E. a latch. as the Du.— Claggy. klutsch. to chink. Wilbraham.— Clag. from nitere. G.

highest is attained. one of the clergy. to prate. clypian. as Sc. on. snatch. would have been derida. e. CLERK sound of a blow. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. clack. Jam. Clergy. globus. cart that tilts over. dough. to catch. klaiv. derecia. littus. the dick of a latch or a trigger. We movement catch. . an inclination. ready of speech. Clever. G. crack. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . precipices. See Clamber. scar.' ii. to snatch. cleke. from clifian.) Brai. seize (Hal. KkrifoQ. slope . a lot. Fr. dook (identical with E. clima. duik. de ripa. cliff. cleft. Boh. kloof. from Gael glac. cliquer. dink. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. which in Mid. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). Chaucer. deuch. skard. diquette. as from derido. a hump. prattle. icXi/ja?. Commonly derived from deliver. a precipice. quick of perception. to sound an alarm to clap. Bav. a clerk . name. In I Peter v. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. speak. a lump. a cliff. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. -Toe (from KXivm. dutch). a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. a figure mentioned. as Lat. Cliff. or an object character- Clerical. it must be observed. nimble. ravine. cleugh. Climate. cleopian. syn. a hook. that is a clever feUow. kleppen. a hold. clever. Clam. on. dever. dicher. call. CLINCH De . —Vocab. region not observe it. one admitted to the tonsure. dob. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. derjon. Client. clap. klippe. But the Dan. precipice. a latch. and hence climate. a cleft in a rock . Sw. Lat. lively. Climax. klikker. kleppe. chat. dial. Rouchi cliche. Click. a latch . Sc. 3. the clergy clericus. cliof. a child's or clack . say. to wink. Climb. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . the knocker of a door. call. clever. a mill-clack . klouwe. verge). a lazar's clicket or clapper. above the pole. hamraklif. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. klinge. AS. Klover i munden. a claw or clutch. diver. had a form. klif. chatter. a ladder. Lat. a baU of yarn. rugged ascent. to seize. gleg. dergi. rock. klippe. klika. and (with the nasal) — clincher. ized . cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. as a click with the tongue. to clack. expeditious. click it. climate. Lat. sonare. stein- kluppen. The origin is the Gr.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. has also deik. Det er en Mover kerl. crepare. clif. Da. dek. a sphere. duke. G. pulsare. the clergy. to cleave. deuck. Somner. to tattle. which is used in Scotch and N. to cry. exactly Gr. chatter. See AS. klok klep- crepitare. 3. Gr. to stir. derigo. cautes. Du. to talk as a parrot. is NE. to teU tales. deudi. clep. . rupes . derigon. deik. to confess . and hence deik. klikklakken. klever. has kl'dver. Now the OE. — — A . score7i clif. frap- per rudement une personne. OE.). dichet. babble. sink. Claw. kliv. klaffen. claw or talon to dek or deik. The Sc. click. with hamarskard. dial. Du. light-fingered. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. Happen. Hence Lat. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. kliket. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. klinket.Lat. diofian. a tumbril. in precisely the same sense as the E. — have the notion of a short quick in E. cleft of a hill. cave . a clew. See Clench. IS5 Du. /cXi'fia. . declivity. quick in motion. clyf. to bend. cligner. to rattle. agile. what so men clappe or crie. Clew. glomus. pen. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. a latch. . 'not as being lords over God's heritage. to tattle. a clicket or clapper. d See Clan. klev. chatter. corresponding to Fr. to move. click. a trigger. Sp. a ball of twine. click. Dunbar in Jam. Clerk. cliquet. rapidus from rapio. clerus. corresponding to the Sc. clatter. Norm. in the sense of active. neither as having lordship in the. whence Fr. catching.— Clicket. clif- stanas. temperature.— Clue. or Sc.. Cot. rock. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. deik. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. Du. dial. in rhetoric.dergie! Wiclif in R. cleft in a rock. dexterous. ginally from dob (extant in W. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. &c. to catch. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. abrupta rupes . klinke. crackle.

klinken. to pinch. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. sticky. . kldpp. to .' for a dry stick. clino. a ball of thread . in Schmeller) klunk. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. To Clip. speaks of a ' clung bat. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. to wither. clivus. Bi klik uti klak. and 'E. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. hluccti. as we now say three or four o'clock. 'Till famine cling thee. Clink. a cluster. shears. — clot. from klepati. Bohem. tuft. klupen. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. klocke. a faction. G. klippen. -cliv-. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. Gael. clinke. cloche. parva ruptura. ring clag. to crowd or squeeze chingy. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. Sussex peasant AS. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. kima. See Clang. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. to shrink up. to AS. 156 -cline.und zuk-lippen. cloak. also to wink . Da. Pl. clique. klungeln. . G. to cluster. To Cling. hlinian. ' . clips. kolbe to E. slant. to ring. sloping downwards . incline. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell.. kol- The word . claw. S w. Swiss klokken. Du. Du. Ang. a clock. a snare. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. gUong. kleppe. Serv. a bell. ON. incline. klak. dial. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . E. klippa. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. quincailler. clingan. Walach. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. club). klicke. . straits. brett-glocke.— KSS. g. knippen. cochl. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. globulus' (Gl.D. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. kukla. to bend downwards . clato make a noise. related to clock. Lat. Bohem. a beU. difficulty . a woman's mantle . . &c. to pinch klupe. Flem. also to form a compact mass. schnippen. difficulty. outcry. klipa. bow. Gr. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. ten. at first probably on a wooden board. . as thick or curdled liquids. dial. klippa. to sound sharp. as to snip in the same sense from snap. Clock. klippur. pinch. Hal.ginglej Fr. Cloak. kXiVu. to beat on the board. klunge. especially of something soft or clammy. 2. whence E. rima. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. to beat. to clink auf. clog. To stick to. Swiss klungele. like cling. glocke. kluben. Lat. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. recline. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. G. a lump. w. knippe. Fr. G. to slope or bend . klinka. toga. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. G.D. . kliks. Sw.'— Shaks. klippe. glungelin. . because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. klocke. pinch. dial. See Cowl. a tinman. . To cut with shears. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. Du..' From Pl. I. by bits. klungelin. clock is a variation of clack. hluk. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. clangere. N orman clincailler. verklungeln. toga muliebris. E. knot klynge. a hood. Sw. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. klocka. hlinen. to wither. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. to knock. as G. kluppe.— Clot. Decline. Ir. klepalo. to snap or fillip schnippen. noise. Cliofue. knippchen. Kil. -CLINE make pinch. to lean. fetter. a separate portion. Esthon. klik. Du. * Clod. to snap tongs. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. a clog or fetter for a beast . to snap kneipen. sloping upwards procUvis. klunker. klincke. -atum. OHG. to clip. to clunge. dial. a lump G. to shrink up. The notion of a loose moveable substance. compress . CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. and so' to contract. a bell. and a similar syllable without the /. to form one mass with. to cling to a thing. clutch.. Sw. gang. met. The E. pallium. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. or bagging clothes. to crowd together klynge sig ved. klo^gen. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. acclivis. to make a loud noise. klynge.. ON. to clap or clack. chcng. sloping forwards. dag. a lump of butter. hooded . Sw. disposed to a thing. Sw. klok. nip. declivis. . to snip. hill . klingen. iissura. klaka. G. Een kliks bolter. to lean backwards. ON. kolki-laud. to strike. — a mantle. a rising ground. Fr. four of the bell. clinker. to resound.

. . clos. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. to play at bowls. analogous plan to clod or club. separate part. slob. loose. to cling locks. pludre. a log. inclose. slop. .D. and Du. klac. to paddle in the wet. watery. loppered (of milk). to rattle. Hence inclose. . paludosus. E. schlotter. Lat. to a. AS. Pl. It. A . lobbig. we pass to Schlatter. bemired. motzen. compared with clump. lunch. . kloster. a trowelful of mortar. klag. tuditare. mud.— Clothe. boil. figer. lump of something soft . CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. miry laggerit. from claudo. paddle or dabble in the wet. with Fr. to lobberig. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. da- . claudo. I doda clod.. laggyn. motte. lump of mud on the clothes . claque. lobberen. shut up. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. fat. clorre. curdled. a bal!. chiuso. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. be&c. to rattle. a log. an imputation. meat from Du. je amoncele. clogs. a dirty wench claggy. Pr. lobberen. klakken. or drablyn with separate existence. whence klack. a clod Swab. clotted locks Dan. gelatinous. klottern. clog or overshoe. wabbling from Du. . slab. a portion of something soft and adhesive. The game called ninepins. mud klcEg. I clodde. bespotted with mire E. close. tramp in wet or mire. Mat. -clus-. shut up. klateren. plod. to bodies. Fr. kloden. tJokok. clogs for the feet klakk. terminate. m&se noch stain. Gr. to spill liquids. a block. thick spoon . to shut. slobberen. TZoxapov. slops slodderen. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. or loppern. clammy loam. to dash like heavy rain. geschlotter (as E. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. dag. clot. Dan. Russ. and E. lag. to close against one. -cludo. closed. then liquid or loose substance. Pm. or Sc.rge lump. Close. a field inclosed clos. a babbler. lopin. I clodde. schlattern. klot. Fr. a clog. in accordance with Pl. a blot. loose trowsers. ! . . slobber. G. -close. in accordance with It. to shut up. spatter. to bedaub. to claggock. Fr. Idppern. Sc. klod. kleck. mire. a lump from Du. IV. . to bubble. E. Lat. A — — A Thus from Bav. from Fr. dangle.dial. Closhe. to shut in. like G. aspersion. unctuous. is a blot on one's character. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). enOE. kloten. is connected with pludder. • lump.. in comp.' end. of something clammy or heavy. g. we pass to E. schlettern. cloth. from Du. wide bagging clothes. to dabble. fors. klos-bane. . congeler. foreclose. neither spot nor hang loose. a clod. bloutre. Klak also.D. . kloteren. a blot. lob. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. daggerey. or E. paddle. loose mud. and Gael. lumps of butter. kl'dnken. chiudere. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. zocco.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd.'^ Palsgr. He was a man without a dag. clotted milk klotte. clatk. to flap as loose clothes. to wabble. loppe. -clusum. The origin of clod and clot is to . clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. dab. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. clos. to dabble. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. splash. schlottern. zoccoli. Bav. . the radical sylla. a monastery. blot. klunkern. 3. hanging loose and full. in forms like Du. klakk. to slop or spill liquids. Du. a Christmas log. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. . claggy. rattle. Swiss schlott. klotzschuh. to sup up liquid food. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. forbidden by 17 Ed. MHG. clausum. pattens G. . finish . Clog. Klottermelck. To Clog. dirt. dirt. loblolly. shaky. In the same way Dan. . beklakken. doitre. schlott. daustrum. to flounder in the wet. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. a skittle-ground klos- sen. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. Du. Fr. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. lopperig. bowl . kloteispaen. a spot. G. truncus. Yule-clog. . of a body of any kind.). pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. Cloister. His heart was franlc without a flaw. spot of dirt.1a. dunch). klotz. Pr. laggery. thick sour milk. to rattle or shake to and fro. kleck or lack. klos. clausum. kladde. slops). slobbe. and thus seem endowed . log. be found rattle. to shut. lump of butter. dial. slabberen. without. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. klokotat.

sheltered up warm. a log.D. a clod or clot. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. w. a ball of twine . sheltered . klotzig. to cleave. stock. are often connected. clotted milk or cream. to strike . klumpfot. Club. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . klubb. Move. een klaven kruflook. a bunch. to curdle. lump of earth aria. clot. clumhar. coarse. group of people Sw. klunds. a clubfoot klabb. a garthas. loggish. a fissure. a ball. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. — — — . Fr. dial. spice) G.). piece Cot. klumba. a cover or coverture . encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). to cherish. and closely do conspire. clydion. . a. indispalte knoblauch. dob. rustic. a . cobble. wisp. with lout.Fris. clod. dial. naegel. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. klaven. AS. From dog. a knot of people. klotsen. a clod. N. kUid.). cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. Du. zolla dell' . shel- kloen. a log. The priClout. make warm. del mattond.D. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. to strike. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. the air. klever. Sw. a bunch. ON. bunch. cludadh. Properly that which covers and Du. klu77ip. botsen. lump. clog. from kloven. puddle. of thumping clumsy action. Pl. klubba. nagelein. To Cloy. cluth mhor. I.D. and clay. blockish. klieven. boucher. a clove of garlick. The significations of a clod or lump. log. probably from daboter. Kiittner. A division of a root of garlick. a thick mass. Mabousfrom Lat. E. More in R. A kind of spice resembling Du. cluster. kldverj P1. diboter. cob. dys. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. (kruyd =. of sloppy materials. w. a nail) Fr. Met. a bobbin. clot . Sw. to a lump. clothes). rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. . dut. knob. esdaboter (Roquef. a lump. cobio. clothes ment. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. mass. Then applied to a lump of mate. . warm. tuft. clunch. . mire. and of a rustic unpolished person. Du. are also used in the sense of a stopper. kl'dnne. AS. nourish .ft. lie clyd. klubbe. a lump. when something has got into the touch-hole. milk run to lumps. dash (Cot. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. clump. kloven.). a clot or keeps one warm. Rouchi dapoter. lumps of curd. zolla. It. block. a blabber. of nagel. chiodo di girofano. klove. tered . aglio. klebek. eene ODu. Clover. warm place . to cloy. lunch). ser.clod. Das volk hat sich in splitten. the terms expresssplit. E. G. Clump. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. choke or stop up. hebes (Kil. kloete. to tramp in the kluyve. warm. . to stop. a curdled sky. a breach. CLUCK rustic. Imitative of the note of a society. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. formed lump or thick mass.' Sanders. to lump mend clumsily. a patch. dabaire. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . and clout d eudaich. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. klobbersaen. knob. a ball. G. dirt. from OFr. lump. clammy earth. CLOUD an awkward clod . Sp. from Du. to cover Bret. also homo obtusus. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. a ball. dabosser. eine to slop. unpolished. mud (Pat. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. dillad bumkin. Du. — . clothe. So Fr. G. G. to splash. . ON. lump. 2. klotz. klump. and tapp. clou de girofle. a bunch. Du. Gael. clue. Du. clod is used in both senses . kluV. Ir. To Cluck. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. cloud Delfortrie. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. a sticky. a boss. strike. kluppe. Gael. klubb. of a lump of earth and that figure. klqb.158 . but confounded with cailler. mary sense is a blow. duthaich. Clown. little nails. Cloud. klcBdi.bar. davus. clunch. warm clothes {dillad. Cld. Dan. Du. clavo di especias. botch. from W. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. clobyn. clump of a clout on the head. The radical sense seems to be an unE. motte. clyd. clods. daggy. caillebottes. and -the word Clove. to cleave or the splashing of water. as Fr. ball of thread Russ. cludaim. E. a clown. dump. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. a bousche. a nail. In the same way E. a sky Cot. sticky. matte. dial.). to beFr. in the same sense. de Champ. clot. klonte. nelke (dim. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. Clumpered in balls of clouds. dote.

But clunchy. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. E. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. and klonteren. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. kluntfrom KKvKdi. . crooked inwards . — . * Clumsy. pinched. klonte. ill-made . Du. -CLUDE hen Du. klemmen. to to snatch. klomen. clutch. Hindust. from laver. to rinse. a clod or lump. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . to lie. and koetse. * Clump. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. to curdle.' Vegecius in Way. lavesen. an instrument for nasal form e. to tramp or tread heavily. claudo. to squeeze. glocire. to wash. claws. Pm. bunch. to stick together . of garlick. to grip. clump. G. Pl. gelidus. conclude. a block. dussomed (Wilbrabam). as clumper. glousser. klos. ball as snow. n. a bunch. are the nasalised forms of klotte.e. cluster. of Du. . acomelydfor could Pr. dial. —To Clumsyd. a lump or compact mass. kohle. Beklummen van kelde.P. a clove Sw. -close. klikaty. with a quick. a lump. Lat. verklomen. er. -olus-. wooden sole. MHG. Du. 130. clook. klister. cliboter. G. Du. a clod or The noclot. klomje. wooden shoes. -clusum. Cluster. rial. koetsie. dumpers. Clutter. clotted cream. Lat. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. ether comelia P.D. OE. whence koetse. Variation of clatter. clopiner. seize. Compare Swiss klupe. and klotteren. enervatus. Sp. to collect in lumps. ment. klummerhdndt. ON. a clod or lump. with E. clumsy. obstructum. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. dumps. havi. lay hold of.D. or aclommyde. klcise. in v. clausum. Sw. klocken. klette. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound.— — . a pinching time. viscous material. ball of snow on horse's foot . through the senses of lumpish. to paddle or dabble. klamen. Clump. Clutch. splash.mene tied. klobber in klobbersaen. dial.D.E. close. from klupen. Fris. Boh. benumbed with cold. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. hooknosed. to wash. dial. . to curdle. G. may recline. Hesse. a claw. See -elude. koetsen. &c. to benumb with cold.' Wycliff. OHG. unhandy.D. a lump. ' Thou clontsest for cold. algidus. from ON. COAL dumpish.Ancr. the word is more probably connected with OE. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action.forklomme (Outzen). a ball.' Benecke. klisse. The Fr. clointer. G. cleche. thick and clumsy. log. cleuk. Du. plad or plod. hondis. klamp. dek. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. Hence snatching. Pl.' Comfort ye dumsid. a couch. ' Clumper. awkward. klontet. eene beklum. kol. heavily. a noise. Coach. — Cot. klump. duke. Muster. finish. Coal. unhandy. koetsDa. klikonosy. smart motion. conclusion. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. xXvariip. claw. a clod clunter. also a cluster. klumpig. hand to cleuk. lump of soft mate. klonte. verkommelen. clutch. idle. klont. Fr. esclaboter. klunsen. -clus-. properly to do anything Fr. cluntClyster. A group. or from Sw. eviratus. Cheshire. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material.D. — Hence include. kichlemmit. Com. limp. to curdle. 159 E. to gingle. From the notion of sticking together. Analogous forms with a tongs. Ray. coccolare. -cludo. clabosser. — sen. Sc. hands stiff with cold. klummklummshandt. klompen. —More. a coach. to syllable click. In the same way Du. a litter. a nasalised form of club. Du. dumpse. in comp. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. a clot klissen. klampa. pladdern. Gr. clip or pinch. dek. dystere. as from seken. The sense of awkward. . coucher became in unhandy. Hence cleik. paste. Ang. Teulazy. dial. Isaiah. awkward.'— animal. and make ye strong feeble knees. exclude. unwieldy Hal. — ' — — tonista. strum on an instrument. Graff in Klamjan. E. inclusive. a ball . klimpern. Fr. See reclusion. Riwle.pare P1. wagen. differing only in the absence of the duik. ' . and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. Fr. ' Uorte (for clogs. eviratus.. carriage in which you klodset. koetblockish. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. klunt. It. MHG. -elude. Cath. to klotz. tight — — . klemma. Lincolns. doquear. beklummen. as Fr. to shut. calling her chickens. to pinch. beklommen. fingers (familiar). having the Pl. to tramp. to tramp. unfashioned. klumpern. cleik. might be reached from clump. klods. Sw. Champ.

— Cleveland Gl. and thence a lump cobnut. to pdt with We may cite Fr. — Cobbler. Fr. cluster. of E. niais. to glow . A spider's web. cob is a dumpy horse. says Varro. give the full meaning of the word. one Pr. pryf-coppyn. broddelen. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco.a spider. The dirt. to stutter. — — . Sanscr. in Essex Jow*2c^. imbecille. a kitchen. kolna. acomelyd or aclommyd. ON. pock. cobble. dial. v. E. a bungler. Colina' the place where a fire is made. to beCoax. haggle.). in Du. The primary sense is doubtless koelA. to kindle jvAla. and imperfect or unskilful action. a darling. to stammer. pustule. koppen-gespin. s. a cobweb. are round stones or round coals of small size. Lat.' Nares. Coat. klabba. . nursery lang. . to hobble . to knock. Fr. tempered clay for building. k'dlla. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. an egg. that is. a nest. to cobble shoes. universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place. as shown in dob and cob. . In the E.the water boils. costa. bijamie. or cobble. a knock. ordinary as in the expression of course. also a coast. cacd). cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. probably left his home. See Cot. an old idiot.— Cobble. cotte. pockbecility and liability to imposition. probably from the Fr. — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. Trevoux. To cobble. from some fancied resemblance. s. Sp. cob. — Pr. a firesteel Lat. Fr. dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . or upper . the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. a coat or frock. while the sense of dwelling may be a figure from lighting up the domestic hearth. small pox (pocks) . Coast. throw a blow. glow jvalaya. to wheedle or gull vermin).. spinne-ivebbe. coalesce. Du. a similar According to Ihre. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. meaning that she is plain and coarse. rivation are found in Sw. a tuft. gull. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. hakkelen. grown together. bredouiller. cule cocosse. a bunch. koljarn. Cobbles in the N. pustule. burning. from bearing a bag. 3. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. e. kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. cofasse. Coarse. to bungle . to Lett. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. and the spider as collectors.—Atkinson. dial. The Fris. atter-kop. are often connected. w. glow. Flem. from a root signifying Traces of such a deto glow or burn. or E.. a sow. Fin. to strike. coste. and hobble. a bubble. used in — . the one of thump. klabbare. of poison. e. of E. as in arr. frock. a spider. dial. cochinilla. any kind of coat.' — Thus from (Hal. boil. may be A found in Sw. to stutter. dial. cotta. to cob. niais. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. A plausible origin. The wood-louse is still called sow in parts of England . ailina or colina. Lat. Dan. inflammation. Formerly written course. a thumper. a pock mark.' And colo. long standing. quilet. cobcoals. kylla. to peck as a hen cobyn. viz.. and jval. H^cart.(pi. * To Cobble. from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . numb.. Du. a woodlouse. The OE. petrilla. properly to daub. flame. cokes or fool of him. a great falsehood. to grow together. koppe. a crea. verkommelen. The contrast between the bee • Cob. The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. caleo. to be hot. staggering or halting. a large round nut cobstones. large stones . to bungle Sc. cock or nescock. . kop-ar. Pm.). . Coalition. habble. cokes was a simpleton. Coalesce.