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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. or. by whom the be understood. is given to a cow or calf. mind of the of the animal. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. the present day. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. muK) and mae (rfie. and. in language of the present day. The syllables moo (mu. the baaing of the sheep. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. but nothing she herself knows the animals. in other words.NURSERY IMITATIONS. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. persons of different tongues at the present day. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. and where we are seeking. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. name of the cow. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. to the syllables which are significant to the child. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. come Moolls. when we is represent to our children of the cow. or Mollein. and mully or mully cow is the . of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. the closer we shall approach to the . with an initial m or I. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. when neither name for the object to be designated. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. Molli. come Moolls (Mrs Baker).

nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. hm. for things. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. We have. and some were very clear and distinct. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. 72). and nim came to signify everything edible. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. to work over with the mouth. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. nineteen years old. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. family. partly from sounds which the child caught. Finally an n was placed before it. to For instance. . as well as the mind of the utterer. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. for bad. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. his nurse adopting the word with him. he called to to drink. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. I had watched the growth of this word.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. then.). Heinicke. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. mumm. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. analogous to Magyar mammogni. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. &c. repulsive to eat. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw.' In ordinary speech mump. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. First. and which we might express thus. nim. in children's language. fiafifi&v (Hesych. Gradually.' he says. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. to eat. when hungry. Gr. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. . became more perfect. had nim. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. by the natural humming sound. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. A member of my own new sfop. On one occasion he said^e nim. schipp. He would now say good. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. for everything fit to eat. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed.. p.

Swedish dialect gamsa. food (Tylor. oves lalare. tidbits nama . to move the lips in continued chewing. jamsa (yamsa). on. Africa) nimi. Africa) nimnim. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln.' says the author of Modern Slang. as to . jumla. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. and some of them . Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). and thence to be tasteful. snatched (Whitby Gl. nyam nyam. aves tinnire. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. 130-1. dial. to Sw.' White man eat [or steal] the crab.' says Quintilian. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). to eat mampfen. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. palatable. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. at hiamske i sig. voracious. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. nam. Vei (W. Soosoo (W. as well as the Sw. p. stolen. jammla. Nimm'd up. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). agreeing with Ein. Wolof nahenahe. we can call them so. clangorqae tubarum. or word-making. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. yamming. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. A negro proOr. i8o. to chew laboriously. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). lita. (in chil- dren's language). 1 86). to mump. Galla djam djeda. . mumble. aptantes adfectibus vocem. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. i. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . eating. greedy . buckra man's language the white man. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . to smack in eat. South Jutland hiamsk. and the fizzing (and Series. sweet (Koelle). namnam.ONOMATOPCEIA.). mumpfen. Gothic niman. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. memmexen. crab nam buckra man. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. to eat. and the crab — p. to fill the mouth.' And Diomedes. the Scotch poet. savory. iii. to taste . to take. mumpfeln.minis. ' Motherwell. j ing . ' id est. to be pleamind . it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. delicacies. nobis vix permittitur. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. mujnpa. Primitive Culture. make djamdjam). while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt.' — Lersch. taken up hastily on the sly. ut tinnitus aeris. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. nvrnma.

or thoughts of our hearer. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. bellowing of bulls. hooting of owls. bumping of bitterns. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. We . anything connected with it. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. twittering of swallows. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. 89) with less hesitation. for the purpose of bringing the animal. bleating of sheep. chirping of sparrows or crickets. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. neighing or whinnying of horses. purring or mewing of cats. Indeed. that there is When Man. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. sparrow and chirping. p. whether it deserves the name of language. croaking of frogs or ravens. 'I doubt. lowing of oxen. Yet we ing. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . baaing or maeing of lambs.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. yelping. before the in other words. ^6^. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. but of a dog. do not speak of a bowwow. or. chattering of pies or monkeys. yelping.' And elsevs^here (p. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. a lamb. when circumstances required. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. dove and cooing. intended in the instance to represent the cry. might be used. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. might be used as the designation of it. between dog and harking. snarling of dogs. und growling. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language.' — We speak of a cow. not of a baa. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. gobbling of a turkey-cock. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. cooing or crooing of doves.' he says. not of a moo of Lect. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. howling. grunting or squealing of hogs. barking. snarling.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. cackling or gaggling of geese.

derived fi-om a root ru or kru. In Basque. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. Barabra koka. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. Arabic kdk. Malay gdgak.). is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. and the sound of that direction.IMITATIVE NAMES. gackem. 4th ed. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. lion. a bird that is be driven away. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. Aoo-Aoo. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. and means a shouter. coccolare. Bav. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. Hungary. ist ed. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. kdka. fi-om apakd- i. 349. crow. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. caw kuhii-rava (rava. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. 'Kdka. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. it announces (Salaberry). is kuM) for the cuckoo. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. whose sound (Pictet. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. a a crier (p. birds. Origines Indo-Europeennes). Picard cau. in g. and gaggele or gagkelein. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. a crow. 380. kauwe.). and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place.' common sense. and Bavaria respectively. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. crow. In Lat.' kd). We imitate the sound with a modulated. ghak. Columbia kahkah. kuho. a daw. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. Sauscr. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. Kdrava. having a general predicative power. according to Durga). e. sound). kae. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. caller. Manchu The kaha. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. in is Gr. Sometimes the hoarse i . layitavya . and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. Georgian quaki. He to is therefore derives kdka. KOKKvi. a crow (Pictet). most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. or quawk..

libufs. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. Dutch kievit. krauklys. German kielitz. Zulu kuku.. gufo. The consonants p. the name of an animal will gen- . to howl or Lat. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. kukko. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . kraukti. Ibo akoka.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. Scotch peeweip. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. Albacuculi a dove. teewhoop. name of its is the bird. So we have Polish krukac. Magy. lUyrian kukurekati. name. tbrtola. kruk. to croak. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. German and Eng- krahen. Malay kukuk. a crow lish Lith. kraeyen. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. by the verbs gurren or girren. kirren. koeren. either in the same or in related dialects. tbrtora. in the North of England. synonymous forms of similar structure). uhu.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. to hoot. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. another. are represented. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. kraeye. tor. a crow. tuquheit. or Gr. German luhu. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. kukhuta. a crow .Gr. giving turtur (and thence It. 219. Fr.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. ghughu. "Welsh hwan from hwa. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. while crouk. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. Du. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. coucouva. xi. The crowing of cot in Fr. Heb. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. Swedish kowipa. Arabic tdtwit. Pers. the name for a crow. and sometimes both together. Esthonian kikkas. gugu. yell. wood-pigeon. girre. coccovaec. and e. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. great variety of oKokv^uv. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. lulo. Sp. Lettish kiekuts. to croak. to crow. lilits. and e. reduplicate form. Walachian coucouveike. p. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. korren. t. to crow. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. turtle) as the Lat. kurre. krahe. coqueri- Languedoc. as well as of Sanscr.. hibou. tortbla. tur. k. cock. Mod. Yoruba koklo. Hindi. It. Da. to cry loudly. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . kuku. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. Du. French dishuit. 6.

Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. a small as hawk is .IMITATIVE NAMES. Lith. Lat. and not from E. pip-pi-ta. ' — Pictet . Danish dron. growling. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. booming. a beetle druna. grylhis. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. PofijivXwg. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). a drone. to creak Bret.or bumble-bee. Australian bumberoo. little intermission. zirken. the humble. schrecke. Northern Farmer. Albanian tsentsir. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. g. g. — Catafogo. ' Sanscr. Lithuanian tranas. whirr). shrill. bambhara. Gaelic dranndan. German drohne. a bee. glass cracking (Schmeller). in allusion to its music. or a gnat fly. bamba. Fin. German dronen. to grumble. gives rise to chwymores. bee. Sanscr. from the humming. North of England. kong-kong. We may cite Gr. to be compared with Sanscr. ta-na-nd.vf3. to hum. Naturalist on the tocano. 'The natives call it tanand. droning is . sound. skirl. loud rumour. Speaking of a cricket he says. oE. (Jieuschrecke) . ajo. Sc. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. to chirp J may be compared with . humming.' — i. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. representing a short sharp sound. give a faint sound. grille. schwirren. of England it is to the b 2 . din. schirke. i. In the N. buzzing. grillen. with or Fr. and yelping cry. sirkka. from schrick. thunder. horniss and from the buzzing The. swirplys with 6. Arabic tantanat. cricket is from crick. resounding of musical instruments. and probably indicates that g. as . g. the drone or non-working bee . schrickel. 337. The Welsh chwyrnu. skryle.' —Tennyson. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. hollow noise. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. The name of the cricket indeed. there are infinite varieties. chirk.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. Corean sirsor. Danish gnaddre. flight its sting considered as a horn. a fly (Tylor) . resound. e. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons.' Amazons. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. skril with n. words imitative of humming . buzzing. German hummel. succeeding each other — with noise. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. to shrill sound sharp. and he kong-ko-rong. The Arabic sarsor. to rustle. dhran. common. which they make in their flight very . a hornet. to chirp . frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. The drone peal. knetta. a sharp sound as of a 6. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. to sound.

mae. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. The Piedm. btibleti. say. buculus. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. to bellow like a bull.XX called booing. bull. With these analogies. verbal form given to the say. bubati. bae. biibnas. It. From the same lioao). In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. Lat. make poo. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). to bump as a bittern Illyr. that the imitative syllable are Lith. the animal. bullock. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. and thence Lat. bukati. Lat. Illyr. or moo. Zulu lulula. to low or bellow. The Galla lilbil. as the Illyr. bugle. bolt. Manx booa. loge. Gael. lulauti (to hoo-loo). cattle. bo. a heifer. to shout. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. maukati. or bau-l-i. — ^Tylor. and in Hottentot baa was the . a bull. to weep. in same way. be-l-er. bovis. grumble as distant thunder . bullus and e. bu. to sound. to from bau. fivKaofiai. k or g. is inadmissible. Fr. shoot . representing the mew of a cat. Cult. a buffalo. Thus from miau. to bow- own bawl. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. ox. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. or with on. to boohoo. bae. a Geiger. On the same principle. w. Piedmontese fi bau. verb is evidently identical with our shout. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. bauli. 167. bucula. a bullock. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. to shout. representmake bow. to make a loud deep sound. are (with a subsidiary k). to low . the Fr. p. and from to ring. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. to make a noise. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. agreeing exactly with Lith. mamoo-heeheek. whence baula. His analysis leads cow. to make. a cow. to . Norse bu. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. Da. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. Hottentot bou (Dapper). (iove. a drum . bos. From baa. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. boo. and djeda. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. in a imitation of a ringing sound. make to it laugh. bwla. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. to mew. bugler. mugler. or formed Lat. Fr. bubenti. mugire. forms a. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. as that of the cow by boo. to make. baula. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. or a z to the imitative syllable. bue. to the uses goda. from the imitative moo instead of boo. to low. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. muJiati. w. to ba-L-are. amuse. to or bark. Lat. Galla boa. OFr. has bilbilgoda. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. to beat hard. miau-l-er.

grumble. Moreover. goats. with the root ypaipm. grumbhng. meil. leknuti. a sheep or ewe. in v. or in any ! way ! persuading. naskia. Idgge (Rietz). name of the animal itself. . in Wolof bae. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation.). G. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. purr). ' In driving. undoubtedly imitative. hund. this obstinate race. hundi). lambs. to rumble. grunt. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. and with the subsidiary k or g. the snout of a pig. grumble. a. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. Fr. may with to snarl. lekavica. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. leg-et-ni. grunlike a pig in eating. cite as by grunt. grumpf. the designations of a dog the term cur. Illyr. oe.' Moor's Suffolk words. a pig Fin. to themselves. a wolf. although the imitation embodied in Lat. The g. nire. by which the shingle gives rise to It. Africa laa. kurre. meketati. signifying a snarling. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. It is probable also that e. hound. as the proper name of a tame sheep. Magy. a hog. sound. And it is true there between hog and grunt. Illyr. a goat. a (Hesych. name of a sheep. /xijeao/iat. mecati. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. for the voice of the ox). In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. houch. hwch. Gr. and of (maelon). growl. Gr. we have Sanscr. a sow. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. to bleat . and thus explains the origin /3^k»). as lou of an ox. sheep or goat. and grumphie. does not produce a e. Gael. / The same Gr. a grunt. Fr. Da. and thence groin. Hence Breton hoc ha. Among dog. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. ^. grunny. menAda (ndda. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. a sheep or a goat. a pig. sus-sus. a sheep (Lowe). Manx meilee. may be identical with Esthon. karra. . showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. groin. cry). lecco. to bleat. he would hardly. smack and naski. lek-eg-ni. it and e. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. a dog.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. . 6. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. Welsh and Breton).have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. hunon. grugno. hunt (gen. and snorke. curmurring. meckern. — . and hoc'h. meigeal. mutter. From the imitative mae. a goat. to grunt. to grunt. With gen. Gr. to howl. meugler. (iriKov of forms like Sw. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. name. Illyr. guttural tone. to bleat. rumbling. a sow. corresponding to ohg. Kurren und murren. a sheep. to growl. from hundama. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. hadg- Magy. kurren. mekegni. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. grogner. from knurre. /xj/caScj. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. a goat firixal^ta. and Circassian maylley. knurfisk. It.

which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. such as cuckoo. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. hobben.. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. the cry to stop or back a horse.). but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. houpy in Craven. 91. hiine. (Craven Gloss. p. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. without a — we root.' 2nd Series. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. animal. from the cry animal. humma. a little am- bling horse. So Sanscr. like artificial flowers. Esthonian hoibo. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. a horse. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. Thus we are led to the Fr. Sc. hobby. . In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. a mare. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. p. But words of this kind are. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. There are of course some names. cockade. hoppe. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. hottihuh. as in Yorkshire highly right.). when he found peculiarity. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named.' — ist Series. of the character in question. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse.. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. g. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). xxii MULLER ANSWERED. to go backwards. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. coquelicot. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. to whine. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. e. . hobin. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share.root. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. If onomatopoeias can . The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. coquette. ^6<. to the left. turn a horse to the is In Finland.' ticular bird. M).

rinchar. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. frenschen. xxiii ginal object. hikkd. wagtail. wrenska. runniken. Fr. e. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. giggle. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. ginniken. redpole. Sanscr.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. to neigh. cough. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. Bohem. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. swift. hennir. signified It. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. whitename in in- throat. hross. to Sanscr. nitrire. woodpecker. Sw. Irieschen. nounced with a guttural). lapwing. . Indian It is not unlikely that the on. hukkup. Pl. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. ance or habits of the animal. groan. fehtati. as sigh. goatsucker. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. than to the sounds represented. wiehern. little speak for themselves. horse. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. Du. Lettish sweegt. hresh. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. command of language was attained.D. but whether there kind between them and other words. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. animals or certain kinds of sound. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. moan. g. sol. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . titter. hresh. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. diver. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. wrena. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. form corresponding hresh. Sp. creeper.

thunder (Tylor) . atchian. the dashing of the sea . for the creaking of a wheel. bang. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. lumm. It is represented in e. snore. &c. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. bangas. tlirob. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. hoo. are familiar in ' to every one. ping came the bullets about their ears. Wtb. pit-a-pat. to drive on. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. to sneeze. ting-ting. to knock. a kind of drum. Mei gbengben. DingBang. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. haitshu. shriek. White Lies. heaven).' So imac. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. aritischane. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . on the chops is represented also by pratx. bang ' ! trenches.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. Vei gbangba. for blows with a rod. banga. for a small one. scream. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. hoo ping ping. to beat. dong Read. pump. wheeze. a more expressive than the e. to ham. for that of breaking. Zulu bongo. haw. in a nail Let. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . 1865. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. ding. for the for the sound of . Australian bungbung ween. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. banke. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. clap ! A smack Puff. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. hang. debhes-lungotais (deifies. went the cannon. for the sound of a fall. heart tick-tack. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . . to throw violently down. for the sound of a blow. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. mer. strippstrapp-stroll. klatsch. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described.' it both sides went. root kshu. or tliat is accomit. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. an attempt would be made to by the voice. oren : Klapp. Of a like forma- drum . the God of thunder . —Brem. snukkup). beat of a clock child . tisio (tisho). &c. to hammer . Da. beat. — Sanders. for in such sound of blows. knarr. atchini.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. plitsch-platsch.' ! ! ! ! — dong. fitsche-falsche.' 'Haw. knack. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. a large bell. or the w. snort. for the sound of milking.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked.

To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. He Yet asks. to cry pi. child. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. young bird. pule. In cases such as these. far pipi. a chicken or gosling. Lat. as the simplest implement for proFr.) a chick. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. It seems to him that the teeth t. part of the What consciousness has the child. had been used laugh ? two. doubtless. pigiolare. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. pipilo. bleat.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. of a word will appear supposed to represent. to cheep like a bird or a young It.' instead. chickens (Tylor). to designate cavity and hollow. Fr. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. as k. pigolare. pipare. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. or the uneducated different consonants are man. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. peep. and so forth. pu. Lat. used as a call to . piccione. pipio. piou. cry of young birds . a whelp. Magyar pip. a fife or musical pipe. calls S. Mantuan pipiare. a or cheep. which he added to intensify the expression. not- . a (young) pigeon. has been un- employed to designate fixity. pipelni. to squeak. ducing the sound. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. pi. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. mobility excavation and hollow ^. pigione. G. . and their relations. young child . and whimper. pipio. to peep It. piauler. — . is of expression. a fowler's bird call is lost. The pi. laugh. pipe.sc. Gr. scream. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. Florio. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. or a piailler. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. as in other subjects of study. —Lyndsay. De Brosses. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. pippione. pipegni. to cry like imrli^u). the voice of chickens (Cot. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. peep. cry. e. is pfeife. piou. pipe.

girren. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. a short sharp sound. a prolonged sharp sound. to grumble). &c. laqfF. of something fine and thin. and lugh. sound of dry breaking. as representing the sound made when something breaks. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. kniks. Hindustani karak is rendered. a. of a loud strong sound. to gorgogHare rattle. where the variation. to crackle like in boiling . chack. knurren. to pant violently (Colenso). what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. kniks. tonare. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . it is If laugh were written as pronounced. tintino. is very common. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. . murmur (by .Gr. Pacific aka-aka. to jar..) Mod. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. murren. creak. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. to laugh. It. to pant bejii- zela. rumble. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. thunder oil . knaks. a closed or obscure sound. when it force than biscuit. the clucking of a j hen . tontonare. to fizz like fat in frying. to ring pipio. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. pi . Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. to gurgle. cluck. be cate to go on laughing loud . to growl. to hawhaw or laugh loud. coo. to cluck. to be compared with Sc. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . crash. karkarana. borrelen. garren. kuruk. gurren. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. turtur. to bubble. to grumble. some small vowel or consonantal sound. a drum W. in German. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. the side of g. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). along with tinnio. or springing back. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . to gargle . like the noise of a glass breaking . to cry pi. crack. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. to rattle. Poppopvi^to. or kaka-faka. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. make wood a clinking noise. kirkirdnd. cricli. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. Manchu kaka-kiki. to creak knirren. {to It. ioriogliare (to make borbor). knuks. a sharp short one. to thunder. rumble. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. preserved by Kilian. Hindoo tomtom. Zulu raraza. rumble (Fl. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. lachen. loud laughter. grumble. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. as the click of a latch or a trigger. vaake gorgor) . lachachen. . i. u. Indian chack-chack.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. Pefuxela.. to grate the teeth . to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. sound). to clack. along with Du. bubble.

the sound of a stringed instrument. chuchoter. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. for chut-chiit-er. sound). The whispering of the wind I. Magyar csamm-ogni. bent her head. to beat. especially one who beats. noise. a drum . to say chut. awater* ' The Mme P. or the bubbling up of to a spring. Galla tuma. rifiirayov. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. is based on the same imitation as the e. box on the ear imitation of the . Newman). in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. . of keys or tinkling of bells. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. ding-dong. compared with Gr.' Member for Paris. hala-hald-faMa (falda. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. and the imitative nature of tivgle. coughing or clearing the throat. clash of arms. 1871. KaKog. to strike. koXiw. clink. call. corresponding in e. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. chinking of coin. tumult. wail. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). halaidlac'h. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. quarren. croaking of frogs. klirren. bulbiil. identical with g. for the ringing of illustrate bells. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. and Gr. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. spring of water in the a bell. drops of i. tubh.and e. caca and Finnish adkkd. Manchu kaka. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. and bilhila. to be compared with g. is Manchu tang-tang. jangle. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . uproar. Prim. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. bad. a smith. djeda (to say tub). to whisper. while cacd / used in e. make djamdjam). E. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. clank. cry. correspond to e. 192). The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. indicating the origin of Gr. kl'mg-kling. simmer. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . for the sound of privy whispering. Maori pata. a nightingale. . the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. brings us to Fr. 368). chut. The syllables lil-bil. as Fr. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. a nightingale. a boy's whistle. as of Tamil muromurmur. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. to ring or jingle. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. muro and e. rvir (in tvittio. and e. disturbance (F. csam-csogni. thump. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. shout. Sanscr. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. kiling-kalang. Tiie Galla gigiteka. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. or of bells ringing. champ. to knock. a workman.* the heart. clango. to the purling of a brook. sound. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. jingle. Scotch sough or sooch. e. for a tTviror). for the clinking Lat. the gingling of glasses. to giggle. fumtu. or to Du. Turk. and her heart went thump. the tingling Ming-Hang. and Gr. tumwata. are applied to the is excrements of children. Calt. tup. agrees with g. at an accelerated note. bubble up. Fr. word. rain (Tylor. borrelen.

crack. thwack. The use of g. plump. at a door tarapatan. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp.. and Grimm. craunch. to is blow. squeak. ring. according to the strictest phonetic rules. brumberum. hum. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. for (Sanders). blow. fizz. clash. whack. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. smash. to fall. tomber. twang. dash. swash. lash. whirr. rattle. thump. slash. flap. chatter. rataplan or rantanplan. tap. answering to g. squeal. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. parapatapan. clank. tinkle. But although and also found in Lat. to dance. creak. clap. blubber. tumbian (to beat the ground). and the French pouf. bang. tingle. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. squall. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. guggle. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. clatter. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. dabble. disturbance. splutter. smack. mutter. and Fr. douse. whine.' — Nohden. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. tymmesll. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. thump. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. It. bubble. puff. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. by rubadub. gargle. snap. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. ' Der puff. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. crunch. splash. boom. jingle. rumble. 'pat. thump. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. Fr. Nevertheless. clang. crash. The beating of drum is represented in e. while e. gurgle. So in Fr. chink. hiss. in e. souse. pop. the Germans puff. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. clack. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. rap. w. patter. and soufflet. or v^hether jectional. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. tum-ultus. without the intervention of orthodox roots. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. report of a gun. paddle. a applied as well to the force of the bang. it is fallj AS. flop. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. we have buffet or cuff. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. sputter. whizz. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. clink. murmur. Humboldt. din. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables.

every little pain. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. Crying. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. hay. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. or any unsatisfied want. 94. or stubble is meaner name. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. ugh . Henceforth rational beings may produce them. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. because they are spontaneous. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. and uttering plaintive sounds. stractions. an imitation of a sigh . attention of the simply to the mother or the master. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . in the rushing waters. formerly cited. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. are made known by an instinctive cry. grief. or of any if wood. wringing the hands. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. xxix on the contrary. by the nature of the cry. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . p. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. without a thought of symbolising to them. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman.' . in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. is Thus ah!.'. At the first beginning of life. the interj. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind.' If chaos. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. Grimm or Bopp. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. in the case of the animal or of the infant. and thus they become signs of despair. little who has time to want of her nurseling. that he has taken the step in rational speech. knows them. and found in the building of be burnt up. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. If. the kind of action that is desired of them. the inteij. but if we must not complain on the beach. of horror.

would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind.' — ist Series. p. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. and some of them the composition of words. He says. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. he cites from Home Tooke. more eloquent than a long speech. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language.' p. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. groaning. Language begins where interjections end. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. ^6g And to the same effect 371. they are involuntary interjections. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. p. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. be more powerful. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. them to exercise it. more to the point. 344.. And again. should be remem- . shrieking. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. may become traditional. and the eye. If I wish to make a person of an . but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. to solve the I shall call first. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. the lowing of a cow. of all the mouth. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. sneezing.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. 32. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. as who them spontaneous utterances. or which is of me as suffering pain. One short interjec- tion may fact. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. coughing. which are frequently so toned down cance. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. interjections.

cachinno. Koxafw. hohottaa. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. Lat. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. bered. Kayxa^u). that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. loud laughter. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. and more or less limited . in Fin. interjections. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. I am not hearer. speaking. some kind of language might have been formed. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. demolishing here. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. in Magy. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. Gr. it them. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. he says. when I arp humming and hawing. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. and thus. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. and others from interjections. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. but the less am at a loss what to say. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . then speech begins. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. Tooke in truth. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. hahota. for example. hahottaa. kahkahah.

' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. . But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. of the world. words receiving the meanings they now bear. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. What strikes him . and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. if taken as a whole. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. a Picture-language.' he says. makes them stand and walk upon the table. dumb is the language of signs. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. the critical question should be. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. And so in the case of language. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. and go where we now say stand. Though. like peewit and cuckoo. But here nature soon conies to his help. It as has ing their most striking features. and not.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. a deaf-mute himself. The following account is given by Kruse. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. of the nature of this great movement. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate.

becomes roast meat. and it is flesh or meat. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. walked. The same sign stands and the act itself. most striking outline of an object. push it towards the person addressed for thou. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. and with his thought. among themselves. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. and fully serves to j . for single objects. for child. as it now opens out. his action. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . he. and we have roast goose. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. such as than the educated man. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind.GESTURE most. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. letter To hold the two fingers apart. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. and to taste. for walk. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. it seems. particular sense in properly so called. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. xxxiii him between one thing and another. but if I depress it instead. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. or the verb to be. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. the lan- guage cultivates itself. such objects. the sorecalling them to his memory. signs are taught for yet. and gestures. many when or but these. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. thought is already broken. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. nay. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. to name. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. that air. he.' In the Institutions. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. and forms further and further. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. walker. it means little. the whole secret. thou. or To pull and flap with the arms. for the agent. what more. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. The of sign for left hand. And is. that. can do better and more easily abstract terms. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. called Gesture-language. like a V. and And thus he makes himself a language. that signifies great . walkest. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language.

qualifies the against the wall. to indicate the action of a certain person.xxxiv asking. a colour red. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. or action. as when Bang ! went the gun. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. When I say. I say. as in die it is a noun. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. the ture of white term pink is and red. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. Do not bang the it is a verb. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. a number of alternatives are suggested. or a quality. The same word . and thus performs the part of an adjective. Who is has beaten you ? would be. You beaten . In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. or an act. it called an interjection.' dener's knife. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. the garden. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. in fact. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. might be the knife. as But when it is meant door. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. when I say. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. or something of the kind. and so is an adverb. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. in other instances sentence. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. or a passive scene of existence. would be simply beginning of speech. When a verb. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. according to the circumstances of the case. . bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. He gave door a bang. and the as. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. whether by additions or otherwise. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. depend entirely upon the use. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. substantive or adjective. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. putting it into his pocket.

the man is great. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. contempt. a groan. wherewith. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. wonder. and to be great.^ — Miiller I. a noun. wherefore. or with elements expressing relations of time. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . signifying an attribute of this person or of that. inside. in the sense of great. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. that is. greatness. as kuo cung. grie^ horror. with a stick. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. wherehy. coalesces with the personal pronouns. in the is indicated by the syllable y. verb nor noun has yet been developed. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. &c. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. a sigh of oppression and . inquiry. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. or nei.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese.. as cung. Thus tafu signifies a great man. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. commencement of speech. 255. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. . or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. some outward display of the affection. but often self-evident. which is an old y ting (use stick). as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. whereto. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. or some relation between it and another object. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. that admits itself in of audible representation. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. middle. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. whereof. pain. and may be used language. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. Jii ta. Latin. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question.

Thus from springs otjucifw. n. guaj-ire. Let. miau-l-is. is w. headache. g. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. pain. Illyr. gwe-l-a. to wail. to groan. ach. woe. to bewail oneself. e. to chirp. to do woe. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. to weep.. wai-l. ace. ochan. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. to weep. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. It. xxxvi grief. jaoh. oval. is Ay di me I Gr. Such are g. or r. and to bark . guai. as. ing action I. as. wehthun. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. lau-l-e. on. I oi[iot. form. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. Lat. . e. to sound yapyap. mew. g. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. It. Jar lau-lau. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh.'). weh schreien. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. vaj. . to hurt Let. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. to cry at. has more kopfweh. och. vce. ach. Gael. It. aiai^to. to make bow-wow. pain. 6. dchzen. Bret. found in g. och. gwae. Gr. die wehen. axofiai. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. lament. ocAJ. oh. jao. vei-a. Illyrian vaj. grief. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. wehen (Schmeller). ache. o'i. e. djamdjam goda (goda. waiidt. w. to lament. in Gr. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. la. Gr. The form corresponding to Lat. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. ahi. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. to . are ol-ire. on. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. to ache. miau-n-is. In this way from the root guai. Gr. wai. representing a cry of pain. grief] affliction. ach. w. pain. to make). oh. to injure. . . to cry n. ah. the pangs of childbirth. ah. weh. wai. suffering. weinen. Fr. probably a deeper groan. 6. first person. misery. gwae. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. w^wa. seen in Gr. to yell formed e. lament from oimi. ochain. A widespread It. hei. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. achen. ai. j. och. and cacak djeda (to say crack. ! ! Goth. to gargle. mostly a ! %. cece. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). wAwa. . tirr-djeda.ez. woe. miau-l-er. al. vce. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. at the close of the radical syllable.-l-are. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. guaj- or cry out pitifully. &. wd. oimare. howl. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. oi. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. grief. to rriourn. to wail or cry alas . a groan or lamentation vir. representing Illyr. guajo. ochan. to ache. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. however. Lat. ohg. ohi. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . It. to lament. ui. to cause pain. misfortune.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. indeed. Sanders (Germ. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. nurseries. is we I believe. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. says da-da-da. der da-ige. ToSe (or in Attic E. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. we may translate this by there (it is). according to Menage. this here. 'nay. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. da. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. Bav. as it Dieser da (as Lat. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. that. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. the nursery da-da. When we pointing. Diet. but the truth is. that gratifies me. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. Phil. Dr Lottner observes. give me that cheese.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. a specified were by pointing him out. case. to here . or give me it. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. and so on. or that it is. ' sees an object. child. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. give. Sie. Thank you. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. as to express. thata (ta-ta). seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. as. • The child. implying the direction of its good will towards them. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. I add) . properly (give) be compared with by which a g.' person. or carry me thither. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. Please. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing.' all is is — their consent. more emphatically roSj)j that. . da. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. saying : there the ad- Trans. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. well as Goth. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired.' then points to his wife. and by a variety of expressions besides. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. In the expression Da. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. But. or wants to name something. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. a word of many applications in g. for instance. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. and may be rendered. when 1859. is-te). ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). when he wants something. The Fr. that is it. his trowsers' pocket.' this. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving.

in every mode of expressing the idea. . and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. or metaphor. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. moving. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. and one in particular must.' says Lottner interior. make dadada). thinking.' • liv ANALOGY. sounds. strike. to move step by step. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. — Cot. to beat. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. stutter. meanings. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. then instinctively interest. reality. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. to walk. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. takes it — as When the soul. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. of which any one may. to tion to another. dadee. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. which thus exertion. tattle. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. Thus Gr. to knock.^ its ' utters : a cry. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. p. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. beat. to chatter. sinking. to say to oneself. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. childish toying. or dalliance. standing. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. speech. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. and shapes it into an . the original is that which he places first. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. tasting. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. its desire. pay. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food.' says Muller. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. The da is dodem.

same imitative root with Sw. splendour. wilahtaa. sprageti. in the domain of movement. air. to glitter e. properly a clap or explosion. pracht. from the . probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. snotor. as. unlella. to sniff. outcry. — 1. to quiver. savour. chime). signified a clear sound. beam. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. to sound clear In Galla. discreet. Du. fiapfiaipw. to tinkle. to glisten Dan. man of nice taste. then to sparkle. to sparkle. suspect Bav. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . to shine. bilbilgoda (to make . also wise. smell. snudra. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. Lith. &c. sense of brightness. sound. bilbil). to sniff out. It is The word bright had a similar In as. beorhtian. knittre. firom the Gael. to . to shine. snot. In the case of sparkle. to have Sapiens. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. to glitter. . The 6. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. think. ghsten. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. tintelen. may be it explained . and thence e. Again. to flash. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. So firom Lat. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. a brilliant light kilid. to shriek with laughter . to glitter. (parallel bilbila. may be quoted gUt. to be wise. bright. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. . on. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. search . to smack or taste. noise. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. esclat). kimistd. smell. 1654. extended to the exercise of the understanding. kiimottaa. a dis- cernment. a with kimmaltaa. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. tumult. to crackle. wise. the equivalent of g. brilliancy. as kilind. scheteren. judicious. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. make a loud noise. schiteren. to ring. and schmecker. and figuratively. rattle. spraka. wamara. Heo Du. prudent. to ring as a glass willata. iclat (in Old Fr. in popular language. Bavarian bracht. sapere (which signifies the nose. knistre. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. Finnish.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. which in ohg. splendour. scTiateren. wilistd. tinkling. a rustling sound Gr. magnificence. we have and the and beorht. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. for example. to crackle gnistre. a ringing . snutrs. schmecken. and. to 5 ghtter. snuff the sniiten. to resound. clang. Fr. taste. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. to glitter. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. is used in the origin. In the same way the Goth. to snilF. gnittre. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. while sapere itself.

1. of dressing loud. pleasure soft to the ear . affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. shatter. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. the clank (stridorem) of chains. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. the neighing of horses. gluey. the cross. he framed the words ivSov. strike. wool. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. then in rpd/xoe. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. mel. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. we hear of screaming colours. pvfi^Civ. to slide. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine.' he says. he says. inside. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. kvTOQ. Acre. fitting the letters to the sense. roughness. rough. . sharp. And observing that n kept the voice within. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. power of the letter-sounds. v. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. KoWiiSije. rough both ways. smooth. rough to the ear. The BpavEiv. tremour. whirl. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. soft. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. is felt Lana. the bleating of sheep. within. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. in truth. rend. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. itself letters are felt as sofl. which The Stoics. briars. eo ut res vol. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. 6\tadaveii'. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. and vepres. ipuKuv. break. crux. discusses the tone of a picture. Kpovtiv. or . It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. Tpa)(yg. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. oily. flow and flux. extremely loose. Kep^arl'ieiv. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. &c. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. accordance with the way in which by touch. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. as soft by the ear. Much of the same has been often quoted. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. rough. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. \nrap6e. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. in of his works.

in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. a rough and sudden . shog. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. ii. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. sag-oter. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. cular effort Again. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. jig. the case of the voice. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. and in the utterance of a high or or low. jag. tug. to reel abruptly from side to side). not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. joli. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. A greater felt. jog. p. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. stab. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. Fr. 'and consequently form. corresponding to the ineor. shag. g. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. jih. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. to signify varieties of movement. dig. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. rug.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. for exis ample. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. stag (in stagger. 138). The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. t. degree of roughness sound. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. to jogj sac-cade. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. p. dag. d. as when. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. k. or checks as they are called by Muller. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs.

Ene olde suksuk. a small bodily object. toch-toch. chiquet. an infant . to ring a bell. that we never can be sure. chic. mot. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. an old worthless horse or carriage. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. cica.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. Mucken. movement. rough horse.. to stir. for the sound of knocking at a door. figuratively. zack. is so frequent a consequence of movement. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. Fr. passing to the signification of motion. also to stir. or check. so to Italian toccare. tech-tech. to incite by light touches. g. mik. foot. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. chicoter. Illyrian migati. Sukkeln. mie. as tot. It. The train of . is lanese toch. in cases like the foregoing. a jog. properly a small lump'of . and It. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. tock. To tick a thing off. not to utter a syllable. Brescian toch. Accordingly the g. then. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. tecche-tocche. The Mipen or pencil. Bolognese tocc. &c. a quid of tobacco. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. and analogous movements. then. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. to winkj micati is Lat. lead to Spanish tocar. chique. however. sound barely audible. mica. a . to mark it with a touch of the pen . sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. a playiug-marble. as Italian tocco. micare. to have it ticked or marked on the score . kuk.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. Hence Lat. to tickle. a cracker. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. and e. Welsh cicio. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. is made to signify movement. to On the same principle j we have g. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. to pulses being knock. like English tick. to beat or play on a musical instrument. to take a thing on tick. a little bit. schuckeln. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. e. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. a piece or bit of anything. to move rapidly to and fro. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. (mitsati). Dutch kicken. to say a word . sound Fr. Fr. Thus we have B. to utter a slight kick. to touch. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. Then. tack. to mutter. to glitter. it produces Dutch micken. The syllable suk is jerk. schockeln. motion. to strike It. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. zigzag. used interjectionally to represent a . kik. a stroke with a French toucher. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. The production of sound. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . S-panish miga. a crum. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. The analogy then carried a step further. a good piece of road .

and dot. anything small flax. ticktack. you. that iku. there. iki. totle. Fr. further off. and mite. To jot. is shown in murmur. a e. gnu. fait. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language.- a jot or little It. for the three personal pronouns. . lump of earth. neither moit nor an atom. titter. the vowel sound. titilh. a lad citta. Du. as in e. So. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. not an atom . mutter j dust. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. a. 199). and a small lump of something. a light quick blow. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. mot. to whisper (Pr. . bunch or flock of wool. and out there. Halliwell. titmouse (Du. a bit. a girl. of movement in totter. move slightly to . here (close hand). . mutter. subdued manner. chico. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. to dot. a small quantity. taut. here. not to utter a syllable. tot. tot. clay . The following table from Tylor (Prim. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. ika. n. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. or o toi. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. tit. tozzo. a small bird. citto. 0. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. a little titty. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. for the beating of a clock. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). . to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. tiny. lix Sp. a tot . a certain conception. mote. a sparrow). The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . . anything . or the like its It. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. tot. there '(at a short distance). In a similar the relations of place. to jog. and he. But the same is language has re Javan. that. we have e. Malagasy to. corresponding to the personal pronouns. a small horse. small of kind. gno. the least visible insect. e. a small kind of lark. at where the order is inverted.n. a whisper. .) . but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. a bit. (Halliwell) Da. this . fragments It. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. to tremble. 48) cites from the African Tumale. tot. mut. Then. I. not because the pendulum makes a different left. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . eo. to make a slight mark. jot. little j to that of a small bodily object. Cult. seesaw. and toddle like a child titter. tit. there (further of!) ao. motte. Pm. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. zitio. a small lump or pat. i. this. often entirely arbitrary. to touch. mossche. or the converse. This kind. small titlark. to touch lightly with a pen. to movement of the pen . syllable mot. ri that. to jot down or note with a fro. little. tittle. zitella. a morsel. motta. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. . a morsel girl . u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. . gni. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. to e. the same organ touched with the man. tottle.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. e.

me probable that • Vei also little. no constant rule is observed. as Mr Tylor remarks. and origin. ofj. Mm.) nna. an old woman chacha. you. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. that.araM. ni. here this . an old . Fernandian az. Mutsun ne. that. . Botocudo ati.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. that. is father.. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). here .. bi. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. It seems to (fen. /e«. Gr.. Japan ko. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. qu. biii. w. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. Magyar ez. probably initial of distinction that the k. this fi. child. minution further. Tamul i. I . Lat. ni. that. km. there. this <t. Abchasian aSn. that. this . .) pronunciation of i or e. young one. /wo. that. man erne. that. . by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. (tt). loo). here j abe. femina ama. 6. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. . ^. child. as the act of pointing was ta. ne. that in the distance. olo. Zulu ajoa. this . it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. thou ni. /mya. ulri. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. and a for the female. Tarahumara ibe. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. there. Dhimas isho. to. j Canarese ivanu. Chilian tva. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. Sahaptin (America) kina. small (Pott.e^. here j ka. he. that. mother. ta to ka. he. nne. thou. little. there. there. ita. that. mother. ojOo. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. ukko. respectively. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. . there. Then. that (intermediate) j wana. Carib ne. Ossetic am. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. this . . mother. this . here . is Here. ndi. for the male. father k . .. It Carib lala. here 5 Yoruba na. Guarani nde. there. this ole. usho. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. mas cheche. father. there. tiiio. here feraa. . akha. thou . uta. as in Italian Fin.

The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. lift 8. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. a child. Da. or even. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. little. is to express simple continuance of action. trippelen. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. to leap. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. A little wee face with little. i Sw. barking of a dog. for instance. trappa. The sound trapp . speaking in a pipy tone of voice.' making the voice as small as possible. for a succession of light blows low-wow. and in the Pacific dialects. din-din. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. trappen. to tread. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. little To sup up. A little weeny thing. to feet. trSpigner. Thus we have Wolof sopa. fretful. Top. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. or chink. a little yellow beard. the pip or pippin. the simplest mode by the g. as j money. sound of bells . The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. to begin to appear . a step. trap. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. to peep through. nab. to teet. for the . titta. has tittafrem. trippen. the idea is called. tion. nil. The Sw. analogous to winy-piny. the principle of reduplication. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. &c. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. repetition It. knob.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS.' — Merrv Wives. looking through between obstacles. wenig. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. Fr. And perhaps the E. to make its way through the bursting envelope. wean. Clank represents the sound of something large.) . to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. murmur. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. in old e. pepin. 401. . at pippe frem is to spring forth. stairs. just beginning to appear. to peep. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. as ding-dong. nipple. — Douglas Virgil. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. whence Fr. don-don. the nursery few j Sc. keeh.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. of smaller things. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. From cases like the foregoing. dance (Kil. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb.

acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. to treat with contempt. child . artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. cliqu-et-is. amusement. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. or imitative syllables. Thus in E. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. loloa. ayunayunan. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. the and clique. a spot. to to call. bad . to express repetition or continuance in a general way. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. a clattering noise. is language. to call frequently from Fr. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). calling. could readily be conceived. er. very bad. the comparative degrees of greatness. and the words express a continued sound of rack.. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. or very very great. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . tache. &c. little child (p. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. (to use a to speak. in familiar use with ourselves. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. The same principle of 196. the agent in panting . to say pooh It is ! to. mawhitiwhiti. a grasshopper. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. Mandingo ding. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. puka- puka. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. to pant. . repetition or continsignify long. clash of weapons. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. smallness. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. to skip. very great. if very young. to cover e. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. to vi^alk about for flax. click. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. or el. Again. Malay ayun. rapidity and strength. lololoa. and Fr. to talk at to walk. ding-ding. a cradle. or rdtchi.Ixii REPETITION. . instead of being actually repeated. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. clamito. kamha-gamla. mpolu is uttered. to rock. to love. Cult. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. didi. child . as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. rack click. rack. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. to or rub. keep spots.' expression is — ^Tylor. racket. or in Fr. are echoed by the rudimentary et. very long (Pott. or a little tee--ny thing. random . It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. So from clamo. serves to show and in this way. tach-et-er. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. the lungs. sopasopa. kendagenda. Susa di. puka. ratsi-ratsi. properly speaking. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. And generally. 99). ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. 97). kenda. mawhiti. from Maori muka. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. Thus in the Pacific loa. i. hardness.

a from ayun. are to cry mew and pew . as to handle. it. to rock or wag. The contrivance with any particular noise. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. wankeln. to move to and fro. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. to puff. to bark like a dog. wankel. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. by the side of wanken. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. compared with g. to make a succession of grabs . jogging. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . In cases like these. waggle. to wail woe . we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. to make bau-bau. the knie-en to E.Jicol. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. or Maori puka-puka. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. Jickfacken. bub. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. a succession of cracks to rattle. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. kneel. to hand. shuffle. draggle. The Fr. wancol. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. Ihre remarks under gncella. such asjlap. or by association. in some applications. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. to continue dragging. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. mew and baa . he who rubs. miauler and beler correspond to E. in Fr. or fi bau. to crackle. crack. and in as. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . without the intervention of the frequentative element. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. syllable clat . dabble. wavering. to make a succession of shoves. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. is In e. others. which. wagas ging. smack. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. or in e. rynel. or omitted. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. as mAS. itself. to make gug. Piedmontese bau-l-S. to hand-le. guggle. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . g. from puka. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. bubble. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. the lungs (the puffers of the body). The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. rubber. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. miauler andpiauler. fickle. to rock. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. dab. joggle. where all direct connection with sound is lost.

Dupe comes to us from the French. the breach. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. to cry ugh at. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. although it is not difficult. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . it is obviously a mere chance how long. or in mode of use. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. Polish. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. which. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. There is. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. or how generally. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. which is the origin of the word. and comparatively few easily deceived. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. moreover. Breton. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. to the separation between the broken parts. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. at was more familiarly known. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. on a moment's reflection. by a hard body breaking. will continue to be felt in daily speech. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. or in aptness to combine with other elements. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. deceit. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. known in Italian. A gull or a dupe same sense.

to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. Hitl^erto. language is . But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. and the word is used in a secondary sense. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. life. is. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. . And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. nor any limited of ideas. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. founded in manifest blunder. however. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language.

which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. in the course of many years' isolation. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. and 'Russian. compared with the duration of man. episcopus. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. therefore. change. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. I think it very probable. French.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. hearing. unintelligible to other hordes. circle perpetrates a new slang term. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. and vescovo. evique. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. Naturalist on the Amazons. If English. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. guages in South America. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. of material things. 330. out. i. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . Welsh. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe.

. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. the actual it which would to represent. Cijlt. 9. Nor is there one of the letters. or whatever the proportion may be. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . The combination of the symbols I and 2. A key must unlock more doors than this. 8. 6. it will leave figures 3 and 4. which are idenr Figures 5. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. ancient Greek M . is MN. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. as shown in the subjoined illustration. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. to be taken (Prim. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. and . But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. i. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. 7. ao8).

If new 'modes of phonetic expression.' should be discovered." the use of a change of vowel in as. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. for instance. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. his fellows. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. in the shape either of direct inspiration. leading him to utterances. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. what comes to the same thing. known to us as yet. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. and the only safe beneficent Creator. which either by direct resemblance of sound. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. or. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. had its origin in imitation of sound. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery.

race were speaking men or not. that he started from the lowest grade. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. for instance.COMPLETION OF MAN. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. or beavers. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . in the course of generations. or of their own reflected thoughts . by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. as elephants. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. or else. and when we look back as far as history will reach. of using imitative conduct . and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. until the progeny. and sooner or later. and rose towards a higher state of being. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. or not. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. the conduct of Ixix life. by animal without a trace name of Man. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians.

at the end of Somner's Diet. Cotgrave. Diet. Diefenbaeh. Biglotton seu Diet. de la langue Cat. or Dan.Nieder. Baile/sEngl. Supplement to Bret. Bavarian. ^Ifr. Douglas' Virgil. Supplement to Dueange. 1768.. Carp. AS. Finnish.-Eng. Carpentier. Diet. Castr. English. Esth. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Romano - Cas- traise. Bremisch. Gr. 1766. Fin. Sup. Elfric's Fl. Diet. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. B. Dueange. Diefeiibach. Infimse Latini- D. Gothischen 1851. Bav. Teutonico-Lat. Grammar Boh. Provincial dialect. Wtb. Catalan. dial. . Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Bohemian or Czech. Cimbr.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Couzinid. Da. Esthonian. 1850. Dief. dialect of the Sette Commune. Dueange. 1737. Dutch. 1654. Fr. Danish. Cimbrisch. 1857. Due.V. Cot. Anglo-Saxon. Bigl.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Brem. E. Dn. Dief.



>. woman r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. plowied budowaer.5 ERRATA. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. cruccio deyrie. cti.nokkutama willekem. r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. ^i?^i2! r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. willekom Blab r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. (/ijtf r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r.. alUger ahaverie r. katowai perairrantr. r.percurrunt kimista^x. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. Blob plowied r. baltresca nokkutomax. yjnaifia r. puHti r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. haverie crtOT r. kilistaa bugiie r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. buque 118 brodiquin r. sveritet Asknace r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. word allagerr. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. Askance woud r. r.


Jvery man shewid baft. abaft.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. a. to sauff the king or spill. downwards. iway from. but now )bsolete). literally. sion of 'an abandoned character. in the same sense. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. Again. abs. have entire dominion over. power : Than Wallace thing. Lat. A. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. from a is to wake to abide. er. of-dune. "rom a height. ifter. from. Abandon. said. to subdue. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. Thou spelds of mychty iction. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . command. until the event jlace . 244. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. off. vs. plesyt him. out of. announcement. Parson's Tale.he Goth. this word beand Spanish. rule. orders. on-lic. OHG. as. away from. Abs-. whatever he be. and — Chaucer. ir. particular 1 . The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. on. Hence on-bceftan. ibandonner. ar. Dent posture. Immediately from Fr. Passing tongues. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. on. Ab-. K . baftan. dominion. behind. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. . among. and secondarily in that of command. AS. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. in. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. in a manner other than it should be ablution. ur. 843. be-ceftan. a/tan. to hold . erwachen. bandon in French. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. as. to awake. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. Thus ip N3S.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. into the Romance ftrseg . onis aback. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. ab. away. The word Ban is common orders. implying a completion of J. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. Abaft. —Bruce. AS. the er. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. an edict or proclamation. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. state of sleep . his. on-bsec . alike. a washing off to abstain. To abuse is to use iway. In Lat. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. to arise. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. us.t G. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. compounds. dominion. o/j of or .

impulse. law term abatement. Beat. esba. with or without a final sh. In or. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd.— — . Custom. from Lat. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. faire tomber. R. terminedly. baba. merely the terminations ons. Wall. A. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. to take possession of an estate.' the surrender of a ' K. to overthrow. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. — Neccham. where custom (Grandg. abbatis. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. depress. beer. bandon. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. in the active form. of wonder. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. to abaw or astonish. at his own the lips. Cotgr. . as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. other.Prov. More correctly written abbat. vol. abbatere dal prezzo. I was abawid for merveille. to beat furnish. baer. c. burny was formerly burnish .— R. to put to con. to hit. and sets them all agape. to The .) . when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. or admiration. father. See . ant. esbahir. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. to happen. an abbey. abbas. weaken. drink. his mouth. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. from ravir. Castrais. Abbey. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. d. as ravish.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. Hence Lat. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. confound. 1520. to diminish the force of any. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. lish to abaisse orabaish.fournir. astonish. R. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. and that from Syrian abba. bawi. On the other in use as well as hand. And he thereof was all abashed. It. See Abide. castle. so common in the found in the OFr. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. betrash.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. — — . et prirent terre. burny. of the Fr. impetuously. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. Bate. astony. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. abbatia. uncontroUedly. abaundunem-ent. to gape. to make lower.polir. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. Hence the OE. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. to light upon. esbahissais. abate. to bate something of the price abbatersi. abandonly. down. de. 1 1 8. Abbot. Milton. to strike sail . . shame. to astonish. person. iv. to ruin. to excite admiration.down. his eyen shene. may be explained.On princes. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. and grooms besmeared with gold. or society of abbots or monks. Hart in Jamieson. effect of shame. overthrow. son bandon. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. polish. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . ne more vermeille. ais. To Abate. 364s. and it that that it — . adverbial expressions at abandon. Abbess. and the verb was written in Eng. to strike Froiss. R. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. of fear. Baba ! Mod. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. by Wall. Fr. thing abbatere le vela. esbahissant. abbatere. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. abbattre.esbawi. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. Originally.

from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. to hook. m Abeyance. to desire earnestly. to look. — II. to deanimer. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. to abide . to open bader. b^er. Du. trick abetar. the verb of abeyance. Corant sens lui. delay. take care. and alluring to his own destruction. to tarry. beter. . expectation. ' ' . Thus G. badare. ^couter avec dtonnement.was formerly used in the sense of look. abie. to stay. to remain or endure. speaking of the Holy places. bida. badare. were called Brothers. us. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. — . abet. Abele. Fabl. we sceolon ON. to gape .. or do we AS. usbeisnei. bouche bdante. The verb atwaiting. delay. also to OFr. abiiance. intent observation. de Berri) Prov. expectation. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. beijden. which the mind to an object. bada. Pol. covet. incite . abbadare. in Fr. gridare. Ducange. look for another. Norm. beijen. K. aspire to. beidan. waiting. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. qui iaaille. literally white tree. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. endurance. (Vocab. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. tempting. regarder. Q. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. abie. to stay.' is in AS. signifies the direction of tend. to deceive. tenere a bada. to suffer death in Du.) abayer. attendre See Bait. abet. Cat. To Abet. Corresponding to keep in suspense. forms with the d effaced are OFr. guardare. to It. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. gola badada. Gloss. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. syllable ba. aspirer. to yawn. verbeijen Sw. bialodrze-w.— Roquef. badare. inciter. . Guernsey beth. white. wait To Abide. on the one hand. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. OFr. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. exciter. to be intent upon. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. John. baier. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. beijen. songer. bhr. and Prov. bidan. Quant voit le serpent. pense. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. baier compared with It. abetter. Prov. expectfamily. beguiling on the other. In We . From abahier. with open mouth . to expect gabeidan. baier. abeyance. bide of the d endure. to wait. suspense. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). Boethius. de Champ. . endurArt thou he that should come. to attend on . 1 • . With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. Abie. 366. wait. — ABELE Epiphanius. desirer (Roquef. to open the mouth. or in Fr. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. have seen abide.to wait. suffer b. ne chastised them. bida. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. . tity of E. warten. deceit. . lingering. bder. —Raynouard. badigliare. baer. to wait. is idenwait. abeter. The white poplar. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. in Dan. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. Ni engigner ni abiter. beguile. Goth. othres abidan' The effacement expect. ceive. bie. See Abide. F. to ance. listen. take notice. ne wist what way to chuse. badar. Norm. from Halo. watch. open the mouth.— ^richer. which is certainly related to It. deceiving. attendre avec en^pressement. bouche b^ante. to attend to. to expect. and E. bie compared with Dan. E. to In great amaze. desire. listening. while the monks under his control ing. a right in suspense . bocca badata. tical with It. — signifies to suspend action. abayer. says. bana. delay. to wait. or absorption watching. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . beidan. tarrying . abSiance. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. Cat. compared with (Bosworth). Gloss. a bay or opening in the coast. to mind. with badia. forbearance. abaier. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. inciting. to be intent upon. house. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. and in E. Thus we have It.Fr. to desire. abidan.— Chaucer. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit.

F.^and to make his power knowne. Dr. was often used in the same sense. properly abuy. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. the Sir Tristrem. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. must suffer for it. Tr. habilis is closely preserved. Innan bords. Prol. R. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. to . Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. . habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. 2nd Tale. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. habilis (from habeo. the Fr. P. within the ship. forbid for mother's children should abye. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. If it badare. — Able. to perish. aboleo. — e. Lat. abicgan. Fr. bord. Q. bidan. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. purpose. a board. abilej Prov. able. Mids. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. abolir. beidan. ON. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. abie to Goth. consequences of anything . as habiller du chanvre. to redeem. O If tion. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. power. use. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. Milton. in for any special purpose. God. Boucher.ynes. to have . abigg. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. while in later examples As I . The —Boucher. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. and Cr. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. N. when compared with Aboard. the side of a ship. Chaucer. In this to erase or annul. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. powerful. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. at kasta fyri bord. bide. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. the Pardoner In the original. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. suffer the Jul. Cassar. abilh. It. abycgan. convenient. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. abeye. from AS.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. without special reference to the notion of retribution. Wickliff in Richardson. though sometimes confounded with it. to draw fowls. him with che. strong. is the verb abie. God — dear. sufficient. durance in both applications. abide. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. atling hem to her proper offices. L. fault being simply clothing. habile. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. abidge. have-like. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. adapted . Fr. abie. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. ! ! Cotgr. being disabled in the highest degree. to pay the penalty. Abie. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. She shall abie that trespass dere. at hand). and death for handsel pay. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. al- be found so some will dear abide it. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. or bie. willing to schewe his wrathe. to pay the purchasemoney. and the simple buy. R. i. as E. to dress hemp. 2. For on board. AS. —Bacon in R. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. on board . Merch. P. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. fit. — P. Spenser. to wear away. de la volatile. expert. from Lat. &c. within the walls of a ship. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God.

while the sense of beget. AS.writers in the sense of starting out of rence.. as withotityn and without. abufan. life. ufan. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. pedigree from brevis. brood. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan.ger. bufan. full ofte his words for to Fr. is not from G. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. about cockcrow. — ' — — preceding verb. the hair grow. nurse Lat. nurse. Tale. while the verb alleThe root el. Thonne Abroach.foda signifies to beget. and also to abridge. abbrechen. to bring up. For on broach. sec seftre — Chaucer. OE. natural ed direct from the latter language. Fr. to grow together. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. to main. giving birth to. from Fr. Melibaeus. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. ABOMINABLE adolesco. the idea of breaking about . is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. to awake. to turn. onbutan. to AS. See To Bray. the OSw. OE. Virg. to feed.ymbutan. and also. break out. the form a&^^. to aggravate.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. . becomes leu in Prov. boven. heavy. to grow up. To Abound. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). and bidden him abregge. Thence to regard greugetat. be-utan.the older form. to beget or give birth to children. around on the out. abredan. abbrechen. abbreviare. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. No doubt if we had not so complete a About.aboon. Of these synonymous adolescere. Quod abominor. or young forth. ol. the vital spark.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. to break off. ala. butan. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. AS. seems aras. and to do something to avert abbreviate. To abray or abraid. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. oil. to light a fire the Abraid. abutan. which may God avert. Prov. greu. Kiittner. outward. adolere. en. leading immediately to Fr. motion. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. hard. nourish. by the to bring up. to fatten. Sc. for ligeth butan. levis to the Romance languages. abowen. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. d. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. The radical idea is to feed the flame. Above. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. af-oolden. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. titan. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. to rear. Finnish stock. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. alan. be-ufan. from . Lat. progeny. disastrous portent in some passing oc. to produce. gravis. as the duty of nourdisposition. side. or cut short. is a ively. to progress. the man dwindles away. which passed into English under Abominate. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. to cut short. In the same brevis . Du. awaking. Goth. AS. alan. agredge. that greatly agredge their sin. agreujar. to feed. common in Chaucer and Abominable. as AS. Abundant. parent. See -und-. alUger. So in Lat. literally. a portent). al is growth. above. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. of any kind . The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. explains soboles Lat. af-oleii. kindling. ala is made to signify to rear. Gael alaich. breaking out in language. — .1. whence the Fr. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. OSw. alere capillos. s —Casdmon. Abray. gravity. abominor (from ab and omen. the identity of which with ting. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. draw out. and in-d-oles. on high. Severe the threatened evil. to snatch. currence.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. and alere flammain. to nourish. snatch In English we speak of away. to let sleep.— Abbreviate. abrdger. vital PI. his contemporaries. Abrdger itself.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. to start. without.' Ymb hancred utan.) . coalesco. to rear. below. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. The primitive idea seems that of beget.' Parson's rence.. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. abrcBgdan. but from Lat. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. . D. way Sw. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. Then. abracan.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


ab. AS. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. a preventative . which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. — — — .—Aperture. As the browcalled antiques. should be received. Aphorism. to have. to bring forth. burnished. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. Anxious. Fr. to display pario. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. from an. before. Antler. Jorioc. Hence the applica. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. to strike G. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. of. antefn. rich. to strike.— . wealth. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. from ango. Percutere. all of gold. G. : . apertum. ambeld. from eigan. whence Prov. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. plenteously with red. AS. d. from. AS. Apartment. To go antiquely. three antike pillers. surimitation of the ancient models. Gr. Any. from. a definite . E. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. ReApe. or antique single chamber.D. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. from in and cudere. verberas. Otfried. In like manner. something ler in R. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. younger child. avri^ava. and claret wine. one at the least. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. apatiar. gabeigs. strangle. stem. i. villan Gloss. or in a ridiculous dress. separate. such as savages. the anticks — behind. a gift. white. one having wealth. to sound in answer. post. to support. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. finally applied to a whether grotesca. Mannequin. Thus from gabe. Lat. a termination equivalent to Goth. left as the . Prov. from avTiipoiuia).th centuries the recognised models of antic. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. to strain. bread. anxius. press. before. Antick. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. some one. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. whence anthem. vex. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. part. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. cenig. a small quantity. anfilts Pl. and devils. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. were chiefly of the former class. fauns. panar. from ante. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. So Lat. antifena. . separate purpose. eigs. Gr. a few. aperio. To ape. —Spencer. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. swaged. as we call it. trouble. andouillers.made out. Hall's Chron. panis. to nourish. Ful- Apanage. amboltj Du. to imitate gestures. apanage. Antique. and ig. as from as. incus. set aside. from the imitative habits of monkeys. which by anvild. choke. Apart. Fr. Lat. a puppet or an anti^hona.. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. Ilvtwotov. to open. inAgain from the same author cudis. Anvil. anticus. Aperient. transferred to the grotesque characters. See Cover. work. Gr. af. what Roman civilisation. Lat. anxi. anapoz. as the Italians. were andouiller the second. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. on. but the expresent day. Pezron fiUist. Fr. to go in strange disguises. one. Lat. a block to hammer on.is to be given. aside. like a jack-pudding. Antidote. as posticus. in Shakespear. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen.legacy of given against. d<popi(xnbs. Apartment. from Stephanus. from an and — - .

Gr. after his mind . Cotgr. apprise. ar. equal. good. Fr. Hence It. APRICOT off. poind. praise. Cent Nouv. peace. prover. pronounce fitting). and appoinder (to find fitting.parejo. 11. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. one the MLat. — Apprise. Apple. approcdare. and also as appraise. Epistle. Mod. w. Gr. To praise. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. To Appear. —^Apparent.pareil. e. cepl. approver. appareo. AS. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. 23 . to store or put Appal. En peach. horror.prix. consent unto. Apostle. to send to. Cotgr. They werin his approvirs privily. Lith. word was specially applied to clothing. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. To Appraise. appris. APO sentence opoQ. (cited by Diez from a late author). pronounce good. obolys. to set a price on. apprentis. irpaiKOKiaov. were formed appropiare ejar. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. prope (comp. . known. — Approve. prohts. Apprehend. a thing for one's purpose. Walach. to catch hold of. Prov. dress. to announce. apal. Formerly apricock.t. —Diez. iwKjToKri. order. Cotgr. to deem good. kind of action. appareiller.—Apprentice. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. pretium. . apprendre. to commend. to disable oftat. habilUr. to Lat. manner. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. the good. near. — prehendere. to strike down. to call for judgment. pertain or belong to. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. agree. a crime. when the . Appareil. and in the sense of condition. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. Approach. mine. The PI. proper time came. 'L-zX.— . Fabian in R. apprehendere. From Gr. to fit. allow. diminutive pariculus.propius). approcher. The Fr. habiliments. — Appurtenance. poind. to be open to view. diroBrjKr}. from. or the like. : — — speak 'Lz. array. A — . in good season prendre son d. fit- — ness. 5w. an epistle or letter. apin R. Yr. to understand.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. Ir. landmark. preparation. quoth the frere. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. ^wss. From Lat. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. It.probare. For their acquaintance was not come of new . Apo- good time. appaiser. — dirondtfiu. one sent out. and metaphorically to take the meaning. par. that it outfit. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. H. to deaden. apar. seiden of the stones. Fr. to accord. to make a thing Apparel. S^. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. plight. like. Friar's Tale. Parson's Tale. to send off. one for his defence. from aTroorlXXu. to suit. opportunity. apparecchiare. peler. Apotliecary. to mark to define a bound. xv. to approach. taking. to assign or grant over unto. To cause to pall (see Pall). Palsgr. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. apropchar. rise to \t. Fr. trim. to finish a controversy. Prov. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. 'LaX. Fr. Fr. laven is used both as E. to deter- to strike. or E. a price. to call. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. to lose one's senses. properly to join like to like. I prise ware. apropid. to come near. to — . Gr. Lat. in Chaucer. aparelhar. to approve. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. Fr. Fr. i. value apprdder. avail. lAfiaam. to dress in this fashion. Pliny. prize. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. to take away or lose the vital powers. find Then like Fr. one is in. like. set a price on. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. Apoplexy. case. probare. Nouv. decree. diroTrXriaatii. Sp. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. to learn. in fact. off. ON. become dizzy . to rate. to — — . pragigua or prixcoda. jabloko. of. whence the e. in data. a'^opi'Jw. aptly. to learn.parecchio. Gr. to which it is often referred. ciously than nede is. . N. away.his giving evidence against his principal. esteem. An old appalled wight. Hence appoind. And among other of his famous deeds. ap. to seize. a learner. apal. piteux poind. And whanne sum men Lat. from paix. They were considered To Appoint. purpose. despatch on some service. appartenir. Yr. Appease. oVooroXof. d-n-o. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. From Lat. whether through age or sudden teiTor. appellare. OFr. ai. D. make a composition between parties. in commendation. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. corresp. Fr. agreeing with "LtA.

hariolus arpelen. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. sortium ductor. Hall. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. however. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. arpa. ear.] in the N. doubtless is the origin of E. a cloth. Arbitrate. quod he. tion under trial. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. ahva. J. This path Aqueous. to plough. It may be doubted. nawl and awl.. and with turfis new Goth. and sortilegus ation. herbere. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. Arbour. — . aptus. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . . originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. intensitive of nape. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. grande nappe. however. to preserve it from stains. the spelland umpire. most conspicuous situation in the garden . Freshly turnid Arable. la nappe. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . Naperon is explained by Hdcart. proper. Lat. Maan initial . Now we find in Fin. Pm. shortdr. P. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. a lot. OHG. . a pleasure-ground. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. or barm-cloth.o. man. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. Lat. symbol. P. Naprun. divining rod. fastened close. Alban. Aquatic.meaning at Shrewsbury. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. delon. Gr. naperon. wata. arbitror arwaaja. sorcerer. It is certain that the apricot oracle. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. aa. rofe and all. She made. OE. conjectura conjec^ra. Now one of the points — — — . aha. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body.shrubs {arbor). Pr. pracoqua was not an adapt. and thence fit. As is a pretty parlour. con. and taken away before dessert. Beryn. properly the arwella. be That it inne groweth. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. Albanian. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. Flower and Leaf. or eft. . arbiter. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. account for either of these significations. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. Roquefort. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. a lot. {mies ^=ia3. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. a soothsayer. — napkin is Naperon. suitable. 31. aestimo. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. arwelo. words derived from arpa. Marsh. A. derived. ap. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. found in Fin. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. a lot. arbitrium. 331.' —About. C. aro. Thus we have natiger and auger. ughe. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. sestimatio arbitraria. From OE. and the one who gives oracles. scr. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. 2. a river. as ihe diminutive. water Which that benchid was. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. and a protection of the clothes. arwaus. garden. conjicio. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. of of divination arpa-mies. opinio. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. arbiter in re censendS.sors. nected. auguror. . is taken in is a soothsayer. as an eye-witness.) E. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. The loss or addition of n very common. Lat. Prol. From OFr. to decide by lot. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. aqua. short. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter.

malicious. area. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. wretched OE. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. fabricate). a bow. ancient. Arcliives. arrant Arms. Langobard. is essentially the same word. especially shoulder-joint.. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. et vulgari verbo. forearm . ramend). From apxeiov was formed Lat. to arm. mischievous. Gr. un petit rusd. — Wtb. Lat. . to be in comp. Fr. whence the body of the nobles collectively. kpxi- beginning. an arrant usurer. the best. man. taxed with cowardice. And thou as arwe coward. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. i. curved. an arch boy. argr. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . Sax. earg. a burning or setting on fire. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. Lat. a bare plot of ground. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. stuff. Arch in composition. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. aj-f. from areo. to burn . — Architect.is the natural weapon of offence. Gr. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. first. sly. government. ers-betriiger. arwe. an arch-deceiver . fainthearted. a. Dan. faint-hearted. Cot. arm. 2. sluggish. a chief builder. arrig. an arrant rogue. and not with apx. erg. arg. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. arson. arm'ee. from nixa. Area. lofty. Arm. vescovo. shoulder. * ArchjAiTaxit. Brem. the court of a magistrate. . part of a circle anything of a bowed form. receptacle where the public acts were kept. in Due. rame. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. a rule (princiruler. worker. ramo (pi. W.' the Gr. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. arm. while the Fr. exercise lordship). Ardour. earh. Applied in modern E. by Russ. ardeo. . mischievous. to Arch. to be on fire. From the verb armare. as in E. Ardent. ardre. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. troublesome. arcus.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. Lat. earm. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. a threshing-floor. ill-tempered. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. arduus. Du. bravest. adjective. ardIn G. are formed the participial nouns. Arcadia in R. bad. Fr. Arduous. armata. apxh. apxri. A construct.' Paul Warnefrid. high. G. Perhaps erz-wticherer. bad. sly.aioj. Sp. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. Uo^a^. vocaveris. ' — Argue. Gr. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. ars. Lat. arcA in e. patus). . The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. which has been referred to W. erz-bischof. and must be identified with Dan. raineno. . TiKToiv. It. branch. D. Alisaunder. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. to demonstrate. argvitugr. and our army. the most arrant trash. aridus. G. ^Argument. and Kpurka..' Lex. Lat. ein arger knabe. arguo. contemptible. erz in G. ruling by the nobles. a court yard. make clear or prove. arma.— Army. to rule. apxtlov. arga. apxtipfve. 3340. Aristocracy. to dry. curved line. an extent of flat surface. archangel. wanton. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. Fr. gwyro to bend. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. Gr. shoulder Boh. The . bad of its kind. apx^iv. gwyrek. it signifies roguish. the a brute. armee. un malin enfant. ON. det arrigste snavs. a noble. weapon. There can be no doubt that E. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). Lat. the terminaGael. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. AS. Lat. which is derived from it. weapon may be simply an application of annus. armada. Arid. ardor.4 rir/. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. morally bad. burning heat. een erg kind. Arson. a branch. arsum. signifies chief or principal. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. as the arch of a bridge. arch-bishop. timid. difficult to reach.In E. Lat. Du.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

3. Russ. as we say. heap up. OHG. misery Du. bolker. Sw. to avoid it.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. a dance. a great ball. balle. Du. a But making way for death at large to walke. trouble. stage or scaffold. We have then separate dial. balloon. are applied to a From the same analogy. a continued noise of waves gently beating . Bret. pilula. sorrow. a division of the old laws. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. to roll. a globe. balk. Sw. bolyaf. to cause another to miss pustule. the beam of a ship. To Bale out water. package of goods. a bubble. Fin. bjdlki. a ball. malefacGower in R. to on Holmedon's plain. separaison. Du. the object of his expectation.). Sp. a separate portion. . a dance. bol. ball. Hence. the ballet of the theatres.' speak gibberish champurrar. dial. on. probably Lat. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. hue et illuc inclinare. a boil. balk. It. ball.of men . pallo. plague. baalien. a wooden partition . to ache. Mid. at giore en balk. bold. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. ON. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. floor. a beam. to signify washy drink. and the dim. a clump . a clapping or flapping of wings. Rouchi ban. Ugutio in Due. Ballot. Fr. to Not sparing wight. Perhaps on. Da. Grief. to move. hooting. balka hopar. mass.—Ballad. ballotta. ball.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . Bohem. Sw. a clod of earth water. calamity. Venet. ballare. balken. ballan. ball. a ballad. pila. to plough for a boundary between lands. ballare. ballet. to dance. N. Sw. w. balva-vesei. balja. to be ill. Goth. balk. balle. bdlkr. to partition off . a washing-tub. Wotton. Fr. to paddle in water . the breadth from side to side . TtaKKa a pail or tub . to plank. a together in the form of a ball. Fr. balle. It. Sw. balkr. palloilla. globule. wickedness ness . and evil in general. similar connection is seen in Sp. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. ill. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). pallo. boleii. Sw. Ball. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. on. a ball balla. . ballar). Pol. bal. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. Da. balka. bola. gen. 2. may exhibit the original development of the signification. pallukka. to be balker. Hence Dan. a ball or pack. Gael. bbllr bulla J. ne leaving any balke.ing. e. Boll. G. taich. roof. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. shouting. a. Balloon. Sw. afbalka. to ail. blister. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. i. Ballata. Bale. bal. to shake or jog. balken. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . sick. bacgtteter. baler. uveirs bolk.Fr. maan pallikka. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. a beam. (Hesych. chapurrar. pallikka.Lat. . goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. to grieve . balk. bal. Sw. a balk of foul weather. OFr. To baulke the Sir H. balare. vacillare. bealwes. dial. baalie. Baulke of land. balka bunge. on the shore. bal-daed. to speak an un. OSw. grieve . on. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. beaten road. destruction. E. balveins. ' is a piece or confused talking. It. to pack Da. It. ban. to stir. bolyatchka. The primary sense seems as in G. Ball. other while. wickedtorment ON. G. torment. cka. as in a barn or cow-house. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. bollr. a ball. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. In like manner Fr. balge. bolawy. dial. with the perhaps from balg. AS. to bale out. to rock. pain. — A — — . See Gall. from the more general notion of moving up and down. I. tum. F. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. sickness. . a water-skin dim. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. ballone. lealo. Gr. to by beams. from bacquet. boll. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. to see-saw. says Ray. palla. a pestilence. vcdra bdlkr. maleficium. ing. dial. Dan. a ball. a scene acted in dancmg. a pill. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. . whether of wood or stone. It. ballo. palcare. balla (with the augm. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. ballare. a partition. * Balk. baloier. to wave. a ball. A balk. a skin. a pail. bala. balle. to dance. a ballot). . Bowl. bielke. weak liquor. . Q. bol.— Ballet. ache.

inutilis sarcina. to enchant. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. bumbazed.that the going vessels. Sc. Lat. make fun of a person. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. . a fragrant gum. mare Balticun. back of the ship. When a ship discharges. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. fonts. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. inutile onus. a useless load. little round and short pillars. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. To Bam. It. ^a\Ba\iov. explains ballast. baume. command. enchanter. terraces. from Lat. an Old dotard or imbambolare. Gr. denounce. paid for the right of carriage. the backload. lastra. Mr Marsh whether the a load. Ballast. a nettle. or ballast of a ship. galleries. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. a young babe. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. lest. It is BAN as well as to ballast it.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. curse. barauste. to walk. more serious objection is . baUa. ballustre) is a corruption. Report Pennsylv. bamein. objects to the foregoing derivation. railing around altars. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. the act of walking. bam. ballustres. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. bamboccio. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. It is explained back by Adelung. lestage. The Baltic sea.000 tons. In OSw. a battlement . Balsam. ballast. deceive. Du. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. A — — . balustrade barandilla. 43 — Cot. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. 1. The Sp. but loadage. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. called Bait. balconies. to preserve equilibrium. R. dial. also with flatteries and . and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. a small balustrade. Fr. Balluster. baU. . endormir par des contes. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. of balusters. forbid. But Fr. because. To deceive. balsamum. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. If bambocciolare were child of one. or movement of one who walks. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr.. Bret. and Mid. sorcerer. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. puzzled. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl.). Sp.Lat.' And Kil. bertesca. Venet. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. like Fr. ranked on the outside of cloisters. analogous to what is seen in It. Dan. bambocciolo. i860. the flower of the pomegranate. bag-las. Sept. astonished. urtica. Bret. is in Sweden and Norway. baltresac. it is forced to take in stones or sand. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. bag-lest. lastre. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. — — oltriga. This is the backload. ^Arbuthnot in R. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. It. 1854. by met. lastagium signified not only ballast. &c. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. To make fun of a person. To Bamboozle. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. baranda. Balm. a rod. To Ban. a duty on goods last. To proclaim. from bara or vara. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. Baltic. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. Lest. Said to be from balaustia. Fr. age. more frequently than outward-bound. bambolo. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. for a load or goods (Roquef. last. small railing. a false tale or jeer. barandado. in the first place. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. for want of other freight. Cotgr. seems the original form of the word. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. as he says. deceiver. &c. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. Bamour.

at his own discretion. bande. 813. From the verb to banda.Lat. a coast. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. is That with which anything AS. i. sostener Torriano. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. change to the feminine gender in banda. banda.e. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). acquired the sense of proclamation. those who side together (bande. Goth. Les saiges avait et les fols d. banda. to . 'A son bandon. Band. R. In Fr. to form parties. then the signification w. It. to excommunicate {lysa. bande. Ripuar. authority. &c. . ex. band. ligue Taboada). — To partito d'alcuno. also the band or of marriage. It seems this signification has arisen. banda the colour or material. banns pany of footmen serve. and It. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. bandon somewhat party. 15. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. Bandus. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. . populum. to publish) banna. In a special sense the term company itself. passing on from proclamation to command. G. in Fr. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. hoc est vexillo.is further developed. flag. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. Baud. bandera ground at his mill. and in E. Goth. eiiseigne. bandi. To Bandy. curse. a company. to reprove. to follow a faction. Spebifid. border. 19. banner marked the place of assembly. Cot. Diss. Car. whether by way of injunction or for- command.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. v. There is some doubt how Fr. fahne. band. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. bannire exercitum. bannum or bandum. to ctide. The to . The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. he bannede his ferde.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. OE. Wyntoun. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. R- He Translated by Chaucer. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. Capitul. biddal. faction. —R. we constantly find the expression. Assises de Jerusalem. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. Thus the word is also used in both senses. the ensign or banner. and thence to any proclamation. Leg. side. says Muratori. to unite with a band. side. bundun. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. Commun^ment son bandon. See Abandon. to take one to task. permission. ba?idare. margin. &c. — R. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have.. bannire in exercitum. It. E. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. to side or to bandy (Florio). summoning to serve So in Swiss. admolendinum. from at the Lord's courts. 26. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. he assembled his host. theodscipe ut abannan. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. 2. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. tener da alcuno. bandon was used in the same sense. to ban. Se il — Romance languages. Sp. — excommunication bann-lysa. bann. Bandear. parti. Fr. power. 1. D. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy.—John Villani in Due. bande. It. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. A. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. in hostem convocare. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion.^ bandy. to bring corn to be fahne. etc. bindan. Fr. bando. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. bound. Sp. Mag. region. Sw.

shoal. large dog kept for a guatd. standard. follow a party. has bang-bang. in the sense of a pirate. 2. tumult bangas. a blow. destruction . back of a knife. banke. in the same way that E. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. Diaconus in Due.^ knock. the same verb the It. Mercutio. — . ruptus. the back. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. Bank. Fr. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). Banister. With many a stiff thwack. banka. . It. pastoralis. Hudibras. in the sense of place of business. a i. eminence. It. Fl. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. Brewer.z. Bantze. for shame. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. A Shipman's Tale. banja. disturbance banga. The child cries bang! fire. to join in league with others against Cotgn. Ripuar. — — whence E. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. E. forbear this outrage. among rotta. stir. seat . se reunir. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. a rising bank. to publicly order one out of the realm. &c. Dan. and bakki. Lat. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. in R. banqueroute. banc G. a bench. Mid. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. — Paulus drive in a nail. bank of a river. The ridge of a hill is AS. broken. To Bandy. See Banish. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. ON. Du. bander. banc. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. the slope of a hill. many a bang. death-blow . that the word is used by Romeo. band-hond. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. bana. hricg. roupt. canis vinculis assuetus. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. to cabal. the former Fr. hammering. a bench. Banditti. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. bannire. at canis peciiarius. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. banca fallita. to knock. bandi. See Band. and hence. dorsum was applied to ject. bang. bana-sdr. murderer. to proclaim. to bend a. The word is in E. Bacon in R. bandire. —^Vocab. Benvoglio. Sw. rap hatike et som The Susu. distinguishes bekkr. banco. . banish. de sable. bent as a bow. bance. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. eminence. a de Vaud. whence the mod. bank of Dan. bana-sott. s'associer. Tibalt. AS. It is in this sense nounce. a table. beat. Goth. ON. a long raised seat. bench. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. bakke. to beat. of bandying words. Fr. to hammer in a nail. band-dog. The ing. bankruptcy. bank. Roquefort. panca. — Kil. AS.HG. outlam came to signify a robber. and poise Their lighter wings. Africa. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. Bang. to foment factions. b'ang. Draw. Benchi. &c. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. put under the ban of the law. From Mid. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. . a bench. bank of river. a bankrupt merchant. Banner. and therefore tied up. to make a stir banke. bandear. a wound OHG. — Fr.: . bana. from banc. a counter. as of an explosion or a blow. When a man fails Lat. bana. Bankrupt. But natheless wife at I bank. It. to slay. ON. language of W. From a desk . a sand-bank. Bandy legs are crooked legs. Milton in R. bander tin arc. bane. . participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. Diez. beating. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. death-sickness. . benk. banditti acquired the like signification. de- party. home — Bandog. bank. Lingua. bander. was formed the OFr. Fr. se joindre. and OFr. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. a bank. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. to work in wood. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. death-wound. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. See Balluster. bench. 45 — — Bandit. N. counter. clouds. bow. desk. g. Bane. Bandy. banca his creditors. to knock. Your stool.

and it was accord. either in the Gr. banneret. To Banter. to bend. uncivilised. Fr. banniire. that the noise of voices Bantling. The origin is in all probability Goth. of wind. sparre. Barb. chan. barba. In a similar manner are formed yearling. probably corSymbol. senhal. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. The barb of an arrow is the sign . milites bannarii. ingly very generally known by a name branches. from reifa. and he would seem to derive Goth. says. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. barriire. which is surely in barbed arrow. rod of any rigid substance. to wrap. E. to beckon . inferior to a baron. branch. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. a barrier or stoppage. remarked. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. The original import of their own banner in the field. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking.aTa Kul nest. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. then branches. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. and with an initial s. merki. BARBAROUS reiflingr. senh. benda. Fr. brushwood. a. barbe. Gael. senheira. iandvo. Gr. It. a bantling. Duo. OHG. by a repetition of the syllable bar. Fr. rarii. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. ing term appears in other languages. OFr. It. knight Bardd. branches of a tree {gwezen.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. bandva. a bench or table . Leduchat. — We A . barbarus.8ap6^o)voe. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. —Cot. banda. It may be thing. Bret. banner. banchetto. Sw. sbarra. top. would rupted from Fr. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. senhal. to having that signification. summit. Bap. Lat. wrapped. dim. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. Banquet. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. &c. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. men. The spar. Fr. manu anto make signs nuere. barde. privileged to raise Barbarous. such as the Roman Eagle. as they call it. Barbar. token. Lat. E. Flesche barbeUe. nestling. a beam or long pole of wood. Thus Ovid. a war-beacon or war-signal. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. or of this bantering.. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. to wash. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. sparro. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. A It.— Swift in R. and even of calling it banter. signuin. ON. indeed. To mock or jeer one.cruel. a sign. &c. speaking of battle. from the same source. Banneret. sign. OHG. Hence ner. Lat. and the work is done. bandiera. the word came to signify rude. barrack. a ban. ^oTrriKio.hinder. barbed or trapped as a great horse. banne. barreau. period vexillarii. arineXov. to dip. himself in Pontus. barrou-gwez. Barb. bannereti. the bar at which a criminal enseigne.. of banco. jSdirTO). hence a repast. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. then fell among the foot. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. Celtic bar. 3. Fr. barra. inur. E. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. ban- Baptise. a tree). an animal a year old.the analogous syllable viur. barre. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. a which the barrister addresses the court. banda hendi. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. ON. Hence Fr. in Gr. Barbe. and from ensign or banner Prov. out of a wound. i. 2. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. a bearded or Cot. Gr. It. Fr. . jSa'pjSapoc. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. barrer. of a sign in general. bar. According to Diez the It. heri-pau. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. banneret was a higher class of knights. G.46 BANNERET .

skola. barbel. stutter. brim.— BARBEL merit of water. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. is lb. a long saddle for an ass or mule. grumble (Lowndes. guazzolare. bds. to barbe or trap horses. which was of talking. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. coping. border of a garden bed. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. the beard. Sp. borbollar. barz. upper chamber. Cotgr. bdsas. Cotgr. boil. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. a rumbling. barbeau. in the sense of fight. g. w. as well as thwcEtta. barboter. to wash. albarda'ah. to gurgle. unqualified. bardd. uncovered. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. berries. Cot. borboglio. or more properly (says fer. Hindost. small pack-saddle. to It. used 2. barbeter. back. to mumble or mutter words. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. Fr. to plash or dabble. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. Arab. Gr. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. a shingle or small board. the flap of a hat. Bare. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. skirt. barbarkama. the quilted with. Barder. guaszare. barS. . the edge of a shield hval-barct. bhasad. albardilla. horse armour covering the front. jargon. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. bdsiis. borbotar. Barber. skirmish. Barberry. powdered all over. Etym. Barbel. barguigner. bare baskojis. A7 to the and warlike. Fr. Thus the on. Mod. twattle. muttering. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. baar. barbelin. Bargain. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. Pr. Barde. baragouin. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. G. fortia —Strabo. a pack-saddle. also to wallow like a seething pot. and flanks. /3opj3opwJu. name Fr. Bret. Mod. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. waschen. Exposed to view. a bardelle. Lex. — . Russ. ready money. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. ala. also to bind or tie across. uproar.) to wrangle. tattle. Bardeau. and foolishly. An outwork for the defence of a gate. to bubble or boil. albarda. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . quarrel . barbar. to rumble. Barbican. Applied in E. Sp.' Cot. the nakedness of a woman. bardes. barbaris. gibberish. such as houses are covered Bardelle. dial. barda. open. borbulhar. Etym. Hall in R. in poetic language Bard for poet. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. to make an outcry . to prattle. saddle-cloth. Port. tree. brabble in the making of a bargain. Gr. barbacane. scouthouse. berj G. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation.) . mutter. bdla-khaneh. baares geld. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. borborinha. lb. skialldar-bard. Fr. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. as well as the modern twaddle. Lith. barefooted Sanscr. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. Diez. Port. to grunt. barbeum. and the word was used in OE. The Pers. It. Lucan. murmur . and Sc. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. — Cot. a tumultuous assembly. Hatt-bard. barbugliare. — . barbier. axilla. on. Fl.— — Pm. border. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. to boil or bubble up . barbulla. to stammer. haggle. formerly used in the sense of tattle. It. But Sp.— Fl. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. and in Flanders to vociferate. OFr. — — — men. . in Fr. to stammer. bar. twcEtta. a jetty or outnook in a building. Fr. /3£pjSepi^w. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. Sp. Festus in Diet. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. to chafbargain. speak confusedly. i. — — Hence. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. A shrub bearing acid Diet. barda. to bubble or spring up. Bard.

entangle. barlys. hemlock. strife. contest. barahunda. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. hay-loft. barley. barlich. a cap . Dan. disorder. bread. kani. ON. Garlick. barn. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. — Zeuss. ON. Manx bayrn. As Goth. bernac. to shufSe. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. barafunda. dispute. baratta. Sp. Swab. as. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. quarrel Port. AS. Spectacles. bere. Provj bar (ace. to chop. altercation. bread-corn. astringent. in Nat. hlaSa.Barum vel feminam. bosom. louzou. edge. barnis. struggle. Bark. Baron. — de Berri. confusion. commonly explained from bere. (Ihre. bcerme. am. Lith. ON. fray. giving rise to It. Acervus. a load. a heap . barn. Leg. It. See formed Yeast. to strive.. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. The origin may be throat. but the woman for the man. beorcan. Leg. was barlic. Du. at barka. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . from an imita- Barley. baron. the A — Ihre. to wrangle. dregs of oil. corn-shed. Ripuar. limpets . bard). 2. Camus. ON. OFr. barii. barizeins indicates a noun baris. as. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. skutr. bern. in the Brim. . borkr. So also ON. Romance barsie. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. lap. Vocab. a lap. beer. and hence probably (by a metaphor. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. —Bark. berm. bosom .^Voc^. barmr. i. The Goth. Uzen. baarm. strife. baralhar. hladi. w. brenig. Bemiques. border. herbs. baerm. the fore or after end of a boat . put to confusion. the slimy substance brewing of beer. barone. baragouin. wine. dial. . a beak. Sw. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. Antiq. spectacles. Rayn. a heap. bamagh. and llysiaw. baralha. also a boat . Port. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. Tarn baronem quam feminam. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. Bret. Barn. — battle. then honoured man. plants). to all the barca.. . From Fr. Gael. a receptacle for barley or corn. Cornub. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. charlock. as in the case of Lat. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. adj. W. barretor. To Bark. a boat. * Barnacles. v. as baces-ern. bargain. Sp. Port. OSw. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. E. a barn. a lantern.) lihtes-ern. limpet. bark . the or prow of a ship. quarrel. barnacles. barley. dispute . dispute. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. baimeach. is simply the Bret. and 1. On the other hand. dispute barattare. OFr. barajar. Sp. Kil. barlys {bara. Barbour in Jam. barn. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. mhg. a baking place or oven. . 2. baaring. barms. to rout. to cheat. berma. varen. as well as Scandinavian tongues. to scold. meta foeni. we pass to the vert) barguigner. a place. husband. and ern. baarn. to skin over barkandi. aheap. and the word. bcern. Alam. barja. Bailey. a. ber (ace. one who stirs up strife. limpets. So ON. Barge. — Barnacle. AS. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. strife. the rack or manger. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. also to exchange. baron)^ Fr. Dan. Du. barafustar. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide.' bardagi. and is probably a true bartig. name being given to spectacles. Originally man. trouble. and may therefore be an Eastern word. Ibid. Gl. prominent part of a thing. tumult. berm. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. barge. beornt. baaren. tion of the sound. barley. chaffer. houbartij fsnile. contest. ThS man was not created for the woman. bern. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. baniffa. squabble. See Barm. Isidore in Rayn. dispute . berem. barki. skuta. the G. prasepe . have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. It. then the bows pectus navis. a stack. berm hoys. The older form in e. baratta. Prov. quant a perdu sa barja.

as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. bredhan. A. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. Barren. G. qui have not much light on the pre. On chet — We — — their resemblance. baracca. G. Barrel. Gael. semen non accipiens landiEL. the two names. soldiers' barracks are mentioned.. vair. a bier. baronetti. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. bara. It. barraca.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. Joshua vii. a hiU. Sp. S. boar. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. beorgan. barre. barrique. change of goods seems. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. a bar. Barrister. also termed bannerets. barrack. Sp. and not from Fr. a. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. 2. D. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. bearg . Gael. like bargain. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. sterilis. It. whenever Barrow-hog. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. bahre. baragan. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. hut. a horse. The Sp. litter. to shelter. staves. in the first instance. squabble. shed. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. — — 15th Cent. 1. berwen. cise formation of the word. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice.' that Barrier. especially those killed in battle. (Schmeller). that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. to * Barragan. It. It was not until the time of James I. the braw. AS. which would barragdn. todtenbahre. as. borov'. ^Vocab. Bohem. barrier. baraignej Picard.have been named from the haggling and gant. Fr. Bamnculus a baronet. over him. dispute. by early examples. cover. Barricade. an obstruction. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. a kind of coarse camlet. barBombicinus. in Nat. bara. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. Antiq. breinej Du. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. a castrated hog . Bret. beorg. vel pretiosos burellos. a man. fallow. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. bouracan. vir. barrique. garment still used in Morocco. signifying. baronculi.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. man and wife. E. a barrel. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. The feudal tenants next Fr. Goth. Fr. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. Baron andfemme. 26. tomb. ibid. branches. Formed from Fr. It should be observed that. Bern. from beran. rolls of Parliament. strife. ^Barrator. a hut or booth. brushwood. sepulchre. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. implement for carryAS. fear. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. See Barter. a word is always used in the plural number. Barrack. Nominale of the from braeckland. whence Barrow. MHG. beorh. and in several instances. nobles. Russ. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. alongside of barrow. were sometimes confounded. calico. barri. See Bar. w. barile. habeant. from cavallo.parchanttuech. fortification. man. OE. heap. booth. or simply bahre. barrila. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. became bidre.. Sp. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. bera. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. StiU he shows conclusively. iver. baroncelli. to carry.root signifying confused noise. bark&n. as cavalcade. gravis et authenticus vir. — Kil.— Gibbon. barague. facture. barchent. braeck. barril. This word introduced into Fr. composed of dry branches ofer. An ing. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. perhaps through Prov. — A . then traffick4 Barrow.' Op. baronuU. from a tree to which a man is hanged. berewe. uncultivated. a. Bargus or moreland. seem to be radically the same with Lat. bier. Barratry. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. mound. gwr. AS. a barrow. OFr.

cheating. Bass. AS. a halter. found in Turkish . Bartizan. Gr. Fr. from /3aR. Basilisk. baratear. binding. HaUiweU. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. Lap. beguile. Dan. basso. as the diadem of the basilisk. of the same sense. a deceiver. plaiting of splinters basged. to bargain. HoUinshed. bast. Swed. commonly A joined with the word binda. low. foist in bargaining. unrighteous gain. netting. as It. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. ^Is de bast. to deceive. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). lust. discourse Nay. low part of the Hickes in Rich. Newman. — in Rich. a bass rope. fits de bas. berewic. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. which covers the grain Ger. bestcn. A fabulous serpent. bast-reb. besst-u-b£nd&t.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. Al is dai. also the demesne lands of a manor. Lend me your hands. basta. i. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. embastir. leviter consuere. hoops of a cask. inclosure. Bastard. a ipgli So Turk. a bastard. ' He was begetin o bast. fornication. Fr. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. humilis. . then cheating. the — — to kill those that look upon it. MHG. fornication. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. mavult dicere Roma suam. more noble in blood than notable in learning. a ftiesh. Bast. There is not one that. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. to Diez. partieren. OFr. from bere. to bind. imbastire. on a. chasa ogli a bastard. baste. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. stitch.D. Sicamb. he. at basta og binda. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. the a wide open vessel. — hanging. him. descended of an honorable lineage. to bind. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. the thin skin Dan. back. It. pdrdt. to baste piece of cloth. It. and tun. baraand especially teria. HaU in HaUiwell. It. ohg. the manorhousfe itself. bast. scale in music. mean . But according And Dan. or wic. . and Bret. PaaiKhms. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . exchange. The original meaning. BassuS. chasa. peel. Du. crassus. Barton. low. To Bask. Sw. /«r<fSp. Dan. basso.). to stitch . mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . It. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). cog. said Base. to long — a British word by Martial. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. — Bassoon. . G. w. aiKcig. basta. besst. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. fhe outhouses and yards.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. tierer. court-yard. but born in baste. barter. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. To Baste. corn-farm. low note. OFr. ing for profit. beortun. basgod. Kil. bareter. to truck. mock not. Bass. which sets up its hood when angry. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. bran. Sp. lattice-work. baste. pressed down. It is mentioned as . Sw. baste. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. Sylvester's Dubartas.' Papias. Barbara de pictis veni patch. lift me above Parnassus. bass-matting. exchange. It. Basket. thick. barter. over-reaching. shallow. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. piiiguis. 516. Halliwell. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. n' is n' is bacino. curtus. to bind hand and foot. oe. rope for — . Fr. would be. Sp. bast. See Bath. bds. truck. flat.looketh upon his eyes. God it wot. according from Gael. but he dreth presently. to cheat. baxoj w. bast-maatte. bark. bdtir. baraet (from Fr. to cheat. a basket masg. See Brattice. baratar. dwelling. barley. MS. a court-yard. a king. bestan. baos. husk bast van koren. Isidore. F. Du. Bassus. imbastire. bassin. bastear. Pl. a tying. Apparently of Celtic origin.' Gl. It. bas. basg. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. beretun. Sp. Arthur and Merlini. or running away with the ship. also to Cotgr. fraud. preparatory stitching. ibid. ' Bosworth. MHG. To stitch. submovet omne Lucan. come near. Fris. The like property hath the iasilisk. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. to baste.

a barSp. frame.-^ Chaucer. erect. Sw. 2. a packsaddle. cudgelling. to beat. blakta. a. vespertilio. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. . Prov. to Due. All from bastir.stick. to drub. bastonada. basto. Fr. provisions. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. blaka. bat. natt-blakka. victuals. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. frotter. a bird which. bastine. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . badger. Rayn. ON. * Bat. contrive. Dieiif. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. blows. set up. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak .— . to build. Derived by Diez from iasi. niammal. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. also the ricado. It. To beat or bang soundly.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. a blow cloth for dinner. bastida. bakie-bird . to belabour. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. to quilt or stitch wool into it. has bastine.— Bailey. Sw. a pad or packsaddle. is explained by Cot. boste. the bat . in the Romance languages. beysta. as weU as besteau. Sp. 164). blakra. baston. comp. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. bastione. in the use of the E. dial. 11864. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. BAT neither. — Bakke. and Arabs. raise. or implement for 4 * A . Bastinado. pre. blakka. worth (Nat. to teach one before. guerra bastir. blatta. Fr. to flap. put it together. bak. night-bat. Perhaps baska. a blockhouse. to beat. Antiq. basa. vespertilio. bladier. to cudgel.fortress or castle furnished with towers. R. bastilde. bastear. E. to lay the Sp. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . devise. I. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. which in the E. a stick. and ditches bastion. Sp. like the owl and the bat. flyinge best. bastir. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. To baste one's hide . the original has corneille.baste or knock soundly. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. beating. packsaddle. the winged . bastia. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. blacta. to give him a sound bastingi 3. . 2. a pad. R. military term of a bat-horse). It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. iinbastire. to set on foot a war Bastion. Pm. to pack a saddle i. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. ment.stitching in general. a sconce. liiake. settiilg up. Dan. explains Sp. but this is hardly satisfactory. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. to build. to whip. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. Fr. also to cudgel. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. to thrash . Sc. bastir. 'iJipistreUo. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. bastonFr. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. Cot. That yche blak y dar wel telle. aftonbakke. e. stryka. Sw. a things prepared for future use. For the origin of baston see Baste. For the loss of the / in back. Pr. from Fr. passage Imbasto. translation to a bat. to stroke. bastille. Cot. the E. to rub gently. Fr. quelqu'un son roulet. vledermus. Dan. baston. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. staff. to devise or begin. bast. stryk. disposer. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. blatta. the clapper of a bell. ari instruineht for beating. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. a with a stick. Sw.Lat. compared with blakka. nade. batta lucifuga. to rub. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. 2. contriving. To donjon. — — — . Mid. club. bdion. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. which to rest the load.'CaB. set up. back. — — Fl.. Florio. and Cot. bastonnir. to spread bread and butter. bastimento. whence ledrblaka. basta. It. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. business (Altieri). iastir. Supp. It. the night-jar or goat-sticker. dial. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. p. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. a bastion.

abate. fortress or castle. also. ON. trahtr to It. battere. to fell. Battalion. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. It. batna. Hal. Chaucer. Barbour in Jam. on the fire. to become fat. Batyn. a from ON. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. a blow. Pr. Gael. strife. bet. to bathe. battre. Goth. beat. as E. baka. battere. Flem. dial. squadron. Hence pro. remit. It. howis. Fr. Fr. is in falling. Slav. a band of armed men arranged basa. hot. signifying to give repeated blows. as E. bake. badda. to for fighting. The bat with which a brot bdhen. to flutter with the wings. made of bats. to heat. to feed. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. In some parts of England it is striking. solbase. Fr. Jurgor. gebdcke. to warm oneself. a beating. more. Sw. the heat of the It. — — — ' — . bastille. to betake oneself. To Batten. G. to become convalescent. flour. to heat . From OFr. — Cot. from battre. Pm. to bathe oneself. Ayenst the sunne. bdda. and with staffslyng. battaglia. for biia sik. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. Strife. bada. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. bat. battre. batterie. dial. w. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. on. . . Sw. Pr. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. baz. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. then to warm by the application of hot water. is a simple adoption of Fr. and as a verb. a main battle. to beat. . and milk beaten up together. to dial. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. makebate. better. to beat se battre. bat-en. a battalion. pak. A batch as wood. to fire or in the sun. Fr. G. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. to toast bread. dial. or a dry stick. batacazo.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. cudgel. batte sig. as signifying warm baths. batador. dial. to foment. lessen. to be profited. Batten. to refresh oneself in language. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. bdda vidjor. buask made like a fortress. to thrive. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . was formed bastilU.Bathe. batir. to warm. basa. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. baden. gabatnan. Battlement. gebdck. Battery. made of — A made by one Batcii. Eggs. a stirrer-up of strife. I baske. Sp. sich bakern. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. or break down. PLD. tradire. battle was used beath wood. wet linen in washing. oneself at the A into faggots. solen baddar. To thrive. quell. From bat in the sense of rod . bdt. dispute. Battery. battions. a washing beetle. battre las ailes. or make debate. See Better. Bret. baquetazo. to foment with hot applica. as wood-en. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. G. Sp. perhaps first used adjectivally. to beat. to beath wood Battledoor. of bread is so much baked zX one time. — To . bataille. a staff.Hence in the augmentative form It. I.— To Bask. by projections or in any licoure. certain bend. Baka sik vid elld. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. and about an inch thick.— . term in falconry . beat. E. tagUone. to beak. Jeddris and covering. fashes basking in the sun squadron. Pm. Batter. to foment. Plkkis. altercation. bludgeon. Du. to cudgel. Fr. Florio. badda. a battle. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. to fight. baeddu. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. Bate. To Bate. Battle. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. adapted for defence. also a sun badfish. whence the sun burns . betten. e. a Baiffi. in the sun. quhar he suld assaill. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. the root of e. in the case of a wall. 2. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. beat down. busk. a stick. Holz bdhen. Bailey. from on. allay . bdhen. to get better.' Palsgr. Bat. an arrangement for giving blows. water whether warm or cold. I bathe in water viz. Fr. debat. abattre. to beat. to warm oneself at the fire. A Bath. In OE. badask. Mgy. heat. a great seems related to baden as Fr. a blow with a light instrument.

to low or bellow as corn. also more Bawdekin. to cry. faisceau. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. Gael. R. ish baubles. From Bret. miauler. bablyn or waveryn. Pm. toys. filth. baudrat. on the face of animals. baugant. mew. sword-belt. Bagdad. Fr. Pr. Fr. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. spotted. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. an — — — A — g — — — . also the canopy carried part of his body. Hal. a spot. It is all bawdy. Sc. Batylment of a wall. a horse marked with a procession. or sheaf of Bridel. the face. It. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. bal. speckled. baw. bow-wow. to play the babby. babiole. a lump. rotten. bobbin or cluster of thread. Jam. E. E.. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). b \% bouala. Cot. and to-tore also. is used for a sented by bau. Cloth of gold. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. The It. a dog). ball. form with an initial seen in Fr. child. balderich. bobine. baban. baubare. excrement. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. Filthy. bausan. to 53 manure the To baw. The word may perhaps be sticks. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. scarf. babbole. W. Descript.— P. dung. bauch. a tassel or hanging bunch . bauU. i. to void the bowels.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. from Fr. fooleries or fond To Bawl. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. Cot. balGael. bow (as in our nursery Diez. P. — — ' Lydgate. Ball-seirc. a plot of Chaucer. instead oi s. or toys. Swiss Rom. the white of his leg or foot. to the same origin. An analogous noisily. In like manner Grisons filthy. dacchino. in OE. s. ! Bauble. Bavin. whence pouacre. E. from Baldacca. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. an object. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. fields. divided between black and white. tab. Piedm. a belt. filth. the Swiss baben. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. disgusting. BAWSON Swiss. From ! an interjection of disgust. Beaus^ent. E.' ' Pegma.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. Ball. is Bagdad stuff. Pr. bouaila. baffe. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. bal. spot. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. P. fagot. c. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. trifle. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. —R. zano. a horse with white legs. collar. cluster. bad. ballach. baudrdj OHG. trifles. Zalli.. having a white streak down Bagdad. s. Baw — . a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. OFr. as Fr. It. baue.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. a white mark Bawdy. javelle. or the animal so marked. a gavel. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. to make the noise Baudrick. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. pegma. Formed from baw. Fl. librillo. a tassel. horse. P. to me-wl. a zan. 8. bau. an embattled wall. sorry. Bawson. or Cot. to trifle away ment. dirt. whimwham. Lat. and authorities in note. OFr. guigaw. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . ground. a lump or cluster babhaid. It. was simply a field gold. balbob. to talk Lacombe. dial. ON. brush faggot. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. expressive of disgust.guage). 2. represented by the syllable miau. Prov. dirty. lewd . Baldrick. dente. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. to bark . and Sp. — Pm. Cotgr. obstrepere. Irel. tille. exactly corresponds Fr. Fr. fe bau. to bark. whence the E. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. because made of cloth of white. A name of the badger. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. vacillo. pie- . baula.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. babsmall toy to play withal. propugnaculum. to vociferate. nastiness.

To Bay. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. a hole. The word bay. badia to Sp. he turns and faces his pursuers. baie. husk. or window ' (in Fortification)./^ bau. bde. laurel of the ancients. It. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves.. bilyega. bagaid. from an imitation of the sound. to betray. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. ist. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. . bacca. window . the cod or husk of beans or the like. buidhe. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. bate. It. Vielp. badarc. Abide. and zndly. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. to be Bohem. waiting . Holland's Pliny in R. and the To bark as a dog. hddhe-dhonn. bahia. w. Q. bahia. or recess in an apartment in modern times. bijel. Fr. house . The — Fr.—Journal Soc. Sp. berries. buidhe- The ruadh. badarse. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. the step is the same as from It.. white. bdcr. or berries. BAY marked with bjly. baccello. —Bay-windo'W. large window in a handsome . then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. and keeps them in check for a while. aux dehniers abois. in order to keep the enemy in check. like a pie. Piedm. especially beans. trahir. Lat. It has been shown under Abie. BauSfi)/. bai. Prov. to mark. Bay. Bay-tree. bay. gate. expresr sion tenere a bada. to stand watching one. From the former verb is the It. baer. to open. Q. Fr. A stag is said to stand at bay. dividere. F. living thing . open the mouth.c. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. baionette. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. . bajo. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. Gael. abbabayer. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. alive. Cot. Fr. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. window-sill. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. See Bawl. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. 1859. from badar. that from ba. a'uno. put to his last shifts. as if to signify a window of curved outline. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. Catalan hadia. Fr. or to have been first used at the Cot. Drayton in R. a cluster of bacon. the world Gr. bayen-stein. or at bay. Bay. Lat. baier. grapes or nuts. Such Antaeus seemed to me. to open as a blossom. a beast. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. — Schmid. beo. so called from its bearing bays. life. tradire to Fr. Arts. at his last gasp. Fr. . corrupted into Bow-window. S. bay. Serv. siege of Bayonne in 1665. to on anything. to split. arose two forms of the verb. Bayonet. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. living Ir. See At Bay. — A At Bay. Swab. baher. It.' Bailey. to amuse stare a bada. watching intently. bialo. —F. is perhaps not directly from Lat. dehiscere . weary of running. |8i'os. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. baca. &. Feb. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root.' — — 54 bald. Sp. as gazing. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. 25. baca. Fr. Gael. &c. desiring. A hollow in the 'line of coast. life. It. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. batibari. a mark. Earth — By Nature made to till. stare. beonj Gael. beothach. baiare. to iiitent nected PoL white. baya. Gr. overture. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. —Diez. Mod. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood.— Stalder. See Bald. bayo. It. a dagger. the laurel-bay. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. to keep one waiting. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. bioth. when. bilyejiti. Sp. baga. * To Be. to gape. to keep at a bay. badius. BE Probably conRuss. a berry. ing-floor. . &c. stood watching him stoop. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. by the term rendre les abpis. OSp. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. From Cat. barn of two bays. yellow . 1. Swiss beie. which however. the cod of peas. berry. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. AS. baja. baye.

The wild beast. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. pig. bank. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. To Bear. Goth. backe. AS. W. and Lat. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. — : Beam. fromthe danger. E. beugler. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. beans. — bedeau.' Hall's Chron. beic. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. Netherlands or North Germany. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. to beckon. or any action done with a pointed thing. Gr.from AS. fd or faVf beans. Gael. a prayer. vol. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. post. Beckon. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. baum. —F.' Suetonius in Diez. to wait-. Fr. bauhan. Sw. The nutu significare. as. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. . G. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. or breathing. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. an attendant. Miss Gurney in Philolog. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. Gael. -phxr. badmr. bek. into a snjall river. ohg. to nod . 54. See To Bid. nokkima. Beach. rising ground. faba. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. beck. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. — to bow or nod . l^ax. to produce young. G. a tree. Bean. a sign. bead. salve his hurts. N. A two-year old nephew of mine p. was introduced from England sea. Bret. bean. bairan. pierced for hanging on a string. a single bean. according to of Sanscr. beic. Boom. It. stock. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained.fer-re j Gr. bohnej ON. «va\ioQ. Pardoner's Tale. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. It is BEAR SI court. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. bydel. support. Beadle. a tree. Beacon. like most nautical terms. g. .fuis5e.ad. beacnian. a presage. which is. would say. Du. Moreover the name. bohne. boom. fero. ON. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. Hackluyt in R. atUndre. a single bean. as. It forms a. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. Goth. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. signifying a point. bob. bagms. into France.. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. — Bellenden in Jam. Chapters on Lang. or however. Beak. * Beagle. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. fora-bauhan. bM. bidan. a beak. . however. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. A Esthon.to have a French origin. Beck. tale of prayers or doxologies. the part overflowed by the tide. Bear. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. Fr. bedm. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. not applied to the yelping of dogs. Trans. beacen. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. Be. be. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. Slavon. AS. a nod OHG. vii. ffaen. bakkje. on. bdkna. gebed. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. prodigy bauhnjan. Gael. It. Farrar. to nod the head. bee. Thus the final en. or beic. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. He says. as well as f& or fav.' adheres to the root. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. Q wait upon him. The origin seems preserved in E. ffci. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. a curtsey. ON. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. baun. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. OSax. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. bakke. a hill. to carry. Bret. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. signifying individuality. Lat. Catalan becar. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. bar. to wait. bidello. to bellow. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem.fui. becco. W. bearti. faba is Kvavoq. bokan. The immediate shore of the Menage.

to the brook itself. befit. handsome. blast. Lat. formerly a happen. duty. bring forth. biber. See Beacon. Fr. e. G. because made of the fur of the beaver. See Bat. from beau. if sound of a sharp blow. It. when up. The quadruped. fit. bava. baviire. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. and to acquire. bavec. befall. G. I do thee pray. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. bello. it is probable that here also the to become. to live. nothing to thy name make. to fall. Lat. our taste. i. biivre. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. ON. On the same principle.' ' He became very angry. Fr. pleasing. ON. to attain to the lot of any one. bel.' are equivalent expressions. Dan. to happen. bart. He becom on sceathan. brada. riviera. limplice. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. con. Secondarily applied to a hat. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. or a feeling to be gratified. an notion of being convenient. as. OSw. border. to carry.S6 fero. slobber. Thcem. Lith. Beckon. to sleep on. AS. now confined To Become. That thou mayest attain Goth. bequem. the ece thurhwuniath.we call the arrangement becoming. — . a bank. Fr. to happen. fitanimal. The fitting or suitable. proper. bave.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. ON.— Kiittner. bcek. as the babble of the child. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. Beck. to wade through the water like a beaver.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. to arrive at. agreeable.' every way suited to a prince. G. bave i. e. to fall in with our bavard. badi. In like manner condition. to G. Cal. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. Boeth. Chaucer. perhaps a living thing. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. connected with ripa. to please. while from Shep. It. to be a part of his to. iida. to be fulfilled. g. baurthei. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. but now a river only. tidy. to fall mode of being. to come to or upon. to shore. from the same in the sense of bear2. The OFr. fitly . ting. dize or dtzen. bellus. bach.of being very angry. limpan. ON. Fr. bur. comely. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. AS. gebank. brook. to the good hapHalbard. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. Beck. G. Fr. to appertain. baba. bett. fiber. which. gabaurths. rying. to those goods which endure for ever. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. Russ. living. E. birth. To load with ornament. chin. to happen.fit. judgment. byw. Bosworth. place to lie down. Beauty. Perhaps from Pol. happening as it ought. or river. tidig. bekommen. o. to hem. decorous. becuman. fallinn. gelimplic. beatanj It. from baver.AS. bekkr. taste. R. . and also in that of birth. becuman. to happen. suitable. decent. to get. 2. receive. The moveable part of a helmet. G. barba. proper . Beaver. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. byrcti. to assume a certain form or Turk. bearing. bestiaj Gael. Prov. pretty. Now the Beast. boroda. to happen. opportune. Beat. Thus OY. Lat. the latter are derived It. den. dushmak. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. or special purpose. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. and on. Do no To It fallith favour. the beard. godum with ON. See becymth anfeald yvel. Prick of Conscience. a. bard. Bo. beauts. obtain. Sp. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. ziemen. to dabble . As rivus. convenient. timan. bobrowai. 1. R. babrad. bib or slobbering cloth. to be incumbent upon him. edge. behkr. Diez. suitable. to bear children. pens unmixed evU. get J ' He got very angry. See Bank.to clothe to slobber. i. whence baveux. gefallen. nod or sign. E. — A — A — . E. a lip. Lat. and Fr. produce. bobr. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. covered the face. talkative. Slav. bebrus. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. Goth. agreeable. Bedizen. name applied originally to the bank then proper . From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. beo. dress with unbecoming richness . barf. seemly. venient. bedr. a bank. limpian. a brook.getiman. W. brook . burdr is used in the sense of a car. battere. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. riviire.

AS. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. waarin. Fr. to twist poorma. kivih. a mallet. ir'm. bitel. E. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. to turn. Pl. a wasp..' the last word corresponds to cofly ._t from the root pi. stakes. Beef. to coagulate. to and ale. cow has calved. boytle. bibere is a re. in Nat. briest. blow or thrust. . ^. The honey-producing insect. from blood. madhouse. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. * Beestings. beyki. sang vermeilh betatz. may be shpped on and off. a bed-tick. P1. from the hos. calleBedlam. by the analogy of bedaivb. an inhabitant of the desert. The first milk after a dizen. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. /SXirov. 1. Cot. speach. taglio. clog for a dog b'oteln. ProBeer. Originally. a Properly a cover that biiren. bette or blettej Lat. Fr. Beet.cz//aj. a drink potus. briesch-milch. biiren. and lebermer in G. buche. a stinging bieUe. badigeonner. also the bite or sting of a bees. a paviour's beetle batail.— B. paralyticus. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. beutel.— JI14. Confined to bed. bukva. Lat.(paddi. The beer al for te shenche bate. bovis. bbtel. G. Pett. It. a cup or implement for AS. a horse-fly . whence familiar. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence.ON.possible. to drink. drink. fall. biest-milch. It. mars betada. piwo. a wasp.D. But possibly bedizen 2. GaeL bior. prigione. trees in a forest . Bav. batAfter mete in sale. desert. Horn. boeuf. Bee. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. bitela. beach. The meanpainting. water. Gael. buk.). In a passage of an Old Fr. the loppered sea. door. red curdled Arab . Fr. i. It. from risan. cushion-cover . comprehending both wine let for beating flax. betel. erroneously modified in form. of beatmg. to flatten In OE. bet. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. bedawi. an Beetle. to colour with lime-wash. Rom. Ant. a agulatum in the original Latin. fagus.' So Gr. Dan. . 1. imperative pi. de Fierabras in Diez. bably named from the destructive quali| T. bytl. may be from K. beer. 'La Gl. from leberen. translation beOj. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. Cot. I A pillow-beer. ' MordiThe Lat. ris. byst. to curdle or lopper. E. knock. g. a pillow case. a pad or cushion). in Schmeller. Lat. thick.^ drink. . beach-each. to become Beech. Fr. tree. Slav. &c.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. comb. to parget or rough-cast . beta. a malsense of drink. Bed-ridden. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. doubtless. a cover. prisons Venet. to poordma. to fall. woman that is newly delivered. Fin. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. the meat of spinach. bos. cozen. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. a pillow-case. bedde-redirj ohg. also bienst. used for boull. 1 to drink. KXlvoTTiT^e. sela que environna la terra. . For that was law of lend. pude-vaar. as. as the milk of a that purpose in London. buka. cousin. Bedouia. an ox. a clapper. extant in Bohem. from jtst-. Fr. a bee. PI. I put the flax upon it to spin. to rough- cast. Grimm. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. qui de lecto surgere non potest .BEDLAM a distaff with flax. biene. cited by Diez.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. pital of St Mary. the biter. garden-herb. and in driving piles. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale.D. to beat bossel. turn. which also 2.'— GL ^Ifr. crespir. Esthon. Fr. cogionare. bletumj Gr. pettiriso. whose face is clotty. bedskiissen-bUren. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. turn (a garment). beetle also signified the impiti. Bethlehem. poculum. G. Beetle. to knock. wedges. . 1156. cugino. Gr. . case. drink.ing of the word is curdled. vaar. to change . bossen. beost. AS. G. thick. bove. by-flugaj G. on. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. 57 — Palsgr. the ox. a wandering Prov. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. D. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. AS. duplicated form of the root. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. beest. as in It. Arab. Let. kiissen-biere. from Lat. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. curded or beesty. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. I dysyn a dystaffe. Bernese.

as alighting is a momentary operation. whence the E. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. P. To produce children is to acquire. Skinner's derivation from bag.quently used in OE. Du. 58 BEG BEGONE G. Deutsch. duginnan. a wallet. ysgrepanu. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. a beggar-boy. oppressed with woe. Ancren Riwle. cans. — Stillingfleet.3. genus. tale. to reduce him to beggary. viii. capere. Si'Xa/coc. to take. beriolare. iv. pose-pilte. P. Florio. Lith. seizing.' about undern he got down. to bear young.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. krapszas. can. signifying to conceive. in Lat. sel. to With hire belies & here bagges get children.n. To Begin. ken. He did alight. So from Gael. chisel. anfangen. taking up. beginning. P. Creed. although it ' the future. Political Songs. V. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . a scrip euXaiciJoi. to be acquire. incipere. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. gen. 1867. 168. Lollards. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. Du. ' ' . Into the are D. su with gold. y/yvo/iat. 142. appears improbable at first. & go a begging. steinbosil. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. at geta talad. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar.' A. &c. In Luc vi. of Gr. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. beis- plement driven by blows. P. ' . to begaan. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. but in the same language from poc.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. in D. aginnan. to beg. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. Vocab. P. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. covered with gold D. touched with emotion — . which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. Goth. fangen and Lat. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . giving in Gr. and Lat. Nov. ytyvwfT'Kw. ip AS. a bag. to cleve. lapidicinus. bag {baigean. a bag or poke. be^nnan. P.bag full of the G. to be born. on further examination. but probably erroneously. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. to go a begging. to know. begger. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. air a . Mod. gigno. a little bag). be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. hags. The tother seand the dint cum. Mettre quelq'un a la besace.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. P. Beghardus. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . Mundart. a chisel. It. 40. Fr. beitel. is com. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. referred gan this Erie alight. onginnan. begging. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. 1430. ken. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. kind. to get children . To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven.D. ornamented phoc. 'Aboutin undern monly. also called Bigots. Gr. in E. Of brede full ycrammed. ysgrepan. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. AS. gan. yiyvo/uat. is formed pocair. woe-begone. a bag . From w.pose. to begin. P.— . 25. one after that other. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. yivofiai. When Q. a — wedge. a beggar . 'Dz. vir mendi. can. a stone-cutter's chisel. chap. above quoted to get beaten ON. a wedge for cleaving wood. Schm. a beggar. bertola. not began to alight. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. P. yivtrri. on the tramp. on the bag. two betels —a grete oke. word. beitel. — yivsaiQ. literally. ' Begone. from whete G. to be able. Barbour.' for ye shall lament and weep. 2. Cold-begone. to arise. affected. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. &c. baigeir. 'ex quo. beutel. V. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. a scrip. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. Bruce. V. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. yivwajcw. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. it is both to acquire and to beget. OHG. P. or Of a pure poor man. origin. To Beg. Du. the fundamental notion of attaining to. It will . image is cleft out of the trunk. beissel. ykvog.

OE. promise . AS. heita. hafwa ram. the equivalent of E. Command. behces. what he wishes another to do . from tragen. to keen or hold.the figure of throwing at a mark. heeten. behete. name of the head is used to express what hbva. advantage. fixed upon any object). to be be named. commonly expressed. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. take heed of. G. tail.— . is supported by many analogies. to fit. to halten. what is so required. to carry. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. according as the * To Behove. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. furtherance. to be obliged to do a thing. is also found in the sense of looking. The seyn. gecall. han- — js Kil. on. keeping. vow. gehalten seyn. seeing to. to look. or purpose. AS. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. G. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. hafwa. and their senses intermingle. G. keeping. hantyri. promise or a command. obliged. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. healdan. portarsi. At the back of The re. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. zijn. vow. G. us-hafjan. Thus in Finnish the heave. to lead. to carry. to keep. to be obliged to one. 17. hcefwa in seed. beholden to him. Kiittn. exhort. a follower. to follow. as in the case of E. injunccommand. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. To be expedient. ufhaban. K. bound. habban. AS. the name adapt. behatan. adjust. betragen. the distance of anything. to promise. hovast.). behoof. hces.' Richardson. gehouden. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. gehaben. to heave. hafjan. holding is originally derived from that of looking. to name. hevja. by the compound observare. Paladino. or necessary. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. to raise. promise. premi curi alicujus rei. zu etwas gehalten haitan. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. to feed.to vow. beperson addressed. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. to call. to lift. Goth. Sw. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. to cast or throw. servare. AS.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. Robert in Warton. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. to be fit. To Behold. hcef tig bort. behind. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. to carry corn into the barn . to vow. to hold. take yourself off. to bers of the body. tion. hofwa. The Lat. to turn one out . But. Plautus. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. R. to vow. at the tail of.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. To look steadily upon. to meet. garder. Sw. heave. ifl fact. is on the top of or opposite to. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind.for throwing it. to command. AS. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. have the sense of calling or naming. Aan iemand bid one welcome. to take away. when the verb will hoof. to lift. G. N. — Behest. observe. to be named. laborare. habere. And so from hania. guardare. to keep. The It. To Behave. and (as Fr. to regard. taking notice or care of (Gloss. to gehouden. and the E. the two verbs seem radically the same. invoke. right. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . to behave. to bring forwards. nittaa. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. solicitum esse. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. to the equivalent of Du. to be well pleased out. —Hest. hevja. to carry. hafwa. behaviour. to hold. se porter) to fare well or ill. to hit the mark. or the hence advantage. behat. hafwa bort. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. Sw. gehat. behold. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. to call. to be suitable or becoming . heeten willekem. to R. To place are most naturally ex. ward. G. use. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . to command. hatan. It. to look upon it as true . to tend. ge' hatan. to have. behefe. hove.

giving leave or permission. Bell. To Belay. To Belch. to extol the worth of anything. Northamptonshire. leave . reputation. bettifredo. to der swaren lave.D. to fix a price upon one's wares. ley/a. allow. to be required for a certain purpose. ungalaub kas. to believe. to make it fast. Fair sir and Fair lady. glauben. pro3. a watch tower. beffroi. filu-galaubs. lov. Det er ofwer er hofwa.. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. Sw. . for purposes of low estimation . measure. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. an implement for making a loud noise. ON. OHG. to protect. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. P1. praising. if a narration. galaubs. to bolk.D. Hence to simple approbation. a vessel made for dishonour. boare. leaf geleafa. Goth. to roar. OFr. garnish. permission. b'ola. AS. bealcan. range. —F. to sound loudly . tain a certain end. are other modifications of the same imitative root. belja. berfroi. Then. from mhG. From AS. ON. AS. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. It. a little shed. a tower. if a promise. satisfaction. to befit. peal. is used in the sense of approving. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. to praise. laven. turris. under the forms belfredum. erlauben. bulken. beau sire and bel dame. to estimate them at a To believe. with the consent of the heirs.D.D. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . to lay the cable round the bits. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. we have Goth. loven. Du. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . stand. to promise. verloben. is (Sternberg). a tower for defence . hesfa. to give leave. to express approval. were civil terms of address. to belay. To Believe. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. and E. are innate . Another application of the same word is in Pl. cela est audessus de votre portde. Fr. to believe. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. praise. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. bertefredum. mark ON. bellow. Q. bylja. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. and. See Gain. beleggen. reach. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. To praise is essentially Xo prise. fringe. loven. appearing in Mid.Lat. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. loben. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. to hit hafi. to believe. a. precious. portion. bealcettanj OE. certain rate. to a loud noise. bellan. laubjan. legsel. orloven. aim. — . or a sconce. esteeming good and valid. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. beset. and E. esteemed . galaubjan. to lay be- around. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. — Diicange. laven. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. to cry out bell. behove. to praise.. . or house. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. true. to give leave. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. ornament. and Du. to to make A Templorum campana boant. promising. and bergan. bell. Du. to put a high price or value on. properly belonging to the church tower. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. Du.alyfan. bervrit. then. 6o BELAY BELL loven. fitness. Fr. battefredum. In the middle voice hofwas. overspread. gelyfan. bercvrit. on. locus securitatis Schilter. to give leave Dan. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. Pl. consent. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. to bellow. moderation. to boke. In Mid. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. honoured. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. G. then. The word be- Belfry. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. resonare. frid. to praise. to sanction an arrangement. in nautical language. or high estimation.Lat. promiser. met. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. border. bounds. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . distance to which a piece will carry. — mankind. . lofa.. on. to resound. permitting or giving leave. bolken. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. is an easy progress. to promise or engage. lyfan. Du. belief . bialla. Pl. to permit. beffroit.

The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. See Nether. Fr. balteus . benedictio {bene^ and dico. Gael. vulgarly the belly. vulva. the word. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . from cwcsthan. bless. Bret.Fr. fens et hie liraus. — ray. bags or bellows. benaigon. welt of a shoe. Javanese perfume. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. bcelg. To Benum. benedicere. bienfait. attinere. ON. volva. bellows. a border. pino3. Lat. to make bilbil. Dozy. Benign. bolch. belly.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. . balg. belliJ Lat. ' . by itself. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. is a kindred form. from another modification of the word for bubble. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. generous. cod or husk of pulse. loubdn djawt. Eenison. Bench. OFr. bag. belt. se bander. wallet. leather sack. to say. a leather bag. Du. belch. . was in Mid. to arrive at. bellows. a blow. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. To Bend. bimpsen. est matris in lucem editus. blister balgan-snamha. G. kind. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. See Bind. ' I beraye. bene/actum. Benefactor. OUG. . the womb. Benignant. taken absolutely. pouch. to hallow. to ring. to attain belangen. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. a good deed. blast-bcelg. J'emboue. bimaissen.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. Lat. to bless. pertinere. ^To Beray. bell. poX^ri. or a It is times the to signify services. bolg. — root consisting of concentric skins. binssen. To Belong'. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. to become one's property . BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. ON. to do good to one . I say). bendan. attingere. G. langen. benejicium. bilbila. to attain to. bilbil-goda. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. To Bequeath. as. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. belly. to touch. from benedictio. to bend a bow . Lat. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. I soyle it or araye it. pervenire. incense of Java. . like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. Sw. to belong. — Ducange.pinuz. to stretch it on a frame. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. Gael. disposed to oblige. skin. the ipsi Caddono concessimus.' The term had been previously planation. or fyle with myre. a bellows. ray. Fr. Lat. a bellows . See Bank.polch. fyle To dirty. a round or bubble-shaped root. Beneath. benjoin. The ing-skin. are stripped off whole blase-balg. to exert force. becwathan. .— Belly. Benedico. to hold to one. to concern. To belong is thus to reach up to. a benefit. well.' — Hie fimus. Belt. from Arab. benjoim.. border. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. G. dirt. hem. has assumed a plural form. a water-bubble builge. In E. to come to the crown belangen. one who does good. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. because bcelg. hence with ashes. a spring. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. . from which is also bulbus. I araye. benefacere. bander un arc. to concern. a kindness." — — . w. Kil. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. Was das belanget. benehusk. wallet Benefit. welt of a shoe gwald. to touch one. Bav. bellows. or simply djawt. a accusative. benignus (opposed to malignus). belgr. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. pertinere. is The word balg. binsen. balg. bendaj as. bolg. Lat. Bent. rise against external force . rushes. an inflated Lat. — See Numb. attinere. Benzoin. to reach. G. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. pod. as concerning that. beneison. I marre a thyng. ball. the skin of those animals that factor. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. . a blessing. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. benir. a speaking well of one. needs no ex.videtur. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. Benefice. Benediction. Fr.' Palsgr. Gum benjamin. or sometimes louban. to. gwaldas. on. gelangen. to use words of good omen. See I . bandoir. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). skin. Lat. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. Quoth. Ptg. means seeds of plants. From OFr.

To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . The dry. put. Beere. besein. Goth. lewth. Grose. dung . arwe. to to deprive of. barthless. sweepings. het vuur The serise of Boeten. besnij Pl. what does it better a man. roe. seems twigs or rods. making better. to thrust. To Bestow. boeten. scopse spartis. buttare. From abet. p. the guardian . betan. eld up- On is to be placed A — . mud. position. basjaj Du. from grow. bdt. vol. . AS. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun.t. burrow. to thrust. supporting on the one side Lat. Du. to fire a funeral pile of . bestow. to defend. is to perform a serviceable office to him.• 62 Antiq. what does it boot. So too Yorkshire arf. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. E. G. to the place boarded off in a. Sw. it seems hard to separate as. to make better. protect . broom twigs. boteith Goth. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. dirt. To seek something from a person. from AS. Beit. rods. an incendiary. fearful. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw.— Hal. supply. AS. repair. To bete his Jam. to be-place. Tha het he micel fyr betan. On the other hand. dial. Hfence backing. a place . basya. noise. as in growth. or to bestead one. to strip. the side bhakshya.fish the other hand. earg. besIn sen. as Du. an incendiary. to stand one in good stead. lay out. To Bet. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. Rob. Best. to To Bereave. to supply a want. stealth from steal.X. might have been . from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. jnore. compared with bargham. Tusser. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. See Reave. put forth. barfham. boeten. * To Bete. profit. Du. bet. See Better. earh. sheltered from the wind. hva mannan. bdt. and also to entreat. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames.bhaksh. ariierf to 113. think more probable. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. Beet. fall with sound. bota.iooA. ropahtaa. BETE dirty'. Sw.— VixHsm. R. When men of mekeness him baet. make better . advantage. p. to make it. to exercise on a definite object. better. as. betan. as conversely a besom is called broom. improve. to seek. of ffeed a fire. bat. but in practice. G. So roto rattle down. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. one who shelter. E. BEREAVE Wall. R. to on the other Goth. AS. or.ot-i. and on which the wager is laid. Kil. ^akka. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. and Du. same word with the provincial barth. to light the fire . besje^ Sanscr. berwe. — . baete. beorgan. bur-we. to put on the saddle. brem-bessen. place. berwham. The proper meaning of the bale. So Lat. To Beseech. sets fire to. Fr. * Berth. Du. To Gl. solicit. barth may be for barf. as bouter selle. from It. ship for a make amend. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. houseless. baete. rubbish. reparation. bouter. besen. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. roju. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. Bestead. to cast. — amendment. advantage. I from lew. to entreat. Besom. to mend. To help. It is the restore fyr betan. a berry. Devon. bereafian. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. encouraging. stede. preferably. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant.irova. Fin. Zeitschr. to word is shelter. besmas. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. to fall with roisto. to amend. ^•n. OE.D. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. in the sense ctf beria. bal oppbota. the origin of which is to be found in ON. to give a place to. 3. Berry. person to lie in. peto. buttafuoco. — Chaucer. beseech. — bota. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. small eatable fruit. The origin is AS. Du. berry. but it is specially applied mister. as. boeten. Ihre. as. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. bacca. . roju. a horse collar. dirt . vi. because used for making besoms. Esthon. reparation. or the space kept clear betan. fyrbotare. — Biglotton.—^fake. amendment. botesward. boutefeu. a fire. stow. to kindle the fire. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. Fr. as. reafian. dust rojahtaa.

Percy Soc. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. betray. beverage. advance. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. his eyen sheen. Hence last G. traditor. traitre. riigen. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. to Hence It. Pl. Goth. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. amiddes. polish. I approve of beveau. In like manner from twain is fothied between. trahir. is treason. — of the authorities. to stir. Slant. of quails. E.— . The inflections of Fr. as tlock. trahison. AS. vrohjan. from invadere. by two. Det sig sjelft. be fitting or suitable. which may be compared as to form with amid. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. dir. trahissais. not to have the heart to give up a thing. tima. the being pushed to the frbnt. better. it bewrays itself. some attention. betaemen. bevde. better. more. G. — that schickiich. e. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. is used for the — R. Fr. Between. find in one's heart. beva. &c. Golding's Ovid in R. The as. -to appoint. betriigen. two. Buveau. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. i. in the same way Lat. betwuxt. what does It is forward him. fallinn. as from obdir. are commonly to one's lot. to deliver tip. — See To Bete. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. bouter davantaige. Bevy. a brood. larks. in the middle of two. ON. Sahissais. to happen. It. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. To vouchsafe. wreia. *Ah. Thus from dbahir. Cot. moveable and compass branches. gatiman. find it good: Goth. batista. Fl. OE. a different form of twa. betest. spritigs from schicken. AS. or with again. Car son umbre si le trahit. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. tradire. better. betweox. Fr. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. fitting. to drink . e. Ober D. are there Regt R. . is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. 88. bibere. Fr. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. bet. Sw. gesiemen.' Dialogue on Witches. e. to accuse. to fall Some call it a bevel. Friar's Prol. from Lat. It. whence beveraggio Fr. to fall. R. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. lot). betwuh. to make forwards. On the same principle ON. progress. To Bewray. Lat. as one would have it fall. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. against. Dit tungomal rendered in E. become. Bav. zimet. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. thy speech bewrayeth thee. verbs in ir with a double ss. pair of compasses. awry. deem suitable. R. betweoh. taemen. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. Fr. ziemen. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. batizo. obdissais. afford. from. G. Best. abash j from polir. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. r'ojer dig. in the middle of twain. bet. Pl. From It. said he. Ik tame mi dat nig. gezimet eines dinges. to deceive.D. E. ON. i. for measuring angles. Fris. obeish. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. G. tradere. To boot in coursing (i. kein leben mehrin no signs . to cheat. A — drink. Tinia eigi at lata eit. twain. from Fr. betweohs.D. beuvrage. R. dispose (whence schicksal. make manifest. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. betst. To Beteem. has — In a like sense tanie>i. deign. trakir. From the former of these are AS. sloped off. treachery. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. and thence twegen. an instrument opening like a a thing. as envahir. Dii. ruogia. bat. — Betwixt. evidence of life. by a final sh. To Betray. G. Now the stirring of an object. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. E. tweoh. springs from ON. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. x. betera. of pheasants. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. baet. Chaucer. zemen. taemen. /alia. bevere. Mich self a good glass of wine. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. a bevy. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. to deliver up in breach of trust. BETEfiM translated. to happen. wrogia. his mouth. roja. tima. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. amidst. Better. as trahissons. bedriegen. a traitor. fate. order. suitable. suitable. In like manner folissais. Du. best. roebucks. In the water anon was seen His nose. to Teem. Goth. a drinking . regen. to discover. proficere.

It is especially applied in Sc. a bibber. biberon. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . of the sliced off. to stir. Dan. specially in a bottle. to purl. two- footed. bisdare. To Bib. Bibelsworth in Nat. Bisect. To Bibble. 78). to move. bibo. which good bibbeler. in Fr. Sardin. Ci^. Bice. Hal. expelling or preserving against. liwell. baviere. Fr. to the stirring of their conscience. Lat. sbriscio. a fragment bieco. See Wriggle. Schiitze. misFr. sbiscio. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. used in precisely stone . bending. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. rogge. or in and out. metaphor). 172. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). a bezle. Diet. bis. it becomes (Jz-. winding or crawling in and out. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. Sp. sbias. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. Hal- — do something aslant. sbiasciai. bible.{ioin dua. Fr. Cat. . Ant. Jamieson. dial. . to tipple. inferiority. though such a change of form would be very unusual. Fr. he is Wtb. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. sbrissare. crooked. kwijlen. biascia.as in Biped. bihais. discover.two. Gr. biax. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. or kwijl-slab. bibaculus. pible. Mantuan. or by any rapid motion. to slaver or drivel. babbefore the eyes. Prov. sbrisso. Sard. Bezel. b&zahr. To drink hard. Oh when shall I bizzle. —Bickering'. sliding. Fr. Bias. oblique. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. . I Wallon. evident. to cut in two. sbrisciare. presence. slanting . him. makes ble. biascio. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. Pl. Yes. poison. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. reveal. is explained to clatter. sik beregen. one who drinks in excess. biberer. sloped. slippery. bickel. E. to be a paring. to give signs of life. the basil Sc. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. to dispute. bisel. Pers. has a singular stone-picker. . Fr. kwijl-bab. twice. biaiser. to glide or slip as upon. pddzahr. in him. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. petit-lait. to make tongue Du. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. beslei.a. to stir up . bickel-sieenken. aslope. Bezoar. to it evident to sense. kwijllap. In comp. — Bi-. Lat. to stir. tailU en biseau. wraggeln. to Jam. ber-laita (for bes-laita). or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. wrogen. ice . sbieco. edge of a plate of looking-glass. bezling or skueing. by throwing of stones. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. Du. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound.' bibble. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. beregen.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. baverole. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. — crooked. wrangle. —Dozy. bescompte. whey count . Biseau. to well up with Cot. to creep or crawl sideling. An inferior blue. stock still. like guzzle. whence Du. To Bicker. to sip. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. to stir. (according to the Fr. To bicker in NE. bark of which paper was first made.s bellum for duellum. rogt un bogt sik nig. Probably. Fr. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. asure-bice (Early E. from pdd-. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. to a fight with stones. the word became bddizahr. /3i/3Xof a book originally. the papyrus. dial. Uprogen.or from obliquus. It. a sloping edge. notice. its clothes. foul weather.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. biberen. Misc. The It. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). bickeler. a slabbering-bib. To Bezzle. per\'erted belief. bring under ' Thy accuse. bes-azur. Fris. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. besanca. bestemps.to drink much. Piedm. a stone-hewer . Cat. in two ways for duis. lips. OE. to tipple. The train of thought is then. biais. it were the mouth. bias-wise. snout. bebble. To skirmish. sbiagio. a Galilean. babbi. bavon. convicts thee of being drink. It. In Arab. sbiesso. Bible. An excellent Basil.D. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. as an eel or a snake. sbiescio.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. Bib. . to shake. roggle. bickai. and zahr.D. shows the P1. love first begins to life signs of him. Piedm. to slaver . bickelen. aslope sbisciare.

Bigamy. explaining the Sc. a suitor. who. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. bulk. bath. bo. the belly of a ship. swelling. and consequently ordering or reGoth. bag. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. and Gael. From Gr. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. — — — Halliwell. to swell. to belly. consisting both of men and women. bis and in comp. Palsgrave in Halliwell. ewes. W. Bickelen. becoming in Lat. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. BID of stone. inhabit Du. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. to presimpler pare. A bjudan in anabjudan. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. to bicker. The original Swollen. a swelling. or. bilge or bulge.. — prepare. to bend. qucero.' Addison. bugne (answering to ON. bidjan. The ON. Bight or Bought. to dwell. may plausibly be derived from Goth. ' Bug as a Lord. abidan. offerre. To bid the banns. to look for. A pose to one to come to dinner. and the Sw.peto. to ask. praebere. bolga. bulky. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. to bulge. to look for. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. R. AS. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. bouwen. and yajiBui. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. spelling seems to used in the N. Two verbs are here confounded. bidill. bua. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. of More ' in Richardson. bolgna). . porrigere. beadle. as. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. England for swollen. bygga. to offer it to public notice. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. bolginn. bulge. bend of a shore or of a rope. AS. to bend. gebodenj G. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. to E. be bug. praestare. the meaning of bid. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. bedun. G. as G. AS. are also used in the sense of asking for. It must be observed that the word bidja. To Big. Compare also Sp.' Pope in R. athird class. an entire skin. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. belly. to solicit. bend.Leta). The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. to inflate E. inhabit. pressing on one's notice. to pray one to dinner. twice. pray. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. byggia. ten. bidel. G. bug. — To Bid. a flexure. faurbjudan. byggan. 2. to offer. The loss of the / gives Dan. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. . bow. buga. bced. to offer one the wish of a good day. bugan. With respect to logical pedigree. to have one called before him. or bad. swoln. 1. to build. to curve. to abide or wait on. beodan. repair. besides the professedmonks and nuns. Big-swol- . to cultivate. Jam.t. beidast. OSw. form. BIGOT beidan. ON." buque with E. bead. from bidan. to arrange. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. bigan. bieden. to start out. Einem einen guten tag bieten.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. to move quickly. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. Kil. bi-. Du. bieten. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. build. swaggering. The 'La. to forbid . Bigot. bulge. to forbid . Hence Sc. OSw.uddered len heart. gebeden j G. To Bid ' Big . has leta. to bid one good day. balg. or third order of penitence. biddan. to inhabit. Analogous expressions are G. The ON. to ask. iiQ. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. from belgia. G. called the tertiary order. bat . belly. to marry. a chip. forwards. to build G. cultivate. from seek. related to big or bug. rising up. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. by seek and beseech. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. proud. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. ON. to build. bugt. in the sense of ask for. bit- bidja. P. boa. which is stiU. quiring something to be done. bidan. bidan. Wallace in Jam. Big. anleta. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. bog. The . to pro- command. ON. bauen to cultivate. as tears from the eyes. ON. biegen. verbieten. einen vor Gericht bieten.

Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. to adopt a similar course of life. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. natural grey or sheep's russet. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due.. bighellone. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. ix. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur.a. S. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. beghart.D. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . ac labores manuum detestantes.' They were however by no means confined to Italy.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. Bizoccki. D. 1499. G. begutta. Bighini. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. dark-coloured cloth. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. signifying bagmen or beggars. They wore a similar dress. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. In the same way Fr. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. biso. the other form Per te Tribune. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. From bigio. &c. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. alii Apostolici. was formed bigello. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. Bighiotti). vol. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. perch^ i Terziari di S.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. bigotta. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. says. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant.' Chart. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. rustical. author quoted in N. and hence the variations bigutta. as well as bizocco. both men and women. which must not be confounded with begardo. and also unlearned common men. vocati Fraticelli. In a similar manner from bigello. coarse woollen cloth. with reference to A. A. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. a blockhead. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. 15 18. Bizocco. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza.— Ducange. face VIII. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. grey. Hence the OE. Flor. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. absque votorum religionis emissione. Beguttce.' says an Venet. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. A. corruption would easily creep in. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. beghino. 1243. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt.' translated by Muratori. a dunce.D. A. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. probably from biso. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. sed maxim^ in muliebri. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. alii de paupere viti. the nobles to Rienzi. all apparently derived from Ital. 560. honesti plebeii amictus. homespun cloth. Augustini dotarint.D. bigio. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino.' says one of of bigio. xx. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita.— BIGOT bigardo. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. Francisci communiter appellabant. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. borel. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. grey.' Us petits frires bis or bisets.' Matthew Paris. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. clownish.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. bighiotto. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. aliqui Begardi. and Q.

BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. bille. in the same sense. A lorum tam in — Diez. axe.. bizocco. — bigardia. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. billard also signified at billyards. tepati. from the dark colour. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. top. billot. bigardo. . b'olja. boeye. fetters. a sword. a devotee. w. a short note. Du. p. irons or set in a kind of stocks. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. an ingot of gold or silver. names bill-berries. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. Bille. . buoy [i. Tartuffe. topor. a negro. and dziobas. A slang term for a sword. inscriptum. Gascoigne in R. Sw. a shackle. 2. Billette. beghart. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). symbolum. an axe. obsolete. bulgja. G. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. loi. biilge. Aurelles. AS. whortle-berries. 5 * . 2. billet is the diminutive of this.' in Richardson. Deutsch.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. an adze . in the sense of a writing. dziob. a hatchet. Billet. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten.' bilio. to strike. Fr. buie. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. Bojce. a seal. See Bull. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. OFr. bulghe. ferrese quam ligneae. I.' mariners. an axe. Dan. to pick a millstone. the bill of a bird. Prov. dissimulation . from OSw. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. 'tumidi fluctus. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. Du. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. blamand. genus vincu- Bilboes. blue . and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. that of swell. gan. bwyell. See Bulk. of E. Johansen. Kil. e. The Du. crowberry. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. of boja. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. bile. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. Piedmontese bigot. Billow. is properly a sealed instrument. AS. bisoch. blaa. beil. Sw. the beak of a bird. Bill. Fr. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. weapon . bill in parliament. Bigin. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. abelthe fetter itself. to be angry (i. plog-bill. NFris. e. Sw. bila. In the same way are related Pol. Bilbo. used in legal proceedings. To defraud one of expected sinking. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. Bill. bigot. Langued. on. however. deceit.— — — . at sea Billet. bigotto. AS. person of religion leading a loose life. The proper meaning bylgia. bil. now A Bilboa blade. Dan. Roquef. Bohem. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. Lat. bullet. Mundart. the trunk of a tree. Du. a name given to a. seems to be rather the unda. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. billet. Kil. a floating log to mark the place of some. a seal. fluctus maris. Bilberry. The origin of the term is probably from bole. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. and in Lat. the swelling G. false pretender to reUgious feeling. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. bulla. gleischner (Frisch). clog to a fetter. bill of exchange. from Mid. to strike. a of the sea. as a bill of indictment. an ingot. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. to job. an axe . — — ' . an axe. BILBERRY nated. Thus we find in It. the o changing to an i to express diminution. might be taken to express a hypocrite. So in Gr. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . belghen. procella Kil. Gael. bull-berries. — Cot. to swell with rage). belgan. bigot. An instrument for hewing. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. as craneberry. bui. ^Billiard. Fr. and a billard. a beak. . bolghe. a hypocrite. buail. a man who rests on a stick in walking. Lat. Bilge. 3. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. billard or billart. boja. boia. dziobad. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. To Bilk. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. to peck. Sp. horn of an animal. a bigot or hypocrite. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. In English the meaning has received a further development. bla-berry. Ludwig. bill.

. bund. Lat.. biscuit. a weight. See Belly. from Lat. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. e. from Gr. a brood or hatch of young. Lith. bircej Sw. evegue. BITTACLE /Siof. G. piccione. — See Bittacle. bigne. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. a heap. a corn. or baked. isfiw. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. pin-ti. life. qui nisi propius Blind. beran. Bittacle or Binnacle. bindan. binda nat. bund. pinnii. i. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. a weight of 48 pounds. Goth. bunki. Bizened. a female dog hindinn. E. To — — —D. ON. a heap. while bind-wood. AS. EpisETTiTOOTToe. Then added division in a granary. We — A Birth. brut. 'tumens sequor. piiiti. nodus. by the verb knit or net. a truss. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. bundt. . by binda. doubtless a stone. Lat. habitacle. to bulge. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. . ge- from AS. Bisson. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. Gr. an overseer. evigue. or ben-wood. where the compass stands. to wreathe. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. in Swabia. Fr. pullus. Bailey. Birch. than vice versi. V. beize. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. band. to build. Bin. a gallinaceous bird. pinnu. a little dog. pundas. copus. I would derive the verb to knit. to bring Biscuit. forth. fowl. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. bunch. AS. to plait. Bind. bitill. Fr. bij sienigh. lusciosus et myops. which is expressed in E. Bird. to form a knotted structure. bundt. evesgue. bundle. See Breed. a pig petz. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. to cook). H. AS. &c. beisseii. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. wine. a habit- Binnacle. poule. hiindiiin. AS. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E.' and the like. Lat. Sw. beorth. See To Bear. G. bikkia. AS. . a female stag. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. are commonplaces. a hind or female stag. a bump or knob. Sanscr. Bisom. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. . IV. or bin. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. bita. binge. to knot nets for fish.68 BIN Bio-. bundle. earnes brid. Lith. to bind at . a knob. to fasten it together. the young of an animal. vescovo. bitacora. AS. In like manner from knot. bin-wood. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. Fr. hith. Bitch. G. biclie. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. brid. a house. v. a bitch. the young of birds . Goth. — Surrey in R. twice cooked. To Bite. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. It. berkas (z=:Fr. to be derived from Ibfiaq. sc. viz. beitan. a bitch. to bear. to twine. Du. truss. Habitacle. Fr. terial. and especially to a small poor horse. Bing./«idere. an eagle's young G. bunt. biscotto. — Kil. Sp. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. bord. — properly near-sighted. or petze. . beitsl. to net. expressed by Sw. Bisen. It. Dan. bindan. Lap. overlooker. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. poultry. Fr. Lat. ON. . from pondus. also a stone weight. Sw. bhurja. a bitch applied also to other animals. biccej ON. j). Thus I suppose the Gr. Bine. and of Fr. The proper meaning is a heap. episcopus. When compared with Fr. properly a young pigeon. — — . admota non Bit. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. propius videre bij sicndc. betsel. bij sien. bjork. videt. pippione. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. is rendered in ON.. from \t3\. to bind together. bunga. a bear. to hang. is in Scotland applied to ivy. burt. G. pittjo. The term ON. i. to swell. a bunch. The bitol. Bindweed. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. bundun. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry.

in contempt. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. confusedly. blabaran. babbling. white. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. Je N. as of wings . Bleak. Hist. on. Nagt huis. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. It. black. blobach. ^aj'/^r. Why presumest And laam's asse.' by Haldorsen. to wax pale or bleaked. /ealo-/or. an edge is sharpest sword. Pl. Alex. blob. a stammerer. is placed. Deutsch. . then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. Sp. gabble. things —Palsgr. Applied in Hin ON. yellow . In Legrand's Fr. cut. a babbler. beiwache. G. —Neumann. plappem. chatter babbler . shining. discoloured . viz. Bohem. Cotgr. a fluttering noise. small guard-house. ON. blubber-lipped.€i. bittore. Hald. beuni. The Gz. bihovac. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. Bittern. garrulous. beitr. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. shine. In like manner E. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter.). leohte . blebberis. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. bird of the heron tribe. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. mona mid Dan. AS. Fieldfare. pale brown . Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. bitones. to talk much. bitter. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. whitish. as of a body falling into water. G. night guard. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. blakk. to To blabber blabber with the lips. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. mouth. term. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). bites. to let out whai should have been concealed.. or water beating gently on the beach . blakki. unintelligible talk plabair. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. Bav. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. ON. to bivouac. blabbern. gulblakk. — Hollyband. bitts of Bitts. even humour seemed and beuin. biacca. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. In a similar manner Gael. blabhdach. x. Mantuan babbi.. blunt we say it will not bite. on the one side. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . To Blab the anchor. faded. maculS. whitish. pale. quick. from wachen. NE. . as in that of pale and white on the other. I blaber. is apprehension of danger. plabartaich. Sw. 'fuscus. a large lip. Du. v. dusky. as of water gently beating the shore. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. To or he can speake. as is seen in sputter and splutter. a large coarse lip . biti. ON. butorj OE. blepLith. Ai-mstrong.' G. bleg. babbe. blac-hleor ides. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. to speak Dan. a tati. dark. . the moon with her pale — —Blabber. from whence we have adopted the. Sp. Sp.D. whiteness (candor sine It. ' plabraich. Again. Gael. 't kompas huis. Goth. a childe dothe gasouille.. synonymous with baber-lip. corrupted in Fr. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. brunblakk. an additional watch. blob. blesmer. Blabber-lip. indistinctly. obscurus. Fr. faded. apparently from its biting the tongue. a beam in a house or ship. to babble. ^chops. 156. the palebleff. bitor. Gael. blake. 't huisje. Percy Soc. his blacan light. to loll it out. thoughtlessly . white lead. round which the cable is made fast. stutterer. bleich. Sp. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. Lydgate. a shelter for the steersman. ON. blabbre. blab. Bivouac. out the tongue. — cheeked maid. baboyer. blanc. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. a continued soft sound. Fr. quoted by Ihre. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. iroxafealo. Black. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. Mag. to babble. bittour. The bitas. pale yellow . pale. yellowish. to the sharpness of a weapon.' by Gudmund. mouth. Hal. fallow fawn-coloured. pale yellow. bleikr. white. "uivac. Wit hung her mourn. a* mast . pins of the capstern. a flapping. — Collins in Hal. blank. blob. first.plab is used to . Se bleek. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. light-coloured. fallow . to chops.— Blabber-lip. pale. to watch. Cot. Fr. 332. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. AS. buft".' It would thus acle. Mund. So Fr. ' Biovac. baitrs. bitr. A a rail. Fr.

to To bellow. to make or become white blanc. PI. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. to vocifer- — Cot. mire. blanchet. —^Webster. slush. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. — . Torriano. tree. to dabble in water. Blanket. a white or unwritten ticket. to omit.—Blatter. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. roar. 7. biasimare. piatto. reproach. Blank. name originally given Blackguard. with all other loose idle masterless men. blame. the leaf of a tree. bladdra. to blow. Perhaps from blegen. mus-blackt. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. Reliqu. livido . A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. shining. But perhaps a more Gr. a leaf. foolish talk. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. waschen. Wott. blister. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water.. plat. blanc. dial. . 1854. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. a bladder or pustule. e. Du. smore. contracted from bladeren. blister. chatter. bladra. branches . bladder. 86. biastner. smother. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. 5/^a/^ of colour. a bubble. and others engaged in dirty work. on. as scullions. a pustule . blegne. leaves. and E. To Blare. and thence to babble. broad. commonly called the Black-guard. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. Fr. leafy. plate. a buible. The present forms then should be classed with blether. G. to blanch. which we . rogues and wanderers. blister. chatter. a bubble. or as E. Sc. blein. blether. mud.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. The radical bubble. Play in Nares. madder. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. a boil. Dan. a. blasphemare. also tanned by the sun. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. polished. blanqne. board. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. in R. blena. Blame. Du. pass over. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. blatt. It. boys. cited in N. white. revile. imbrunire. Cot. to glitter. candidus. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. variable than the signification of words designating colour. I am degraded from a cook. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. to Hence Ital.—Blatant. as. Lat. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. Du. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. blatter. and G. the origin of . whitish. most complete example of leafy structure. — — — to jabber.— ^o thehotsun.. bladder. vagrants. blad. Fr. is identical with Flanders borlen. the ON. also jabber. blatter. Dan. Blade. to —Blaspheme. to bubble. and the agitation of liquids. and wandering men and women. — Sw. Bacon in R. — rura. pallido. a blanket a bed. bladder. pimple. blanchet. Bav. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. blaeren. Fr. &c. as. bladre. Now. to bleak in the sun. blactra. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. Fr. bladder . leaf. as Lat. irXariQ. on. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. probably ate. white. blanchir. gabble. Sir. D. as blader. blinken. black. Blank "verse. Blain. coat. blather. borrelen. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. blank. . —We Bladder. mud. blad. linkboys. Jan. dripping-pans. flap of a Du. Besides the examples of this connection given above. Blancli.— Kil. Du. whitish. Eadmer. blegen. plat. to glow. also white woollen cloth . and Q. Sw. vagabonds. G. leaf of a. speak impiously. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. blister. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. pladdern. Du. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. blather. or blafich. See Blubber. pXaatpiiiiHv. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. bladeren. and he shall be sure to have O. To blank. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. to shine. to purl. blahen. tattle. Hist. a blank ticket. or a mass of bubbles. pluddre. from candere. moere. to disappoint. . his meat burnt. or of an oar G. sheet of paper. defame. p. G. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. Gr. skola and thwatta. to shine. Sw. blaere. Dan.

to blaze Sp. commendation blason funebre. To blast. pale. . is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. blasa. clamorous. oured. an empty and two theories are proposed. With inversion of the liquid. whence Blazonry. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. Fr. blose. a torch . or to the sound which it produces. a blast. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. friend Cornelius. has also blencke. — — ' : bless. besides blesse. a lamp blasere. Dan. blaser vid. ther it was erst not knowe. of an animal. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. blass. kept up. Kil. to blow . beast. a flame. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. to proclaim. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. bldsse. Blaze. to spread news. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. the noisy. blesse. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. First from the E. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. magniloquus. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. G. G. Blanches illuminies. Gael. also blazon or the blazSpenser. Cot. also praeblczse. embraser. thraso. . fire. is used in the sense of manifestatio. Du. blcEsan. ON. blasonner. A gust of wind. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. like the in English. blason. — Elazen. bles. . Fr. each of boaster. to blow. If armour. might And sain. blezo. proclaim the virtues of. and to make him word blaze.). declaratio. I. brasa.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. OE. A blaze is so intimately Then. might spring from the same origin by a . 'op een trompet blaazen. She roade at peace through his heraldry. blase. a torch. baladrar. to cut off prematurely. abroad. also only pains and excellent endurance. ON. blaodh. a shout. a whisperer. a flame . blesse. how. splendour. blaesen. live coal . is from AS. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. Dan. i. biter. bleis. blcEsan. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. a coat of arms. or blazening. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. much plausibility. it is manifest. See Blare. oron-blasare. boasting. blazen. Sw. bliEsan. gloriosus. Cot. blcese. laudes (Kil. To blow AS. to publish. — ^Jam. Du. Sc. shield or surcoat. senses. to bellow. baladron. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. blatero. blaterare. the matter incendiary . among other . blcesett. in the same way as we 2. braise. magnilo. Lye. blaeteren. is the imme. blast.— .whence the Fr. blysa. an conium.' painted or figured . which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. somewhat different train of thought. Du. AS. Gudmund. A strong flame. The AS. and which. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. Blast. g. a voice Jr. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. proflare tues. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. blcest. and. to trumpet forth. Du. blaodhrach. blaze. blus. bawling. 2. noisy blor. a flame. blason. a MS. Fr. loud . Du. ing of arms. Blatant. used. a loud noise. brasa. to extol. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. abroad. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. blasoen. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. quus. indeed.sound a trumpet. Prov. stultd loqui. Du. To Blaze. redness . visui patet. on whose behalf the herald appeared. AS. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. blateroon.' to fastum . The other derivation. ventosus. Sw. to set on fire. a funeral oration . light-coli. But now. As Kilian. blase. to de.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. e. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. by stripping off a portion of the bark. to blow. a shining spot. Golden Book in R. — ' — stroy. a shield. ill-speaMng their proper colours . in that of praise. coloured prints. as a verb. blis. blossi. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. blys. blorach. Troilus and Cressida. The origin of this exSp. to publish the praises.

.' the devil makes a vain back. geplerr. start vor den augen. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. Schmel. a spot. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. . a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. I chaunge colour. blesmir. — — R. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. guenchir. BLENCH obfusco. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. Sir J. ' He blarrede or roar. to blare been weeping. blot. See Blood. Blear-eyed j having sore i. Bailey. (faith or creaunce) Be war. 242. blakna. Manuel de Pecch&. paleness. to start away from. A Blab. livid. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. tumanid. or to low as oxen. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. . a been distinct. livor. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . to spot. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. goda nainn. to become livid. from on.P.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. to stain one's honour or reputation. is Blench.filerren.' to deceive one. See Black. Gower in R. wan. pale Du. exposed. a fault. the livid colour of a bruise. a blemish in one's 2. To salir. blur before their eyes. as of dust or mist . to soil. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. bloken. a disgrace. the formal equivalent of English wink. a red watery eye. Ancren Riwle. tutnan is a cloud.v. to wink the eye.'he cried till the tears ran down. to cast a mist before the eyes. drop of water. — blink the question is to shrink from it. bleakness. blot. avoid looking it in the face. ' . B. confound him. sugillatio. blink. Bleb. novice. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. Bejaune. From the OFr. pier vor den augen eyes. p. dead-coloured Cotgr. to humbug. to cry or weep.D. while the agent ac- From . So in Sw. blema. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. to spot . See Black. to blear one's eye. color plumbeus bldma. blister. Mac. or blemish. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. blcecan. Blemisli. from the than schal I go. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. Blear. a spot. To totally different from the foregoing. bleikr. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. in the expression reputation. To Bleat. whitish. ' — — ' : — — . tacher. 115. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. ^Blencher. plama. what blenched him therwith. wanness. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. a stain. Palsgr. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. pale . G. blesmissure. Sw. pimple . not only pale but livid or dark of hue. Gr. And By a similar metaphor Pol. sinen langen tranen. The term blear. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. inflamed eyes. Blancher. like one that has long P1. ' — — eye. or blemysshen — blaken. And now are these but mansbond (i. splamii!. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. a spot. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. Bleed. spSt. to bleat as sheep. to disgrace one's name. to bleach. on. light-coloured. darkness of vices. N. bldmi. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. ^Xiixaoftai. spla7nU sie. boggle at something. a boil. blarren. Fr. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. blench came to be used for a trick. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. a blotch plerr. A stain in a man's reputation. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. . a spot. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa.' God in his wordes. Pol. 419. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. AS. blemissemeiit. Richardson. which are blurred with the have shewed you. . souiller. and thence to a bruise. to make him feel blank. a blot or smear blanking one. wheal. flack. Bleak. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. to wink at it. As AS. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. c.

happily. tless —Gamm. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. is I shall Gurt. Nares. —Brera. . bleg. the Slavonic languages. blinzeln. To Blend. a blessing. tire. to glitter . tative source of the word is wholly lost. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. Needle. blicken. Du. Sw. to bless. to dabble in water. to bluiter up with water. blessed. to be blind. The sound of k before an s. to shine. blindr. j). Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. the sign of the cross while blessing one. to consecrate . Swiss (obsolete). blatida. wink of sleep . sung. glitter. lighten. csecubrandish. money. mixing in general.blinze. a. The term then self or others. Thence apblinds. . blink-eyed. Du. . Du. blithe blis. . graceful. Biglotton. happy . blich-fiur. to plunge. blac. Tany. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. bludder. joy . to het dat Koorn is verblekket. . Pol. to glance. Blight. blind- ON. Sc. to shine. AS. a glance Swiss blenden. flash of light . to make happy. burn up. ' Pl. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . blinzdugig. or nettle which does form. joy.not sting thiiren. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. G. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. fortunately.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. to bluiter.' To — blunge clay. as taschen. to make a rumbling noise. blican. G. De Sonne ' verblekken. A . pale.corn.blunda. wink. false windows. to fall into water with a sudden noise. to — make it thick and muddy. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. to merry. Serv. Wtb. to blithsian. OHG. blahoslaviti to twinkle. blende.. riches blajennii blicksem. lovely Bohem. window-blind. a nounce happy. Du. blinzler. gladness. Dan. weaklaveny. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. good. to dash wine with water. Paradises blidnissu. to bless . blund. Blind. blindselen. the G.blinken. although in the in the next article. to dilute too much . pockets. to churn. as in the case of blaze. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. a look. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. a blick-ooghen.blinkard . blessed. . sweet.Q. lightning sweet blago. To blunder water. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. to lighten. also to wink. a. — when he — Bailey. blincken. mix from blekken. . — A A — . blink. shine. to twinkle. ON. and joys of Paradise bliden. plonsen. riches . blendian. OHG. joyful. Blazena Bea. vious one in the order of formation. bluiter. pearance of the blighted . a wink. Sc. to stir or puddle. Deprived of sight. joy. Kiittner. . blicksem. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. F. but by no means therefore a pre. blidu. as in Du. blent. Blink. blet. be glad flash. blag. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. 375. blogi. blazeny. readily passes into a /. — Goth. thou knave. blicken. a flash. as a vatn i vin. AS. blinde fenster. a wink With the bletsian. blotzen. . To Bless. liquid filth to bluther. Owl and Nightingale.nasal. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. to act like a — . a gleam. plotzen. AS. well blahy blick and blink. to dazzle . Russ. III. happy . with or without the nasal. blind. Du. to rejoice. a glance. blissian. the verb to bless is some. blanssen. (=bene dicere). to shine. cascultare. glimpse. a dead nettle. Swab. blithe. happy . blick. as a blind entry. trix. lightning. to pro. blitz. moment. blitzen.D. to shut the eyes G. . to shut the eyes. livid. AS. glad. . The inblissful. blend. — . dazzle . to flash. make these hands 3. to mix. gives blinzen. G. to rejoice. seems the simple netel. an entry which leads to nothing . is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry.wink . Bliss. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. lightning. bliss look . blago. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. blide. giving (Fr. blahos. to glitter. sertion of the nasal. in potters' language. glitter. G. . From the action of the hand making Sw. well blagaya. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. I hold thee a grote thee. glance. ^Jam. blaziti. doors. goods. to glitter ful .eyed. glitter.

. fiustula. orbicular. blide. B. frequentative. pimple. stone. bubble and blubber. ON. fish blind person. blesme. viscid. biota. blithe. is also used in the sense of swelling . and F.—Bloater. in the lump or mass of wood. Hence. blister blasan. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. W. a bubble. gentle OHG. Svt. a little blisg. expressed by cognate roots. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. See Blot. as blinzeln. and easily changes its place. Fr. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend.—Bloated. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. B. soft. To a smoking or drying by the fire. Hence E. Bleb. any lump or mass of things. strawclod. Dan. blijde. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. merciful ON. husks. like clot. puff. a blain. blcesma. inde humiditate tumidus. Blob. Du. to dash liquid. bloated. to blow. and bouclette. a lumpish head plubach. and inarticulately. to swell. sloppy dirt. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. blindsehn. a . a small globe or bubble of any liquid. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. in gusts. to breathe hard. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. Egillson. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. in Nares. also to set See Bless. blinzel-maus. blaustem. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. Sw. ^vaaa. an unformed mass. is formed squad. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. taken altogether. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. lagga i blot. — Blob. Block. For this. Dan. senting the dashing of water. —Bailey. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. in bulk. pusula. Of sheep. bloc. to cure by smoke. Boyd in Jam. blond. buckle. must be referred to AS. to block up the way. repre- pusula. In Fin. blautr. blouca and Fr. while Lat. Blond. The roots /. to close it with a solid mass. a dirty blister. blot. light yellow. pustula. from blcsr.— Bailey. a small lump of anything thick. formed spot. whence blast. Langued. blobbes or droppes of water. a block or log en bloc. or is inserted or omitted. pods. A solid blouquette blisters. it is must be observed. blobber. . ON. or the mark which it makes. blot. blindman's-buff. — Sw. and pisg. . blad. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. round. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. To Blissom. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. joyful. a blister. Du. blidr. busten. pausten. a bubble. to to puff and be noisy. or the like. speaking rapidly any . — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. to steep. blotfisk. mass. Ibid. shells. The stem or trunk of a tree. And so from squatter. A under this name was imported into England. in the sense of a soft tint.— Hal. swell. soft. mild. blote. . kostua. or blinde-kiih. cooking. Bav. bluyster. Sw. The blow E. mild. — — — — — From blabber. a drop of water. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. as if soaked in water. a blister . buclde. separate portion. to bubble. Lat. Gael.pusta. plub. G. to blow. Sc. weak. G.plisg. blister. soak in water cured fish. Gael. a See Blot. as a blab of ink. It may be formed Blithe. a blot or spot. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. Thus we have blab and babble. or bleb. like manner the coloured. blaud. having an unsound swollen look. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. to blow. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. the unhewn bole of a tree. a bubble. soft. Fr. blod. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. kostia. bloc. blab. Kil. blubber. soaked. Blister.. bleiths. I believe. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. to desire the male. Cotgr. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. to soak. Blob. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. a ram. boucler. ^Jam. Mod. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. Jonson. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. blot. bausen. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. Goth. to blissom. To Bloat. signifying in the first instance to soak. — . must be classed with forms like Gr. N. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. as in E. bluster.

cow-dung. bliihen.' the rain is driving and blue . j^ blottir. blond. — Stalder . blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. the bright colour of the cheeks . It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . light. of a blow with something lios. bleistern. gammon. Du. proto shine with bright colours . Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. blue. S-wiss pladern. E. to strike with such these objects exhibit. glose. E. blauwel. white blatte. a black eye Du. Sw. blomstr. clod. to glow. Sw. blawels. blosen. bloi. the bright to blot paper morsels. plants which prepares the seed. Fr. bloemen. ON. to From . platz-voll.properly to scatter liquid . a water ploutsche. splendour . a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. —Barbour. bluish. AS. bloi. Sc. E. fair in en blat vand. blotting-paper. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. to dabble in water. to shine . plottra. or the sound of it . from G. glister . . pladdern. kobladde. colour of the cheeks. to be red. whence plader. ' — . wan. to dash down Du. It should be of filth blak-blatte. bloeme. bldmi. a drop of water or colour. to dabble in water . a spot or blot. yellowish It's G. biado (of which the evidence plattern. in v. straw. great leaf of cabbage. — — . Fris. bloedsd. mud. blond en blaauw slaan. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. . from the bright colour which 7'vci. Wendish blodo. . — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. Dan. blondheid. bloi. livid marks. Dan. . blase. a cow-dung. blodelsa and blawelsa. plotterwis. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. kuh-plader. coloured (Diaz. platz-regen. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. Erploten. bleustern. OFr. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. Dan. — Blotch-paper. a lump. a gush of milk . gleam. (of cattle) to dung. bliithe. blosa. a Schmid. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. to strike with something soft or flat. Bloom. bletister. 2. blatte.D. blois. shine . Pl. to blot the land was in a leme. ^lys. lump of anything soft to blad. pale. gloss. ])erly Du. spot pletter i solen. en blau ach. See Blow.platter. blut. lidmr. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. to spot or blot. glus. blaeuw. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. splashing full. blue . . bldts. a. — gush. to dirty. lustre. to scribble. . Blow. Sc. a The form platschefz. dirty spot on the cheek. Wflz<^«. Ein platsch milch. redness. a Halm a. blust. a flower. E.blauschlagen. fall to overflowing. to blaze. pale biavo. yellow. D. as the skin or hair.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. blat. PI. Schmid. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. skam. to sparkle. bfys. blowen. couleur livide. Du. Fris. Schwenck. gfyssa. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). to glisten . a blot or spot. parallel form with ON. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. — Cot. a beater. to blush . blue. blotter. glasi.^ Kil. pale tint. Prov. to squander. a blaze. a nature. blose. ^Bleed. plattata. bloutre. See Blow. flower. lump flower. to slap. to splash. Ir. plet. plot of land is a spot or small rage. ON. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. blou. AS. to flame. to grow pale). glossi. bloetnsel. dial. to dash down. a deli. Harmar in R. bloto. pladern.— . leme. spots in the sun. a torch blusse. bliise. Blood. dial. Du. blistaf. ON. It. to squat or lie close. Lat. to slap. blue. blaeuwen. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. Stalder. platschern. Florio). bloed. Hatch. blus. Blotcli. Blossom. Blot. blysa. blad. E. Schilter. Blad. Jios. a flower. blue. platt-voll. G. blond is used in blatt. bit by bit. G. The G. blooth. platsch-voll. Du. Sw. soft or flat. Plots. blady. E. probably connected with Pol. . to strike . . a flower. fall down . a blow. a pelting shower). to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. blosma. to blaze . blaeuwe ooghe. a Usaae. to patter. Russ. blostma. blosem. livid . on. to be red with blot. to exists in biadetto. sbiadare. brilliancy. blotte.

in E. corre. Gr. OHG. grug. bl. blawan. /idXavoc. to fade. blezir. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. to with Bohem. Pl. disordered in head-dress. plusig. 1292. Mund. heath. plodern. flower OHG. gloeyen. fem. G. a continued noise of agitated water. jabber. Notwithstanding the We . gloeden. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit.to blossom. to beat. gliihen. the red fluid of the body .D. piusen. G. Jla-re. And. to flourish. foam. to'disorder.' — Palsgr. to breathe G. br. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. —SchmelIt. little apparent resemblance. bliihen. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. To Blow. pludern. meurtrissure Roquefort. pale. to exhibit bright colours. bruk.' Hamburgh Archives. Pl. to gush. to flap like loose clothes. to spot. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. to Plodern. blow. It. or gr. blau. especially with respect to the hair. 92. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. It is howbliuwen. to bubble up. blazi. a flower.D. to inflate.D. -ii. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. P1. E.xo'»'. bloeden. bloom. bruised Prov.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. 51. a. Du. a Blossom. withered. plubraich. blodyn. pale. . thus identify the Celtic glas with G. plubartaich. blodern. Chaucer. disordered. like manner Lat.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. — To Blubber. to beat with a mallet.— . Langued. We . a fat. dirty. to make blue. . blut. to fade. Her sweet bloderit face. gliihen. blau. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. chatter. a blast. fied vowel. Sik upplustem. The radical sense is shown in Gael. ^Jam. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. glede. tache. Wtb.Jlasa. MHG. wan. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. a blow. — — Mundart. bluod. A. w. is confined to the — . bliihen. To Blow. blady. bliuwan. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. blosen. florere. to gabble. to guggle. ler. Blue. bloemen. flower w. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. blass.D. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. AS. . Danneil. glowing coal . green. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. a bruise. to make bubbles in drinking. blodelsa. blahen. Raynouard. E. The interchange of an initial gl. is very frequent. v. d in Sc. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. y\r)yi»v. glas. blao. boasting. a herb Gr. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). to show flower. Prov. to fade. blubonciti. pale OFr. sense. — . ' BLUE or guggling. In agitation of water. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. a gurgling . |8A)'. and thence. wan. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. Deutsch. blubbern. G. fqded. to glow. cheeks bedabbled with tears. blust. to bruise Roquef. bliithe. The primary sense is to shine. glansj Ir. The aUied forms. gUd. blois. to blow. and the forms mentioned under Swab. These are — Bludder. OFr. Pludern. blduen.. marking some application from that bladder. Bret. Deutsch. Du. bloeyen. blaw j biavo. to blurt out. B. . to breathe bouteiUis. 1. blava. Tumbled. Chaucer. to blow. fiubbem. may cite for example G. to shine with bright From colours. sponds with Sw. toused. glaodh and blaodh. blebber. Bav. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. sound like water. — . grey. bluther. bloi. Gael. to glow. where the word may be compared bliggman. bloes. 2. bledniai. blue . Kil. boil. blazir. . and closely allied with Du. plustrig. — To blubber. bluh. blubbern. grow pale. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. in rapid or indistinct utterance. glow. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . Blowze. pale . red-faced bloted wench.nify bubble. Lat. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. to blow. a paddling in wate r. vi^ound. coup. to hard. bldt. puff. plubair. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. to puff up. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. OHG. closely difference in of blabber. blue. G. . glas. into flower. bludder. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. Blowzy. — Bluther. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair.

yellowish red. to dabble in the mud.in mud or water. We Blunder. falb. The Du. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. to work To blunder out a fronto. used for the work of an unskilful performer. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. To blunder is then. his business with much noise. to fade). a shore abruptly rising. speech. tutte le semente ancora in erba. like the Celtic glas. Roquefort. Roquefort. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. to plump into the water. blue. fawn-coloured. like Du. Du. biada. originally growing up turf and water. Dryden in R. blave is moreover. non rotunda. and biavo (Diez). find accordingly It. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. I blonder. devenir vert blavoie. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. Du. a plain coin herausplatzeu. which is rendered by Florio. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. to fall suddenly on the ground. to mix it up with water. a fore. blaf. to become pale. Flor. Dan. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. The Du. a blunderbuss. bluish. buller-bak. Blaffart. is. A bluff manner. G. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. See Blurt. ploffen. mistake. bloi. blunder. polter-hans. confusion. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. a flounder. . and then generally idle talk. as well as sbiadafe. Analogous forms are Du. From G. plomp. having a bluff forehead. from the Lat. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. blanssen. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow.• BLUFF biado.. something. to puddle. earth and water mixed together. applied to green as well as blue. blunder. . to agitation of liquids. segetes virentes. pludder. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. Halma. Altieri. corn. See Blunt. It then signifies something done at once. dial. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. mix It. flav-us. OFr. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . rustic. Bluff. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. bleu et blanc. Bladum. blac. It is remarkable however that the E. Kil. discoloured {plowiee. pale yellow. plo-wy. bulmanner.D. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. Blunderer or blunt worker. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. Blavoyer. Sw. — Pr. to become pale or livid. sloppy drink. sbiavare. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. Pol. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. Hal. The word is here synonymous with amplus. has donder-bus. G. blunt. Lat. from an imitation of the sound. disturb. Bohem. superficie plani. glundr. G. Kil. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . as well as biado. Romance bluiter. blunderhead. to blunge clay. contrasted with the dle. jaune. 't — —Hal. tradire to Fr. glundra. blandum. Supp. poltern. or an abrupt manner. herbe. polterer.make a noise. to become pale or wan. to lose colour. all representing the — . bawling. from the brilliant green of the young E. Hence a Slcelton in R. bUich. buller-bas. corn. biavo. Biada. Palsgr. Dief. pale straw-coloured. abrupt.' trouble. blahir. verdure. liebefactor. and metaphorically. without image or superscription. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. verdoyer. Hence we pass to Prov. in plur. blue. Ditton in R. sense of yeUow. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. blond. and Du. - reddish yellow. Kiittner. flodderen (Weiland). herauspoltem or sloping shore. fallow. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. in the same way as from It'. G. Pl. Blunt. blutter. puddle.//aay. to confound. biava. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. in water dobbelen. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. to dabble Biglotton E. E. bullern. blavus. Bodge. blake (identical with AS. blue. a boisterous violent man. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. Then with the nasal. pale) is provincially used in the. yellow. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. and bustle . je perturbe.— . and sbiadare. pale. planus. And blunders on and staggers every pace. trahir. Pm. — . an ill-done job. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. — — — . to blunder water.

dial. to blurt. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare.—D. plump. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. to blunt a thing out. bald. used in both senses. blue. bare or blunt. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. united in Gael. without preparation. identical with E. of a knife which not cut. inactive Swiss bluntschi. Pol. naked. Halma. plump. Plump. duU. It is from this notion of suddenness. the absence of sharpness.to fall into the water. Plump mit etwas umgehen. heavy. obtusus. to handle a thing bluntly. —D. naked. — blunt. Kiittner. blunt. seems to be derived. unpolished. platzen. Chaucer. to make foliage. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. void. blout. in Richardson. to make a noise of such a Stalder. it will be observed. Q. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. insensible. rudely. viz. bleak. a thick and will person. G. or heraus plumpen. obtusus. Bluntet. azure. a blot. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. Swab. Sir T. or blab out a thing Kiittner . V. plump. Molof something wet. clumsy. pressions. without horns. dull. blotta sanningen. to bring it suddenly out. unfledged Sw. it will be well to point out a sense. plutz T)\i. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. rude. wan. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. blatte. raw. Now the Swiss bluntsch. Kiittner. The syllables blot.plompen. from the loud report a fire-arm. clownish. blait. and an unintelligent. Stalder. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. sheepish. More in Richardson. plump J to plump out with it. Sc.— — — . is The word dull. unceremonious manner. plotz. blunder. and. maol. Sw.pludse. The blait body. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. inaKil. absence of preparation. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. Bare and blunt. F. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . as cow-dung. blunt. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. Du. edgeless. blat. mit etwas heraus-platzen. homo stolidus. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. bluntschen. . Blunt. poor Sc. and hath swiche languor in his soul. and the like. biosso. heavy. —D. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. rough. down. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. naked. good plump person. plumbeus. awkwardly. Woddis. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. plains The large bech. ang. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. ineffectual reason. exactly corresponding to the G. forestis. blott. without Maolaich. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. blockish. Plontp. blunt. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. is thrown. as in E. bloss. bus. awkward. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. blutten. hebes. — Kil. a simpleton. platz-regen. unwrought. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. fling down . but of something soft thrown on the ground. that it not easy to discover the connection. Won by degrees. Blaitie-bum. . Then cometh indevotion. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. without the nasal. naked. plotsen. bare. Dan. figuratively. It will be seen that the G. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. pointless. as Sw. stupid fellow. blunt. plump. to plump into the water. bare. pale. with or without the nasal. G. that the sense of bare. heavy. plonsen. A modification of the same root. Dan. nature. a portion To inquire for slaves. blunsch. It. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. nis. like a thing thrown down with a noise. to plump down. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. a bluntie. blait. thick. Ford in R. Sc. biotto. V. massive. fooUsh. and in the same sense. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. viz. Probably radically hlekit. silly. — — pidus. A light blue colour. through which a man is so blont. dull. V.

bluter. pluddre. — a blaze. 1. splurt and spirt. 9396. pfludern. — ' Dief. an ear of corn. acre. boa. blaste?i. large. to puff. to make mouths. botte.—Bobbin. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. a border. Hal. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. a blot. margin. bliise. burra.y. bludder. hot. to make a noise in boiling. to sound like water boiling. bord. — — . a flurt with one's fingers. It. Pl. to rumble. properly noisy. Schmeller. Explained by Jam. be a crack or loud sound. a small lump. mire. 29. AS. planks or boards. &c. this root are formed Sc. to endeavour to terrify. like the parapets (viggyrdil. bludder. Boa. Wtb. cocodrUlus. gabble Sw. Wallace. edge. a torch blusse. boot. a Jam. Du. or blurt with one's mouth.D.plodem. and Du. boord. a mistiness. to render indisbhir. Related to blutter. As the as. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. an end or stump. . dial. cluster. To move quickly up and down. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. P. Fr. To splirt. a tassel. . Slur. gabble. batello. Du. Du. as in Du. V. i. to say bluntly. blusse i ansigtet. to talk quick and indistinctly . puddle. rude. blurra. and E. Comp. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. a bladder . bot-voet. Hal. ever-swin. Bot zeggen. blirt of greeting. or bog also thread. stupid. border. The to radical meaning D. to puff. It. imitated by has also In like . bleuster. to jabber. bar. a baU of thread the mud. blader. outward edge. Bav. — — — * Boast. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. to blow. crack made by bursting open. to snuff. to guggle. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. edge. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. To brag and to crack. an edge. a tassel. primarily signify loud noise. to puff. bdtr. to chatter. blast. It. to make a noise with the mouth. pustern. Fl. strong. See Boisterous. ground. to brag grande loqui. a burst of tears.the syllable bot. table. fringe. of the word seems . my dear. to bounce. .pusten. coarse. margin. baban. table. bdta. bord. Supp. it implies that it is empty sound. a dangling object.v. blunt. a blotch. to blurt out. G.plerr. to be out of temper. to crying. Fl. blosken. then applied to indistinct vision . G. AS. pausten. aper. rude. G. Board. a short thick body. bora. cheeks glow. A large snake. lindwurm. sudden. Du. Boa. bur. — To Bob. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. De Boat. brett. as splurt to splutter. The elision of the d is very to chatter. Du. bluther. OE. common. to breke. to give a crack. blaustem. E. bakke bleustern. c. beacon fire. . To Blurt. a board or plank. is formed Du. blubber. to bark. to blubber. blarra. bobine. and swimmeth very well. Kil. Sc. To tinct. the sound of a blow poffen. blot. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. boccheggiare. baiag. bladdra. bord. bustuous. voce intonare. a grows to a great bigness.— . bausen. board. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. Blush. and when applied to vaunting language. Dan. blur. flat. blasen and See Burr. pof. literally edge-wood. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. to dabble. to spurt out. See Blossom. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. to threaten. Gael. to blur. to dirty. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. Du. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. lacerta. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. Bluster. berd. whence bordvidr. Halma. bit. Swiss blodern. blot. or backwards and forwards. planks raised up outside the roofs. E. blodern. BOB 79 — To Blur. a mist before the eyes plerren. to blore. bot. geplerr. stellio. pludern. to disfigure with E. — From mouth. ader. . Lat. a club foot . Fr. 274. Sc. on. To blow in puffs. to roar. the Brem. plump. to blush. dial. w. 156. borrar. boistous. violent. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. eafor. to glow . ON. to smear. will fly up. short pieces of any filthy mud. swagger. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. dull. 'Ba. beer. Pull the bobbin. chicchere. bhis. puffen. violent G. skin. to blaze. a smear. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. blose. blaere. AS.' — Red Riding-hood. both used in the sense of boasting. to dangle. bdd. blotch and botch. whence bob. e. Wright's ed. Sverris Saga. Gael. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. BLUR Boar. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. Du. blaffen and baffen. margin. and the latch . Boost is used for the boast. eber. a blow . For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. a. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. and boisterous. bateau. bobbin.

an announcement. French bouter. a spur. bodene. message boda. thrust with something pointed. Russ.hollow. bodig. ^Jam. to make a mow at. by the syllable patsch. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. 43.' A — Sherwood's Diet. Schmel. to start start and back as from a bugbear. BOGGLE trunk and G.' Bogglie. a prick. bottich are derivatives. to smack. the boss of a buckler. ON. to be unsteady tich. whence paUchen. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. bayonet . calf of the leg. the body of a shift gaguejar. Gael. a dagger.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. strike with the horns. boll. bogach. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. a quagsoft. gago. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . . dies. the belly. bod. as signifying anything spherical or round. bodies. waving. as in stammering or staggering. anything protuberant. bayonet. potacha. body and G. bodi. W. a body. unsteady. a sting . the thick part of anything. . potig. toss. moist mire. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. to fail. Bret. goggle. . bolr. and E. Ptg. bo tich. to dabble or paddle. See Bid. boftich. formerly bodies. a round body both. moving backwards and forwards. to bob. to blurt a thing out.a (i\ia. Gael. Ptg. to bodge. .\\i\c\iset. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. Crist. gog. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. to push with the horns. bole. Shakespear has badged with blood. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. cask bottich. badyti. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. With With this we charged again We bodged again. bodnu. corpset. precept. is a lump. bothog. the body. . an awl. bodetz. to thrust. See Baber-lipped. baboyer. Bohem. . The signification of the root bot. '£. or bag. then from the yielding. Cot. Supp. Miracle-plays. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. The Sp. swelling. Lap. bob. Now unskilful action is conmire. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. fickle . nodding. a messenger . so large a feature in the country. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. To make bad work. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr.. Bodkin. or stem of a tree. Ir. quagmire). stumpy. Wall. barriga. a cask. bod. bog. to butt. * To Boggle. Lith. quakmg. nave of a wheel. mud. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. a command. round. — H. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. . Thy i. bog. to make. belly. AS. Gl. exhibit another modification of the root. potahha. palleg. gag. unsteady nature of a soft substance. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. wavering. 3. to stammer. — 2. shake. Banff. gebod. Reliq Antiq. bodat. To Bode. — as well as the body of an animal. point. a puddle. And waves. — Grandg. AS. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. It introduced from Ireland. To mock. from fitting close to the body. gog in gog-mire. . to fail. Gael. to stir. bodi. e. bogan. bodhag. bog (equivalent to E.rabodi. the trunk of the animal body. bodian. anything soft. speak of the barrel of a horse. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. a bog or morass. So BOB To Bob. to be uncertain what to do. VI. rounded. corset from corps. We . woman's stays. unsteady. to commit a blunder. where bogs form Gael. barrique. a cask. In like manner E. of which the E. corset. and the word is well explained by Bailey. bot. arise E. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. whence Fr.! . busti. as a horn. shaking . See To Botch. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. or a pair of bodies. bogadaich. . is identical with Fr. biodag. To Bodge. meaning the round part of his body. body of a shirt bol. bogle. move. a ghost . needle. bagges. expression hogglin an bogglin. a . Commonly explained as if from Sc. Bog. corpses pot. gogach. gagoula. bodilo. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. to deliver a message. bodak. a prickle. potacha. daubed or dabbled with blood. butt. to stick. biodeachan. To portend good or bad. pall. stuttering. to scruple. stutter gogmire. gagei. agitate. the stem of a tree . to waver. stitch. bogadh. bottig. to roll. Bodice. patsche. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. to prick. Body.gmh:t.

D. bol. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. fiausten. pall.). bula. buile. furfures. 304). to boil. folliculus grani.— — . For bost or boist in the sense of crack. gluma. bochken (titubare. prince. roydeur. bolt. Sp. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. bola. ON. In the same way Sc.w. beule. dint in a metal vessel. a bubble. coarse. bald. from Du. ON. * Boisterous. tartajear. OHG. boggle. to stumble. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. Sc. bul. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. bollen (Kil. strong. Test. A. bok. Boil. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. gerade signifies straight to the mark. cheerful. Du. G.' Mrs Baker. baud. bolr. to the belly as the or dislike. capiing into a cavity. bald. chaff of corn siliqua. but that Bolt. to tattle. To Bolter. courageous. Da. The round stem of a tree. bola. quick. . properly represent belly. bolle. styffe or rude . stud. bullire. Fr. bSlstr. the lir. Love. Pr. glass phial. bagaji. Fr. tulum. round the first instance to the materials with . see Boast. Boystous. or the like. Daring. balldr. bold. balder. ^Boistous. to waver or hesitate. — ' — tagliare. bog. insolent baude. a bubble. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. boutpijl. Me doth awate. a bubble. Properly noisy. to stammer. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. is probably a modification of boll. to be prominent. belc'hj. Swab. bolstar. globular bod)'. and then applied to other husks. bog. rough. bold. Du. notes. polc'h. wag. Bustuous. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. bolla. the husk of nuts. bolt upright. Lap. and manace for to de. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. Wall. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). 374. Pm. warlike. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. .Du. 45. swelling. bul. as baltha. to give a hoUow sound. up of bubbles. haughty. proud. bolzen. ^Vocab. may be identified with It. courageous. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. bealder. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . to stagger. stramenta. brave. Du. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. (of Mons) b^guer. blow. bol. bulla. as those of nuts. bold. bal. poppy (Bailey). Westerwald bollern. the body of a man or of ter. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. in the sense of handsome . G. from the branches. Chaucer. which are not used for a similar purpose. free. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. puilen. To Boil. bulla. b^gayer. ON. See Bulk. Sw. Kil. — — which the cushion is stuffed. Bole. Gael. hero. ohg. Cot. ballr.palleg. The bob. ON. Boll. OG. strong. The term applies in — — impressed . This iv. hollow. 1430 in Deutsch. treated under Bowl. a boil or swelling Du. boll. also a blister. It. pusten. tomentum. E. perpendicular. as E. he will speak out. a bump. Fr. bol. buller. w. pustule. stameln vel bochken. stutSw. tartalear. * Bolster. the gurgling sound of water rush. cows the people from speaking. flax-boU. bag or bog are derived Piedm. to stammer. puile. Lat. i. chatter. a bakazikni. a fastening for a door. scruple. bulr. repagulum. Stalder. Kit. bout is explained by Kil. animal as distinguished from the limbs. merry. to be at a loss a shirt. strong. caput scapulse. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. a swelling in ice. boly. sels of flax. whence bulla. tar. E. bolc'h.. to puff. capitellum. by which it is moved to and fro. bolzBold. noise. bhster. tartle. hakogni. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. in speaking. huge. to hesitate from doubt. the body . excellent. V. obex. as. Magy. then violent. Chaucer seems Dan.— D. . a cushion. pimple ON. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . a quaking mire. G.rounded part of the body. bolster. swelling. bout. Du. Bret. impetuosity. bolster. G. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. . bolleken. intrepid. trunk of a tree . the. shake. Goth. a head . boystousnesse. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. Mund. — 6 . bouil. pillow. biiilen. to swell. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. Lat. boil . bald. as. confident. used. boss.

In the next place. bolt head is a retort.) E. : ' — — . one after the other. on the one hand. agitari (Kil. projecting eyes pul. budeln daz mele . Bulte-pook or bulstar. pattern. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. a bolter or implement for bolting. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. barutela. the wheels groaned. clump. bultred. as of a trumpet. protuberance. hulch. uneven. jolting. to form lumps. ler. buretter{CQ\. tantara.agitation of the meal in the bolter. tumultuari. Lat. buletare.through a cloth of loose texture. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. to become lumpy. to significance of the term was overlooked. taraabout. bullern. . to talk pulzen. je bulte. beluter. So also we pass from Lat. bolzauget) Sp. The ment and the operation. as Fr. bulstrig. Dan.thump or blow. to spring forth E. poltern. fied bot. and to crash.Lat. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. to start out.D. curdle. . or a racer from the course. hammer. . Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot.). taratantarum. rugged. to come rattling downstairs. to start with palpitate. uneven. Pl. Sw. Prov. poltern. bultig. to bolt meal barutel. with E. The ulti. Lang. On this account Mid. tling or crashing noise. kloteren. Brem. to bolter. to bolt flour burato. OFr. barutela. to clack. a clod.by forms like G. a . zare. brattle. OFr. bulk or quantity . bortelen. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. beliitea. bulk. we pass to Du. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. in S'W plotter. knob. to agitate. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. Du. also to curdle. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. pultare. small heap. tar. sestuare.u. a rattling carriage.nature of the operation. swelling. It. racket gepolter. a rattle. mole-hill. . tuft. hulter de bulter.. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. bolzen. as above explained. Du. blotttre. MHG. zen. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. a clod cloth. a clap of thunnences. die treppe pressed. Wtb. gebolder. barutare. G.D. or the like. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. loud and fast.i5a//^«.On the same principle. to make a knocking. croler. to shake. .protuberance. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . bulla. hole. holier poller. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. — — — . ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. to bolt meal barutel. grasbulten. bolt-foot. . and the Thus from So. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. OFr. or ill. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. a club-foot. ' — — ! ! : — . Dauphiny a sudden movement. by the representation of a racketing sound. bolzaugen. abolter. as a rabbit from its baritel. then to knock. buUire. bluter. crotlar. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. Mid. we see that the one consists of a words. ex•wagen. a sod (Schiitze). pull. cro. rugged. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. baruta. ' Holler poller / bulter. lumpy. Fr. crod. hammer. bulio. bolting to that of form. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. to coagulate. Sanders. hump. buideln. buletel. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. a round glass ending — bultig. Pr. poll. btilt. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. from G. have Lat. burclct. Pl. / is transposed in Fr. Pm. the sense of right on end. we der Brocket). was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. Schiitze. to knock. Here the radical image is the violent O. crash. 2. a crashing or racketing noise.as the essential element signifying the talum. to E.). bolt. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated.— . I boulte meale in a boulter. Bav. representing a rat. a clump of turf. as snow balling on a horse's foot. Hence.noise {brattle of thunner.. . Hence Palsgr. P1. And as the agitation of cream in .D. taratarrum. Champagne burtcau. a bolter Prov. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. a bunch. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. staff which sounds tar. boss. cruddle. .D. a millpoltzet augen. projections.fe/2?. vessel with narrow opening.clack. Supp. we have Du. a small portion.

Moreover. It. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. bombe. OE. bond. bambagioj whence It. brust-bein. In E. beil'n. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. ties. to shake.^Altieri. tie. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. cotton. bomba. Castrais barato. from teu. a beacon. bommen. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. bombdra. Bone. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. booming over the water. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. again. bambagino. a boulter of meal. to cast to and fro. &c. d. When ture. banitola (Fl. silk. achsel bein. Bibelesworth in Nat. has repeatedly varied. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. thick-legged. crook-shanked bondew. . It. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. Need you any ink and bonibase. to thump W. Du. gossipium. bolting-cloth. to bolt meal. produced the Pl. iuttern. to resound. bombase. Fl. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. Gascoi^e in R. In legal language. silk-worm. bambacium. Schm. also thick-shanked. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. It. sye. to beat a drum. the shank the shoulder-bone. From builen. the murmuring of the sea. baun. however. . Du. a string. bras. beuteln. Du. PoUitriduare. the Fr. G. beuteln. band. a bone in general. stuff. tiffany. bureau. term is appropriated in G. Dan. tie. buidelen. been. a hollow sound. and also the leg. borel. a drum bombammen. bongam. — Bombard. gunpowder. G. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. It. Bonfire. bunden. thick from shaking. and Mod. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. butteln. a stem or base. Mid. agreement. raw silk. a —Bombasine. q.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. basin. to boult meal. and called in Mid. ^o/j. buttel trueb (of liquids). . an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. the silk-worm. bwmbwr. bon. cotton stuff. to which the leg. bwmbwry mar. and in fact we find the and Du. bonog. a baker. to bind G. It. as in . assuming the of leg : special signification W. a thundering noise bomre. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. sije. and Du. — bombast came guage. — having a stem or stalk. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. Fr. ODu. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. bulter from It. bombarda. Antiq. rimbombare.Lat. and Bond. a word of which we have traces in several English names. the leg. buidelen. we speak of a gun to resound. HoUybandin R. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. Near 6 * . breast-bone. to shake down fruit from a tree. e. . Kil. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. must be explained Fr. sericum arboreum. a churn for butter. bande. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. 83 Gr. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. baum-bast. Bomb. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. the contracted form of Du. to shake (as to shake the head. builen. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. bombicina. as Banbury. or trunk word in W. Dan. As cotton was used for padding clothes. burato. from boom. tree. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. . The material called by this name. whence bomme. butteln. bommer.D. bombasin. bone of the . an implement of binding. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. a ligature. Fr.) . .bast. bonfras. coarse. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. bein. sijde. biire. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce .). i. bindan. Banstead. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. bureau. bombast. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. 155. boulenger. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. band. G. band pi.Su?. E. is supported by the analogy of G. to thunder. stump. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. Butterglas. thick. bonds. barate. bombice. . bombasine. bauniwolle. and that from Fr. to ring bells. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. It. a stock. derivation. — AS. lana lignea. bopin.

one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. * Boose. as the Brecknockshire Banns. . betere thing werse. from Du. Du. bAkva. boubair. See Butt. baier. Perhaps. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. the cultivator. a tree. wall hangings. a. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. boia. to cultivate. bota. biikui. till. Mrs Baker. dress. \ais-band. bobo. bossen. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. foolish. however. a bonfire.n. Du. often cut for burning and lighting fires. bosih. litter. ON. ON. gehyred. babin. the mouth. The word seems of Scandinavian origin.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. booby. Jr. desire. one who dwells nigh. gawney. It. bas. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. writing bokos. signifying beech. 232. Mrs Baker explains bun. inhabit. . bosig. help. Goth. Fr.^ —P. the possessor of the farm. a vessel for holding liquids. petition. of wonder On the same principle Sp. relief from sorrow. stabulum. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. Fr. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. and Ban in w. boo. OW. From bo. — — . bonad. to yawn. The i. botte. prayer. pig-sty. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. a good turn or re- meaning. prayer. Hal. . Fr. a scribe G. set in order. dog-kennel.—Bootless. Booby. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. to strew with straw. ty Gael. Build. Boon. — To boot. Thin ben Luke i. bdn. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. been. bolt. The origin of the word is probably the W. Sp. or Vanns. It is commonly explained as identical with It. — e.Boos. OSlav. to ask. and from AS. without ad- . build. . . boubi^. bommen. and Gael. bonnet. inhabit. the scriptures bokareis. to cultivate. p. comes bondi. Basa. Ox. Kil. from badare. Hal. AS. short boots. ON. busu. Bootless. Pm. The character of folly is i860. to aid. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. Binau Brychyniog. by itself for head-dress. . to litter bosu. beiSne. Bonnet. also called Brecknock Beacons. the stubble of beans. the first consonant of the alphabet. . where a cross (or a gun. boer. to gape. quest. at everything. boutig. AS. remnants of hay or straw. are formed Fr. as a lying-place for cattle. house. in Phil. tapestry. dress. buch-stab. ganian. boten-shoen. b&ber. master of the house. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. pero. ben. a. bonaid. Gl. babb^o. fool. bowwen. G. but stall. Schm. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. A favour. Palsgr. Trans. boandi. pole. — From the participle present. dolt. babau. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. succour Bailey. a stall. 13. blockhead. to gape. boa. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. the name of the letter b. to dress. whence ban-ffagl. A peasant. literally cow-house. a lofty blaze. Bun. a silly fellow. G. and fig. simpleton. in w. netis stall. a simpleton. bid). . G. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. N. letter. nachbar. ass. gaping hoyden — Cot. feu de behourdis. by arbitours sholde bote the P. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. bene. wondering signifies not only straw. a lying-place for dogs or swine. But bosg. and thence Rouchi baia. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. petition. to prepare. bua. Pr. although in the OG. a letter Russ. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. a head-dress. In nautical language. Thus from the syllable ba. bos. See Bown. beam. To Boot. Swab. Kil. Gael. tigh. bose. swinbusa. dial. Busk. bauer. chaff. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. b^er. reparation. a letter . till. Boor. Hufwud-bonad. tall. bua. botta. Bonnefyre. Du. Fr. bauen. a bag of skin or leather. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. which one gaping and staring about. head-dress wai^g. E. Boot. The latter is the original AS. dial. . A stall for cattle. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. botte. a dry stalk. bote.. Book. Prov. a hollow skin. to set in order. remedy of evil. boom. hu?idbusa. gaby. badaud. — . boutig. E. Boom. . ON. buandi. lofty. See Bomb. bonad. from beida (E. w. b'ukvdry. Wall. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. bobo ! interj. the alphabet. bds. — Bailey. bd. high. from gape. build. Boot of bale. clown. is Du. countryman.

recovery bata. Fin. barn. . Esthon. And so in ON. Fr. Booth. a. Booty. a granary .—Burin. to bore. AS. a shop. a word.. scsdes-bod. a bladder. Gael. and meta- Fr. Esthon. yfirbdt. the . to to . to divide. — ON. and E.— Return from Parnassus I inR. Fin. a hut. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. sculpo 05\xiik. But probably the E. bord. . Pol. a leather bag or bottle for wine. Alexand. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . a great bur. BOOTH vantage. repair. puru. bohren. to pierce. reparation. . Palsgr. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. Du. to hut. better. from borra. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. . than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. biorag. lappolone. OSw. bothan. In the Fin. butin is explained by Flor. butin. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. boete. Bohem.por. tent. in Ihre. terebro. Kil. ON. make . to bete the properly to mend the fire. It. cellar. Sp. sharp. cup- awl. puras. Border. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. to build. drillen. to importune. a shelter of branches.par. and parrets. baara. as afford a satisfactory explanation. to patch. . ON. a tusk. chisel. a borer . cure Sw. a chisel. lappalare. . to bite.. OHG. from deila and skipta. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. to repair. to expiate boeten den dorst. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. limbus. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. to build buda. swell bara. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. fimbria. botjan. piercer. puras. to . to restore. Fin. margin. to profit Goth. The as G. aid. bordi. borracha. Gael. a shed. The ON. baete. to foam. remedy. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. hut. to profit. on. . bauen. boede. extremitas Bore. scalpo. bower. Lat. are derived from G. nor E. N. G. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. furd. betan fyr. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. to surge. to swell. &c. Another derivation from Fin. Gael. to stick unto as a bur. Compare Manx birrag. bora. a sharp-pointed tooth. an engraver's chisel. borino. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. of an edge that will not bite. pi. a responding forms . both. which are probably from the same root. p. limbus. to boot. The Fin. batr. forare. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. a borer. and thence to eat build. bottino. The cor. byte points to the verb byta. It is admitted that Fr. purra. bdt. uzboro. is purin. struere ignem. bothag. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. urboro. wave. to bite. Fr. bolino. cottage. a bothy. purro. dens mordens vel caninus. a booth or shed. boeten het vier. or the gradual working a hole in anything. Magy. are parret. sawroot. a wave. bud. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. pointed. from bord. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). comminuted by either kind of action. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. Bete. 266. BoracMo. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. See Burgeon. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. • — To Bore. to mend. in Lap. bdra. to The Sw. boards. exchange or divide. borracha. kvit-bara. boeye.. To Bore. abode. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. making good again . fire. and hence to fine. A phorically a drunkard. . a shop budowati. It. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. bite. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. a hut or tent. differs only in termination. Burke in R. wine-skin. or anything pointed. a border. furni. rof. bauda. puru. See Bower. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. beute. budowai. ON. Du. to anything Neither G. a cupboard. amendment. 3. welt. pu purro (saha =: saw . See To We speak in E. Mag. chewed food for infants. amendment boeten. to quench one's thirst . bardure. edge. burin. admovere titiones. 1. mat-bod. terebra sculptoria purastoa. purra. bata. Fl. a borer. . budka. ora. dust. hem or gard of a garment.

G. — — — A — . the sun sets. Fr. boss or knob of a buckler . And that unsittynge is to here degre. borg. Fr. loan. boss. rustic. ^o^^flj. bosseu. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. bosse. borg. boss sound. blow on a hollow object. empty. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell.vr\. while Gael. or head-borough. tempest. and thus could not shake off the old burr. borealis. Du. as we speak of a thumping potato. . Bunch. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. bump. The origin seems to be the Goth. . tive idea seems to bring under cover. vain. to pick or cull plants. surety. boss. is used in the sense of bussare. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. to protect. huschen. hollow bucklers. (Bridel). bttssel.' if thou give money on loan. is probably radically Boss. pitch. It. ON. agrees with E. a citizen. storm.any round sweUing. Bailey. In like manner It. Hal. without. beorgan. Borrow. The other.' the chief of the ' borh. ' pledge. the North Wind. a bouncing baby . an eminence. cob. Goth. Hence knot. from their grey clothing. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. to strike . brown cloth. that which biirge. viipyoc. bunch. to save. bierge.' or system of bail. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. a wen.ribs and the side. boschen. a knob. . Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. Sc. empty. busse. boussi. bos. northern. a bunch or hump. clownish. which now signifies a knob. Swiss Rom.' Vegetius in Diez. botch. cormpted. to take in. burgess. ij |8oraviKi) The — A .' every man be under bail. the Sc. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. Lat.mass. Russ. bosh. useCanterbury. destitute. ' — — . AS. a boss. to contain. 106. f graauw. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. borei. borgo. connected. botch. bom. butse. Lang. So Du. undyed wool of brown sheep. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. D. from AS. Botany. primarily signifying coarse sound . AS. E. a blow. The primi. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael.bucklers. It. as if from the verb to hold. Newbury. Cot. basse. (1867). &c. Borough. cnag signifies both a clergy. cnap. of bail throughout the country. to strike so as to Bureau. gum vocant. or perhaps it may be See Bury. borel. borough or chief constable. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. grey). or because a blow berga. a. in the body struck. plain rude fellow. burh. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. to keep. Bosh. Boreal. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. to give a hollow bizo. the N. to become is emitted by a hollow body. baurgs. Bos a surety. bourg. See found in Bav. borough-holder. by which of or belonging to plants. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. Hence borhes ealdor. borh. Jam. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. empty. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. rude. bundle. the ordinary a swelling. beorgan. less. butsen. byrig. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. secure. Jam. bossen. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. V. botsen. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. cnoc. to give bail or answer for an. poor. in instead of without. unpolished. i. when that system was forgotten. . coarse cloth made of the Du. bourgeois. burel. bussa coarse. hollow. projection. knur. head. /3oraMK6f. knob. a herb. Du. plant. to conceal. to protect. a little blow. bail biirgen. Gr. I. to knock or strike. a city . into borsholder. — ' wind burya. whence the burg. a citizen. AS. Turk. pego. borgese. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. or perhaps also To Borrow. botse. knocking. was origin of the term is the OFr. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. bump is used in lump or piece. boss of the side. to save. gesylle. ^ma. the hollow between the Borsholder. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. bos. to save Sw. one who sticks to you like a bore. poor. and borough in the sense of a town. Fr. a giving rise to It. whether from the fact preserve G. Altieri.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. a boor. a surety. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. tuft. a pushing or striking out. bussi. formerly used in the sense of knocking. Borowholder.. striking. nonsense. knock and a knob . a tower. the must have arisen burgensis. bergen. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. pegou. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland.

Fl. we two. to froth as beer . a bunch. for a bud. to make a make a noise. to give a sounding blow. pother. — . . On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. Lat. a pock. BOTCH understood). maggots in barley. a boil or swelling Halma. botn. . oba. House-bote. a root. A — oba-dwaj Lat. repara- — — See To Bete. an abyss or bottoniless pit. 212. as a push or windgaU. and E. butsen. OSax. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. boss. Lith. bottom. AS. dim. Boa two. burgi vel pontis refectionem. To confuse with noise.— Hal. a bottle.foundation. a pit. is also a bubble. bluster. signify a in OE. a vessel for holding liquids. butse. blain. botte. bdsser. to smack. See Bound. to simmer. bottigUa. to podge. to dip in liquid (to Gael. batschen. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. It. botte. the bud of a flower . to rage. both.of a ball of thread. the science or knowledge of plants. — Dief. bosser. a cess. a. buddl. Bret. boden . gling piece of work. pozzo. whence the name ol pool to podge. we have Swiss batscken. bun. tumour. Du. ambo. corresponding to . Botcli. abbution. A bottom depth. . — — . gen. . bativa. a pit. w. Bottle. I. E. a humpback. Bouds. j3i/9os. of botta. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. pocciar. The Gr. a tinker schuhbiisser. Lith. botte. On the other hand. ' G. disturbance to . to work without order or know. abbi. Kil. a depth. a botcher of shoes. potra. botm. Canut. shoes. stem or base. botola. botel. a patch patschen.' to the fiery Csedm. buts. Jtidu. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. .^Dec. To Botch. a bottle of hay. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. bodem. It. the first rough draught 2. bdt. e. . putra. Wedu. Podge. Fr. Parmesan poccia. &c. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. G. a bott . you two. to put on a patch. by met. bAdtr. to fall : with a sound batsch. puddle. fundus. ^kvBoQ. bunch. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. Danneil. kessel-biisser. bethia. Bouteille. was called a push. Fr. abbu. See To Bodge. mend. Gael. botse. to from the root bot. a wisp. Here the radical image seems a bubble. bozza. Bailey. ing out. Ancren Riwle. — Bottom. a maggot. a bundle of straw or hay. On — Du. See Butt. scuohbuzere. knock. Gael. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. a lump of somebatschen. nets. round lump. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. in the sense of mend the fire. boccia. buazen. dial. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. mutter. bile. to bcBta. blister. i. blow. btitse. boiteag. And so we speak of an eruption. botch. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote.) . * To Bother. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . a bottle. to botch or patch. . to we have OHG. Bochu. to mend. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. Both. a cesspool pass. From the dim. especially in Gael. what pushes outwards. ON.ments of the same root. bundle. bossu. — Jidwi. baiothsj Sanscr. a waterfall. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. mess. a bubble. the lowest part. to knock. Pl.D. bund. Dan. G. — — A 2. as Fr. patch. It. boute. however. a plague-boil Kil. dabble). Fyre to botme. Leg. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. from the dashing of water. boil. Du. • Bott. abbi-diwij Slavon. ON. See Boss. they two. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. a knock. Stalder. a bump or swelling. bulder. A horses. to make better. gipuozan. Again. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. or plague sore . bozza. to strike . mess. fire-bote. turmoil. botus. a slop. any plain round viol glass bozzo. to mend (kettles. beggtaj Goth. an imperfect and bunbutt end. pozzanghera. noise.— Swift in R. any round ball or bowl to play withal. biissen. Mudu. whisper. ixorapudder. &c. to stir and mix together. pimple. poltern. boiteal. the other hand. abyss. — — belly-worm. stock. boitean. botsen. contusion . Hal. and ajSvamg. ubhau. Prov. — . bot. disturbance. stock. buideal. Judwi. podge. stroke. hurly-burly. botel foenn. AS. ledge It. schuhbosser. bouteille. a slop. Diez. empty or hollow. noise. Hal. bots. a cobbler. — Fl. ba. is boteau. AS. — duj Lett. Decorde. to stir and mix together . H^cart. bide. a cask. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. to dash about . thing soft batsch. Butu.— . bSn. stump. buddeln. Fl. ON. bulderen. N. butwo.

to fix limits.' B. Du. bunda. as a bout of fair or foul weather. till The dat et bunsede. — strike. boh. to make a loud noise. a round body both. Bough. to knock. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. in the absence of actual e. to knock at the door. — — leap. to bow. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. Primarily to strike. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. Bowlder. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . Bout. bons. nor horn sound. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. signifying in nautical coil of rope. language a * Boulder. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. bounbounejha. bamsen. to spring. Bunche. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. a blister. AS. like bobbin. Boulderstone.>a bout. bone. round. bun. E. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. Pm. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. nave of a wheel bothel. the smaller ones. Bought. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. The Bight of Benin. 2. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. whence buj7isen. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. to thunder. from AS. a large stone rounded by the action of water. to set bounds. a turn or time. a bud. or Bow-pot. signifies a sliort thick mass.D. contusi. Ducange. A Langued. boundina. Bound. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. Webster.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. baby. So It.'— Charter of K. bottom. To Boult. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. root (see Bottom). Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. gulf. dial. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. frequently used in the same sense with bound. march. — No i ausiratz parlar. To Bound." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. as a nosegay. as that of E.— Cot. in contrast to klappersten. Brem. see Boss. an de dor bunsen. the larger kind of pebbles. bonzen. bodina. mcn-bomi. geration. iv. bumper. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. and F. Fr. See To Bolt. bolder. volta. to spring. bugan. pimple Richards bothog. — Take care my house be handsome. . Raynouard. See Bunch. ni motz brugir.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. Bonny. the verb bondir in OFr. bonndn. The W. its kind. turn. from bugan. a button. . bondir. Alpine Re- — gions. a bound. limit. mere. boujtce. a blow. Fr.— — — - 88 BOUGH . to thundering big one hum. Mid. boss of a buckler. bullra. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. debodinare. carpet. Ni gacha cor bondir. bog. From Sw. To Bounce. bay. the bay of Benin. The branch of a tree. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream.' round and round in similar circles. a boss. a large pebble. bonna. botwm. a bouncing apple. buUersten. ing.. pothel. Bret. to hum. . thumping. and Prov. jump. to turn. bunsen. — — Bight. Pr. he fell so that it sounded. p. Sw. to resound. And the new stools set out. jungen. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. a boundary stone (men stone). bouton. the hollow of a bay. winding. an occasion. Fr. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . has hot. Q. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. I assure you. Nor a centinel whistle. bend. came home with his face all to-bounced. tnndo. Bodinare.— F. 136. by Bujns or Buns. Coxcomb. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. Wtb. of thread. Bough-pot. Dan. a stock. strapping. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. Probably from the Celtic root bon. from volgere.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. butina. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. knock it sounds again. 3.— Boundary. bugt. ni frestelar. to set out by metes and bounds. Halma. bend. dial. boriie.

G. buga. w. bontS. burdan. bending of a joint knie-bug. . cudgel. biugan. to drink deep. Du. Bounty. bogha. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. springbiirn. G. The foregoing derivation seems. their time -With "wailful tunes. buizen. bow to shoot with. brunna. to trick. to hum as a bee. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. Fr. saufen. bogna. the big end of a club. bovne. . bugan. taunt. a pot. — probably through this latter signification. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . bog. on. — — . buigen. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. A water. bausen. as was for. the burden of a song. a corToward the garden. bov. Dan. bunaiteach. AS. also the humming or ON. to tipple. Du. to pre2. bend. Chaucer in R. a. bordon. . must be referred to the same root. epaule du vaisseau. a prop. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. burreti. . to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. Gael. Prov. a jibe. Swiss bausen. burt. grumble Sw. Fr. a bow. Borden. the Bourdon. to bow or incline the . Sw. a mill-post. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. address. burdan. As the Gael. Burgeon. When used alone it . Bound. bdgi. Sp. limit. . Cot. drink deep.which see. bugna. purlBav. a humming noise Macleod. Du. cheat. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. bordone. burlare. buyse. a sing-song. a jibe Shaw bururus. identical with E. . So Sc. a go to. to — Hal. g. bending. pusta. language of folly or ridicule. ready. bonitas. fun of one . Lat. and that probably from a Celtic root. kroes. Burden. G. mockery. to tope. trick. a humming noise. bourdon. ruption of bonne. Gael. bend Sw. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. joke. gurgling. staff. brausen. jest. bonus. to mutter. Sw. whence buysen. a drone of a bagpipe. curvature. bourd. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. Comp. Dan. to banter or laugh at. G. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. bue. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. btiga. shoulder-blade. fresh* water. to bulge. patesten. way ba7n. to our bous. Dan. the ting of a bell. Bourdon. beogan. pot. the shoulder of the vessel. a cup kroesen. burd. pre. puff out. a — — . It is remarkable that we find vary. to tope W. warbling. explaining Sw. to draw a deep breath. ing. i. bugna. . a well. buzzing of bees. verb bua. to take breath. different modification gives ON. sausen. Gael. that ON. has also buirleadh. purra. pared. bugne. to indulge in his cups . bogr. a for New York. Bourd.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. Eown. schulter-bug. ridicule buirte. a drone or dor-bee. addressed to. It is the participle past buinn. Goth. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. to swell. sport. — — — A pare. it is probable that the It. is. Bow. beygja. hence musical accompaniment. a from Du. whether by sound or gesticulation. Bourdon. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. bourde in the same sense. deceit. It. or of an Gael. potio. borne. an arch. ^<7r«i?. lance. firm. to take one in. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. bending. bound. drone of a bagpipe. Cot. repartee. game. set out. bagna. to drink deep. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /.bass of a stringed instrument. burn.. bage. on the whole. Bret. are applied to the bow of a ship. analogous to Fr. a. the fixed. to take deep draughts. to bow. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. head Fr. bourdon. spring. bog. brummen. schenkelbug. tinton. A —Cot. ready to pike or spear . It is bov. in Fr. drunken. And there in mourning spend Sw. buzz. bwa. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. biegen. bommen. steady. to hum. Du. a brook. belly out. Sw. sense durd. pausen. and not in the sense of curvature in general. to draw a deep breath. crutch. Dan.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. souf. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. flagon. The meaning of bound. prepared for. Sc. Gael. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. bogen. Gael. hous^ Man in the Moon. Immediately from Fr. of the ON. bordo. from spring. when we speak of. spelling the word iox bound. bug. like quaff. Fr. buys. Spenser in R. good. sotich.

horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. boil. globular. . ON. bol. wisp of straw . then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. . belly. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. the skull or brainpan . boxtree. to make crooked . The / a bow. as in E. to puff up pullakka. bow. sausage. prominence. a bowl. a bud. bowl . utibur. boel. . fyn. Bohem. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. dial.. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. kupukka. bulla in aqua. In like manner the Pol. purse. kupula. bolla. a bubble. bouzellou. biiske. buchsbaum. in walking appears in a . Du. Gr. ^o«/«. water pulli. or. tumour. round bead. bwra. as well as the name of a. bol. . A Bulk. a little box . bossola. Lat.flask It. Fr. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects.. ^o/a. . Fr. bocka. Thus we have Esthon. . a box. a box. bowels. ON. a box. koziel. swell. bulcken. to bend down. . Bowl. to bow buck. blister. Sw. round glass phial.cup Du. Cable. belly. Du. G. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. bulka. beuz. buga. a box Lat. head of a cabbage. swoUei) Lat. box. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. Sw. bur. polla. globular body. to stoop. . hill. biichse. buello. bolla. of a wooden ball to play with and — . the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. boss. PLD. stream forth bugyogni. ken. boss. a separate apartment . make obeisance. .\s. passing on stud. a ball. a bundle. . bollen. boudin. gut. biisse. busse. bug. zich onder jemand under to him. See MHO. . similar shape. honse-bur. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . tumour .ige\y illustrated under Bulk. give in to. boxtree pusska. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. AS. pusspan. in both senses. G. bolgna. From the other form are G. kuppelo. Dan. lump . intrenchment. bogla. bog. the crop of a bird. Hal. OE. hollow wooden case. (in pass . peated in Magy. boucle. a knot. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. ne. kupu. bola. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. the box-tree. to puff up. and to a coachbox in particular.) to incline oneself . the head. a chamber swefnbur. bubble. bow. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. a sleeping-room . a bubble bolli. knob From the former modification we have bolla. fata-bur. mausbollelein. Bav. convexity. a hump on the back rossbollen. inclinare se (Kil. . bent. . bock. heafod bolla.). ttuJic. is applied to a coach-box. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. a round glass or bolg. anything globular. different position in ODu. Fr. A . See Crab. a bubble. Du. to bulge. with inversion of the round. . ku^o. acsian. a wardrobe . Boll. a boil.D. . the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. buk. bending. bog. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. pocket. buigen. guestchamber . a thing of liquid. hiidel. ask. to bubble up. a swelling or rising up. crooked. w. Sanscr. a bubble Fin. . bugyola. W. boor. the barrel of a gun. bouge. a iDubble. . folliculus . to buckle G. spherical Dan. bowel Box. E. bosso. compared with Fr. convex. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. a stud. . bur. bhugna. a buck. buis. See Boil. . to bend. . bhuj. spring as water bugya. a croft by a house. Hence. a drop of pullistaa. * Bowels. bulk compared with Sw. a sack. beutel. to stoop biickling. the bogna. Bower. bolne. an inclosure. signified by forms like Gael. W. the head. box in both senses. . The word may probably be identical with Fris. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. painter's easel. bubble. a pot. Sw. a hen-coop .). The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. without the and grits. Dan. &c. buckel. bulla. bwr. and on swollen. Bret. a. . cumena-bur. bulne. busskai. to yield to one. . budello. hollow place Fr. bucka. pullo. puffy. bugyani. biicken. the box-tree It. a black pudding. botulus. . a protuberance. a box.a. a parlour. a ball. to guggle. Bret. bugyni. bolle. OFr. bulb of an onion bolleyield. bulge. buckelig gehen. a ball . to raise the back boll OHG. Pol. trestle. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. a wine-can . iri'iaQ. globe or spherical body. Buckle. bukke. crown of a hat. an outhouse AS. bugna. then by the loss of the /. bugy. or in e. budel. buxus. Sp. a polla. It is more probably from the G. AS. ON. at the e. to swell. hollow. belly of a cask. as in AS. the box-tree and articles made of it G. bouellou.

Fr. La ville ou y avait Brace. want. taneous talking. brague. matter. It. . land batsken. a guard to torf. Pr. youth. cramp-iron holding things together . brassard. bitch Du. BOX To Box. To Brabble. Bracket. Fr. quarrel Bohem. Cot. brek. Bracelet. damaged board a ship. rakka. boy. The different meanings of the brageux. land spoilt Kil. braecke. Fr. rakki. boy bouba. suppuration. brageuses. mud. Brack. braca. strike. brack. brae. briche. Lett. defect Du. need. bruxula. baske. his eyes are failing him). breach. loud smack. Swab. breuque. Brach. bracil. bray. then from break. lalear-eyed Prov. a crack. Du. disturb. It. and then Pl. which has many representatives in the other Europe. to Swiss batschen. Ptg. mud. ' — A — — — . dirty. On the same principle from the buksteht. brae. Sp. root). brace on and Du. priated to the original sense. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. a boy pupa.nated by dirt. bragos.— D. Prov. flaw. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. refuse. race. and F. bracer. Sp. breptati. salo sive aqua marinS. baukscheht. A to halt between two derivations. braco. to give a blow with the fists. to want. AS. Hdcart. a grown youth Cimbr.. dog that hunts by scent. ratch. MHG. Lat. ing from a mixture of salt. a bog or pass Fr. rack. Kil. acidus. Swiss Rom.D. ON. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. fault. G. . Heligoneed. Boy. braquet. fault . parallel with OK. Kil. want. One girl. braic. brae. bube. merely in our mode of considering them. compressing. OFr. . A bracket is properly a scenting dog. — . in R. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. brakke Bracelet. brasselet. confining. unmarried man . putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. G.. Swiss bub. See Broker. is a rope holding G. — — . . wrack. by the same inversion of J and k. Sp. to be wanting. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. fuse. brechen. breach. dog in general. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. wnzC/J. brabbelen. pube. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. armour for the arm. . brek. posh. spaniel. bracco. Rouchi Then as an adj." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. foul. a braceOFr. from a root brak. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. Thus brack. boiste. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . boussole. to crack. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. salsus. which sigof straining. Water rendered boubo. &c. . — . defect. Du. Kil. bask. flap. to stutter. s. con. bracon. to is derived brestr. It. to smack the hand batschen. let. a bubbling dura del mun. Prov. It is B. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. To brace is to draw together. the first instancebya physical tie. Pl. ghebreck. brechen ihm. I sal slyng. in R. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. See Brake. to fall. break. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. brostia. or defect. as noticed under Box. . mud.. braque. bou^ba. bracket. corruptse.. bracke. brec. thwack. defect. murmur. To fight with the fists. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . brae. Brak-goed. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . pupus. filth . might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. A — — . wristband. and string of his bow. — . But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. the arm. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. bracha. 91 the Dan. or bracer Cot. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. . a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall.with a noise. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. moral or physical. a sounding blow. a pair of braces. babble. flaw. a girl. V. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. Prov. to slap. ON. Brackish. to stammer. A brace probis. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. to give a gebrechen. a comworld Rayn. bresta. to give a sounding blow defect. odorinsecus. — . Gael. OE. . an languages. Pm. In like manner the It. brakke grund.puddle. rakke. variation of babble. whelp as. buah. jabber. bouibo. Fr. Brack. — . want. a box. Prov. pus. isolated part of the text. braco.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. bue. brack. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. dog Sw.D. brago. OFr. by an overflow of sea water. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. to box the ears. to burst. beagle. s. clay.

braw. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. braicli. braske. . be noisy . valiant The head are sumptuous. braka. braga. the opposite of which. Cot. vaunting. Haldorsen Gael. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . . breach. dhbrailler. See Brace. to boast or brag. 92 Cot. riches. would be to brace. stately. noisy ostentation. torture . See Bray. brao. that will carry no coals. fine. used in the sense of force. . brave. — From W. Bray. brag.breeches. to cord a bale of tie up. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. to swagger. . gallant (in apparel) also proud. A — Hal. make a noise . handsome. binding anything together. beautiful. an iron for holding Zalli.. gallant. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. se parer de beaux habits. braegenj Du. affront. also tion of this was brayeul. braske. also insolenter se gerere . a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. bravado j Fr. spot. bragaireachd. Thus Bret. flaunt in fine clothes . in numerous dialects. To Brag. in the sense of the Lat. braszketi. brav. brake in the sense of constraining. breghe. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. subduing. Sp. bravo. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . Thus we are brought to the OE. Dan. to crack. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . fine. It is certain that the word for arm is.^ Sp. Wallachian bratsou. Lat. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. Cot. . To Brail. boast. a roisterer. Bret. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. boasting.hy which this idea is con\eyed. Chaucer. excellent. braga. &c. the arm. crash ON. breyne. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. bravacherie. blusterer. — Equivalent forms are Gael. bra!. Hecart. brabhdadh. Brail. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. stout. flaunting. bullying. brag. BRAG Piedm. gorgeous.%. is identical with Gael. expensive. well-dressed. strength.. to Rouchi brMer. braka. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. proud. to make a noise. Brain. to stand upon terms. brazo. about the hawk's fundament. swagger. . From brayel. hectoring. and that from e. The plant y^r«. brag or jet it braguard. breagh. The meanings of brake are very numerous. brabhdair.i5nz^. an inclosure for cattle . . and it is very likely that the root brak. 2. Faire le brave. Hence E. ative fellow. confining. To Braid. brake is. Cot. compressing. finery. bragging of his own valour. bushy . Fr. braguer. a carriage for breaking in horses . h-avare and Fr. Rom. called by our braggard. crack. brails. brave. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining.—— . fine. ^Brave. power. fine. brave. i. Fr.Shepherd's Cal. . vain glory. slight modificajoining the two legs. drawers. Brag was then used brisk. cry. braies. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. — . Turk bazu are used in both senses. bravache. Langued. to unbrace or let down the breeches. to shout.aburst. w. se pavaner. From Fr. Lith. to flaunt. Brake. gay. idle talk. brave. Dan. to rattle. or from braie itself. brave. Bret. to brail up a sail. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. bully . subigere.^Vocab. From sprouted corn. brae. to boast of his own worth. in order to prevent its catching the wind. bragd. swaggerer. to strut. vanter une chose. —Spenser in R. the feathers ON. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. to sprout malt. gayly dressed. as the type of exertion and strength. — Chaucer. braver. de Vaud. braggard also valiant. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . or by gaudy dress and show. Fris. bragging. is Cot. be found. also derived Fr. Sc. Brake. Primarily to crack. It. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . showy bravery. brayete.explosion. The meanings included under — Bragget. goods. smart. — A — . gay. bragio. AS. Walloon bress. courageous. braga. breghen. crash. se donner trop de licence. empty pride. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). splendid. brachittm. a noisy talkboasting. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. was formed brayele.

braeken. nemus. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. broillet. Voc. is formed murd. It. braca. subigere. murtaa. word. to rub. Fr. brage. brolium. to pound. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. ing of flax or hemp. To the same bend a bow. frangere linum. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . marsh or swamp. P&. brook. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. Dan. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. fratto. brook. cetur. a fen. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. brage. 2. broor bushy place Hal. to fracture. In the sense of a thicket. bruch. to row. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. gebroge. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. glebas subigere. iSpsx". thing is brought under control. Fr. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. brake. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). In ON. low wet land bruch. Swiss Rom. brog. broilium. a marsh. to The ON. In the case of the ne. braken. Gr. properly braking or subduing them. copse-wood. to head must be bit. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. to stiffen against Taboada). broyer. BRAKE to external force. to bend a bow. brook. brog or brake. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl.D. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. quarry from Fin. Corrfeze bredgea. marsh. Sp. to distinct. referred brake. brushwood. e. and Lat. — — . is braukti. flachs brechen. to brush. —Ovid. to exert force in different ways. —Bracken. gebrUche. for — Due. breuil. Pl. broken fratta. break flax PLD. in northern climates. farinam in mortario subigere. a thicket. We — . sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. — Fl. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. and when once thrown down. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. The Fr. bregar brake. Prov. Dan. have thus Du. brake. to bend or direct a cannon. gebroge. to subdue. conSo in G. ^raca. bregar. G. as in the case of horse-breaking. de Vaud. Fr. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. briser. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. OFr. 3. Brake. thicket. Brake. .— . The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. cover G. It. gebiisch. watered. gilum. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. pasture. braka. it is not surprising that the word has here. brambles. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. bregille. and G. as in Du. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. gebroge. braquer un canon. to break.' It. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. a stream. Dan. dial. to break or fracture. or overthrow of trees by the wind. the original meaning of G. a brace on board a ship. briers. Biglotton. a harrow. brego. a spinning-wheel. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. been confounded with the verb break. to harrow (Lat. tris). tnurdma. broeck. break of such a kind. game. to break. to bray in a mortar. broil. braecken het vlasch. brambles. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. as well as in the case of the e. breaking in the operation. riguus. might come to signify a swamp. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. It may be sus- . a horse's a horse's twitch. or a wood in a marshy place . brak is a frame in which strip. any thicket of brakes. bush. Gael. in usus braca. t° moisten. murrokko. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. el arco. Lat. bushes. as in Sp. In like manner Lat. bredza. brcekke. signifying to sweep.D. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. brogille.. brog above mentioned. or A A ' . casser le \va. where from Esthon. gebrUche. brega. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. a swampy Mid. bush. to knead or mix up in a mortar.bracan. the lever by which the string was drawn up. murran.

So Swiss gaggi. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. brenda. . pfropf. a shrub from Bret. gebriiche. snotty . &c. wood composed of twigs. Bret.). 2. in the same sense. from Servian pnit. sawdust. a halter. briars. Broom. Bret. or other plants of a like nature. bran. broussaille. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. bran. Bran. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. brake. ground full of briers." The bmno a • on . Fr. titio. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. sweet broom. . Diez. braam. . The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. heath ON. compress. bromboli. Serv. a dunghill. It will be found that shrubs. cabbage sprouts Fl. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. Thus we have w. braeme. virgultum. Port. i. . a heath. . is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. that is to say. excrement. —Ducange. to bridle. Bav. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. bruk. a bud It. gebroge. from virga. — branca. — . Pl. a thick bush. G. broom. Thornas and bremelas. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. Bramble. clutch. brano. as AS. pfriem in the sense of an awl. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. chaff. bren. branchia. the branch of a tree. a shoot or twig. piecemeal brindelles. and E. brandiiialil. bruk. A mark made by burning. a bud. brenn. a small deri\'ation . broccoli. brouskoad. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. The naof strain. heath (Bret. from brug. bracken or fern . is the draff or excrement of the com. Gael. Thus in Lat. bushes. or with It. It. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. Fr. brand. breun. a single plant of heath. what is cast out as worthless. . Grisons bruch. brenn hesken. to brank. brem. Russ. or ling. branche. brass. The same form becomes in It. heath. bruk. brughera. a shoot. brwnt. brok. Sir Topaz. from brand. as. the bull-finch. brosst. Pl. bren. brandello. Then by comparison with claws or arms. brin. young twig {brom-beisser. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. 1 8. Branch. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. dirt . hallier. it glitters — — . &c. bretnel. to burn. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. Bret. brejo. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . w. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. brog. a briery plot. and waste growths.D. Bret. brugek. brushwood. brank. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. cack. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. brein. sprouts. bramble Du. . heath. bruch. iii. bruskoad. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. to gripe. .D. prufye. broembel-CBppel. from gaggi. broust. may be so called in analogy with Bret. a roA. nasty. young buisson fort epais. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. G.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. a bud.. brom. branco. brank. berneux. ear-wax mud. apiece orbitbrandone. bruch. burning brennen. pected that brake. a rod or twig. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. It. Brank. brin d. In like hrst. the thorn apple or stramonium. brandmurk. and thence a shoot. brenna. Gael. a vine twig Bav.G. ordure . a firebrand. a burning fragment of wood. a shrub . and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . pfriemen. breme j Sw. breanan. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. Dan. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . Fr. Brancare. Rouchi bren d'orMe. . brug). Fr. w. in the sense oi fern. brug. thorns and Gen. broem. brin (as It brano). bro7n. heath. G. brang. to or iron. See Brush. That beareth the red hepe. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. Brand. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. brancas. from Lat. As ON. AS. bronbo. also pfriemkraut. a bridle or bit . restrain. brandr. heath. bit by bit. to -brugen. But we find It. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. E. thicket of brambles Cot. constrain. Piedm. stink . the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. brarn. also a marshy low ground or fen . sedge burkni. broom. G. brous. brambles. piece of anything.

braza. to totter. to rustle. firebrand. incendium. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. perplex. Port. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. — . fire-wood. faire fracas.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. brandiller. a pan of hot coals. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. to burn. a brusler. Brase. AS. brasil. as Fr. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. so. bruciare. a roaring fire. morsel. Braser. put. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. bruzi. Sw. the colour than hitherto known. Jam. to sound of the Fr. E. hoisting to the fall. to crackle . Fr. to brandle. set on fire. braise. became ashes Pied. It. Guill. to distil . Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. G. N. branla. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. brin. to hurl with great force. In the same way the set on fire . totter. Lye. to shake. brandolare is exbrandish. De Goes. Brasil. Thus the bound up again. splinter. bresil. brennen. billet. forms brasil. ist. brascct. brandigh. Fr. to make display . prasseln. brazil. brasa. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. It. from used in dyeing cloths. and bruir. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. comes from thence. — ting to confusion. urens. With top trimbling. Hume in brand in ON. brangle or brawl in E. brandiller. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. to quarrel. to burn. to make sense of a bright red dye.well. to shake The word brisil. distilled wine. to and fro in the hand. bransle. The corresponding form in Gael. to solder iron. to shake. embraser. weinbrenner. Diez. to shog. stake. aqua ardens. E. a stick. a fragment.^Brandle. brand. to dash. to burn. to blaze. to make shine with shaking. to murmur. So. all. bracea. Sw. to Bailey. Fr. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. du Roi et laine. to brustle. to roar. brandende wijn. De Barros considers vinum ardens. given to the country. make an outcry. braser. n. brastlian. to brandle or The It. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. brouir. conbillet. hot Fr. Fr. crackle. as again by well as the blade of a sword. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. The tre brangillis. not. or in stick. bragale\ wood. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. plained by Florio. shake. Kil. braise or hot coals. Du. to brangle. Formerly brandy-wine. noise. eldibrandr. bruire. bryne. To brand. bum. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. bra?ier. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . to glisten or flash. branler. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. apparently very distinct from each other. was in use Fr. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. To brase AS. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. brustle. Fr. e. Manx bransey. Chron. Milan. brasca. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. Bret. live coals. brane-wood. The name Brandy. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. Brangle. to French brawl or brangle. brausen. and scold. in Marsh. to braze or lute. WaUon. brasca. crackle. a To Brandish. a round dance. to confuse. bragia. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. glowing embers . to bicker 2nd. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. d'Angl. Bailey. Gris. flagrans. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. branler. briiler. ish.. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. bransella. 59. then brandr. as Jamieson explains it. — . also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. V. the spelling to kindle. bruan. and branchis shaiand D. G. Chron. It. make a — . brus^. — . brasa. Ija. brazeiro. bracia. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du.pan of coals. spirit distilled from wine. Fl. is bntan. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. from to vociferate. before the discovery of America in the brandir. gebrannter wein. brush. firewood. braise. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler.

to copper. A. a. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. Brave. braede. brazen. a loud noise. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. to tear piecemeal. slibro. The muscular part of the body. a parapet. from branler. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. a slabbering-bib. baltresca. berd.— Braid. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. bras. in the first instance of boards. neita girl). whether contracted from brabble. Many gambes. Du. brat. fraiche. from Fr. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. ni autres choses sur Due. So also See Brag. to carbonado. breteque. Fris. — Deutsch.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. as a brawling brook. Paris. squall. as scrawl from scrabble. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. calf of the leg. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall.— Fl. a rag . bretays). frame of laths. discord.— Remade. Circumeunt cibertesca. bratidone. It. boutures. Brattice. bronze. noise.' Hal. Sup. as lattice. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. OFr. It. bred. braser Fargent. bartisan. ' A vraale. deblaterare. bransle. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. 1156. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. burning coals. Gael. cob. Cot. bronzare. rag. bralle. strepitus 2. especially that used in the working of iron . bmhon for brado7i. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. Fr. a clout. to Gael. Florio. a patch of cloth. Pisana in Mur.D. equivalent to the Du. braiio. cloth. Pm.D. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. esbraotier. Fr. at brasa. a rag. Brass. See Bray. —^Bronze. a battle-girdle. solder.propugnaculum. Cot. a plank or board. saillies. It . slut. braion.walle — Pr. Brawl. to talk at bralle op. Cologne broden. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . to cry. coassatio. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis.brettysing. contignatio. Certainly a little girl. Wall. a rag . as rashers upon quick burning coals. frequentative of braire. to shake. slakker-bortchen. The verb is probably derived from the brase. braoilich. brett. bratdn). 2. a contempt- banner. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. buttock Sc. apron. from Sc. a fortification. flesh of a leg of pork. Mundart. a lath. pan- — Rayn. the buttocks.' BRASS BRAY et AS. or whether it be from Fr. a contemptuous name for a young child. I. Bartizan. Lorraine bravon. bronzacchiare. a — A from the confused noise. AS.— Diez. slibro {neita. A land of dance. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). OFr. any piece. Sc. bretesque. Brangle. See Brandish. a wooden tower. &c. breyon de kinds of . Math. bran. bartising. tasce. brat. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. roar. ^Altieri. OHG. then a parapet.^ — Sverris Saga. a mantle. bradlete. Hist. to braze. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. luncheon. bruir. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. as criailler of crier. brat. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. le repasser un peu sur la braise. — . ship. Jam. —-Jam. the calf of the leg. Betrax of a —^Jam. braeye. The same correspondence is seen between It. calf of the leg. brandillo. borderinge. bribe de viande. brdto (ace. bas morceau de viande brawhng. G. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. to solder. trul. Brawn. Bailey. bratach. brces. and bronzo. a Lap. pil. brass. a cloak. is The word — uous name for a woman. bratid calf of the leg. bradon. branle. Swiss bradle. KiL Prov. a lump of flesh. muscular parts of the body. Westphal. A. brettys. 1224. P1. breyon d'chaur.D. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. a lump. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. Dan. braon. ferruminare. For the application to a^child compare Bret. A dispute or squabble. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. 368. ON. Sp. lat'te. Brat. braodhlach. breyon. W. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. bretesche. brailler.96 Roquefort. or on the top of a wall. Fr. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. boarding being sbranare. to scold . . a lump of flesh. Kil.

to break. V. which has given much trouble to commentators. the sword was out break. yell. Bret. to have the lineaments of one's ON. AS. plait. to work up in a mortar. to sound very loud and very harshly. to braid the hair. to pretend. to cry out. to roar as the sea. D. explaining a very obscure application of the E.' To Bray. to bray like an ass. vapna-brak. fractus j Gr. braa. as OE. instantane. the miller's dog. in Jam. paste or dough.ear rog.g. D. brak. to rumble. Fr. appearance Hal. to break Fr. and make a hideous noise. on. a rent. fish. Fin. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. Wal. noise . V. upbraid. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. And with a traid I tumyt me about. R. k. make a disturbance. Cot. to tear Bret.y. bradar. &c. G. at braga eftir euium. to roar. The same He might don us both a villany. D. braidir. . to break. iU-favouredly — in Jam. to start. Fr. disturbance. I'll live and die a maid. father. Chaucer. a rag f . to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. as the voice of the ass. to bawl. rogi. or cry out loudly . breach. Goth. 145. braidar. a mill. brugier. Prov. cyprinus latus.ch. bragr. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. bregda. crash. The Lat. fragor. Gr. roar. to braid acquires the sense of bend. resound . and to signify the fracture itself. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. F. G. rustle. a . — — — explained motus loud noise. gestus. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. imitate or resemble one. brice. kind. to cry out. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. Then. brechen. to crash. rangere. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. weave The ON. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. father. relation is seen between Lat. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. Bread. to snatch. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. bregar. Bailey. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. to rub Fr. bruzir. roar. verb to break. augnabragd. Then is simply. riAprjyvvfu. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. W. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. bru. broad. to break. a wink. breuan. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. Lat. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. . turn. braid. with or without a final d. to bray in a mortar.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. V. 7 . the clash of ai-ms Dan. brikan. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. Bread. to N. Cat. as the notion of turning crack.. brand. Beryn. ^p&xia. E.^ Fr. rattle. to resemble. From the or brack in a wall. crepo and E. broyer. bray. Chaucer. to scold. bratsche. To Break. to the seijauntes. breche. brak. to braid. ybrayid. yell. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. 2. starts crackling up. And at a braid he gun it bende. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. a brack.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. crash. to cry Port. mos. — koa. Du. twist. to roar or bellow. to smack or the eye. brot. at once. ser. regi. e. will. is . Prov. bragd is also applied nets. and frangere. bruire. &c. crackle . See Brake. a brake for hemp or flax. Q. &c. to rush. to The cup was uncoverid. braa. abraid. paxog. ON. to knead. baiyl. Dunbar braessem. i. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. R. to braid. a breach Cot. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. braea. or wound. The ON. to resemble him. bragd — ON. . to resemble. ing. brame. brage.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. to crash. Breach.fracas. a crash. the sound — of arms. at a braid. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. Swiss bratschig. soft . — . to bellow. To rub or grind down Sp. OE. ON. braire. bregar. &c. and fracasously. to t. Ppvxia.

peitschen. G. brimsa. brasser. bryi^ga. chillness or shivering. break. met de bridse slaan. brissle. fastening . Breeze. to resound. to buzz. a horse's twitch. Fr. de bridse geveii./ssus. bresilles. a smack. Dan. grillare. to murmur. Breeze. G. the breech or buttocks. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. Bret. breost. to brew. Goth. G^nev. Dtyden. brosame. G. Fr. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. braciarc. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. — Halma. are related to Prov. to whip.). instead of being derived from 'La. — Brist. from AS. Isidore and Tatian. but more probably the E. brodel. to hum. sprouted corn. Du. G. a crum Du. Piedm. brusc. to break. fail. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. dial. . Gael. polenta. Biglotton. to fry Then from a Gl. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. — . E. broden. with It. bris. Bret. brok. grill. QNtsterviald) pritschen. burst. sheep's droppings bruss. .98 borst. rubbish. bandage or truss for a rupture. and other rubbish dibris. from brace. braies. — And blood. Swiss brdtsch. Fr. brise. Hume in Jam. Originally probably the word signified steam. Breeze. properly to crackle. Du. malt. trembling. brisciare. Piedm. So ON. einem de britze geven. broil. — . siibligar. Fris. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. brimme. bris. PI. . braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. brezza. so AS. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . brustia. corresponding to G. britze. bruzun.t. i5r(Z^. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. the soler. body brostia. Swiss Rom. windy withal. or the blow itself. Hence the Lat. brison. breme. w. to feize or feaze. braca. singing bone. in Schilter. to shiver for cold. broiiwen. an into shiver. the dry spines of furze broken off. as commonly explained. to crush to break. simmer. morsel. to simmer. braguier. braga. of straining.britschen. To Brew. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. bris de charbon. bruise. —Briss. vapour. also to chill and shiver with cold. brisoler. brijsen. bra. brire. chilly. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. a gadfly. de Vaud. briig. an odour. clout for a child. trusts. then to broil. a girdle. Du. the bust. brisd. their stings draw .'— Gl. Rom. griller. as in the case of twitter. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. xyligogio castigare. bruc. drawers. from ligare. The Teutonic verbs. It. Lat. brcekur j It. &c. We bragezj on. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. Prov. briosat'. breath. briiz. breson. forms analogous to E. coaldust. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. brcEth. brciz. braucn. a cold and windy mist or frost . Breast. bark Fr. broza. braich. a crum. braie. to breech. brossi!. of E. simmering. Compare OE. scent. orts. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. AS. braga. noise. braca. murmur. bre- I'os qui bresole. brezzare. bremse. one on the breech so that (klatschet). The Breech (Prov. fitzen. and brought beneath between the legs. bracecs . Prov. a twitch for a horse. to burst. as the G. briste.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. as. binding. briosa. to bray. malt. Gl. Breeches. to crackle. representing the sound of a blow. brodem. subligaculum.D. breeze. brijselen. to bind. to fry . applied to shivering. Swiss AS. — — strument for smacking. . A fierce loud buzzing breeze. See Brick. a box. /esses. bruzir. zare. brut. brasiuiii. crush. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. grillen. a to lay fly-flap. — See Broth. Gl. a cool wind. braux. to roast. bragues. Russ. brugga. brumtnen. Du. a cramp-iron for holding things together. as by the Sc. Sw. Bracha. Briss and buttons. brist. brinisa. and E. Lat. are in like manner ' . Dev. Bruise. OFr. murmur—Vocab. to rattle (as hail). cloven.vare. G. brezling. brdtschen. point to G. remains of leaves. braia J OFr. brew. may be from the wurh fesser. b}-as. to smack. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. little bits of wood Berri briser. Gael. AS. bretilles. breinse. bratscher. . rubbish. braies. switch. as. brasiare. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. to brew. brache. briosa. Breath. . Brize. to be misty and cold. E. forms. of trees. bridsen.

fastningar-ol. bridelj OHG. a lump of bread briber. the newly. a briole. It — is Kil. to stamp. to circulate. served (Patois de Bray). At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. Lang. a lump of bread. bread. bitill. In E. betonica. AS. a brig or priodor. Bridal. a Bride. pier.privatus. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . berwi. of burial. birbone. bulicame. any jot or crum. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall.rough with brambles and bushes. bride. . bruarium. pavement. . from Bret. braut. W.pritil . G^n^v. brutg.Fr. bro. to boil. which however is undoubtedly from brace. Brigade. brar. a quoit of stone. a cheat. A bribe is A — — arval. a rogue. graf-ol. to press in. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. E. funeral. as so. BRIGADE dead. a heath. privus. peculiar.gfiugga. — — — — — — . Brier. Trovarfor bride-ale. brigata. Fr. E. Rouchi brife. appropriate. crew. AS. Ihre. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. one's ovin. brocaly. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. . a crum. beaten way Dan. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. then the marriage itself. Ducange. Diefenbach com. jetty. berwedd. Cot. In the patois of briccia. Bridal. Brique. It. daughheath. bricou. to press. hlafes brice. to pave. In the G. Diez.bergantino. brittil. Priodi. whence berw. a little king's writs. is still used in this sense. briw. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. and that from It. Brewis. to brew. broken bread. groom (mab=:son). See Broth. brilt. Walach. If the foregoing were not so clear. It. to tlie brico. married. as. malt. Gael. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. a married man or woman Lat. to Isrew. a bit. ' . a rogue . conjux. briicke. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . bro is applied not only to a bridge. bride. brahi. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. jipaaaiii. boiling up brocoliere. birbante. feast. Lat. heath. . pavement Lith. pavement brolegge. fervere. breve or brevis. brigade. a fragment. brygga. gf2o. bryd-eale. Brick. to beg one's bread. brasser. OSw. Gl. nurus G. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. betony brulicame. Dan. ' — . bridge. brique de pain. grug. . the Fr. consort with. a proprietor. ter-in-law. So in The Prov. brug. a lump of bread. masted vessel. with transposition of the r. bruyere. ap. arf-ol. corresponding or letter. to appropriate. bably contracted from brigantine. company. son. bricge j G. to pave brukkti. twopares Lat. brughiera. and ODu. in the sense of OSw. Mid. Brief. a bush. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. Fl. brere. a man. bidsel. Goth. . bribour. from the last 99 of which. from the Normans. piece of burnt clay. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. bruskr and buskr.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. AS. a bride. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. the marriage si in brigata. a sow. a boiling. Gael. to break. or brizo. bruith. to boil. E. division of an army. barren land priodas. Hdcart. Bribe. stone-bridge bnikkoti. to boil. broken. priod. collect bits of food. Bridle. remarkable that the Gr. Due. Du. Sp. but probably Bricoteau. Flor. sugga. OHG. Neumann. to rub. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. AS. So It. to break to pieces bricalio. Pro(merch=:maid). a beggar. Fr. fragment. . Thom. from Bridegroom. The Sw. bara briw. brukkas. to prepare. the equivalent of to the dial. a married man guma.It. Bridge. feast of espousals. . two-masted vessel. briwo. lipdZu}. buckler J ON. bribe de pain. bruk. fit. imprint. fraoch. broosekens. — . owned also propriate. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat.groom. brice. briiths. buskins. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. guma. sponsa. Grisons bruch. malt. bruk. from bit. w. but to a paved road. bro. troop. frayer. brood. brigantine. especially to a letter or command. and berweddu. Pol. a fragment. bretonica. AS. thick appropriated. — . brieden. a bride Brig. brA. The origin of the word is the w. ment of anything broken. Fr. ON. a crum. a heath brughera. httle bit. . bryd-gutna. has briguer. brakes of high-grown ferns. a wedding priod-fab.. to meet together. priod-ferch. bygga. broken victuals. brau. ibrukkti. E. Applied ous words derived from break. AS. A — A — . Hence OE. bo. it is applied to the letter to OE.

riis ' — Chron. tion. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. briga. and hence be explained glampi. bright bearhtm. at a later period. squamma . corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . hell. to reservavit. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. praht. In Fin. From ON. A strepere. clare lucens. labour. rover either by sea or land. and the E. sound. — Probably then to strive.glampa. Du. and secondly. to strive for. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. kii:'a. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. Brigata. — Brigantine.Lat. Heo — song That AS. bryhtm. Owl and beorhtian. brigare. to make a loud noise. — brigante. outcry. to rove.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. and. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. tinnitus. — A A . a sound. — — . far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. also called briganders. necessary business. clang. a brigantine. seems to be to exert force gar el area. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers.' The sense of strife or combat express. Adelung. bragen. and ner me hit iherde. show the origin of Lat. Gall. a spark. The Ir. . bairhts.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. braid. to contend with another. a glittering. dine. may play the pirate or thief at sea. clear. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. They or brigantini. noise. splendour. speech. splendens .' The passage from the sense of a light.' torum. clarus. splcnornd de brigandine.— . clear. Due. lay was sung. strife. 312. on his — own account. malandrini. the grew high. Wilista. brigan. brigandare. 1351. beorht. transparent. glir. — Beowulf. brcEhtin. to cry 'Schmid OE. schateren. and diligence. It. jurgia. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . inde squammatus. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. brebrigare. Swab. bray. Brilliant. 1654.D. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. splendour. \oice. — brigante.clare ^tinniens. bregar. the bench-notes resounded. representing a sudden noise. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. in the first instance. — Briganbriga. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. cange has 'Veles. brak. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. tumult. the gleeman's song. Goth. briga. and led it away. A. The primary meaning of Sp. to bend a bow It. to shine. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. to glitter. a noise. clear. twinkling. willata. pugna. rixa. to glamr. Beorktode bene sweg. in the sense of a robber. shriek with laughter. etincelle. and. schiteren. briegen. himself to serve men of merit. Lat. in later times a robber or highway-man. — Due.' in Due. clear sound. . to piracy. Mid. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. Brigand. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something.shine. So G. brigare. manifest ON. Florio. The E. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. glbram. brawl.pracht. and to associate with them. combat. It. OHG. secondarily. AS. biartr. loo BRIGAND lor. glamra. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. Bav. that of Fr. clangour. from hall. a pirate. Xa/iTTii). XafXTTpoQ. —Capgrave. Flor. to shift for with care. It. tuilahtaa. glitter. wilella. a small light pinnace pro. In the same way to strive is. See Brake. to ring. to rob. Bright. Gr. It. then. there are many armour. Schmeller. brigant. to resound. with respect either to sound or colour. is easily understood. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. tinkle. to shine. dine.dorem clarum reflecto. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . moment. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. glamm. to sound. kilistua. brdgen. tinnitum clarum movco. to cry. bracht.

Langtoft. komottaa. shine. the eye-brow. to . fire. to glitter. E. AS. bresoler (Gloss. to shine. FJ. ous. ling noise and a sparkling light. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). cross-barred in colour. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. originally the lap folding over the breast. brennistein. Dan. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. small gravel. brunft. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. vattubryn. brillare. whence bilbil-goda (literally. a streak. brisoler. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. ardere desiderio. The meaning of the Fr. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. 154. brezil. Dief. that the original meaning of the Sc. Swiss Rom. to shimmer. leonum). and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. griller. spraing. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. crackle . to shine. earnestly . for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. to burn. A . Said of swine when in heat.). breziller. Rugere. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. barm-cloth or barmskin. rut. brame. Fr. fierce. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. (poet. pMiller. kimmaltaa. as well as bl and gl. briller. Kil. Fl. brama. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. a stick. as is the case also with Pl. edge Pol. to crackle. to roar. border. bramer. the edge. The identity of ON. brmdottr. To Brim. In the same way Sw. bramar. Hence with an initial s. reecho. Du. a borDu. grisler. bry7ie. — Rim. G. AS. gresiller. to make a crackling noise. ON.— BRIM . brinfire. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. broiled. sonitum edere bremen. border. Sc. to long for a thing. of the eye. to twinkle. . brand-krossottr. as of meat in broiling . bremmen. kiimottaa. fringe (Lat. bar. is used of raging. dial.ioTiviS acutus. to utter cries. coloured in stripes. 754. noise made by meat in broiling.) brimi. identical with passion. brissle. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. and corresponding to these. The expression is now confined to the sow. border. on. rugire (cervorum. 1 1 64. glit. excited. grdzil. to crackle. to make bilbil). Sw. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. brame. — . In Fr. fringe . The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v.' Elyot in Way. Tresiller.— Brinded. whether of desire or anger. sprainged. broil . properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. griller). crackle. clangor tinniens. to sparkle. the meaning is transL' amour. lap of a garment . margin. brandr and Fr. brummen : de soge brummet. kimina. to glitter distance . Brim. . In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. lip of a vessel. 1. striped or streaked. ON. brimmen. a rod. a long. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. kajata. vigorHal. ON. Prov. Brindled. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. s. bryn. griller d'impatience.its vent in cries and roaring. rym^. brommen. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. glisten. to wish or covet. briller. gresiller. Rayn.preni. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. os qui bresole. . also to reflect. grisser. sparkle. breziller. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. fimbria) . Streaked. brummen. rugire. burning. to sound deep or hollow. Tutschek. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. brant. bramire. bremas. greDiet. post. Thus Lat. brullo. : ' — bone). the heat of animals. from brandr. s. — — So Fr. briller (related to each other as OFr. brim. Closely connected is OE. to creak. brow of a hill. to glitter .D. beam. The E. a border. Supp. bremmen. the sow is brimming. brastlian. to quaver with the voice. furious. Sc. the heat of animals. It. bray as an ass bramire.' d'etre marie . an apron. lap. to resound. chime). to roar. and 1. burning stone. the singing of Sodom — — . It. der. tience. frequently interchange. kommata. bramar. the lap or bosom. grullo. barm. perent. brdnnsten. ring. to fret . ter. to creak. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. voux. Wtb. hence the bosom. as in Langued. finds the Fr. surface of the ocean. parched. Brimstone. to shake. brim Magy. komista. the verbs Flor. kimista. with an initial br instead of gr. or violent action. Subo. greedily to covet Cot. to parch. barmr. breme. — — — . breme. from bringe. It. to shine. Lith. to broil. — g. to storm. have then in Fr. Brem. which seems identical with rim. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. brumft.

and hence. lively. a fragment.). the twigs of a besom. Hence ribrezzare. bruched (Fr. Sp. brindelles de balai. Breeze been connected with the Sc.. prick with Sw. bruskett. to broach a business. to thrust. brocchus. . brust. braidsj ON. — A . a belly. Fr. . Du. britar. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. whence may be explained the Sc.procio. brcit. stitch. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. Gr. brezza. breidr. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. . Salte sand is called brimsand. aculeus. bristly . briser. — bryme. Fris. like the Broad. to goad. as. humorous. the surf. brockle. It. broccare. bros. . Bristle. It. brittle. Abroacli. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. Alfr. spricka. Dan. brocciare. to put one in a rage . a shoot or sprig. i. a bud. brog. bresk. Sc. Fr. to crack. Boh. a spit. Brisk. sprout. ' breast. quick. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. borzen. brytan. Brittle. bros. are used in the sense of brittle.g. to shoot. Prov.' Nat. birs.). It. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. rash. broche. a cold and windy mist or frost. craw of a bird. Brine. brissle. as. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. broca. byrst. ' . brittle. briocho. to spit. expression. brioshko. fierce. bronchus. brusque. Lat. as unripe fruits. of E. to bud. Then as the effect of shivering. ruffling. G. bruckle. birssy. brime. from AS. brezzare. sticking up . strong itself. Brocade. See Spread. Bret. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. flames. b. bryde. startling. is called a birssy day. brandello. to shiver for Sold or for fear. Prov. and. Du. thick — A elastic hair. brusk. p. as.D. Bret. a bud. brimhliod. a peg sbrocco. and Sc. Bohem. a projecting tooth It. to break. a brooch. Commonly explained as from Fr. eager. brichet. a button broche. man's throat. Russ. brusco. sprouts. . very salt brimi. Fr. Sc. — in Due. e. brickie. from brande. the surf. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. Compare also E. brisciare. to birstle. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. broccata. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. ON. a morsel. a rod or twig. and forms on. grim. Zeuss. form bris. suddenly angry. angry. brissko). bricho (with the diminutives. broca. brisk in taste. to break. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. Pectusculum. rebursiis. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. to begin upon it. chest. Brisket. to stitch. to stab Gael. . brocco. to set it a going. brot. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. or — . to turn up the point of anything. NE. rebrousser. bringe. The Pl. Hal. See To Brim. a deluge. borzos (struppig). of astonishment. Sw. brin. to spur. reburrus. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. Prov. Gl. to roar. sour. Mid. spur. fragile. setting the hair on end. shoot. bringe traced through the brano. a rebours. against the grain . an awl. a skewer. — . briota. brodden. or the full • . sharp. broc. Fr. Liquamen vel garum. to burn. is to erect the hair. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. the brisket or . brich. a bit . brim. brim.rcendij'i. breaking out into growth. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. breaking of the waves brim sior. borst. brddj Goth. smart taste. harsh vin brusque. rude. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. a stitch brocher. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. sprocco. flame. Cot. metaphorically. /3pE^m. Ptg. borstel. Walach. briota. Russ. a brad or tack. wine of a sharp. Da. fantas'* tical. to break. to stick. Fr. Brym. birse. to broil. brocar. In the N. bringue. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. brimme. a clasp. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). birsle. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. coli. crabbed. Berri. apt to break. 'V^. roar of the sea saltr. ribrezzoso. 222. britar. Palsgr. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. Antiq. hot-tempered. emotions which produce it. has under It. Swiss to stand out . britchet. cK) the . or from that of a splinter or small fragment. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It.. as a noun. a stormy brimsea .'— Vita'abbatum S. Formerly written brotil. to spur. from break. a morsel . Port. bryne. brocco. a crum. trembling. Fr. brocher. birstle. to set up one's birse. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. See Brand. It. brim (poet. — — .Lat. fiscbryne. brijn (Kil. Brooch. saulmeure. brote. breast. Brickie. to scorch. setting the hair on end compare It. a slip or sprig of an herb .

birsle. border ornamented with silk. Ptg. of pointing out their latent defects. or salted fish on coals. or glowing coals broged.— B. the shoot of corn. — Gower in It. E. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. ciare. a badger. hart of two years old. freckled. to broil. a point. precisely analogous to the Sc. broccuto. . From direct imitation of Brock. or roast on the braise. noisy. bmsciare. a freckle. tufted ornaments. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. R. and AS. brasiller. sting. v. to crackle. a brecJi. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. kled breac. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). brucach. speckled. a fallingThe sense has been out. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. shuffle. to parch or broil. brindled. To roast upon hot coals. Sc. a confused streaked face of the animal. Hal. noise. whence broccare. Compare G. It of br the Fr. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. broder. A badger. brasbrasciuolare. bordo. Fr. to spur. a border. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . Sp. Compare also AS. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. broiled. brod. a mole. brychau. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. stump. to streaked or speckled in the face. storms. brusuole. bramowanie. streaked. to embroider. frecSee Brawl. thread. It. — The proper sense is that of Fr. broc. Brocket. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. So from Pol. broccato was used to signify stuff . brocart. an edge. a freckle. the line of development has been something different. spots. parched. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. a To Broil. bruler. broighlich. brusler. frocadura. to knots or loops. braird. — — . and bord or bred. to stud broccoso. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. Fr. brouda. It. AS. brustle.sound. q. has grisser. broice. a b?-ustolare. brasuole. a brim. to crackle. Broker. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. bordar. Sc. point to an origin in Bret. briefh. B. parti-coloured. border. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. or It. borprick. age was termed a pricket. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. to crackle. brocco. to embroider. embroidering. — brissle. The Bret. brasiller. to prick. — Fl. a border ornamented with gold. brouFr. creak. grislement. Grisons brascla. initial . a peg. to scorch. Contracted from Fr. — . sparks E. a brouhaha. rustle. A fried or boiled steaks). brerd. Bret. with Sc. tumult broighleach. and w. gresiller. Thus brod. brizen. to On the other hand the Sp. brych. blusters. trouble. a quarrel. to crackle as a shell in the fire. brastlian. brooked. W. breard. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. Dan. speckled. forming to jumble. broukit. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. a flock or Gael.tumultuous. brucilare. to crackle. Florio. silkes-borda. broud. fundamental origin. b?-od. a prick. prod. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. dar seems derived from borde. carbonado.. to burn. brasolare. bj'oil. Here to ornament with needle-work. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. motes. Cot. bram. margin. to instigate. broglio. confound. Ihre has guU-bord. broil. piebald . tori shows that. grullo. froco. a flake of snow sion. trouble. parch. knobby . rinj'. bawling. to burn. that these are themselves modifications of a common original.. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. Icnotty. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. broc. brullare. houx. to boss. here. hurly-burlies. gold and silver. atoms . prasseln. The ON. scorch. brocach. 103 embroidered. Cot. . embroidery. briz. bustling. ToBroider. agree in being the extremity of a thing. from the white. parti-coloured. badger . onbryrdan. Gael. Surrey in R. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. or snag. Fr. to darn. broil. Gael. brodio. ornamented with a raised pile. spotted. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case.

Russ. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. correctarius. . See Brackish. brod. broen. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. an operation performed over hot coals. Fl.D. tussis. to be hot. racaille. to hatch. Pl. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. Per manus et old worthless horse. to criticise. rejection Pol. filth. to scorch. e. to be wanting. a makeln. abject. keep warm. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. refuse wares. hraki. to reject. and as an adj. find fault with. matter of blame weak place. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. To blame mens ware. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. whnake. insects.— — .) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. sort. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. to roast on the embers. find fault with. It may be compared with It. damaged. embers to brund. slaae vrag paa. has exactly the force of G. raquer. dial. Pl. Pl. sunburnt. refuse. bredan. For the same reason the Kiittner. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. a broker. embers. See Wreak. stain. Bronzare. pan metal. S. . as. ordure. term was correcfo^ir. refuse brakovat. to spit . blur. brumo. fermenting. refuse. Adelung. brot. brechen. Du. brid. wrak. — . giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. G. brwd. Alb. to sparkle. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. . to nourish. briiten. screatio Junfus . bridde. This word shows the same relation to It. 396. ODu. — Fl. to sort goods . ON. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. dirty. tan. to . vrage. bric-a-brac. In the . to sit on eggs. mud. designation is indkler. wreak. bronzo. hot.— Breed. brak. bronze. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. damaged. want. G. to pick and choose. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. goods damaged by sea-water. — a spark. buy and sell by commission. brak. nounce unsound. the young of any animal . vile.D. inspect. w. To correct an exercise is to Lib. reject. Du. brokers' goods. fault censure. cast Lith. analogous to Bohem. which E. to pick. a brood . but from the primary sense of the It. lack. — point out the faults. brydio. bring eggs and spawn into active life. bronce. raca. brut. brod. brack-gut (Sanders). . to garble. to emit sparks. refuse Fr. spittle . brokoti. an outcast or rejected sheep. to — garble. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. warm. brass does to Sp. a fault. to brew. Sc. in the sense of rejection. Bret. spittle. Abbronzare. with. bracker. Jam.— Lib. couratier. rejected. racher. Tooke's Catherine. glowing coals. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. to hatch G. mediationem quorundam J. refuse goods. brieden. brands. brakyne. trumpery. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. phlegm. The use sunburn. : ' . merchandises de rebut G. brackefi. . progeny of birds. corrector. a breach or flaw. broiid. brokas. 38. It. braken. hot. to blame. embers. hrak. . Kil. whence the modern courtier. try . we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. a cough Hal. Pro v. brasa. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. In those countries the term braker. try out. The Langued. wraken. faulty. to pro- to reject . make out. Brood. to braze. Fr. selection. See Broth. vile. Sp. et A. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. in which sense the OHG. burning. the spawn of fishes. abbronzanchiare. Grisons brinzla. fish-spawn broden. bronze. Bronze. • . or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. or brascla. brunds. and fishes . sbrinzlar. an . to throw blame upon. i. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. OFr. to copper. If to vomit .D.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. find fault — — — fuse matter. Alb. brack. from makel. on. to hatch. refuse brakowad. and to reject the damaged and unsound. criticise (makeln). a chicken. to sort brakovanie.D. Prov. from break. braeck goed. Dan. On • tliis principle the G. brasa. Teutonic class : Du. G. inspection. wrack-good. brae. Lat. cherish. brack-gut. bronze. cracker. — broeden.

maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. buds. &c. Ppim. w. broo. brost. brudi. bhratrj Zend. thick bush brousta. broem bark. Limousin broudi. to murmur. eye-brow. laissent Domunculum. on. broit. bruith. . bushes. seethe. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. Roquef. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. Russ. brad. Gris. Commonly Teutonic.brons. a bud brous-koad. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. bruddeln. spirit. infusion. &c. sordes seu strigmata young branch. broth. It. a caldron. a hill. brew . eye-lid. Russ. bregh. AS. BROOK brook w. brow of a hill. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. braussa. fabric consists. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. breh. mettle. edge. Fr. bruth. brun. . brd. brocco. riviera. w. steam from heated bodies. pottage. Pl.— Overyssel Almanack. signifying low wet land (Brem. It. breg. AS. or bushes and scrubby growths. — . augen-braune. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. who is steaming with sweat. . brass. brau. bruitheati. — . (for brodem). bntdien. iVlanx broogh. sense the Sc. brusmalt. of which the variety of forms. brouskaol. It. . riviere. brouches. or shoot. as rhododendrons.) . brodo. heat explaining the Prov. to shoot. broca. and Slavonic families. broieii. brost. a confused noise of winds. braces. &c. brabruach. Bav. The AS. Lat. shore . bryn. brucan. in which brinnan. . pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. strength. bros. bank. bor. to bubble up with noise. from Goth. vigour. grow into a bush. Gael. a shore. bruceti. brosses. bruc. brodem. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. . simmer from the murmuring AS. brouter. Ger." Serv. bruno. brstiti. to spring . Sp. &c. broth brothaire. Fr. to boil. . brushbrothas) gives the OE. . broi. briu. of plants broust.D. a source Gael. Brothel. a hill. Due. Browse. a . bratrj Lat. spuma. rerum decoctarum. Tam de terrS. eye-brow. bruich. broud. thicket. to border. eye-lid.' Due. frucius. Brow. brov. Fr. Catalan brossa. a sprout. brio. infusion the barley bree. shoots. See Bramble. Celtic.braubiti. brouet. Gael. braun. on. forms appear related to the Ir. the bubbling or springing up of water. The origin is a re. a spring. broden. brennen. . perhaps burnt coloilr. and also border. brawdj Slavon. OFr. brotar. breg. brotar. sprocco. browys. strength Ir. protecting the eye. brow. G. brukjan. and Sc. bruscosd quam de arabili. . Sp. bree. . enjoy Goth. sap. a little house or cottage of timber. Prov. sproc. shoot. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. brink. to use bruks. Kil. Du. briar. OHG. Bret. properly boiling water briihen. to boil bruithe. fur Broom. to browse. plants composed of twigs. was originally used in the innocent sense of . thairj w. Prov. and It. house of ill fame. has briw. a bud. to boil. sprot. G. b7-un. a river. to sprout. bank. kail brose. brushbroccoli. ceales briw. But the Walach. broeye. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. Fr. a shrub broust. signifying twigs. sprouts . rage. chen. break out brewet. braew. noise. to browse. juniper. useful G. awl-plant. bryii. bruich. eye-brow. broc. bros. G. bordel. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. border. Wtb. sprout. boiled . as Fr. The softening down of the consonant bud. juice of briars. brogues. shrubs. hot. a sprig. sodden. face. To digest. or broken up . Manx broie. Cot. vigour. bank. 'Lzt. brauwe. ale . Gr. Bret. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. borda. bank. shrub with leafless pointed edging. brpuster. Pol. to scald. Sc. frater. broth Brown. brmi. heath. Bohem. pour boiling water over. to bear patiently. OHG. waves. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . broth. t— Cot. shore. Serv. a hut or cottage It. to use. margin. Sanscr. borde. . . G. brous. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. Bohem. bud. brosst. to boil. Gael. eat. broth the ocean Sw. may be connected with Russ. brus. brothas. brewis.D.brink. brlgh. Mid. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. branches. grow brossa. verge. G. brue . cabbage soup . hovel. edge. wood . . breg. to use. the colour of things burnt. to Pl. as small-pox. dialects is very different. heath.. brosses. frui. meal. bruach. pfriemkraut. sprout. brst. bryn. juice of meat. Fr. eye-brow. . a little . brdtaj Gael. brwd. It is Brother. brouser. surface of Broth. Du. A — . warmth ch'an. bruithim. broth is sometimes used . Bohem. — exiit et heath. cabbage water. surDu. — ' . brouic. heat. from ripa. broza. Dan. brozia. eye-lash . Gael. pith. dumetum. eminence . hut. to roar.spross. briihe. 105 Brook. a derived from the boards. broccola. bordeau. Here we find throughout the Romance. . cia. to burn. a bruth. low The AS. circuindedit cum familia.

). shoot brouskoad. The Bav. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. to strike the foot against an obstacle. a brush . brosst. E. but on whom it schall to brisen him. In E. Brush. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. Sw. It. to break. Lang. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. desbrisar. Pr. The Lat. bud. bris.— — i. brust. a bush of hair. a rumbling. brysan. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. a brush . . shock. Gael. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. crum bit . crush. blow burcar. Gael. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. to crush. a bristle. Sw. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. brizeto. bruiser. . The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . ling or heath for brushes. a flax comb. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. field. break. borst. brossa. a briser. effort. brist. G. And that best is. a shrub composed of small twigs . splinters. remnants of hay or fodder. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. brottcher. Castr. a horse-brush. Bav. broza. G. orts. bricalio. and . bruyere. brossar. rods. burs. Broach. a brush . brikan. . bruit. flax-comb brossettes. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. fasx . wool-card. burt. bruc. twig. briketo. brosse. Fr. Port. It. bushy ground. Poems. . a tuft of heath . sordes. Palsgr. Allit. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. as It. dust. brusca. bross. brousso. bris. wood composed OE.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. brusg. It. brit. a noise. brous. an enmy. brusc (Diet. AS. bruscolo. chips. Brunt. also a head-brush. a blow. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. brushwood. The same relation holds good between G. On the other hand. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. detergere . — Fr. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. briser. a brush . E. broza. brik. brist j Port. and in the second place a besoiB. Pr. bross. Beryn. dust. tremely. brunt. into a multitude of points. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. a bud or sprout Bret. and Piedm. Pm. mg Cat. Gael. bush. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. bruscia. 201. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. broken. borste. brisar. Diez. See next article. a crum. quasi twigs. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. a little brizal. Alexander. insilio. p. rubbish. briiis (in the pi. wool-card. heath. Bret. To brush then would be to dust. brico or brizo. a bristle. abroncar. bruire. Wicliff. wool-card. K. shivers.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. irruo. insultus. brosst.— Palsgr. bruskr. ON. Sp. brous. seems named from burst(on. to butt. britar. Prov. E. borste. Fr. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. brossa. biirste. to make a rumbling. brist. or sodenly comyn' dust. Cot. . dust. to break or burst. and actually come in collision. B?-usske. brustia. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there.). a brush. brist. ca7-bo>i. coal See Breeze. —Fabyan. a — — (Agea) said. bruscolo. bruis (sing. biirste.). a brush Swiss bruske. borste. Fr. broustia. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. borste. or shoot. Text Soc. a brush. rubbish. Pr. to break. Fl. bruito. Fr. brus. . brusco. tuft of grass or hay. and also Brush. brustid. Prov. Prov. brustia. fescue . That in all haste he wouli. brMt. bruzir. bris. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. to break to bits . Hall in R. Bruit. Fr. to brush. escousse. Prov. appearin Goth. brista) or breaking out . brise. dust. 174. a mote. a brush. Pr. Piedm. — OE. brusca. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. . OFr. Bruise. twig. — a bush. rubbish. fragments. bruise exOFr. and It. NE. Pm. * Brunt. —Chaucer. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. modification of the same root which gives the E. Lang. Brunt of a daunger. 134. bris. OE. Piedm. of twigs. brosse. brugir. it schall be al Sw. Gael. — those signifying a sprig. to make brusshes on. to stumble. brusco. britar. to cleanse. a bud. Cot. quisquilise. borste. broust. and sighid therewithal. A. brisd.

caned' Hence those who established them. . Formerly. soft. 1857. to soften . . bokni.derivation has been much discussed. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. mieknad. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. not so plentiful a commodity. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. in which the flesh dish.lessiver. the linen at buck. Pol. lye. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. bucaIndies. moist. from weich. bifbel.byka. plied in the W. set of pirates in the spread. bwch. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. to Gael. See Dupe. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . soft. the upper for coifee. maban and baban. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. bubBuck. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. tender. to murmur. a. the first wheal. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. The place of such a 2. But see Bristle. a hole. to butt. very generally designated by the same puk. w. The cipally on the Spaniards. rap. buerj It. bucata. blast or strike with the forehead. a knock word. bub. a bubble. a push. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). faire la lessive. Fr. soft. buck-ashes. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. colada. Sp. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. because bucare does not in Marsh). to a place used for the mouillir. boh. Magy. a ashes. to bump as a bittern. says Laudon. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. Esthon. to soak. The name. ac. 17th century. and then to other wild tumour Lith. knock. Bohem. boc. buquer. Illust. buck-ashes. to soften. . bduclien. — . bubbola. Magy. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. a. Bret. w. to soften. tender. when soap was tion is commonly taken. March 28. . as a buck rabbit. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. from colar. and Fr. From an imita. Bubble. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. moczyd. or mok. bublati. a to the male deer. . bukke. as G. hump. blister. Dan.buchen. It. or projecTo Buck. to buck. lye. bugada. to soak. and as a verb. bog-aske. bubiti. This bubette. — — ' A : ' ' . Cot.biiken j Svi. Bret. different form. pokka7na. it is beuchen. was called bucking the linen. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. Pref A. pup. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. drying of produce. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. . buborek.steep or soak. to stick. bucking. bubauti. The male goat. open lath-work. a fescue. byge. bouc. to bubble.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. molle. hog dressed whole). top. The term bocan is still ap. to butt. mollire. bub. to strain. to knock the type of anything round and swelling.boukaat.' Palsgr. watery bud. Gael. who resorted to the islands beichen. does not hold. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. to wet Pol. . Etym. The natives of Florida. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. wood. soft . buquer. Sc. de la Floride.— .D. . and exercised their cruelties prin. I. Pol.wet Lat. Sp. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. of wind. and the bunch. It. boil animals. mote. 1586. bouk. is 1. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. to butt or jurr Dan. a steep for flax. It. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. Fr. buchen. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. was called in Fr. tuft. designation of a knob. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. at a door. Bohem. to filter. bube. to soak foul linen before washing. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. hump. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. Fin. a bubble. to which in their language they call bou. boc. mokry. BUBBLE bruschetta. boucaner. thunder gently . In G. a bubble . luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. soft It. erweichen. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. bucquer. bugd. bubseti. The word was very generally Buccanier. — . A .to allow a free current of air. also applied Una. Diet. Fr.tare. the lower soak in lye. pukkata. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun.-wtt miekki. News. tap . and as in and b so often infor cocoa.

to word.anything short of its kind. as in Fr. Bucolic. to move. Lat. bugnir. bucherame. bolgia. above mentioned. to boil. hump. pwtio. a servant. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. macero. boucle. Prov. bod. Prov. Fr. prick in a target. don't stir from hence. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. bucolicus. cattle. bouprobably identical with inok. knob dwfr yn boglynu. . inboachen. case of leather . It. ornamental stud. bedde. a dumpy gin. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. Buck-bean. a curl. K. with let. boucaran. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. having a boss. bulga. Wtb. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. weich. Sp. bulka. a boy. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. buckel. Pied. where the G. a stump buckle up. Du. bouge. call bo. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. . The dressed fur of lambs. boss of a shield. a tuft.pode. Swab. — — . bouclier. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. male or botzen. bouk is a pail and with the dim. Du. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. brobrocchiere. butze. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. Cot. a buclder or shield budge. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. bouton. a little coffer or turgidus.. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. bog and G. ON. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. of bouge./a. . ein. boucler. to 'soak. to boss or swell out G. In Lat. bunch. Fr. The Fr. swelling. * Buckle. to budge. butzen. w. The word is a ddyn. w. built. budge.. no wheel bogeilio. bud butzen. * Bud. call. boglyn. a shoot. a boss. boucle. stud. goat's hoof. a bump. boccula. The entire train of thought is bucket. to pen cattle. Russ. boulj. bug. a navel. butzen (Du. So on. weichen. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. a cowherd. See Bulk. bouger. Budget. a bubble three thyngis. butz.n. bulais daqui. * Bucket. Bret. from bo. set of a plant in bulk. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. Bav. pulga. agreeing with Gael. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. A water-plant with leaves and gille. Fr.goa. Fr.Lat.. great pouch. turgere buczendig.may probably be explained by N. Sw. W. to thrust. soft. is doubtless fallacious.t-le!L{ * Bud. explaining Fr. become bochen. probably from the notion of bubbling. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. bub. rabodS. Buckler. and weichen. butt . a wallet. a small shallow and open tub. It. butzen K. A buckle or fastening for botch. a boss. or male of to boil . bullion. It. is to shrivel up. the root of the Slavonic words gran. Fr. crack. convexity. bunch . from Gr.— . the radical image seems to be a set plants. bump. . Gael. Budge. clasp of a book. Behoves. child.chissima. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. a pustule bout. stir. the word w ' — . were To Budge. Fr. a leathern sack. bulla. Bret. boucle. bougette. ' . buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. bul. a bud. scion. Fr.stumpy man. call. dint . Bus. — . bo. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. — . bougette. bulb. boss. bocla. jSouKoXiKog. protuberance. words is converted into b.) .' And this sacrament bus have dial. bloquier. Bav. a buckle or protuberance. Dan. with a central boss. rump of fowls . boach. NE. bolgetta. of bac. sboge. to poke. ' . in the beginning of to pierce holes. botzen. belonging to the calling of the chen. whom it is still much in use. motus creber. need. put. ' .). a short thick man. imbuere. to graft or bud trees. bouljein. a trough). with which it was ornamented. also a leather tuft . to stir. . dinted. stroke. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. weich. bucket Fl. This expression boglire. to butt. to un bout d'homme. bloca. no business to do that. . Prov. bod. a budget. a fold ceilio. a ring. It termination is lost.poot. boiling. clump. trunk of wood covered with leather. Pol. dim. Hardly identical with Fr. to swell. bogla. lump. of a surface. It.pastoral nations of Slavonic race.' Hal. noise . ble. skins pushit'. thrust. mani. to bud or bocla. G. fur. Port. . botzen. wallet. Hence quel. potz. water message. buachazlle. to line with fur. loud Cot. like a bean. pulga. bode. Dan. butzen. from bugr. knob . and of the Lat. and the reference to It. The knob or projection formN. a pail or flowers. Mid. gjeit-klauv. pote. a . excrescence. a budget. blow. Mid. — — . To thrusting part of a long body. boaLat. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. OHG. a shield. boqueranmis.' Boccaccio. seen in Hesse botz. bloca.) as to soak. .' Schm.stuff. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. don't a baby). pwt o Fr. bollire. bucherare. push forwards. . bdden. bukke-blad.r//'. . knock. swelling. II I'a feru desor I'escu. OFr. bouter.

bubiti. 265. God's boast seemed feare children. Romola. to blow souffleU. to bellow . dausa. a clap. wine may The verb in taverns. to strike face to represent the unknown. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. From bulga. From buff! of terror. to puff. boo. bubus. bolgetta. mingled with water. Cot. A blow. dausinti. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. to beat. to blow. bobaow. Limousin bobal. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. soufflet./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . Buffoon. Sc. Buffeter. —Boggart. to puff. for this purpose is very widely spread. smells . site The two — — iii. air. Lat. thus be translated to tap. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. Lat. bolgia. Thus buffet would a tapster. cuff . L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. Gael. Buffalo. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. btifetarius. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. by metaphor. either alone or with various terminations. bufogni. a cuff or buffet. dull sound. as from Lith. a skin. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. caupo. tabernarius. popo. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. &c. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. Mid. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. Teet-bo. bau ! children. wauwau. buffa. W. colour. — retailing buffeter buffetier. Magy. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . senses. bubaRuss. tastes. Buff. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. Lith. blurt or puff with one's mouth. of colours. word other cases. a puff. made to —Bugbear. Fl. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn .' perfield. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. Fr. a bugbear. bubach. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. a dull BUG From 109 — A . deadened. the buffe. buivol. stupid. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. buffen. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. as Diez remarks. buffer. scarecrow . The children were playing in an oppocomer. him but Boyd iugges. to frighten . buffle. human. bufogni. ' They rether puffed at him. bw! It. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. while in Sp. from souffler. bugs. bufHe. boman. confused. Lith. duff^ dull. buffet. to a representation of his voice. to rePl. breath. Bufetarium. a In . to excite terror in Macleod. a side-board. to signify an indefinite object of terror. buffet. — thence it has been transferred in E. or wild ox. sounds. mumming. bugle. Fr. a buffle or a bugle. bo ! an interj. baubau. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. It. leathern bucket. — Z. a hollow sound. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. a budget. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. buffets. A — Bug. also a G. a jester. bw. Sc. Cot. or hath been Cot. to jest or sport. often blown upon. botffon. bauwi. yar^aa. as emblematically making light of an object. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. bouffer. w. bugbear.—Buffet. Fr. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. . constitutes the game of Bo-peep. buffalo. pulse . bouffer. a goblin). le reste emplissant d'eau. buffet. to marre often tasting it . — La Crusca. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. buffare. Buff. bumann. to give a as of a blow.' La Crusca. buMagy. from It. puff. also the skin or heck of a buffe. It. A puff with — Fl. bwg. a block-headed noddy. Pl. It. Esthon. Hence the E.D. Fr. buffare. as wine that hath taken wind. and in Fr. buff leather. een duffen toon. buffle-headed. It. a hobgoblin.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. made by a person. — — — Buffet. rebuff.— Buflae. to give benti. the place whence the wine was drawn. Fr. often covering his E. — Bogle. dial. The cry made to excite terror is then used. The use of the exclamation children. E. buffeteur. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. G. buffetto.D. to blow . Pl. such as that conjured up by children in the dark.D. things in Jam. Swiss baui. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. bukow Ikow.

bug. superbire. bukashka. a bug-bear. booggen. 1551. a misshapen person. bug-bear. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. Swiss ing. bugbear. to bellow. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. — — ' . according to Coles.— . threatening. and is Deutsch. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. the black a maggot. b'dgni. an object of terror. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. The name of bug is — . Hence bugle-horn. boa-peep. Magy. Bogge. ghost. bauginti. bogil. great or bug words. W. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. Parolone. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. a goblin. Bug as a lord. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. . . of pipes sewn on. as an object of dread. paws the ground . monster. and a boggarty ing. Hal. as Buffalo. also a bug-bear. to roar Aasen. is very common. Swelling. fear. : no BUG . Schmidt. boeuf sauvage. to frighten scarecrow. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. any disgusting animal. * 2. Bdronie. bbgni.loud noise. Fl. a. to take bug. pugalo. bau (Pureiglia. proud. bwgwl. Illyr. Mundart. pugaf. affright. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . I. Grose. fette. Chaucer. threatening. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. a bug-bear. bucula. See The name terror). The w. a bugbear for children. beugler. bug-bear. buffle. bogk. 493. tumble-bug. a buffalo. saucy. worm.Lat. also a bug-bear. Stalder bog. . a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. buculus. Serv. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. bwg and E. iv.. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. bug dung-beetle. thus connected with bug. a silk-worm. the word is lin) bbgge. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. . to origin in the expression bugs words. and bugle. with more or less modification represents bau. Lap. The final guttural of W. Sp. bogil bo (e. given in Chaucer. rose-bug. baco. disgust. bok. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. to bellow. 2. Grisons bau. Manx boa. especially to beetles or winged insects. high. — — . a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. xiv. vermin. long. used in the same sense. A similar applica. protuberant. It. pujalo. Mid. Big. bugler. Russ. Sw. poggl. roo. an insect. buba. high-sounding words. biignt. quos what produces dread or disgust. Magy. larva (a bug-bear. Fl. insect. well as the terrific object. a boogg. Swiss booggen. Bugle. hert. is the dim. Lett. shepe and gootes. blustering. and in child's Magy. and in Lat. troll. buggabod).' In my time at horse is one apt to start. 3. bwgar. scarecrow . (Spurrell). provincially an insect. also a baco-baco. a rabme. to creeping things. — . then a horn for drinking. to take fright. i. earwig bau da grascha. a proud overbearing man pujat'. — — terror. It. a beetle. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. the buggaboo w. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. banian boube. Same as buffle.Fr.. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. dial. Bug. bugle. bogk. bobal. bogle. Bible. E. gad. language any kind of insect. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. Lith. mask ' . to take fright. swollen. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. coco. insect. fierce. il brutto Demonio. bold. the Devil. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. of bugabo was given. Cheval de trombugti. bug-bear. Lesachthal. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. An ornament of female dress condread. — boogg. bukati. terrifying ward. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. oxen. Deut. forSc. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. bugar. roarHal. w. BUGLE Tentennino.3uhtii&:. big. tion of the beetle tribe. boo.

ne. bulbe. bed of a river. knob. unevenness Sw. — — . skin flayed whole. a dint in a metal . bolle. Hal. the carcase. bellows builgean. . a. to raise a habitation. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. chest. buc. Dan. hull of a ship. PoXj3a. bulk or capacity of anything. swollen. a bulb Du. pimple. Ptg. belly. inhabit.d. bulle.— . the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. blow. a lump or mass. belly Sw. womb. bulwis. a bunch. bladder. ^ — . or of what is shaped like a bubble.' Fl. leather sack. balgs. the position of liquids in the word In English. principal portion. or cargo of a ship.pulks. the potato G. were a habitation. A — ' — Bulk. a leather sack or budget Fr. Dan. domicilium. Sp. bulbus. skin bag. a globe. bouk. be protuberant. in vessel. Lat. bulk is a partition of boards. The Walach. dial. Bourser. balg. MHG. a bubble. to break bulk.).'— Cot. hold or bilge of a ship. . bulge or convex part of a cask. . . . straight will he 2. bukr. body of an animal. G. ball. In the representation of natural sounds. or. Jno. trunk. to undo the cargo. jnake bulch. swollen OE. to swell. I. tumeo. the body Du. byli. ' . for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. Bulge. bole. ON. bulge or bilge. belly Cat. globule bolg-lhuingey. bolnyn. and N. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. Bolke or hepe. as well as is very variable. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. a straw corn-vessel. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. the contents of the hold. belly. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. blister Manx bolg. bolso. as it was merly written in English to bylle. the belly. balco. bua. it again. the head of an onion. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. head . Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. as water beginning to boil bolg. Pm. blister. Gr. swell. ' . boss of shield. and bulbukd. or bear out as a full purse.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. the womb. and put it home. With these must probably be classed ON. anything prominent. Melancholy. at riufa bulkann. vulva. mass. bolgia. husk. — — . bunch or projection. m um Placentiae. nave or body of the church van 't schip. trunk of the body. to build. belly. puff. habitaculum. Mandeville. bolle. pocket. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. . trunk. The addition of a dim. belly van de kerche. body. bauch. bauen. See bollekeii next article. a protuberance. bilge. . blister. — — . — . projection. bulgen. boa. bol. . w. Pm. bulg. a leathern sack or portmanteau. — Bulb. bolgna. a bubble Gael. herd^ swarm pulkd. Boss^. bubble {palgan tiisge. cultivate. to bol. 1388. . a heap. boss of a buckler. buhe. bulcke. biilken. pouch builgeadh.' Cot. wallet. van loock. pod ON. bubbling up. Pr. Here stand behind this bulk. From till. crowd. on. (3oX|8oc. bulked or bumped out. villa. to swell. OSw. The radical sense is shown in Russ. turgeo bolnyd. Pr. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. pulkas. acervus. See how this tode bolneth. to puff up bolginn. . . whence bylja. sedes. cumulus. Gr. knobby. Palco. bubble. formed a farm. mass. buk. belgr. bug. to belly out. a stage or scaffold. bubble. a round bulky body bwlgan. skin of an animal. belly. ' . balg. bugue. boss. bol. thorax buick. bullka.' Palsgr. bulk. balcone. or feminine termination gives Bav. bolg. knot in thread. bol. knob. to throw out a convexity. Kil. Muratori. He found a country fellow dead drunk. . the capacity or burden of a ship. to bubble up Pol. to bubble up. . bouge. bwlg. . OSw. . Lith. bulgen. stuffed bag. bulbe. to gather. a tuberous or bulbous root . has bulbuk.' Anat. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. gebolgen. ON. Mister. to blow. of an inflated skin. in bulk. lump. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. boulge. bulki. bale. a water-bubble). tumidus. belgja. bag. bolgan. bulka.' Festus. Bulch. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. For the latter sense ' — My . G. bulne. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. To Build. belly. beuck. bubble. swell. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. of E. . It. boss. to spring. Lith. G. Hence e. Bulk. hollow. — . Othello. bolgetta. compare Da. swell. Lett. bulkaf. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. a. lump. Lat. body of a ship . Bav. snorting on a bulk. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. . See Bulk. a prominence. in Sc. bo.

many to protuberant objects. ON. bullocks..' Baret's Alveary in Hal. — A tition in a ship. bolli. It. round glass phial. a bowl. Bullet. a hobgoblin. bulk of a thing. A lace tree. Bret. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. bullos. pimple. stud. balgeting. bolos Fr. boss. bollar. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. bulla. is of a class with Pl. hhint. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name.Gr. stud. . also a parFl. Du. eth and frighteth. bubble. A papal rescript. large of its kind. bullus. bollon. a beam or rafter. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. pollach. It. b2iggaboo. Pl.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. a seal. Du. Bully. as a mill-dam or the like. bouillon. BulUiead. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. the matrix or die . bellow. bollos de relieve. &c. as in E. bietebau. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. as the ornanails. polten. bolla. 2. G. a bull. N. a tadpole . boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. Lith. Bullbeggar. any embossed work. a hobgoblin. a cow. stamped money. on the contrary. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. G. thick. Gold or silver uncoined. a seal. biitzibau. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. a wasp. stamp. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. and thence terror. tition of deals instead of a wall. This word is used in several senses. from Lat. whence Mod. a tadpole. See Bowl. from the Lat. poltern. of the ox kind. a bull Swiss bullen. spirits. bulke. Dan. bulle. blister.. bulk. to bubble. stupid . in the sense of base metal. bwla. bulla. boulct.D. 2. And The word bullerbak. a noisy violent fellow. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. boillon. embossed work.' do not go by the dangerous water. bal. to boil. poli-cheannan.D. — — Bull. Pm. to emboss . from Fr.'— ' Palsgr. urchens. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. Du. assito. 3. a bul-begger. billoti in Fr. lumpish. bolli. dim. I. bole or trunk of a tree. elves. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. from baula. bellocier. bwlas. bugbear. w. penbwl. Scot's Deso. Bullace.D. The wild plum. See Billet. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. to tical with Sw. coarse. poll-cheannach. G. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. to bellow. of boule. bauli. a blockhead. however. /SouWivu. a hornet. blunt. Sp.Fris. signifying roaring. in N. whence bullire. i. Gael. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. from the use of the equivalent terms. billon. lumpheaded . bulloi. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. from the noise. dial. scarecrow. to seal. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. beams or boards. leraures nocturni nigri. and vellon in Sp. a framework of balks. sloes. The male W. a bulox polos. bullebak. W. boss or stud. as geting. also of the tadpole or young frog. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. as It. witches. a little fish nearly all head. ba. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb.lle de fusil. brass-headed nail . bwbach. — Fl. any great-headed or studded nail. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. Fr. which may probably be the origin of the name. The final element tergeist. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. a scare-bug. bulderen. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. bouillon. large. Fr. child by the represents the hobgoblin. it may be observed that a bullet in E. of Witchcr. The bullfrog. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. is called a ball. Cot. baula. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. bullern. a stud. w. but is more probably iden- palchetto. Du. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . BuUiou. G.. Eullrusli. the seal affixed to the document. Terriculamentum. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. it is boulet de canon.. pwl. Bullfrog.

baluarte. Etym. a blunderhead. Kiittner. The decried coin. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. Kil. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. 1687).' ' mettre au billon. bustle. a floor. buene. 10.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. Hence bom and ban. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. D. IV. &c. ON. Sw. To bully is to bluster. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. Du. Bully. 9 E. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. A. ground. from boden. un faux brave. buller-bas. honunele. — Bump. a. IIL st. blaterare. on the other hand. AS. primarily the ramparts of a town. is called bumping or bells.the ramparts. agrees with e.. ^Bully-rook. 4 Hen. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. violent overbearing person. a bumble-. block-werck. — Bumto . c. biihne. propugnaculum. 1305.D. provides. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. 2. G.D. The cry of the bittern. ierd-boeyme. to make a droning Du. Miege in Hal. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. It. buller-bas. Fris. a hectoring. G. blunder-buss. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. Kil. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. buller-brook. bulderen. a boisterous.' Stat. For bottom.' reals of standard currency. Thus ' ble. sound. bommele. vallum. boulevard. The Sw. legaggio di metallo. scaffold. Hence — .' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. bodem. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings.d. bombilare. Bully-rock. poltem. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. argentum and silver. c. Du. to dun. The 27 Ed.. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. intonare. bastion. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. Fris. BULLY with which coins were stamped. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. ^i^/«.' Again. Philip le Bel in Due. bolderen. To bum. Bailey. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. then in general a rampart. a noisy blustering fellow. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. — Boom. bol-werck. buller-bak. to make a noise . To Bum. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . bottn. and porter au billon. — — plate d'argent. beat a — Hal. hum. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. Bum-bailiff. is bullion — A — buller. debacchari. or work of defence. bomtnen. blunder-buss. but now is the central part of the town. buller-jaan (bully. by corruption boulevart.' agger. up was termed monnaie de billon. clamour. Fr. or a humblebee. boene. botm. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. Bum. John). insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. boisterous fellow. bottom.' for the purpose of exchange. III. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. St. perturbare saevis dictis. c. minari verbulderen. furious man.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. violent. polterer. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. noise. provides. Hal. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. to drum Lat. The Stat. ierd-beame. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. droning. to . the soil. to terrify by noise and clamour. a stage. From the notion of a humming. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. resonare. — bombam?nen. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. To bum.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. 'lega. Du. 2.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. 2. G. 14.

. bannock. bun with ON. Lang. to bang down. bu<rnone. a dried hemp-stalk. a bunch Magy. . To bam. forms. clown. E. Bumboat. a dry No . bungersome. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. See Boss. Pl. root. hdk passing and E.D. poumpido. lungeous. Bunewand.D. awkward clown. See Bunch. Suffolk bonnka. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . pumpurras. pompette. banga. bumsen. Bumsen. bunnion. Dunchyn or bunchyn. a tail (Macleod). throw down with a bang. a large . Li cake. . explaining E. Gael. lump. Then. a. bunga. a round mass . a bowl P1. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. BUNCH bum-bailiff. Bang sen. round mass of anything. Pl. botn. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. bumtel. a bump. &c. Bunch. bongie. OSw. an old stump of a horse. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. A Du. gibbus. Hal. a knock. bugnone. Ir. Roding. —Bunny. Fl. truss E. one ever saw the word in that shape. . butt end. bund. Du. bmidt. any round knob or bunch.-^Fl. . to knock . Fr. or grete knobbe. especially girls. . bune or boon. bonge. stem or base. mto Sp. a swelling. Hal. a Sp. are dim. a bag or sack. Kyx or bunne. to . should probably be a short tail. cluster. to bang. seems to unite Gael. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. bans. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). Forby. . a heap. Gael. bottom. to . trunk. bunny. Bony. a purse .— Bunnion. A clumsy. applied to young persons. dial. pumpa. a heap Wall. a heap. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive.' he fell with a bang. a pumpion or gourd. bon. S. strike E. pwmpl. bump. stalk. w. tundo. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. hay stubble . Holland and Flanders. a knob . Moor. ! — knocking. bulscha. bulto. any round knob or bunch. bonuach. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. Pr.S. lenten loaves. Bun. Pm. from bunsen. Hence E. il me pousse. . bunka. gibber. bamgetroffen.' Bun. the tail of a hare. . bunkc. bunki. foundation w. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. awkward. so the form btmk. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. Bunch. Dan. . poumpi. Sc. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. a hemp-stalk. E. callus. the Pr. binge.pummel. . . — — de dor bunsen. H. Manx bonkan.^Cot. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. .. Dan.P. and related with ON.— Pr. bunsen. a bud. clumsy. bun. a hump. bignet. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. 1. a pocket Sw. Bung^. calamus. noise. to beat. dial. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. Mrs Baker. bung. as we have seen E. a rabbit. pompon. Pm. to thump. Pm. Sc. or to the mass by which it is given. a swelling from a blow. E. bunke. Hal. stump. a. a rabbit. pwmpio. Related on the one side to Pl. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. bunan. protuberance. blain. a knob. Hal. a button. to swell out E. Bump. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. bun eich. stock. pwmp. knob or heap. strapping. stock. nor would it concern the public if he did. Bunk. a lump on the foot bunny. — — Bun. bmike. Radically identical with Dan. bottom bun feoir. from knock) It. bugno. bunga. stump. It. stubble Manx bun. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. ner. a heap OSw. bundle. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. boi7ieog. Bums it's hit. bugno. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. See Bounce. — round fruit. a into Dan. — — Bun. bulse. bum-boot. Thus e. a knob. stubble of beans. w. passes Sw. bunch— Hal. bunken. — Marine Diet. a person employed to dun one for a debt. Probably from bump. knuckles. while bulch was traced through Gris.).. to strike so as to give a dull sound. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. a boil or blain. bolsa.! . bugnet. . a boil (punkos bot. bull. and signifies consequently a mass. Again. — — — — ' — knock. Daal bu7iseti. as in other cases. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. root. Bumpkin. bottom. large. knochen. to ' . buns.D.D. a wallet. a boss Lith. banke. also for taking a pilot to a ship. bunt. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. to bang ON. a knotty stick) Sw. inconsiderately.' Palsgr. a bunch. Fr. a heap or cluster. He fult dat et bunsede. He buncheth me and beateth me. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. bonnock. Probably for bun-boot. to beat. abrupt manbuns-wise. signifying one who does things in a thumping. — stalk .

Burly. So Du. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. working in wood (especially with an axe). Burble. bunsen. bove. — — To Bungle. It. Fr. To burgeon. Bung of a tonne or Lith. from beran. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . or used as a receptacle for papers. Sw. unskilful working. a cork. a sort of helmet. byndel. to shove. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. to kick. bungande. la Borgonota. Palsgr. To Bunt. Pl. rumble as the bowels. bonde. Kil. tap. bag to catch the wind. A load. to push with the head del. bommen. bummle. and the Sw. bondelj bundell. OFr. boj. Bundle. To do anything awk- wardly. A bubble. dial. AS. the stopper of a cask). and bomme. bon. fascis. to botch. Bunt. buove. in is Fr. Fr.punt. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. To bunt. to pype. properly a Burgundian helmet. B. Burden. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. to knock. Sp. a bunch Burbulas. . Bunting. A Dan.D. . brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. an anchor buoy. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. bangla. dicimus rufum. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. N. Burden. colligatio. to hum. buie. bond. coassatio et Du. clumsy performance. racket. stocks or such OSw. Du. OG. racket . shove . — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. Lat. to work at carpentry bangan. bonde. knock. a drum . Sp. on. to stop. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. bangla. to push ghebondte. bondel-loos. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. dark grey bura. — btiruii. bourgeon. Cot. See Bun. something bound together (Mrs Baker). to float. * Buoy. was formerly pronounced buro. to bolt meal. whence in bure. that the primitive meaning of shackle . stiimpeln. the middle part of it. tinker . biirde. banga. stilmpern. contignatio. bundel. a boye. The Italian buio. and Du. a bungler. to work ineffectually. Banff. Compare G. whence bunting. Fr. boei. ho-tapp. and now more Bailey. So in Pol. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. dial. G. a water bubble made by rain. Prov. shackles. Johansen. especially in wood. a bung. Biu'geon. the young cloth used for sifting flour. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. to stop. however. See Borel. bounta.— . to stnmi on an instrument. tapp (whence tceppa. byrthen. the noise of drums. to hum. generally known as the material of which bud. to cobble. tinkle. and E. to push. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. to hum. loosed from bonds. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. p. bouchon. to Somerset is to sift. The Fr. — — . — Bureau. reddish brown. OFr. with the head. boya. to resound. or tuft. Fr. ' — work . borgonota. fetters. is originally a wisp or bunch . a bunch. Muratori. buret. also a piinple in the face. the bung of a barrel Lim. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. do a thing bunglingly. bang. Russ. to knock. bondon. boil or bubble up. bundt. Sp. to gingle. Sp. bimge. punishments for prisoners. See Barbarous. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. bondir. Prov. would be the earliest float for an anchor. bury. The Magy. Cat. Bunny. are from bouscfie. bourion. bundle. burion. bindini. bote. — . burboloti. Bung. bui. Burganet. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. . anchor or of a net boyar. bourjon. bongani. bolting-cloth. bunta. borboUar. to bungle. . to strum on an instrument. Sw. ghebundte. the loose open grow big about or gross. boucher. Sw. E.Fris. halm-tapp. bondeau. See Bourdon. bouche. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. of a song. driving in the bung. to bud forth. The belly or hollow of a sail. on. the float of an bundle. buret. sprig. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. bou^e. Bret. or putting forth of a vine. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. 202.' Festus in Diez. to bear. G. banghagr. knocking. modem bummle. bourguignote. a botch. a wisp of hay or straw. guggle as water. russet. The word is flags are made. Hal. noise. Rietz. klimpem. B. to gingle. AS. and van t' vat. dark. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. klempern. bang. bongun. Fl. to in to stop the hole. clogs. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. gyves. The stopper for the hole in a boia. knocking. .

Nat. Goth. to rub. the er is a dresser of cloth. Fr. Compare also Piedm. Burn. Lang. lerre. burgi latro. crackle wood in burning Hal. burn. with Dan. to Gael. Supp. to polish. brAler. Swiss Rom. Sw. ii6 BURGESS Gael.j'own. mockery. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. Castrais bourril.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. Fl. protuberance. borrelen. to puff. a well. ends of thread. brustle. as of suggests. has also borr. tahko. to murmur. burren. compared with G. fires up. joking.bryna. — — . blow. from the roaring sound of flame. Bret. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. — . Fr. is an Thus G. The in. to swell.— . a whetstone. Prov. a bud. OFr. to sharpen. become big and proud. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. sea. to burn. From the same root E. tahkoa. to hum. surge or dashing of the sea . flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow.' a jibe. to sharpen on a whetstone. — Han to bruser op. ^Notk. Burlesque. an &c. Lang.ireui£r:e. to fiy. to have acquired the sense of polishing. from bryii. must be explained on the same principle from G. Sw. Bav. bunch.sharpen. purling. It. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. an edge. brimmen. burgeois. Burly. So also Sw. born. Limousin bourdo. .. and Dan. a purling hiwe brennen. in Schm. — — . Burler. brausen. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. a knob. as in cousteau. sicut sound. brunnr. tumentum. taunt. . borujon. OFr. a prominent eye borracka. the J in OFr. bourglairs. barrel. lorra. borracka. angular . A legal term from the Lat. brandung. brunir. roguing beggars. to swell oneself out as birds borras. repartee . OE. swelling borr-shuil. to bouronna. and the Burin. he rustle. singe or scorch with fire. to puff up borr^ . like the wind in trees. brim or edge of anything. ends of thread. boiirre. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. from Lat. to burn. buirleadh. to swell with pride. It is probable indeed that Fr. grancelli. brinii. burgen. like. Probably a modifica. Cot. a jest. as Diefenbach bud. dial. laer. thence. boura. a lie. OE. It. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. and the Burnish. a bladder. boure. to ridicule.. Bouffer. brun. j. G. borr. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. See Burgeon. briis^. sbornoi. In the same way ON. burlare. swell up or strout out. Probably. ' rugiens. condemnentur morti. brunnen. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. . a margin. Pren7ien. the word seems Pm. Pr. water. tion of the root which gave the OE. brynsten. embraser. brinna.). N. to bourda. bouril. to bud . sidiary element. spring-water bumach. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. The Gael.). Swiss Rom. a gurgling ^. E. to set on fire. knob. . Bestiary.' Cot. — . broil. which has given much trouble to etymologists. bud or sprout forth.. warbling. leo Fin. watery. Burgess. to roar 5. Fl. BURNISH i5«r/. See Burr. to effervesce. to give an edge to. a spring a robber. a bubble. Walach. Fr. ample of polishing metal. a wine skin. it of the knots. explaining the E. ^ttsa. to roar. i5«r4 biiirte. bourou. brunna. In the manu. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. robber. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. brinnen or Also ein roar. jest of. Sp. Burgh. Gael. See under Bore. de Vaud. bruzir. schleiffen. — — . toast. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. like straw or small . and OG. brook. brima. language of folly or ridicule. brustolare. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. to To Bum. &c. From Fr. burle of cloth. to grind on a whetstone. the flocks. Burryn. 122. the roaring surge of the — — — . A burl. to roar (as lions. A — — . purrata. G. pressa puret.. The primary origin of the word. brasa.or bubbling up. See Berough. bremmen. Dief. Hence Bridel. bururus. a bubble to spring as water. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. pur (see Burgeon). ON. Burglar.. to tell lies. Schm. occupying much space. bourd. to polish. fire.). borni. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. bruse. Burgher. brusler being a faulty spelling. to roar. to make a So from Fin. abourioner. 56. burly. is connected with brim. to roar. Pm. as the / in purl. explaining Sp. to ridicule. It. big. to polish helmets. flocks. a blaze. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. with little iron nippers called burling irons. brase. purra. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. Bav. ridicule. to burgen or wax big.— Pr. Antiq. bururus. Todd. burgensis. to surge.Ps. a jest. to roar. is termed burling. a fountain. bears. de Vaud.

S w. It. I. brit. To Burst. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. -burse. With a slightly different ghen. bourre. the — — castle or fortress. Fr. a. brist. any rapid whirling biarga. In OE. fortify. an annular swelling. A rabbit burmotion. impetus. a sepulchre. bolgia. brittle. blurra. makes the disbursements of the college. but it is more probably a development of It. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. beurs. to bury . burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. -Grisons bulscha. burgisli. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. leather. whence Kil. burre. i5(7&a. husks. to burst. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. Brun on bane. caer is a — — — ' ' : . This word seems safety. ' BURR AS. 5150. barza. bourrer. ON. ' ' — — burren. bur. a wallet or scrip. mentioned under Burgeon. ber•whirr to whizz. Swiss burren. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. and thence flocks 'of wool. from Fr. Beowulf. break . to stuff. 2. also ' any such trash as chaff. bourse. save. its own protection. OHG. &c. Du. to P'air.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. swell. borra. bourse. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. Jam. brittle. borsia. shelter. E. perruque. Fr. idiom if 4. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. In a met. byrgan.' edge grew weak. Hence Fr. Dan. See Burgeon. Burial. It. purr. verbergen. as from Sp. iii. brista. birgan. prsnuti. pipaa. dial. talk fast and indistinctly. AS. Burr is related to buzz as protect. Compare also OE. brisd. ptcrren. to save. ultimately resting on the Gael. Fris. to hide. coo. borra. dial. and met. any kind of quilting or stuffing. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. force. OHG. and spelling. as in Northumberland. foretell great storms at 3. stuffing. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. burra. brico. moss. berstan. Sw. a harness or collar maker) . bristen. to hide . birr. to mutter Sw. AS. Hal. Fr. Burrow. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. g. birigean. brisdeach. brjota. straw. bourlet. byrgels. a port. briso. bergen. beorgan. explained E. skin. bristeach. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. bourrelet. bris. brest. Burr. a pad. borsa. shearing of cloth. brist. . &c. burial place. shales. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. 225. be more in accordance with AS. of a body hurled through the air. to break. brickie. brizeto. from whence we pass through Sp.' Harris in Todd. Burse. hair.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. ON. borrow. G. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. bersten. — Translated by Kemble. britar. Burse. as it is still pronounced in N. Du. Burser. The root forms brik. borre. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. buscha. byrgen. a rabbit burrow. Mid.. keep. To Bury. a purse. cover. byrsa. cwning-gaer. to buzz. signifying protrude. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. bris. as for the protection of a child's head. byrigels. Shelter. whirr. briser. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. a place of defence. an exchange. a barn or cupboard. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. the officer who bears the purse. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. a morsel. brokil and brotil. Cot. brast. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. root borr. . and. shuffling. tomb. whirr and burr. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. bres- — tan. See Bulge. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. byrstan. G. of England. a purse. bolsa to It. bur. Sw. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. borre. appears under the Lang. . preserve.Lat. brown. Gael. from AS. chips or anything else Fl.— .' The same word with burgh. karborre. also all such stuff as hay. casting bullets. peluca to Fr. — Clare. preserve. Bursar. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . when they spring So in W. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. some people in pronouncing the letter r. Port. that birds make their nests with. Sexy. briketo. borsa.

clusprobably Morocco leather. boistel. . bairgan. a bush. a bundle. to turn. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. gave Lat. boisseau. Bush.' The buskin is said Bret. bosta. Du. OFr. a bush. Bush. AS. bustellus. a troop. a corpse). tow. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. we have Fr.-^Bushel.P. a been written buasc.Lat. qualster-boscken. So from Fr. a tuft. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. abdere. buysschen. bundle. the idea of knocking. to stop. bulk. is thus accounted for. bulge. Mid. . —Busk. hunch Du. buskr. biichse. G. bush. boissa. in OE. Thence byrigean. Layamon. Harold G.gur bidst austur um EySascog. BUSH hreaw. basse. and from the Fr. diminutives. and he cites wisp bauschen. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. signifying to entomb. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. a clot of phlegm sart. bausen. a grove bosch van haer. knot. bousIn the other copy ser. borghen. a tuft of hair. as boun is simply buinn. il fut couch6 l^jkema).' meaning of bua is simply to bend. AS. -idis. In to Brutaine. berghen. whence at bua sik. induere vestes .' The word is explained by — — . brake. brodiquin. a tuft guini. The primary sense of hair . and thence Mid. busk. wisp. bossen. a tuft. to dress. whente beorg. brodequin tout noir. Gr. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. which would later have truast. then a tuft Sp. defence. The bone in a woman's stays.fiasc. bo7ich (Fr. 410. condere. bua. preserve. for at buasc. a bunch of twigs. bussare. a -tavern bush. They busked and malced them boun. R. fiast. ' . whence bouchon. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . to dress. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. grapes. Brunne. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft.' sheath. barsc in Heimskringla. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. at bua sig. The radical idea is seen in Goth. bush. a bunch. Fr. It. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on.— ' ii8 {chreo. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. or the like. a hump.' a box.Lat. bramble. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. busken. to bend one's steps. ' . . It is certain that buast must once have Fr. bustula. make ready. Fris. box wood to bush. borseof trees. besom). Brunne. as synonymous with to inake one boun. ' . a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. Sibriht that I of told. bundle * Buskin. Thus Froister . to swell. hjul-bosse. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. beorgan. to keep. barst. and we actually find bushel. boxta. OFr. bouche. Prov. . Du. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. It. Ptg. bousse. verb. 'at bua sik. roquies. the land. apparently a secondary verb. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. the past participle of the same verb bua.boisteau. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. ieorh. : — . lump. busse. borcegui. boucher. dead. bossida. bousche. and not directly (as Du. projection. to bow. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. at buast. buxula. van wijnbesien. occultare K. rad. or — Busk. bussel.) to hide in the ground. bos. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. to direct one's course towards. in the For Skirnis . a wisp. a box for measuring corn. Sc. that the lend had lorn thorn. Sw. a rampart. Bouchet. sur une litifere. to sepulchre. oneself. iriCtf -ifoe. Sir Tristram. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. . See Bust. bunch. to enclose in a case or box. basse. to forest of Eyda. aheap of stones. To Busk. a box. And her ful sone tuft. a gun biichse. Du. The word frequency with which to busk is used. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. to prepare. boiste. Le roy Richard mort. burial mound. buxida. tuft. bosch (a diminutive ?). To prepare. the Moors and of Morocco. . bussellus. thicket of thorns . bosc. ch). See Box. protect . cluster. ' . and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. a box. truasc. thicket {buski. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. buxta. ' —P. to bury. 2. from the ON. Malberg. mount. a little box Dan.

a stroke of wind. brut. See Boss. or chest in which the vitals are contained. a bust. mouth. knock. Namur — Champagne Fr. says. geidha. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. 119 bi{tr. bucha. and also a sounding blow. employment bisgan. body of a man. buc. bustla. Bustard. smack. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. A wisp. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. busta. buquer. Cot. morsequi. a mouth. Cat. Pol. the breast. a kiss. . I. trunk. body. bisgung. 2. chest. bus. betarda. bus. a backstock. On the other hand. bus and Pol. ^A. beso. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). Sp. besongne.bezig. bust. ottarda. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. mohedairova. — clattering about. a sleeveless truss or doublet. tuft. putta. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. also a busk. trunk of Cot. a blow. kupata. Fr. beezig. busche. . biist. Busk. the trunk. ON. a tree. — . The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. ship Sp. a log. Walach. — Thus we should have mocherqui. as in ON. also a flagon. signifying trunk of a the body. Busy. avuDiez. and then with avis again prefixed. — hardly be distinct from Fr. cata — . made stiff. 10. a boat or small vessel . to Swab. to make use of. especially of a woman's dress. sunt quas Hispania aves . Prov. love gestures. So Wes- terwald munds. Hal. bist. log . a projection. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. Comp. snout. an affair. Fris. of the human body (Grandg. — — difications of the same word. stem. Rouchi. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. inde discurro et operosus sum. Sp. borcegui. ' BUSY 2. Port. a Mid. ViM. ON. Prov. of a doublet. bisegung. mogangas from gonj. hipista. bulk. B. bussa. crack . Business. stump. a busk. putschen. So in Fin. mosequin. 1372. buz. from jnund. plated body or other quilted thing. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. work. bnist. pussa. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . kiss. arbor ramis trunGloss.). or Cherqui. a kiss of reverence. I go strepo) . btcc. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. a bulk or trunk without a head. the point of a lance. lips. bukr. in Diaz Gris. lip. Sw. bussen. Buss. busch. outard. — — — — It is like the smouldering. busc. a ship of some size. Swiss butschen. Bust. bacio. Bav. to make a splash in the water. bu. a. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. Box. Nained from Proximse iis zia. a bunch of flowers . and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. forms morseqiiill. 2l box. mouth. Fr. The proceedings of Parliament. Fr. trunk of a tree. tarda. also a It. forest. abutarda. Du. box. brusc. The form brust. Prov. 7o\. otarda. stir. 1555. occupied bezigen. besoigAe. Hence probably au-tarda. busch. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. bysgian. or avutarda. butz. kiss. To Bustle. a great billet Cot. Edrtst. bust. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. The Prov. 22. busto. Lindenbr. austarda. lump. brostia as well as bostia. AS. abotarda. sera. With respect to bust.— . a kiss. Lat. body of garment. representing a blow.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. A great sluggish fowl. BUSS Dozy from Arab.D. as in moharra from harbe. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. Bust. an ostrich. Gael. lip.pjik. worn to make the body straight . buyse. mons. outarde. statue of the upper part of Fr.' ON. to occupy. trunk. Xerqui. a kiss. body. occupation. to bustle. but. thick end. and by transposition morchequi. Busitiess :c3iVi . body without arms and legs. a blow.d. vessel employed in the herring fishery.' Plin. I. buta. To hurry or make a great B. Bulch. to knock . small. the long. body . A A busquer (Sigart). buc. biseg. basiuin. Fr. knock. its slowness of flight. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. Lang. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. busq.Lat. buc. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. ' bistardej It. body of a woman's dress It. busy. a bush. would explain the G. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. Fl. fe^a. I bustle.> Also written buskle. bisg. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. business. utarda. stump. a fishing vessel. Sp. and supposes that the common Arab. bruskras well as buskr. a large cljest or particular applibox. windbutsch. the body without arms busque. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. baiser. bysgje.

bountifully. a leathern bag. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . slaughter-house. but one thing. a barrel. rotundity of the body.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. those in beccaio. except. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. The E. bouteillier. Tooke's dis. a butcher. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. ' Besides all that. boccino. bhcciero. the name must have arisen before the within. Lang. hull of a ship. calf. Prov.in which his brethren are included. and bot. add. But when will you pay it ? the belly. beccaria. the body of an animal. bouz. in addition. G. without law. the bottles. able. are. similar train of thought is seen in ON. from as. Here the but implies the existence of an. equivalent of AS. .' or ' there is not but one body of a man. binnan.' — — ' . viz. ont jhi^ton. of the wine and drink. OFr. outside that moreover. barriga. the trunk or body of an animal. Fr. viz. botte. boteria. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. a baiTel . and with It. without punishment . plain the conjunction as signifying boot. Sp. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery.' Thus Chaucer says.' there is really a negation to be supplied. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. from boc. Whatever is in addition to Butler. Lang. bitlga. by the mode in which he is treated. But It. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. butan ce. — . biitait slaughterer of goats . bag. Ben-house. the belly._ bitten j biiten door. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. bitten dai. (children) boc. If that where now we should compiler. buta. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. AS. boucher. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . Wall. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. besides that . ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. belly. bochier. that which would be translated by Fr. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. "PLT) . bisgung. being wholly unten. — we acle for liquors. body of a shirt w. a goat. the servant in charge of the original object. a goat (and not besides . a wooden cask. also a hollow vessel . or what in in charge of the pantry. belly. a budget. collection of casks. butan. young mais. mais. beccaro. a small winebag. the precise correlative of but. and the real origin of the and within . bout. bodifie. properly a butan wite. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. a butchery. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. Du. an outlaw from bouche. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. the present day we should say. Fr. beyond the Piedm.jamin. a bottle. As a conjunction but is in every portion. without.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. belly. to-boot. beta. my is called the adversative use of but.streets. tinction between but.The Sp. bute. A A . the body of a tree or of a man. bocin. without buiten-man. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. the Perhaps besogne — . is well explained by Tooke. the principal apartment. without the house kept in bottles. the mouth). botija. we find ben. bolr. moreover. bolgia. Where at an earthen jar . hollow case. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. the store of ten. Butt. bous. ways. without care.' ' write. boquier. Sp. Butler. bol. a butcher . ox. Buttery. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. . large barrel. Butcher. wooden receptthing to be done. bola. But In Sc. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. rumpf. trunk. is put in a class by himself. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. a cask.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. earthen which the debtor has adverted. ' There is leathern bottle. bounds of. calf of the ' say. Sp. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . as Pantler. Fr. sup- meat and drink. So in Italian from becco. be out. original sense of without. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. skin-bag. which the word corresponds to the Fr. then hoUow trunk. botilla. the full expres. It. bole of a tree. gives at least two pounds sterling. the jug and in E.

to be con. an etwas anstossen. by boE. a stroke di animal. a hill. butz. Butter-glass. the store of while bottich. botte. a large belly. thrust forwards. a. to thrust. a buttrice. Lang. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. grease that sets by merely standing. Bav. to abut on. the trunk. courtaud. tress. is formed the augmentative buttatich. Hal. gigot. — . to bow. poke. Du. From Du. buttals. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. butt. are the strips at the edges of the field. a mound of turf in a field to sup. clunis. bouton. bocgsuin. Boutje. or person Schmeller . at. Schmell. pied. &c. To come full butt against a butts. bout. bouton. G. to femur. bott. potacha. any small projection. submit shaking up salad sauce. Du. the Butter-fly. to thrust. to push earth . An erection built up as a Fr. to heap up earth or ihrust. botto. stump. give way. to thrust. boiUer. obedient. Bav. Buttery. a thrust the thigh-bone. butt.arbre. dripping. Fr. — . strike. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. coxa. : . butt of a person. an ox. a little push . from the large knobbed head of botto. a corner horses' hoofs. — A . . botta. in the R. butte.— BUTT leg . a. bot blijven staan. oir spike with a k coup . Mur-buttant. buttare. to throw . a dle . bocsam. both. . to boult flour. stump of a tree Fr. bata. nourrissons. Schmell. Halma. ment being supposed to resemble butter. butyrum. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . Hal. a boss. a bot. bot. any short thick thing. butteln. boter-schijte. Buttrice. to butt. A — — — . are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. to so close to the Fr. &c. a bun. From the noise of drinkables in a house. Perhaps corrupted Lat. pwtiaw. waste ground. i. botten. povrvpov. buter. bottich. a but in the W. Du. to thrust . of the present day. to blad. nursling. To Butt. Btetter-schmalz. Cot. Grandg. having a rotundity . a button. a ribbed glass for dient. the thigh of a goose. a bolt. butt. Fris. obeto shake backwards and forwards.' thick from shaking. the edge forwards. Gael. to touch at the end. a button. signify a cask or tub. boter-vliege. butter. short thick thing pimple. — — — — . R. nourrisson. boil. or or shore post. the rosebud. From Grisons biitt. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. Du. e. from stossen. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. clumsy . W. AS. hillock . large head. Du. See Butler. a leg of mutton. The Bavarian potig. W. Kil. to cast. from rejeter. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. thrust. what is kept in a blow. Fr. a blow. geboogsaem. humble. a tub.to push. — A . a cask. Fr. as in G. butte. Butter. of E. put. on. Fr. Button. from bouter. Bout van het schouderIt. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. as rejeton. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. boutoir. end . to abut a stone roof. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation.against another which needs support .thum and not button. To strike with the head bags. It. a stump or club foot. bout. tout seat or breech. a flying buttress. Fr. fle>(ible. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. boteria. but this is probably from Fr. aim whence to make a support to a wall. bothog. leg of lamb. Fr. a heap of merly called pushes. a wall butor butt on. to thrust Fr. a mound. a button. bouter. so as to make a sounding blow. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . striking end. a buttress Cot. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. trapu. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. . the thick end.rejected thing. from bugan. then the thigh or leg of an to push . a boss. * Buxom. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. as if from Povg. buhsom. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . bodi. Buttock. butter. bud. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. Buttress. Buttel-triib. butter un. Gris. able that Chaucer. suddenly . a barrel. and the true derivation boar. fowl. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. to strike. boter-vogel. caput scapula bout van f been. botta. So in English pimples were fora clod. Sp. the prick in the middle of a target. The word body itself seems identical with G. bodi'. lams-bout. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. Gr. Kil. a blow. a scope. Fr.. Boutant. buttock of beef is called butr. w. but. thick.. pwt. from notirrir. botwm.putan. bot. buttern. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. bottig. rabodd. boutis. bouter. -ez. boding. Kil.

a beetle. 200. bozzago. P. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. The sense of buxom. bauhta. Pecock Repressor. Byre. to buzz. 116. ii. blessing me with their of side. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. A ful benygne buirde. called Cabala or Tradition. Dan. Verstegan in R. big. bi. OE. favourable. buzzicare. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. as in Da. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. and would have been lost in E. lb. byar-rettr. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. bylove. CABAL Goth. bugjan. favourably to a petition. — 122 BUY P.— P. p. jus municipii. a borough.busardj Prov. to pass by. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. bees. Then applied to speaking low. 3. a by-path is a side path . A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. G. depends upon a esteem in falconry. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. Many good mological explanation. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. confusedly. 21. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. groat in token of his good heart towards him. Buzzard. To Buy. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. who makes abigg. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. a town. It. leges urbanse ON. AS. . to sell. and it is of good will. & Q. bar. to wit. to jan. . which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . It. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). A by. to stand at his side . indistinctly. —gracious of speech. Lat. A A We — — — days' wonder. Sw. byr. from by. good-humoured one. bygge. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. Etynj. AS. stall.in N. bei. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. Goth.P. town having separate jurisdiction. frabttg- To Buzz. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. to swear with him by . buso. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. to purchase for money. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. lete. from whom it was addressed. Mercy hight that mayde. By-law. son. as heedless as a cock-chafer. \s\xy. cow-house. buzac. buteoj Fr. byar-log. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. gracious. and boxome of speche xviii. harty prayers and God speedes. as Fr. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer.. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. 519. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. abozzago. bi. . See Abie. The ON. bij. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. to whisper. also say. farm.. bohte. buzarg. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. Du. train of thought which has become obso. iii. bylag. a meke thynge with — alle. ON. bycgan. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside.— Diet. a buzzard or puttock. tions by one. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. Originally the law of a particular town. Sw. Cabal. village. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law.

whence Fr. gatsch. and Finnish lanLat. — . from manganum. a rope. aak! tandi like Fr. capo. . but it would seem to explain To Cackle. 'habl. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. Mid. is probably unconnected. Didot. : — from violence without blood. a shed. . Sw. It. Choux cabus. cacare . for the origin of which see Carabine. To Cabbage. dirt and the Fr. cabarino. laitue cabusse. cable . Gaggle. akista. kabaSsen. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. wilful). E. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. E. Kil. It. ceach / exclamation of guages. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. — . Ptg. cabaii. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . cabane. a rope. Mid. band. the Slavonian. hovel. a jacket Fr. cadabola. and Ptg. Fr. Coticesserint Swiss aa. cabacho. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. kabas. cabo. Very generally used. origin is the OFr. Celtic. Capstan. havyar to caviare. (ca/coe. or rush basket. caable.Lat. disgust. Lang. an engine for casting stones. in which sense are explained The the OFr. round or great headed. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. caboche. cacare. maim. a rope. agge machen (in nurses' language). — the ON. Lith. signifies down. overwhelm. covering. cabuyskoole. precisely in the sense of the lari E. hoard together. giiare. chabla. calabre. kabat. gaggi. lactuca capitata. su/Furari. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune.ticula. kakaloH. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. cadabula. the Prov. Du. form kactal. capuccio. and the Arab. It. caqueter. bad. or cadable. a cabbage . . surripere. filth. . whence Lang. cabo. manganare. originally an Gael. — Ibid. chaable. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. Antiq. overwhelm (Diet. Tugurium. traboccare. dirty. to keep or Du.' Due. cadabulum. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . as Diez supposes). Fr. cabus. From It. headed or cabbage lettuce. or as an interjection of disMod. manticuKil. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. agge. disgusting such an engine was exerted. gaggele. Cabin. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable.). . gabardme. Cot. cabuccio. to chatter. signifying properly a rope's end. cabre. mdhaigner. OFr. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. . a headed cole or cabbage . an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. cadabalum. capanna. a cloak of felt or Cack. a rope or cable. OFr. accablcr. Cablisb. The double a in the OFr. to crush. case. a booth or hut. cab.Gr. cadabulum.. as Turk. Sp. as an expression of Gr. caable (in legal language). Lat. Cot. especially shepherd's frock. would correspond to cable. a tunic. chadabula. Due.. forms indi. to hurl in Nat. kakla. gaban. headed. Mid. Common to Lat. Cappa in OSp. heady. a covering. vile. Cabbage. caables. cables. Castr. brassica — capitata. Imitative of the cry of hens. It is remarkable that the Esthon. Fr. caable. To steal or pocket. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. kabane. Cabinet. it would seem fundain children's language. a head (whence cabochard. cabre. stercus. agga. dirty. name of the projectile engine. cab lis. dung. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. has kabbel. Due. head. cabulus. to put or pack up in a frail. properly windfalls. OSp. cdble. and as we find stones Mid. cabbage. It. Finn. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. a frail. OFr. w. disgust cac. ckaable. and Or. serious injury — In like manner It.Lat. vincially used in E. — Kil. to strain in such a manner . deponat a store closet. cabas.. cabasser. Katr-iT-aKt. Item habeat vocant. Neckam — by the wind. string. Du. Fr. come the Fr. hut. &c. geese. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. The name of the engine. as it must have stood in French. The Sp.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum.Lat. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. Du. Brushwood — — B. ! — . Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. chaable. Sp. prostratio ad terram. to hurl down. — Tarbe.. aeggi. the bowels. &c. Fr. nasty. a car- We convasare. —Diet. from trabocco. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. Etym. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. aakkat'a. main. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem.

analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. kdfich. caliche. to — Fr. N. Fr. Flo. kolo. Turk. wanton. The Lat. hence musical rhythm. Calamary. so gabble corresponds with Fr. See Kiddier. to throw themselves into the sea. Originally from a Slavonic source. to treat like lime. . It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. chetif. ratas. lime whence calcareous. ON. a corpse. calentar. calendarium. a hollow place. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. . ' . cadence. A . kaeckelenj Gr. a circle. Du. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. to gabble. chaudiere. gavia. calidus. Fr. its mother. . naXaiidpi. It. Calf of the Leg. Due. a cylinder. safe. a dence. Calendar. Sw. It is another form of the E. Gascon capdet. kalem. chattering. hot . or prattle. kolesb. to sleek hence a den. kolyaska. capCalenture. for green fields. Cot. En kaka br'od. From lerie. collop. pet lamb. a wheel . kauwe. Tea-caddy. calf of leg. It. cauldron. kalfvan hout. lord. little chief. to cackle . Pol. Calandre. kalfi. pen Mod. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. dial. boy. kaad. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. A — fall. ever and anon. Lat. a mischievous dial. cage. kuchen. a lump or large piece. a cake or loaf. * Calibre. a roller. Cake. calamitas. cavea. caioler. a car. cykevie. Turk. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. frisky. a waggon . Calash.— Cot. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. Fr. joyous . incolumis. lindrus. a loaf of bread. (in the augm. Sp. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. cuttle-fish. Lat. cageoler. Russ. 124 prattle . colibro. prate. kola. from the Chinese catty. Cot. of which. ben- kalf. Fr. calentura. kdtr. a falling. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. the younger son of a family said to be from . CALIBRE a sea inkstand. without loss. calamus. Dan. to heat. Calp is riadh. just falling. bad . Cajol. is probably delusive. especially of something soft. from the ink-bag which it contains. koeck. Sp. loss. It. an ugly waggon kolaska. disease of sailors from tivus). calcis. coop. javioler. the pi.uv. Gael. master. Calcialate. Fr. Lat. Calocli. calibre. kolo. The Calf. jabber. Du. limestone. to prate much to little purpose. a wheel. Roman reckoning. kukje. the calf of the leg. dead body. To Calender.— Calliper. cadet. calba. Cadge*. An open travelling chariot. principal and interest. a wretch. It. Sp. Cadaverous. whence calash. Cadence. kakulla. marrow. calculo. of oxen and similar animals.Gr. . Lat. gabble. —Atkinson. capitetum. cadere. G. The young G. Sw. kolo. or smooth Hnen cloth. captive. form) calderone. Cage. gaggle. to cage. cattivo (from Lat. Arab. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. cabdillo. loss. calessa. B. hot. Dan. a vessel for heating water. A hooded carriage. KxiKivh^o^. Lat.— . pith. calibre. Perhaps from w. a common cart. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. It. Calc-. calidus. misfortune. gabbia. Lat. signifies a waggon. gaggia. to compute. kail. calesa. To Cajole. rattaat (wheels). to . Cot. — — — Dan. kat. Mrs B. G. a wheel . and troublesomely attached to. taking it Sp. cha'cmie cadence. Fr. kage. In the same way Fin. Caddy. a caFr. a wheel . unruly . prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). calx. Du. pi. Sw. of the nature of lime to calcine. caldaria. wretched. kalb. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. kolasa. cadenza. Lat. reed-pen. kaka. Caldron. Fr. gabbia. from Gr. Cadet. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. frolicsome kaad mund. Lat. Serv. — in a kiln. As Du. Lat. calendrer. &c. on. Caitiff. cake. babbhng. from calendcE. Lat. the lump and the increase. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. from calculus. It. or colpa na coise. a calesh. chaudron. Calamity. whence Lat. kolyasochka. caldarius. a calash . a low note. . KaKKat.warmth . when they are said to poor. Du. a counter used in casting accounts. Fr. cage. A cuttle-fish. a tea-chest. the pith or soft part of wood. an inkstand . coll. the bore of a cannon. calpa. cadaver. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. Cauldron. kolesnitza. desire of land. one unduly indulged by. * Cade. roller. a small stone. a reed. gabberen is identical with E. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. a fever. Lat.

The primitive colubrina bombarda. calca. i. femme frivole et babillarde. Ptg. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. callum. Bi. Due. trull. calma. a feathers. the scalp or skull. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. depreciatory term for a woman. sence of wind. push violently. the hard surface of the ground. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is .position is much less common than the geschut. Unfledged. the day. water-tight. cauque. calare.(jaa= ice). They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. cotton cloth. or languishing drought is . longior. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. to calk. Sp. ' rine. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. the Fr.en~ kinds of firearms. Fr. 'A callet of boundless tongue. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. Hard. abto suppose that E. To call. scalmato. AS. which is as much as to say. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). and E.from Ka'tm. tittle-tattle. Mahn derives it from Lat. caliver. vulgo Coluvrine. Sp. which has its memory preserved in Du. to be of a good or bad quality.' But it is hard Du. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. Antiq. diameter of a ball. According to Jal (Gl.meaning of the word. drive. glotton. Fin. calk.. and sometimes a handgun. to proclaim. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. Lang. Mil.— . in which dangerous to place implicit faith. Kavfia.piicede Lat. kahcwe. ululo Turk. quiet. caluw.' Chaucer. quality. Turk. to rail or scold . * Caliver. oldire from audire. calat of leude demeaning. calme. Kil. kil-u-kal. KaXka. by many that the weapon Callous. The word was also written cawme in OE. calor. donderbuchs Sp. but is only a jda-kallo. bombarda Cauma incendium. heat. to say. on. a successor. harquebus or handgun. To drive tow or oakham. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. to tread. coluber. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. calibre. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . a. hot. a last. a soldier who the It. whereas in troth it is not. kol. serpentina. of the bore of a firearm met. CALICO Calliper-compasses. harden by pressure. or mould. * Callet. dragonder. them &c. The reference to heat is preserved in. to burn. the heat of Now these Du. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. u to an I in such a colubrum. tapulta. and heat. form.' Whitby Gl. a round of abuse. ' pert. skin hardened by labour. whehce it was first brought. moso. To century was Squalibre. — — — — — . couleuvre. an adder. Call. cauma. Gael. culverin. calma. Gr. a drab. Indies. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. Calm. word of mouth . The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. the Fr. sclopus. calvus. to call. kalla. gossiping. serpens. form in the kalib. colubrina. overscalmaccio. E. bald. hallottaa. to hear. Ca. colubraria canna. B. cahna. Fin. sestus. calcaich. ram. Calico. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). caillette. coluber also. The origin is Gr. Fr. can be distinct from ODu. CALM to press or stuff. the latter of chamber. faint. given. sound. to abuse . Du. Mid. calo. quA librd.Lat. Ibid. callus. saucy. to cram. qAlab. Kil. Diet. licht stuk The change from a. hollaing. khalif. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. having a thick skin. however. fistula. klover. dragoon. overheated. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. of a column. Heb. piece of bigger circuite. moist. — Fl. prattle. kal. calcare. Fr. to affirm. 125 Prov. to callet. Lat. to prattle. calclover. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. faint. Sup.' Slange. chatter kallen. brawny. NE. whence couleuv. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. . people's remarks. scold. kael. . voice. Derived by some from Arab. kind heat of the sun. calgua. To Calk. nautique). or caliever. kallo. It. Caliph. to call. Sc. calleting. Among these were the turn. done with heat Alt. a good calling. dial. Fr. kal. calicot. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim.' Winter's Tale. alta voce ploro. chatter. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. coulevrine. calc. koluvre. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. Dief. Lat. — — — — — . So It. heat. from Calicut in the E. Sir John Smith in Grose. and dragon. try. Diez. calibre. Callow.

cam^e. — Lat. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. field .. Lat. to the force of the wind. samon. on. properly good country. crook. cancer. co7nbar. Cambric. E. Peter Martyr. to bow. a may have acquired that signification from plain. cambren. It. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. Kakoycpos. a basket. slander.Gr. It. It. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. canis. camisade. to warp. From fluting or furrow in a column . ckaouma. KafivTu. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. Cameo. camp. A — the Cannibals. chandelle. whence Fr. campus. also an eatmg sore. nia. a large drinking . Fr. sore. Arab. Cambrel. the bed of a stream. to break. bis. cancello. E. at the ends. crooked. Lat. In a different application It. the calix. different sections of the like the Chinese. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. campo. chaitcre. a goblet bud. camaien. crooked-stick. se cameloter. cere : Lat. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. It. camiscieia. cambr^. Fr. Camisade. Ptg. cainahelus. champ. ation. . whence the Fr. Lat. mg Canister. a dog. a crab. arched. camiscia. Fr. across — Bellenden in Jam. E. cambrer. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. chamold man. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W.' ' Quhen a lattice. having an aquiline nose. Camp. Sp. campagne. cAouma. camber-nosed. crooked. a. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. Candy. Mid. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. campagna. Camlet. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. It. camafeo. the type of a hollow pipe. from candere. Cambray. open and level ground. chommer.—Jam. calutmiia. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. to bend. From campus was formed Lat. cambre. candela. an eating.' Forme of Cury in Way. is Cambering. when its substance appears inter. Cot. had no r in de bric— Cot. Mod. Fr. The Grisons cauina. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. camisa. — Cancel. lattice. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. clothed in white. Palsgr. Bret. the salmondis faillis thair loup. campo. An eater of human flesh. Pers. to avoid enemy in their shirts. Calumny. aged. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. Lat. It was distinfrom work. Or the word Lat. B. to bend. Lat. w. a field Greek monk. died in 1526. candidus. Fr. Cambrav—Cam. Sp.who their language.— B. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. callar. frank and sincandidatus. Lat. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. salmon. Cancer. arched. Fr. India Islands. sugar. a piece. Lat. canna. ko/utuXoc. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. is Candle. Cann. paign.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet._ kamm.conduit-pipe. catmneo. Fr. Candid. lame. hooked. crooked. whence the noun signifying an applicant. or hollow of a flower. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. unwater chamelot . Fr. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. — B.—Candidate. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. Gr. kanna. from xaXbg. . the heat. Properly calver in the field during a war. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. camelus. brought from Fr. KafitjUe. would plenier. toile some of whom. or Caribs. canalis. lie level. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. cup. Gr. a' Sc. campaign. icaSoytipoe. B. calj'x. Caloyer. Calver of cane. to glow. fresh. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli.Lat. campren. fair. Turk.— Hackluyt in R. water chamlet . time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. campagna. Canibal. Camel.—Cambrel. the spersed with white flakes like curd. Calyx. See Canker. arch. Canal Channel. — — — A — — escume de saumon. cup. champagne. a caught. higher in the middle than Fr. to jut. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. Canker. Campaign. callour. monk. the space of false imputation. camahutus. Canine. aspirant. Sp. good.— Chandelier. canistrum. a. white. and yspiuv. spot for cattle. camelot. It. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. Sanson khanda.

it would have been found in the continental languages. or cantell of bread. say. trine. coarse hemp. Fr. It. canteau. Wtb. Alamannis. Gael. a pipe. a cap. the part easiest broken off. canon. Again we have Lat. a side. Du. a cloak. a hunch of bread. The word seems to be taken from Gael. It. cope. able to receive. cane. shut. Germanis kdppen. quarter . kapamak. from . gnat. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. Kavt\. It. Prov. rumme. kyndel. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. But it may be different source.CANNEL vessel. The meserseum and the mesentericum. a torch. coarse hempen cloth Fr. properly a large Prov. a ruler. cover . a — A — Cannel Coal. See Chape. kand. a hundred. tain. Fr. . capace. Goldast — in in Schmid. canton. a wine-cellar or vault. a small boat. chape. cannu. &c. kwvwxIi. canvas. cainnt. capello Italis. Canton. coat. leiwan kanta. can. edge. hemp. capevole. From Lat. See Capt-. Of vena cava and of vena porta. which is not the case. being a yard or thereabouts . region. Canvas. cantle then is a corner of a thing. and met. to sing. KaTTiram. a Fr. Probably only the augmentative of canto. like a torch or candle. Diez. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. cantred. as. Mod. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. Canoe. quito curtain. kanta. corner. cover kapi. cape. Palsgr. a gelding. Cot. contain. caparazon. W. cannabis. Cantle. from Dan. a corner. territorial hundred. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. kandt-broodts. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. a cane. to shut. Capacious. Hence Lat. Esthon. Sp. Canopy.— Cot. Lat. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. Capari. canapaccia. border.Gr. KCLvva. cannevo. Swab. cannevaccia. the heel. signifying cover. Coal burning with bright flame. schlappen. capax. margo panis diffracta. It. pipe. a rule or standard of excellence. canto. The — . Fin. cappa. lump. a ship canot. hemp. a horn of the moon . OFr. haitt. carcase . although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. Cape. the heel. the tried list of saints. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. as a cantle of bread. To Canonise. from a Canter. and the sex- &c. to con- rummer. To canvas — . a scull- — here. A . also a measure. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. It. It. kynnel. Sp. a cover Turk. If the word had been from cantherius. cantone. a boat. cannone. side. a reed. B. from canna. N. Gugel. Cant. canonici. to put upon sacred writers.n. a straight rod. and hence a gobbet. the quartile. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. to contain. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. kq. canevas. a division of a country. a drinking glass. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. chanteau. measure for cloth. border Dan. call. root cap. a tube. a cantle of bread. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. schlapp. capa. hood. Cannoii. kantr. Capable. and tref. was formed Kavtiiv. Kil. . part. cappe. from cant. canapa. A piece of anything. or hold. regular.^on. astrology. covered. chantel. is found languages of very different stocks. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. . name. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. &c. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. Cope. he discourseth of dissection. It. cane. hamlet. From Gr. that the G. cantref. Canon. Picard. language. Jonson. Sp. Schwab. a cloak kapali. kaput.. cheese. cane. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. quarter. . hirnschlapple. canoa. Canteen. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. cantina. canonicus. Mod. cappe. Fr. a door . has kahn. A slow gallop.Gr. a reed. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. cane. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. clqse. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. To his judicial And trowl the tile. ON. speech.

horror. It. Capillary. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. as Fr. capitalis. rihrczzoso. rissoler. cover of a saddle. Griller d'im' patience. cappriccio. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. aggricciare. — to yearne. to shudder. Lang. Hence capitalis the sum lent. a kid. It. to crackle. capitulare. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. airoKOTrrw. cApre. arricciarsi. ^piKos. of a tremtdoiis sound. belonging to From caput. Capers. explained by Diez from capra. The same imitation of Capon. Fl. to from capitulum. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. It. brisciare. a ch illness. gricciare. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. kid. the initial mute of forms like Gr. The true derivation lies in a different direction. And similarly to yearn.). Hal. grisser. ericius. roughening of the skin. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. A . curl. to shiver for cold. heath. capriola. Lat. It. frissoner. compared with Bret. hedge-hog. Genevese bresoler. brisciare. or. with joy' Vikram. hi. to fry. end. crackling sound Cape. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. and 7tucc. So from Sw. also the capriole. the head. caprice. the hair to stand on end. It. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. p. a separate division of a matter. or other things. fansuddenly angry. to ruffle the surface of water. I have shivered with love. birsle. a chevret. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. for which he cites the Comask nucia.— 128 CAPE a rustling. a buck. horripilation.' Cot. greziller. frizzle.Gr. is either wholly lost. Fr. as Fr. hair. Acad. ticchio. the head. or represented by the syllable e. gives rise to Sc. as in Lat. brug. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. a . employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. the principal part of the debt. castrated cock. upon terms Sp. and with an initial gr instead of br. to broil. grug. the singing'bone). brissle. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . frisson- ner .) d'etre The It. eruca compared with It. a hedge-hog. G^' Many words — ' ndv. capriole. curly. Unexpected pleasure. erica. Lat. <I>pi'?oe. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. curling. Lat. See Chief. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. Sp.'— Trev. caper j caprio. It. brisoler.) grezille marid. according to the Hindoos. frort^Lat. Fr. arricciarsi. caj)o. Caper. and his body bristled We to castrate. Fr. h^risser. a young kid met. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. knis-hujwud . and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. s'hdrisser. a caterpillar. then to shiver or shudder. then to be in a state of vibration. as the means of earning profit. a head.' — (Supp. prickly husk of chestnut. they longed extremely to see it. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. to parch. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. as Fr. 75. or Lat. knis. capar. It. to shiver. humorous. CAPRICE twittering. ribrezzo. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. grillcr.— Fl. to . Hair-like. caprice It. cut. ziki. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. Torriano. a capriol.impressions on the ear. algabr. to desire earnestly. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. toy. herissonnement. capro. of a fowl. capparis. chattering of the teeth. a little head. to twitter as birds. capillus. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. Capital. bristling. gricciare. grisser. bruco. brisciare. w. A headland. frisser {frissement d'un trait. a goat. the hair to stand on end. Mod. capriol or caper in dancing. It. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . castrated. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. To treat Capitulate. shrub. or goat's leap (done by a horse). II bresole (Gl. .standing on end. principal. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . shivering. brezilia. It is probable that Gr. gives rise to brezza. to broil. wriggle. shivering. chief. Caprice. Fr. then find the symptoms of shivering. — — A a hair. and OHG. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. greziller. a caper in dancing. Cot. abridge amKoTroq. Arab. where Burton adds in a note. to crackle. a yearning through sudden fear. sault. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. alcaparra. bristling. Lat. riccio. cut off. of a coach.

to this is It. cabreia. and tropically. bock. caricare.). intercept. a cart. to take. di cappa. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. karrende waegen. kerren. capitis. karra. tnoschetta. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. a. concipere. a windlass. and has thus descended unaltered to English. contain. whence capture. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. Lat. dim. a head man. commander. to carry . de- price. chirriar. Fin. crepo. conception. Crab. — —Diet. and has accordingly been lost in E. Lat. desire. -cept. case. Neumann. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. cabestan. latterly. Capuchin. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. i The meaning Car. . The a of capio changes to an z in composition. charrier. calabrin. crab s. as in OFr. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. hold.or -cib-. to take baclc.. Derivatives are Fr. It. It is a standing crab. box. capio. Castr. where it forms a very large class of compounds. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. of capsa. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. receptus. trestle. Capt-. It. captive. Passing on into E. Du. Capriole. deceit. oisr. a reception. carro. verbs gives rise to the element . capitano. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. or the (capo-riccio). recevoir. capsula. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. Cart. a hood (dim. cabra. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. caprice. caThe hrestante. Fr. a sudden fear apprehended. from head. perceive. shivering fit (Altieri). of the Sp. sels. was originally a missile . -cept. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. OSp. a creaking waggon. cabrestante (whence e. Sp. also tresFl. a fantastical humour. charger. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. except. &c. calabrino. Sp. krul. Fr. &c. one odd. In the S. Caseneuve in Diet. conceive. to please. to creak. concebir. as in accipio. decepte. It. Fr. Carry. char. fantastic. capuccio. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. karista. &c. It. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end.). Captain. the -cevofthe Fr. a coffer. chirrion. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. -ceive. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. a. Lat. See Caper. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. precept. Thus the musket. as the dragoons (Du. captivate. capra. Cot. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. cabestrantej Fr. Carabine. also to carry on a car . acceptus. Kiittner. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. deception. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. Capsule. charret. concevoir. Du. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. cams. however. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. caput. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. an engine for throwing stones. at least. capp%tccio. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. The It. Carbine. to take to. a capuchin. a she-goat. recipio. recibir. seize. In cases. recipere. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. carabin. carretta. accept. a cloke) capuccino.of these compound verbs.s. conceit. to accept.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. also a kind of rack. a taking back. Capstern. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. was converted into -ceb. a kind of torture. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. Fr. Lat. Carabin. strideo. It. Fr. and of captus to an e. to load . G. It. fancy. Nordfoss. recepte. a sawing-block or trestles.. Etym. concept. chevre. 129 — receive. It. to receive receptio. Fr. Fr. Cot. captus. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. Fl. a sudden will. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. was a kind of horse soldier. — — Capstan. karren. to creak. a hooded friar.

a collar or chain for the neck. the carob bean. Carcax. to curry horses karsztuwas. Mod. winding. a skeleton. From the battering-ram. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. caraffa. . vitriol. kerwan. garafa. krciti. carcaij. the case of the flesh. karri. carcanada. the core of fruit . an ulcer. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. Gael. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. carabe. cassa. skeleton. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. An implement for dressing wool. a quiver. turning. wine- bottle. Gr. a coffer. a goat. I. a dead carcase. cabreia. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol.z. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. kirat. p. carcame. carquois. quse vocant karabd. a small weight. copperas. to draw in. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. caracal. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot.. Cot. seed of carob. ON. Sp.. a winding staircase. military engines made for hurling stones. a crane. Fr. casso. . But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. bend. Exot. skeleton toise. a thistle. Gr. cabrita. Caravel. Carat. a lock of wool . — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer.. winding carach. Fr. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. to ripple flax. restraint . shell. eit. a ship. is the chine. the name might naturally Mod. to creak. a snail. decanter.. carduus. AS. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. the shell of a torcarcasso. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. Carbonaceous. Pers. carmiiiarc.Gr. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. tcapKaai. matter. a prison. coming to four grains. carch. carquan.applied to a battering-ram (G. a quiver. and catapulta. &c. Lat.charcoal . kard boyd. Card. or framework. also (as Gr. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. a kind of ship. the . avSpaS. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. Sp. to turn. an engine for hurling stones. Bohem. KtpaTwv. black dye. espi7igarda. eitar. karra. Cot. carbunculus (dim. in the same way that the Sp. Gael. properly a siege machine. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). Derived in the first edition from Mod. case. Sp. curry-comb. . poison eiz. quilato. carcanet. It. — seems to be something holding together. constraining . Fr. a ripple for flax. ancient springald. the husk or cod of beans. alia sunt majora. carcasa. Gael. designated in the case of G. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. the carcase of a fowl. carquasse. . cabra. is the word used in modern Lat. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. to comb. Fr. silique. cdrlag. See Carpenter. to card wool. carbo. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. carate. Carbuncle. burning coal. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. a firelock. The Trjg xeXwwac. cramp.' From the same source are SicU. wool card. It. also a small weight. . The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. Gael. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. mural attack. Cat. confining. chevre by the name of the goat. car. &c. carere. for a gun. Venet. the trunk or chest of the body .. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. cerran. Arab. Lith. Sp. bock and Fr. It. a battering-ram). It. a card or comb . Carcase. caraffe. karszti. &c. skeleton. a quiver . contract. boch. Comp. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . cardo. a machine for casting large darts. W. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. carta. a gem resembling a live coal. a twist. OHG. caravela. a thistle. turn of a horse. «capa'|8i. It. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. to hiss (as gee^e). Carrob. Lat. card. of carbo). word is only an adoption of the Turk. fire .Gr. the dead body of any creature. Caraool. carabba. The radical meaning . Parmesan cassiron.— — — . Sp. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. carbh. a he-goat. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. to comb wool . Ptg. to card wool. a wool card. of the same Caravan. ' Vasa vitrea. a case or chest . a quiver . Carboy.

tenax. road. OHG. Charnel. Cath. caresse. . careless take care of. Lat. Farewell flesh.Lat. Cargo. meet at a head.— CARD karr-kambar. carminare. to comb wool. carch. murahtaa. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. morosus sum. carina. . charnel. winding. the hull of a ship. Translated in MS. Sp. cearian. W. strideo. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. fundamental. asper. niggardly . wool cards. love. also a career on horseback. carnavale. kroU-erbser. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. Caricature. to eat flesh. . Carnage. and compare Bret. — To Careen. Bret. Carenare. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. Cot. to clean the bottom of the ship. weyes. that Fl. an endearment. Sp. dear. carcare. Fr. to scratch. de Parthenay. Cot. karl. combing them out like the knots in wool. cearig. as carminare. at murmuring. No ' place there had. Probably the origin of the word is the . carnasciale. It. to fry. . hoed. clown or churl. to parch. Bret. Cark. appertaining to the flesh. Lat. to love. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. Carlings. fleshy . Fr. immediately before the long fast of Lent. caru. . caricare. A mod-carag. caMid. Card. Carl. charag. is to say. piger. to lie on its side. — — . parched or carled. regar. Cot. Fin. kummer. to scrape . karista. and murhet. Sept. Roquef. four. carcus. charie. intrasset caro. A quirito ut infans. karantez. the flesh of animals . Cartel. affection. and sum. and thin. Carnal. E. care. Fl. male person. caritia. zanken . kurista. tuorfurcm (Burguy). the keel. cardo. Bois crolant d'un ladre. cardinis. karrig. to load. or grumbling —Due. kribina. — — — : Cardinal. carriera. Mur. to load. quarreG. Champ. carnal. the load of a ship. the time during which to Rom. . p. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. Care. karry. camovale. from Lat. moeThe Lat. Fr. caricatura. record. murista. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. sorrow. one of those ac- 9 * . carnalis. For the root of carminare. w. in Carp. be anxious. carriire. — — — Caress. bottom. kara. as peas. to care unkarja. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. Fr. W. 1S66. car. sorrow. ON. msstus. crosier. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. &c. tremble. It. Properly a car-road. the keel of a vessel. whence carricare. 8.— Charter. charger. from caricare. voce strepo stridente. essere in carena. a deed. giierlir. as quadrivium from Carnaval. Properly. gakaran. act of moaning.' Slceat. crawl. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. . W. astutus. solicitous. AS. chartre. G. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. carFrom carrus. to card wool. cura may be ror. & Q. in St Jerome. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. crowl.Lat. Chart. — Carfax. Peas steeped and fried. carrefourg. Groler. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. . Fr. carezza. kumra. to growl. grief. beans. to load.. cargo. a hinge. cura intenta. It. from the keel to the water . Carled peas. charg. or street. charnage. karg. 273. x'»P'"^s)) paper. grolU. a highway. quaver a lazar's clack.. charneux. graller. carener. G. sgritudo animi. charta (Gr. Fr. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. kargr. AS. croller. OFr. to whirr (schnurren). It. — — Diez. Venet. Dan. AS. cargar. It. place for exercise on horseback. the old theory of humours. carian. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. stingy. Trin. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. and G. in N. carnis. It. scharren. A medical term from line —Boerio. A place where four roads Mid. morosus. Fr. mutter. cdrle. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. that on wliich the matter hinges. is This however Shrove tide. Gael. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. to comb flax or hemp. to fry or broil. care on. quadrifurcum from quameet. ignarus. stridere. murren. From. ceorl. to shake. principal. like connection may be seen between Fin. carena. karout. a card. the several meanings of the words above Rom. see Garble. Fin. Ptg. ON. to rumble. surrata. 2. a turn. a man. from carus. compared with Fin. to distress growl. Fr. ress. rixosus. from carrus. to take Goth. what is felt as grievous. Carminative. sensual. It. carena. soUicitus OSax. Coll. an overloaded representation of anything.

Beggars Bush. Discov. All out B. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. litter. The karole of the stones behelde. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. lint. to chatter coroli. balade from It. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. Dief. as carnaval from carnelevamen. pluck at. 1 1 30. The word seems of Celtic origin. of Guiana. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. cardos. cited by Marsh. a dance. garrulo. carpende fast Carol. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. CarTo quaff carouse do use. e. . Alluz (G.' Raleigh. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat.— Patriarchi. 94).' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. Fr. culcitra. Carpitam habeat in lecto. a song accompanying a dance then. Mid. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century.D. chirp. — — ' ' — — — I — — . each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. Olr. In Dominica d'autant. Carole. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. To pledge them thou refuse. was formed Mid. carpenticre. A. differing To Carp. chariot carbad. quoted by Carpentier. W. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur.Lat. Biheld within. ON. Pref.' Ordo Eccles. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. 2. . querole. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. ballare. Chanson de carole. and F. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. in Nat. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. chatter skra/a. Shrove Tuesday.: . carbh. The true derivation is : seen in Mid.— R. I drink all out. carduz. So gone they forthe. Carpyn or talkyn.' says Motley (United Neth. a wheelwright. to gather. and Carnem laxare (It. charpie. whence the form carnasciale. worker in timber Fr. krapati. Mid. Bohem. in Carp. 760.— Drant in R. carpita. zimmer. 2. Carpet. i. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis.'— Stat. course. carpat (Stokes). Carnevale. carpenta. carpia. gar aus / all out is correct. Ant. Properly a round dance. biheld without.Lat. sense. a carder. peta.Why give's some wine then. On the other hand bumper to one's health. bier. or a carouse fully drunk up. Gower in Way. gonna. to talk. to dance. In a MS. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. The tippling sots. Mediol. carpo. Cot. On this. in Due. Palsgr.— Neum. tymmer. tattle. Analogous R. . carpenter only in the latter sense. Lat. is erroneous. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. carpetam (a quilt?). Fr.Lat. carpere. i.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. chatter. Other names of the sea. Carpenter. From Lat. Teut. Templariorum — ' — Due. or loose as a couch without further preparation. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. charpentier. I quaught. — . permitted in anticipation of the long fast. Pr. Sp. Lat. to pluck. act of drinking a full Eq. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. Carnelevale. as the Lat. zimmerspan. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. pluck. skraf. as E. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. a drinking cup. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. used for stuffing mattresses. The ' ' a chariot. as Fr. a plank. cxciv. fabulor.]e bois Carnelevale. to reel. to dance. Pm. Ein we find the signification transferred from . Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. garrire. all aus). carpetrix. ship. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. ' ' — . to rustle. koroll. Lat. Here's to you still my captains friend. at midnight which derivation from kroes. Sup. vel coopertorio carebit. Gael. yede tham about. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out.gonnella. a car carpentarius. carnelascid). to pull asunder. carpentum. 216. The custom. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. maker of waggons It. Bret. krapanj. linteamen.' Reg. ! Carouse. a wheelwright. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. on that. qui sacco. Nomin. to find fault with.

It. and matar. an augmentative from Lat. ignominiously exposed. The carrying of anything. casus. carota. caroach. quash. one who reasons on cases put. G.' Bailey. OE. a hut. discharge It. — — nul the proceeding. cascata. annul. as we . Preparatory drawing of a It. to notch. casso. to fall. casag. Cassock. fall It. charrette. a car. subject for a picture. AS. a chest. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. Sp. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. mord-grube. cartone. crown of a hat. hull of a ship. Casuist. cascar. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. from casa. casuelj Fr. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. It. gristle. Casket. carroccio. packing ' cloth.— Fl. to cut or carve . blotted out. casco signifies a skull. a of water. It. a loopscale the wall. Lat. to break. mata. a merchant's cash or counter. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. to crack. gristle. empty. Fl. case. discharge. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. cassa. cartoccio. break to pieces. turn out of service. cartouche. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. of carro. capsa (Diez). Case. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. Fr. caisse. from It. Hence a challenge openly hung up. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. To Carry. to convey in a cart. As defence from shells became more important. Fr. charrier. abrogate. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. cashiered. an act of falling. the charge of — — Fr. a chance or accident. See Card. ' Casa-matta. CartOTicli. crush. cancelled. Cart. mord-keller. to — — also casse. kasseren. Fr. to dash. Fr.to annul. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. Fr. caisse. carreaggio. caxa. Lat. carretto. long man's gown with a close body. caisse. To Carve. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. house. Du. Casual. a coffer or small case for jewels. kerpu. carogna. card. a car. Fl. Rouchi carpHe. and that apparently from capio. Casque. Cascade. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. dim. Hence casket. Case-mate. bag and baggage of a camp. to shear. Probably. Cash. cassette. kerben. augm. des rideaux A'carp^ie. casaque. hung up in some place and to be removed. It. ceorfan. where Fr. like all the names of tendon. cassus. cia. Cask.. Cartoon. AS. Ready money. It. Case. cassa. Fr. Flor. Fr. Du. to fire on the enemy. cascare. vault hole in a fortified wall. Cot. It. also the carriage. coffer. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. coffin of paper for groceries. Cot. case-maiej Sp. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. shell or carcase of a house. — Cartridge. for the security of the defenders. Lat. Fr. kerven. augmentatives of carro. properly to convey in a car. made void. from Lat. luggage. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . carriaggio. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. The Sp. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. Cartel. helmet. — — . a fall. carretta. Lat. Rouchi carone. hollow. something that actually occurs. to slay. paper. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. bitten. cartella. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. casser. carroc- carrozza . cartilage. to hold. corresponding to the G. cut with scissors.' Fl. Lith. pasteboard. Rouchi caroche. See Gristle. void cassare. a long coat. To duash. kirpti. Fr. caroche. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. a canonry or slaughterhouse. cassere. Walach.' Cot. To quash an indictment. caro. — FI. not reaching to the height of the ditch. Rouchi carter. Fr. It. Carrion. from the sound it makes when Alban. Fr. — Cartoose. the money chest. It. cancel. fortuitous. from It. tion from Sp. charogne. quasser. slaughter-house. afterwards any written challenge. Fr. casitiste. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. To Cashier. See Case. casa. and the OE. carrosse. Carriage. casualis. cascade.' — Hdcart. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. krat. a paper case. to bear or carry. It. Sp. casacca. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. to an- — Kil. Gael. Carrot. of carta. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. casa-maita.

Pm. It. castello. KaraXoyog. Lat. first made ordinary Fr. Fr. casupola. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. or bruise together. Gr. second chase. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. probably from an imita. squash. _G. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. Fr. the ground . race. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. to drive away. or comba. to clack. Mid. a Cataract. arpi^m. name. fall. castana. ating. follow after. dim. kakka. perhaps from which we have E. a whip on the other into latch. to end. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. rack. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. from the first of Castrate. castellum. down. Fr. kasi. Lat. klakka.. catar. the earlier sense of catch. Fr. katze. The Diet. while kiss / Pol. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. cat. Fr. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. Cot.to drive out. Catastrophe. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. Hal. . kottr. kat. or Rouchi cat. . chat. cascar. a little house or hut. To Catch. Sp. cast. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. dashing it out of the window. 134 CAST Catacomb. . kic' kicil are used chasser. Sp. Fr. Pol. B.'— Pr. and from the castus. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. Pic. away. crush . Fr.Lat. Others explain it from Kara. Fr. same word with break. to crackle. tails. In the dialect of Picardy. OFr. of castrum (castra). to cast or beat to tioner .out cacciare . Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. which. catch. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. koshka. kotas. It. puss / for calling them. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead.Rouchi Scaches. in the fire. to dash. cacciare fuora. V. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. down. burst cascare. to look at. an enumerlist. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. Castle. ' Catchyn away abigo. kotas. mino. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. to turn overturn. however. the castanets for or implement . Isidore — in Diez. Gael. KarapaKrr]g. to crack. chasuble. Gr. R. — We a cavity. ON. to hurl See Awgrim.— Fl. bot-kotis. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. n. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). Lang. casulla. 'Vaaaw. punch. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. drive away. V Lith. a cat koshki. casipola. ichasses. Cat. torture. which has been retained in E. .the / or c respectively. cacciuolo. force j Rouchi equerviche. coming to us through different dialects of French. to fall as over a precipice. a chesnut . image accasciare. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr.. to lash. a garment for performing the mass in. is not satisfactory. dashing it to pieces. a cat . being Fin. KaTappaKTrjQ. under chi caleur. cat-o'-nine. handle of an axe. speak of dashing a thing down. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. Etym. execu. Brunne. on. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. heat . It. kasta. cassa / cry for the same purpose. represented by the syllable quash. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. Roukind. chasser. dash. Chase. to is Essentially the Sp. Catalogue. puras E. Yz. to Fl. to torture. cash. casser.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. sue. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. 120. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. to scourge. to make clean or chaste. squash. signifying breed. Castanets. stilts. So also from It. accastiare. kaJoivad. to drive Cat o' nine tails. Cast. a vault. . from water Karappaaaiii. To It. of sarabands does Gr. to close. lance. chaleur. kissa. casule. cacciarc. Hence castaneta. by the loss of with several pitched cords. Thus we have Caste. a fortified place. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. castanetazo. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. The E. like that of It. KaTaarpifm. chasser. ecrevisse. was introduced. to break. the stalk of plants. castro. shaft of a 1 push. cojz^/a. and KviilSog. to hunt. to bring to an crack given by the joints. fer toTa. and tomba. Fr. a thump. &c.

such a sound or the stroke which produces it. the OE. caker. a cornIn the s.V.yopl(. gingle. G. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . cross-bow that carries but a From poll. kletse. called dog or Galla catchamza. to chatter with the teeth cake. . de Bray. — . a carter's Pat. an accusing. 'Horxa. Gr. — tinman. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. catch-flesh. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates.j. s. Sc. Kil. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. 135 — Aasen. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. caucht. instruction in forms. to chat. gliong. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. On Catechism. — Catcli-poll. Sp. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. catc?u. and answer. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. klatscherei. Chate peleuse. claquer. chasse. silkworm. to teach by oral instruction. children's name for cat . to snatch (said of dogs). . icarrix'Ki^. smack. flap klatsche. chink. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. the the same principle he was Fr. apprehend a person. Gael. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. fragor kletsoore. a whip Rouchi cachoire. formerly called cliket. a — gatta. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. E. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. verberare kUts.P. Guernsey chafer. ArbaUte de courte chasse. compare G. called in Fr. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. Tutschek. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. snatching it with a any one.' ^Jam. ecachoire. kaetse. to catch strength. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . woodlice. wild-beast. insect. .. resono ictu lash. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. GaUa catchiza. In the XV'e. cagnon (a dog). Kariicatching one a box on the ear. worm. companaige. chachara. Guernsey pilleure. happe-chair. bichano (pussy). Claucht. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. — explained.V. predicament. kletsen. snatching. i. cat is not apparent. OFr. seize. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). devouring mite or weevil. to snap. Metivier. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. bicho. catch. * Caterpillar. the elements of a science. glcu. c or ^. Fr. chacepol. Kartiyopta (/cari. or any kind of relishing food tuals. a whip or Kuttner. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. resound. catch. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. klatschen. a pill. 'Bxn. ictus resonans. quincailler. chatter. Caterer. to harangue.' CATCH Fr. clatter. Gael. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. ketsoore. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. * Cates. Rouchi clincailleux. Cot. chase. Grandg. to kythe D. chassoire. e. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. Du. a caterpillar Milanese can. clap with the hand. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. an officer of taxes. Fr. KaTtix'so. blow. . — Kiittner. dainty vic- a form lash. head. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. gattola. which all . — with a whip. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. E. millecaterpillars. Cates. a clap. E. is said that he got a claucht of it. from Gr. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . klatsche and Norm. weevils. to A bailiff. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. as of the latch of a As ! — . Du. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene.from Bard and ayopsw. P. a little dog). ' ' word catch. e. klinke. ' Fr. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. Ptg. the distance to which the ball is struck. from shutting with a click. — B. cache. to crack GATES cache. . sound.s. a. latch of. Swiss Lombard G. a whip. snatched. to clap hands. whip. dainties. Fr. clap. Cot. with and without an / after the c. Diez. door when it is shut. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. Du. to take. a whip. in order). latch. a smack. has both or of charming by sound. Wal. chenille {canicula. a. Kil.) . pedes. chatter . klatsch. to the crack.

Palsgr. . fur. katte. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. Cause. to shoe.—— — 136 correct. despencier. calotte. Gr. a road calceata.p. to shoe . by land. a stalk. Fr. and spareth for no perell. dumpf tonen. KaHSpa. That he was ay before in his estate. koparet. a receptacle for small things. Cathedral. hot. quire. a horse. It.. G. to ac- — Fr. flue. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. is Prologue. — — cavallo. Pr. Caustic. cale. choufleur {choii. mudet. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. kitten kotki. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. chair. Caution. what . to buy.' Elyot in Way. KaPaWrii. Catkin. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. Gr. kobuiV. the. It. Gr. Gael. macska. a mare. Mid. cabbage-stalk. KiwariKog. minon. catons. Ka^afriKOQ. Boethius. from delf^gato. kassije. Cauldron. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. lamb. chaudroii. ce^l. shaled or picked Fr. but the acates that are sent him. via strata. . chaudiire. a seat. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. whence cathedralis. apt to burn iron. Cave. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . calidus. Caballus. CATHARTIC sense. Cavern. kocianki. calqada.willow. w. and hence a skull-cap. Manciple's Tale. cavus. a kind of skull-cap. acaptar. green husk of a calon. chausser. chatideau. a horseman. Kavrijp. . kopano. accattare.^Hal. Jonson in R. 2. cautis. It. Lat. On the other hand. adcaptare.Lat. a The peel. . Causeway. from chaud. the stones of a street. kobyla.^ acheter (Lat. having the property of cleansing. a horse . cautus). Cavalier. — . It. cal^ar. Kavrfipiov. Chaud. Du. catkin Magy. rete A — Prov. little cap is . a pavement. make clean. kopista. puss. kautsije. to beware. Jaubert. chaussJe. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. Kil. to sound like a blow . achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. from KaSaipio. Mid. caple. The word — . caudex . to burn. Fr. a horse . Hence achates or acates signified purchases. mutz. puss. kaussijde. fur in general. Dryden in R rete.Y\\Xea. cabbage. kdtzchen. Lat. . klopfend knallen. Sx. Cavalcade. Lat. Fin. Lat. Wyatt in R. a pulpit. Richly she feeds. Diez). Fr. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science.. reticella. Delycates. a paved road. walnut with the husk on challer. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. Cathartic. cale. Fr. cheval. Fr. cabbage). to shale or peel. A warm comforting drink. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. little cat. a kettle for heating water. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. the caul of the liver. Cavity. catkin mitz. chevalier. Fr. primitive is meaning a shale or off. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. net or caul-work. Fr. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. from caveo (p. capull. Bessie of Bednall. acater. calceta. Pol. accapitare Rouchi acater. hot. . 4. chauderon. Cattle. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. also to pave . Fr. catkin Pol. CAVE Caul. Fr. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. cauHs. hazel. Thus Bav. any Fl. Palsgr.' B. Fr. • — — See Chattel. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. catkins . caul is also a small net to confine the hair. katteken. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. Lat. kin. Russ.Lat. to purge. calceata. otherwise written kell. ' Gr. &c. caballus. Lat. — Cauterise. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. It. hollow. is used in the sense of cat-skin. B. a branding from koiio. kocie. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. cavaliere. OE. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. Provider. deyntie meates. cat maczoka. . Du. Rete. puss. Caudle. Cavalry. and at the rich man's cost By sea. caldo. challe was ther of a temple. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. causa. Port. achepter. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. flock.

The sense of roofing. . tester of a bed. bridle. sill in window-sill. Sir 137 pit . &c. Lat.' Ordinances and Reg. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. Fr. empty. crooked kopio. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. . death. 7. coffer. wainscot thiljar (in pi. —Decease. koppeli. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. little house. plank. -ceed. komo. &c. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. -cede. dScis.). kapp-zaum. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. cessum. in Jam. A — A false accommodation produced G. So from Fin. . the inner roof of a room of state. ciel de lit. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. thelu. . departure. to argue capto tiously. . Hence concede. nailes will begin to cling.' del. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. selar. Lat. in Jam. The It. proceed. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. a beam. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. lambrisser une chambre seeling. heaven. ciel is so unbroken. syl.' — Gawan . — .'— Z. hollow ice . cyling (W. a halter. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. as if from happen. excess. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. of E . quibble. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. . CEILING The kynge to souper is set. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. cielo. H. Cavil. thili. See -cede. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. dille. 'A celler to hange in the chamber.' Marriage of James IV. — — — toyour soverane. a boarded floor. ceiling. hollow. wuoren komo. . with their substantives concession. board . — . — komo tain). Gawaine & Sir Gol. Cot. is applied to a canopy. Fr. Fr. of cavezza. dayntily diglit. sill. and Gol. selure. hollow. beam. The line of descent from Fr. p. It. Cease. to plank ON.' Hall. Boyd in Jam. or of a bed. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. -cess. 5. a log. post. to panel or wainscot MHG. p. cavezzone. 32. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. hung. In the same way G. pp. &c. deal. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. del into English without ' translation gave cele. curved. step away. . cedo. were met. Lat. Ceiling. plank. -cease. . ceiling. recede. a head. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. sky. E. Cam. a plank. to seele or close with boards plancher. cease. cavillor. a hut. syle.j have come from this source. dil. thil. applied to a canopy. a log. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts.' Rutland papers. semely on syll. In the N. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. but hang around at the sides. cabegon. lambris. seele. thilja. VIII. wall. jaa. a fir-plank. augm. succeed. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. heaven. to go forth. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. in Hal. Lat. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. . and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. sybire. a severe bridle. CAVESON kopera or kowera. IV.. Sp. canopied. flooring E. and that from Sp. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. the testern of a bed. to cut. 43. a planking or boarding tkilian. The importation of Fr. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . And seik — Cessation. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. to canopy siled. a canopy. menuiserie. Sherwood. yield. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. To seele a room. B.' Cot. that. Plancher. kommata. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. hivtmel. cesso. Fr. and zaum. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. decessus. caveqon. cabega. rafter. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. sus-lambris.). . the deck of a ship at thilja. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. a log. thel. . Wore. also a seeling of boards. komista. to plank or floor with planks. the roof of a coach. cellar. column E. an aquiline nose. give place. door-sill J Sc. . the bowl of a pipe koppamato. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. exceed. &c. a canopy. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. thil.. Soc. and then to gape. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. departure from this life. Hal. thiling. as. Cede. a board.

volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. Cereal. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. oil. encens. much frequented. Centre. an eyelash.ing a room where there is not fire. cot. to sleep). Fr. to glow. but was gradually lost in conceit. cigliare. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. Gr. a solemnity. {cori)cipere. Lat. quarters for slaves. empty. also grave opinion. for building. to celebrate. to think. rubble. as in some places burnt. and — — — possessions. a religious observance. to take. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. riscaldarsi. Celebrity. is the opposite of disora virum. . To seel or close the eyes. chaufferette. from censeo. Fr. decebre) .— Chafing-dish. to course of people. Fr. KsvTpov. Prov. — — Cenotapli. a tomb. -CEIVE a shaft. calefacere. -ceptjun. -ceive. Coehim. goad. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. oil. Lat. appertain. Lat. to concern. cretum. in comp. or any bird's. Lat. Gr. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE.' Book of St Albans. eyelid. to blindfold. . a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. to chafe. 1. crevi. (and thence also) to hoodwink. S. OFr. with transposition hence (of a day). Centurion. to rate. to distinguish. a solemnity. to visit in numbers. In Celebrate. K^'ivut. in comp. and so of that other. to warm. &c. syll. keep in It.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. or expression of Ennius. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. camentum. cillier. Cij(fe5j.. stones to the production of heat. To chafe is for wine. sile. Lat. confounded ist from It. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. To Incense. irot\oe. celer. single or unwedded life. as entering largely into the derivative certo. Gr. Lat. Incensum. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. -cipio. Fr. conceipt. dchauffer. and met. the talk of men. to set on fire. blind. concerner. value. tax. to twinkle darkness. to attend on object with. Censure. judge. Fr. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. to heat.). Cot. deceipt. and thence to conceal. to incense. cilibat. a Cemetery. hollow. the officer appointed to take such returns . see. judge Lat. &c. we have a modified form of (of a place).— Cellar. a registration of one's self. point. Ta^oe. zens according to their property. celeber certus. siller les yeux. -cepire. Chafe. a shaft horse. candeo. Celerity. the point round which a circle is drawn. Fr. See Cede. tax. It. Lat. concernor. make angry. deceit. — . Take the nedyll and threde. pick out. contend. caber. Cess. censura. Assize. ceremonia. Lat.unmarried. -civer {conciver— Roquef. -oept. in Marsh. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. family. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. age. decide. guish. festive. — . Fl. The term cilium. Gr. — A . parted sleep. eschattffer. to sepap rate. then to rub without reference Cement. assess. a hundred of what- — . mortar.. It.). capio. rough from the quarry. For sess from assess. materials It. cenio. criticism. being taken from Fr. in accordance with the Fr. -cern. judge. to bury). -cevoir. is totally distinct from the foregoing. sacred show. cencer. Census Censor. estimate. See Celibacy. calefare. to prick. swift. ciller. to -sum. a storehouse Chafe. with the eyes. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. centum. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. thronged the participle cretus.' Celebritas. chauffer. from Saa-rw. become heated with anger. a numerous con. Cell. abundance. Fr. Cot. his office. and put it through the over eyelydde. Sherwood. distinIt. receipt. concetto. the hollow the Lat. to seele or sew up the eyelids . ' . census. — . -cess. sting. thence belonging to or connected with corn. sure. a hundred centuria. -ceit. Lat. — . is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. heaven. to seal a pigeon's eye. -ciper. census. cella. Accelerate.j 138 thill. cceremonia. Lat. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. to separate. -cense. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. — . to be regarded as one celebro. a prick. a valuation of every man's estate. of heating. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. renown be embodied with. — . Lat. Lat. what to set in a chafe. and thence censer. observe. incense. to contend.cern. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. Lat. /ctj/rsw. to burn incendo. Censor. Certain. the place where the de. Ceremony.of the r. ciglio. -i^oivre. -cepere. Fr. to rub for the purpose a hut. capturn. Assess. to take. -cebre ifoncebre. sift. Century. Sc. solemn (of per. cerealis. Censer.

Pr. talkative. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. leviter crepo Then. 35. to bark. vel susurro. a chough. Came. to call. 11. charge with. kiqfta. havOFr. chalanger. a rustling noise. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. Cot. sborfare. puff. Gr. Chair. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. muzzle. gewolb. kaff. Piedm. hiss. B. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. to file. swelling with anger. any insect of the beetle kind. Fr. to institute anforensic action. shaIt. Lat. Due. to babble. kiaftr. catena. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. Fl. snort. Fr. chaine. Lat. to caw chawer. Halma. Cheffern. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. now a chair. kdfer. So from dominio. from of the G. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. Chayire. kuhina. lime . fume. . clamare. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. Pat. Kuttn. chaulx. Ayenbite. have a mind to parley. hght Chalk. and as this was the beginning of man. rally one. From the To Chaff. place See Cheek. chatter. care. calumnia. to pant. KoBiSpa. of. breathe KaOa^oiiat. keffen. jaw.sure carriage. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. chafing. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. preise. calx. false accusation. cadieira.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. a pulpit. a chain. chambre. Fr. Fr. great chafe. breathe hard. refuse barley . a jackdaw. Fr. fern-chafer. to move the jaws. Fr. The jaw chafty. camera. Kaiiapa. Fr. chaise. Prov. chayire. cathedra. bargain. to puff and blow. sagri. yap. In vulgar language. Fr. . rustling motion challenge. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. difficulty . dongio. G. chaps Chamber. a goba rustling . puffed or ruffled with ly. quisquilise offence. From to go to law. Perhaps Pm. OFr. to gnaw. Camera. chaire. kuhuja. kedja. Chalice. Fin.. P. To buy and sell. from the shark-skin. Gr. dispute. Hal. to chatter or talk lightly. cam. chaene. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. also to prattle. a vault or arched roof. In like manto huff. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. kuhata. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. . chamar. grief. chafeter. signal by drum or P. to calumpnjamen. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. songe. idle words. — . cadera. to claim. kahu. to dispute. calonja. thick and short. in a cana. baras of ants. cathedra. kiamta.' Rayn. call in question for an ley). without chap/are makiinde. Chain. . kever. calix. — — ' — — — A . chawe. Lat. matter by combat. kdfelen. E. haggle. ON. as. Chagrin. — — — — — — . or puff with snorting. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). Fr. Wall. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. cauvette. De Ir4. limare. G. tattle. that leneth e per I'autra. — — — . Lat. care. with a:n arched roof. a prattling woaction. (ca'e'ra) to chair. — — — . kauchen. to gnaw. a pulpit Cot. sagrindse. a double operation * Chafer. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr.nium. much more Genoese sagrind. to buzz. calice. to ner It. Cot. kahuja. from Swiss kafeln. rustling corn. ceaf. fa sagramen de calompnia. vis. in a monstrous fume. to sit. hordeum vel let. Lat. contestation. ing a hard case to their wings. rustle Challenge. ple^. snuff. keuchen. on. ckapfare. p. &c. Prov. Bav. kuhista. avena vilior. kahista. to action arose.— — . Fr. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. Lat. green sagrin. refuse. as a carriage is a moveable seat. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. to a seat. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. much blowing. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. cadena gives chain. chagrin. grief. cadena. Du. Adelung. From Port. chicane. chaffare. Pers. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. Du. . ^Altieri. ceafer. tattle cheep. to tattle. ing rapidly repeated cries. taubes korn oder hafer. Lat. Bouffard.. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. far lima-lima. and signifies to consume with anger. lime. often puffing. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . Probably from According to Diez. cup. to fret inwardtronfo. to Latin calumniare. calonjar. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. Prov. de Brai. crooked. khah. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. kaff. tronfio.

Carpentier. dial. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. Sup. a scufSe. campus partitus . — Hal. ON. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. Fr. to Hal. kabintis. —Chamfrain. zampettare. . a hollow chanfreiner. ing. To cope or contend with. gekrUmmt. dispute Hal. head armour. tsammogni. kibti. an athlete. contend or argue G. to happen {ad and cadere. Sp. pinch. fighting place. kinipen. The happening of things Chance. Champaign. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . . kabinti. Magy. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. combat. rare. . fray. kampeln. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. champ. to move the jaws kiamt. reusement — fight in single combat. kimbu. to excel.' melleia. fight. campus. Fr. The E. termediaries between them and the judge. hng. Partnership. move the jaws. kablys. tsamtsogni. a warrior. kempen. to fall). kempa. E. — Ch-amberlain. wood. It will. Meleare. campear. a bundle. When the to quarrel. received the petitions of the suitors. certare. act of falling. luctare. Lat. or less ignorant. Fr. chanfreindre. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. chamfrain. The G. gewolbt.—Tutschek. to slope. Fr.edley. to bevel. Prov. . kampeln. kimppu (Lap. prize-fighter. dricka i kapp. Chamfron. dial. dial. giving rise to the as. pedilusor. Ptg. cadere. contest. E. cempa. chance. to talk. kabe. camp. jeu parti. champ parti. a jaw kianisa. to strive at games . a horse-race. zs jeopardy. hero Sw. is explained by serrarsi. fight. at the railings. to paw the ground E. CHANCEL It. Chance-n3. therewithal. a field of battle. and mesUe. to hold . chanfrein. to groove bevel off a right angle. compound. to stick to. divided game. Pm. sukibti. Fr. to to chew champ. kimpustella. dial. chaude mesUe.—Charfron E. bundle. . broil. to fasten on. ciambellano. Sp. Champ. to wrestle. The word is preserved in E. as in It. Fr. kriimmen gebogen. hamper. To hollow out in chanPtg. kimpUma. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. Dief. To Chamfer. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . chajnbellan . from chaud. jocus partitus. camp. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. to hollow out. dial. a feat. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . champ. ON. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. to smack the lips in eating. a game at football. So in e. to hang. Champion. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. cazer. campar. cameratus. chamble. boys speak of capping verses. Lat. calidameya. to quarrel (comp. cancelli. caer. to slope out the . accidere. to cample. top of a borehole. s. Campar. bickering. ciamberlano. nels. . to tread The sound heavily. Lat. to fall. athlete. slope of a bevelled angle. Chancellor.' SherI'altro ' ' . accident. champion Du. e. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. which seems another form of the root. to fasten oneself to another . kiinp. to fasten oneself on to another . See Camp. chanfrar. kiammi. to wrestle. from cheoir. a court of justice. . governed by laws of which we are more OFr. Lith. Champarty. schmatzen s. cample). kampen. to — — champ. champ. Chancery. i. chance. to debate. escazenza. kappd). excellent. ON. or player at football. keiiipe. from Fr. kanip. Get campers a ball To camf . calida et sans aguet. Hence (with the nasal) w. a hook . to chew. and acted as inofficers of .140 CHAMBERLAIN . difficulty . camerlengo. Du. Fin.' ' Pr. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. M. Commonly derived from campus. G.Lat. chanfrein. hot. — KiL . — masterly Sp. surpassing. to be eminent. kapp. Lat. who stood ad cancellos. mesleiare. Gall. kabMe. chdance. champ. . chain. camp. — ^Tusser. kampa. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). Prov. to . the chafldn. contention kappi. as swine. kippo. Chancel. game campio. cahir. to flute as a column.

Lith. to peck. muzzle. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. a pipe. the mouth. kemma. to paw like a horse . a jaw. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. 2. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. Hence chantry. Hal. . schimbu. chanter. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. Chandler. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. Lat. from canna. to creak. a small plate of flat metal. to strike. cambiar. from chandler. Du. . cangiare. Chip. is used in the same sense . Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. kappen. kapoti. any hollow for conveying water. chancellerie. to cut. Chap. ^Jam. and also to chap or crack. debeant conjurare. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. to spht a chip. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . to plate. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. as It. throat of an animal. To Change. Chaps or chops. like the knocking of hard things together. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. also a clap. a money-changer. surfaces striking together. ON. the chaps . schimbd. Man of Law's Tale. a dealer in candles then. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. I. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . chop. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. kjaakaa. or the cracking of one. exchange. or the like chapar. Hal. . Sp. See Chop. prune. to apply one flat thing to another. chap. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. the place where candles ler. kaupa. as chancery . chapeletas de imbornales. Aasen. to deal. kiceft. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. wood. Lang. ceaplas. to — cut. while the broader vowels a. jaw. chapelete de una bomba. to change. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. exchange. Fr. chandelier. Hence It. Chapel. properly in a hard body. Da. chiappa. —Chantry. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. may be compared with ON. flat . Da. chapeta. AS. —Ordericus Vitalis. Sp. Molbech. a reed. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. as to chap hands. clapet. to truck. camjar. Cheek. chancery. a chap is a crack or fissure. to strike. Prov. Probably from chap. kiceft as well as kjakje. chapa. . gab. — — —Marculfus in Due. Walach. Channel. to swap. chapear. chap. Chop. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. Chape. hard bodies. That wide were sentin their spicery. chop. to peck. esclapa. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. the representation of the sound made by two same manner.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. canalis. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. ceaflas. — . cambiare. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. changer. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. W.^. to put on fresh clothes. exchange schimbatoriu. to break . Fr. leather. A fellow. to sing. E. cheek. Fr. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. Sc. to plate. Compare chark. Chap. 140. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. a small metal plate Port. skipta. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. to coat. . as those on a trunk. Commonly derived from capella. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. and the modern canal. as skin chapped hands. esclapo. Chap. Fr. are kept. In like manner Walach. Bret. jaw. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. And N. cantare. See Chant. kvar kjceften. to cut up into small pieces. lips of an animal. as corn-chandChandry. cambium. a strip of metal plate. the gutter that runs along a street. cobio. — : Lat. chapilla. It is also used in the sense of the E. extended to other trades. from clap. waterconduit. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. to hack. the clappers of the scupper holes. to cut off . not a soul. kennel. to chap at a door. to strike with a sharp edge. hack . chaps. klepan. Russ. shift. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. the loose flesh of the cheeks.

It. go. a hood. eyre. used in the sense of magic Fl. a mark of a mountebank. Chapman. from capitulum. to creak. carmo. Charcoal was ciarlare. clack. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. in turns. from cape or cope. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. decken. cedeleac. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. dear(in both senses). gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. kurkelis. a head or division of a book.charme. a riddle. caritas. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. An enchantment. Bret. gnash. Cot. capellare. be- e. — spell. Mid. a garland of roses. . wreath for the head. kirkti. capitolo. Prov. charer. twist. Lat. a charm. corona. to converse. chara. Sp. char. surris seu Lat.czirksti. tegere. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. to turn. gaggle . charlar. chapelet. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. Chaplet. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. Lat. called in Sp. occasional turn. from carrus. turn. Sp. Ptg. to turn Gael. es ist mi cheer. cluck. kurkti. dim. a riddle. . also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. Chare. dear. Fr. Chapter.Lat. seems to be derived charade. Boh. Lang. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. babbling. See Cheap. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. called kedlock. czurksti. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. to chirp. It. cher um cher. Chark. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. cluck kirklys. Inst. creak. charcoal burners. charlatan. as Pol. From Norm. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. Lat. colliers that charred coal. carricare. to of the governing body. to sing or chirp as birds. Justin. grave or make incised marks on an ob. schreien. ciarlatore. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. w. siarad (pronounced — sharad). charade. Fr. Swiss. the turtle pitre.. . Lith. to love. a dispute . a The OFr. Fr. creak. charitas. cabildo. enough. a turn cerran. Du. which was incantation. chapel.). w. OE. from gadai. ceap-man. — a car. to chirp. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. bler. a cricket karkti (schnarren. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. —— . cha. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. affection. a rhyme. babdistinction. gadka. — — — turned to coal. ghirlanda seor garland. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. The crash. 2. chat. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. pohadka. from Charade. eapitulo. to talk . and at line 2520 it runs Charm. for the same reason rosario. carregar. talking. Charlock. czirbti. to dove . carus. chatter. A weed among com AS. return. to load . jabber. a merchant.whirr. capital. carmen. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. the nature of a thing. krachzen). wood to coal. AS. as. 370. AS. keeren. Sup. that turned decken . in To ness Charity. to chirp as sparrows. cearcian. to croak as a frog . chirriar. Fr. To Char. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . burning without consuming the substance. See Charlatan. to charcoal. . karout. . capella. czurliwoti. prattling quacksalver. Fr. of chapel. ject). Charlatan. In that work the verb is written caire. Mundart. hadka. turn about. charge an enemy is to lay on. Chirk. hiss Lith. a verse. chapitre. chatter. caricare. tattler. charger. Character. beloved. to prattle. chirlar. And damned be he who first cries Hold. properly to place — . and in It. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. * Charcoal. Charge. car. Macduff. Yx. &c. as a beetle. (eucharistie. cerran. canne.' Boccaccio in Diez. Sp. to tattle. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. Deutsch. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. a mark made on a thing. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. The G. Lay on. twitter. Hence carminare. Gr. condo il volgar francese. It. Charade. to . to prattle. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. chirk. It. it is my turn. cam. from capa.

careful. or the cry of a bird or the like. to care). gazzerare. Pol. g. to chirp. cs E. Pol. Chamel. incassare. the bird is iiown. as that made by the crack of a hard substance.). Gr. castus. kata. in Jam. chat. letters p. limpid. csatora (Magy. to cry as a chicken . warble. shout OE. csacsogni. It. as. from xoAn. to wet. speak . schioppare. warble. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. chaste. parcus. kastaa. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. Chaste. to set a jewel. be wide open. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. — Palsgrave. Fr. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. —Chastise. Fr. racket . an enchantress. gazzettare. talk much . Malay. chisf. —Charter. clear. — — . chip. chit-chat. chick. —Bailey. Pm. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. splinters. make a noise as birds do. charm. germinate . Chary. — Yorkshire chat. chick. niggardly. xi'i-'^vui. See Card. . ch). from purus. also a youth. Kil. enchasser. to which it bears the same relation as chape. It. also to hatch. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. as in the E. carmen is presented in AS. To talk. fragments or leavings of food. To Chase. chary. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. to enchase it . used to represent a sharp note. Chat-wood. It. as purgare Fr. Lat castigare. charmer. carme and Fr. a chatter-box. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. prattle. occasionally Forby. to talk. a crack or a flaw .a. discourse. chip. knatiern. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. to baptize. — = Chats. la chasse d'une rose. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal.). a young man . clack. ferire.ppen. clean. chits. gazzolare. a word. eclats. a yawning. i. csacsogany. the calix of a rose. In like manner Russ. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . to cut and faggoted. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. B.house. — sharp sound of a crack.— Chit. chit in the latter sense Du. Chart. czysty. Russ. chair. talk. Diez. gallan or ogan. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). a churchyard or charnel-house. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. a branch. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. root of the Lat. cyrm. %aafi. from pure. fragments. Fr. See Catch. magpie. csaterdzni. a flock of those birds. Magy. kna. shivers. little sticks cudere. chykkyn (Pr. sordidus. the young shoots . snap. to make a noise. — Fr. flesh. s. a twig Suffolk chaits. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. converse. geug. chaste. to separate in morsels. as we speak of olive branches. or suckers on rough borders. Du. knacken. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. Cot. Lat. the handle of a razor . V. From carinen was formed It. chit. clatter. to crack. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. An imitative word. noise. as from nomen It. to gape. noise. Chasm. whence a charm of goldfinches. — Hal. chikat'. clean. . to clap. Hal. or a bird out of the egg. chatter. OE. nommer. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. crackle. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. jackdaw . to burst open. a gap. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. to chirp. to crack. is to represent the chamier. gazeuiller. or equivalent forms. Fl. CHATS fit 143 to name. — We ornamental work the to signify E. —Jam. karg. to chatter or prattle . To chitter or chipper. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. blackthorn-chats. To Chasten. Chat. gazzogliare. pure. It t. ch&tier. scraps of for fuel. as turnip-chaits. Fl. — The .— Chatter.. to chirp as a bird to cheep. The egg is chipped. Fr. So in Gael. gaddc. D. To work plate as silversmiths do. a branch and a young female. To Chase. cearig (from cearian. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. the noise of birds. or pop. nome and . kippen. clean. Cot. cassa s. See Cistern. Parallel with E. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. tenax. kata-kata. a shrine for a relic. whistle. the cry of the bat. G. carnisj bones kept. pure. tittle-tattle. It. To chip is then to crack. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. karigh. clap. pure. To chit. Kil. also to germinate or spring forth. prate. castus. chip. caro. gadu-gadu. a plate of metal.

a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. frown. Cot. catalliim. — To check an account. to vomit. the Confessor. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . OFr. kakaista. to . Pro v. — We ' . chatal. kak. are represented piti.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. prattlingchete. sense of bargaining. Gr. favour. Ingulphus. laughing. Soc. to coff—Yisi. which is used in the to stutter. a cheater. koopen. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. aspect of a man. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. . Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. Bav. cattle.' kezen. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl.. Hal. s. chire. a tavern-keeper.— . to nauseate (to retch). See Chess.—Choke. kaupa.— Cattle. sum in a loan. Chew. welcome heartily. a rogue or person who used the canting language. Pm. countenance. the countenance Fr. gagkern. to deal ON. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. equiva. cachinnari. Du. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. kok.— Chaps. ceaflas. Hence to cheat. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. a young boy or girl. lower. changing. force of the word. . jaws. cattle. Bohem. a dealer. giving or taking in exchange. ceap. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. sale. teeth . gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. It — Brompton in Due. ku. Cheat. CHEEK zitella. stuttering. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. chatel. Sc. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. Sp. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. 'li^'opa jord i jord. kauf. to chop and change. cera. with the exception of land. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. to buy. and hence the E. 144 the It. whence captale. look. entertain kindly. cattle. to stutter gigken. Check. to laugh. Chattels. kik. giggling. . hawkmann.' to exchange to gasp.. snout. See Cheek. to act as a rogue. OFr. Fr. . tradesman. to make inarticulate sounds in . a canting knave. the tongue. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. ceafl. e. cara. to cough and hence either buying or selling. sob E.-^. to swap goods . yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. in Fr. kaupon. from Lat. dchec. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. to negotiate. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. . upon a checked cloth. stuttering. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. exAS. citello. kek. which is the word in ceap. caupo. CHATTELS has ciio. chavylbone or chawlbone. keck. entertainment.— Chole. &c. kaupiti. lead to OE. retching. the face. Fl. — — —Chowl. Slav. Fr. G. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. Faire bonne chire. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. choule. chaptel. gagkezen. kakkaset. to coup s. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. cheeks. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. a willing look and unwilling heart. Then. Lat.of the throat in coughing. in widely separated languages by the Lat. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. It. Modern Slang. Chear. goods. the Lat. thers. society. chop. the principal ' colloquial E. a piece of moveable property.kakot. visage.. to clear the throat . a repulse. jaw. to — . cozener. with Dief. to fetch the breath with difficulty. Cam. kaufen. to cluck like a hen. kichen. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. bon marche. and. truffa. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. Ek dry and hard. mandibula. a dealer in horses. kikottaa. us. chuckle. from AS. agreeing upon. chear in the sense of victuals. chiere. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. It. while it Bret. Pr. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. chapman.ing. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. goods. cita. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. The gutGoth. syllables ^ag-. et juxta catalla sua. KaviiXog. gig. Fin. horse-couper. price. ceahhetan. to buy. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. Cheek. farm for farm. NE. capitale. any cheating.

used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. cese. as. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON.EP CHEVRON 145 on. Fin. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. Du. dersen . N. to hold dear. It. hasten. squeak as a mouse. chiffe. Cherry. geafl. kasiiUPr. the neck. by laying it in come to an agreement with. mouth kek. cherir. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. cheek. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. In these latter forms we see the transIt. Lat. whence czypulas. to prevent the attack of cavalry. castaneusj Fr. Thus "we are brought din. cufd.their struggle for independence. a chicken. Pm. Jam. AS. e.. See Case. rafters in heraldry. chesten. Tutschek. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. the The use of the word kcesir. whence kasa-leipa. then end. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. nish source. — — . Fr. The Sw. Kil. Lat. gaghel. accomplishment cayed. &c. Chevisance. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. As the board to gasp i. king). E. rupted into chess. kok. Fr. achever. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. kjakje. carnium. to gape gab. See Alchemy. kikna of dorum coacervatio. An imitative word. Lith. jaws. a heap. kikna. kces. to kasa. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. things Da. kasa. AS. Hence chesten-nut. cerise j G. cheken. by laying up in a covered heap. to bring to an end. kirsche. Prothroat of an animal . cough. schach. chaps. . E.perly head. like a young chicken. giffle. . rennet. AS. gous forms are G. kopen.G. scacco. Sw. clear the throat. From them the plish. to belch. cheek. equal squares of opposite colours.koppen. CHE. Sp. cisty G. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. — 10 . G. made rancid koka.peep in the same sense. chests in OE. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. cireggia. kastanie. jaw . Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. Fr. . ceocian. ceg. Chef.D. to make a noise different word. subacidus. takes place in the formation of cheese. It would Cheese. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. cegio. Chekenyd or querkenyd. geagl. dear.D. kjcebe. cheeks. F*-. — — . to love. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. gill of fish AS. Sc. suffo. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . chAtaigne. Fr. a cricket. ation. ca' — . to gasp. to heap up such things for the purchoke.Xo belch. to swallow. the mouth. kdke. kapen. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. treat with affection. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. Sc. G. food. . throat. kastr. skratt. cista. kesten. the palate Chequer.). to boken. Analo.cirieggia. w. old bread. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. caseus. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. acquiring a flavour of old cheese.pose of acidifying them kasadr. Prov. to choke with laughter. kdkel. Achievement. E. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. — — . to geahl. chops. acquisition. Sw. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. Fris. jowl. OHG. caru. kaecke. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. ichec. E. Chevaux de frise. cabrio. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. quok. throat. the hke. quoka. Sp. X'C&s. to accomThis they call hdrsk. jaw. to choke. w. Chess. Lith. w. the throat. veluti piscium. To make a shrill noise Chest. jouffle. as meat and butter. rattle in the throat. when the king is put in the Schmeller E.. Hence kikna is identical with OE. cyse. (Kil. Pl. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. Cher. To Cheep. The name of creak as shoes. schach. gapen. cams. Fr. ceaplas. ceac. See Chess. kjceve. Du. Cherish. incaseatus. gullet. chevron. Da. kistej Lat. caws. make an end. gap. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. for cheese itself. practice seems to have been communiChevron. /Ji2^/(W. to kep. ON. chops. a rafter . ceaflas. Lat. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. mollium congeries. Chemistry. . czypti. gabe. cabiron. jaw. cerasus. xaque. condition of being taken. frame by which the exertion is made.' to w. Lat. cheek. the final guttural is retained in writing. jaws Sw. to year. subjected to this process with that which the throat . prevail with. chasi. chevir. the loose the game of checks. ost.

the rim or edge of a vase. while the Magy. zitterti. to scold. pipe.peep. ultimate origin of the Mite. chimb. rafter. kuwe. Tintillo. a chicken. chew or chaw. Pr. or chick. as. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. the cry of young . sonorous. Chick. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. mountain top . Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. kauchen. also the horizon. keichen. to smart. kop. kime. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . chill. chicken. a finch. G. Fr. Pl. the throat. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. Halm. cica cica. Pr. a chicken. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. cabriones. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. to contest about trifles. to twitter. chiquei. caprioru. w. term is ssaru fu. the head.' my finger tingles with cold. kimista^ . The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. De finger killet mi for kalte. To chitter.— Cot. jaw. Du. kibr. killen. Walach. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. a hen. cebr. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. a cup. grelot). Du. aner. cabar beinne. Fr. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. kauen. kaau•wen. tiuk. kieken. cild. queror. knarren. as pointing out the origin of the E. CHEW . Chill. ach. czypulas. a chicken. . Gael. horn wood. chawbone. See Chimmer. to raise the rim. tyuk. Chaw.. to chirp or peep like a chicken. kaw. a quid of tobacco. the young of animals in general. For the see word Doit. Russ. creak. machouere. cheek.-ill. lead through the synonymous E. Fr. Chigue. the jole. kinderen. cidan. It. chillrar. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. Swiss kiden. chillar. 'Among these the G. ]). tremble. capete. — Du. kind. horns of the house. strideo. pululo.^ to resound as a bell. the same principle I regard On birds. from the first of which is Lith. — Fin. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. kindeken. — . . greloter is to shiver for cold. into a continuous shriU sound. Sp. Fin. capo. a jaw. deer's horn. Fl. chiler. chikat'. then cold. chic. to Du. : — a lump. or the broken noise of birds. a young bird. gosling. Prov. knit the brow cib-led. tintelen van koude. the least imaginable jot.. kopf Du. Chime.— . ' . kippa. to chime. Kil. branchy. are formed Du. pipio. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. to contest. Chimb. stake. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. Fin. by driblets. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. to go. tiukka. pole.. 146 brial. chef. Now gan some courage unto him to take. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. kilderkin. kimia. kidata. E. chin. acute. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. — — Mother Hubbard. from little to little. a little bit. rafter . rafter . Fl. a cup cibaw. chicoter. has probably the same origin. pip. while didder is to shiver or citteren. Payer chiguet A chiguet. And hence.D. k'imm s. from the second Lat. killen. . crepo. Probably from Fr. CHJME the radical form is unusual. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. chol. kauwe. a head. caferu. kimme.— Gattel. Da. cap. W. when the vibrations become very rapid. chaps. chicaner.). tremble with cold. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold.^ Hal. Lat. jaws . Magy. Brezza. chieftain. A To Chew. The Pl. G. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. antler. the Ptg. to chew. jaw. captain. Gattel. E. then as G.D. Chief. kitista. tiukkua. E. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. cabar. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. To Chide. to pettifog. chavel. beam. in Walach. klagend tonen. s. capu. Pm. The loss of the syllable it in Du. to gasp for breath (Hal. cabarach. a small cask OFr. to use the jaws. and not vice versd. alter. to titter is Du. Imitative of a loud clear sound. and from the third E. Bret. kouwe. tiukkata. Chitter. to the brim. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. cib. Pm. mouth. head. — It. De chic en chic. to crackle. chavel. knirschen. Fin. signifying properly shivering. a cup. or as E. pi. quivering sound which passes. hiss as meat on the gridiron. twitter. caput. chillness or shivering. gills of a fish. AS. Child. or qf people talking rapidly. choule. Palsgr. pipio..

ciseau (for cisel). as a bell kommata. Chine. tsengeni. See Chats. E. cincel. Kil.Huloet in Hal. vincially used in the sense of a crack. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. a hall Mid. Chink. chin . a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. See Chark. to tremble. cheek. are In like manner E. Hindost. Ptg. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. sound on beginning to boil. — . ter. Chip. ykvvQ. To Chimmer. chirp. Du. chits. to chink. hollow. sound. skina. then to any narrow crack or AS. in Hal. eschin^e (de pore). tsongeni. the chin . komista. from 10 * ' Chia. plodere. to chirre. — — — — — . a thorn.' Phaer's Virg. fyr. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. to murmur. to chink with laugh2. backe. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. shiver and the chyver of Pr. Chink-cough. zirpen. eschine. kinne. a chink or fissure. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick.iron. gen.czirbti. Sp. dial. and bodily movement in shimm. In the same sense. from Lat. esquina. keich husten. schrick. komia. sounding deep. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. to sound. Fr. companied. rustle. It. flaw Hal. caminata. Primarily a shrill sound. — . Chimera. tinnire. a chap. a surkik hosta. as birds the mouth.schricken. genou (pi. spina. up and down. See Bright. Fr. to sound deep or the Gr. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. Chit. kumista. as the chink of money. part lion. to chine. chink. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. schiena. Fr. Diez de. KinneGr. or chyFrigutus. all these imitative terms being minata. — . Chytof J^ to sk is singular. .). cinne. It. then of a fabulous monster part goat. Bret. pork) . gena. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. to chirp . quivering or shakyng for colde. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. spina. schina. Pm. It. to simmer. To chirp or twitter. twinkling light. and chim-mer. to sizel.. tremulous motion. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. hiss Pm. Gascoigne in Todd. It. czirszkti. to gape. et garrire . schetteren. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . to squeak in It. to tattle. chick. Chitter. Prov. also vibrans.er. Gloss. twitter caminus. disCot. the cheek. do. cheminde. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. kink hoest. as the/ is preserved tering. bx-eak the back of schena. Chyrme or chur. . but or cry as a parrot. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . To Chitter. 147 kimina. G. Sp. hus. fissure. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. schetteringe. the jaw. Chimney. epine. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. the chine. Chitterling. applied to tremulous motion. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. It. A .Lat. to chirp.to chirp. bone . To chink with laughter. in the same crack. Bav. zirken. eschiner. yivtiov. clangor tinniens kummata. sparkle.sharp. .. chatter . and from a similar sound to boil gently. ciarlare. a szemrcU. pare also Walach. Pr. chhint. klincken. cinan. resonance . — . AS. Sp. a fire-place. stridere. simmer. Caminatum. representing connected together. squittire. Lat. sonus the backbone Lat. Chymerynge. clashing of weapons. j^lf. caminsects. Sw. Fr. to creak. Huloet. to prattle czirpti. E. . genawi. a crowing sound in recovering breath. the jaw. the cheek (jaw) . . verynge or dyderinge. from the geon's lancet. Fr. esquena. Chisel. to prattle . which differ from each other only as Chirk. name Then. clipping of coin. and light. the mouth (jaws) . to creak. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. cisaille. kumina. The desig. killed by Bellerophon. hiss chirlar. cleft. have been used to designate the spine. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. Cot. tschirpen. Du. The change from the sound ter \s. quavering of the voice. kieck hoest. Gower in Hal. a thorn. i. and the Du. cisello. Lith. the whooping cough. a Kuttn. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. crepare. See Chap. sonants. Sp. Chintz. G.to divide or Du. Chat. caperd. backBut she withal no worde may soune. to open chirriar. as a large bell . Chin-coug^h. Magy. The small entrails of a hog.

full to overflowing. disposition. Choice. Warwickshire coff. as with a blow. to taste.' who shall not taste death. to taste. choix. chorus. whence choleric. wein didder for cold. to ing is doubtless to taste. OHG. ^euw. specially with an application to theatrical performances. To Chop. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. a small slice or slip of anything . fine threads of flowers. krussyi. to break off in small shive. . a calf's pluck or chaldron . kustigen. . cive. G. kiesen. developments of the same radical image. also calPs. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. curly . .ffrill. Gr. Chives are also a kind of small onion. %o\ifa. Cavalry. shoot . a blow. chap hands. Enn Sigridur sem ' . shiver. •- Russ. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. I. Gr. to prove. approve. Choleric. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. Swiss kust. to try . Fr. a rag. ent quarter. kushevati. to turn. — Chock-full. a twittering. x^poc. Fr. and in this sense the * small pieces. causir. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. kusid. chattering. as green as leeks. chibble. anger. by which they are Fr. coro. 2.gust. to tempt. The Sc. to taste. Luc. chock full. from chevalier. G. full. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. prove.' At last he dwelt . the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . The . a ruff. chaup. Equivalents in the SlaFr. Prov.V)^x. it is probable that the root kus. G. to taste . chives. The manners and senti. from %u\i). the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. a ruff or frill. Serv. Boh. whence Lat. cepa. a fragment. Chives. keypa. are used in the same sense. a company of singers or dancers. the small parts of the roots of plants. ^S. civette. chiffe. Goth. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. chceur. to chap at a door . try. To Choke. a wine taster. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. kruszki. Lat. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. ON.yEuffM. cut up into — See Chats. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. coup. a young . 19. to clap up Hal. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. the inwards of an animal. . to try. xiv. Swab. ON. chatter. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. . cke. Jam. chife. to strike hands . . heaped measure. ments of the knightly class. schoch. to taste. to exchange horses. and in kosten. and N. the ridges prove. and It. Body and Soul. to chap. word is more likely to be from Lat. pieces . wrath. . * To Choose. — See Cheek. friller. try. cape. to try. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. i. kiusan. Gr. to Compare also Pol. to wrinkle. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. seallion or unset leek. Yr. gustare. chimp. choppe. CHOP kros. Chivalry. Choice is probably direct from Fr. As kushnuti. to hack. experience valerie. — — — . scheve.D. by the vibrations of sound or motion. kausjan. to choose. &c. taste. from kraus. a calf's chaldern of E. chawdron. to palpitate . kalbs gekrose. See try. a heap. Chuck-full. ruffs. signify to kiss. okusyti. in the same language. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. gekrose. Fr. to shiver. keuren. &c. a goose's giblets. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. kushati. g'schochet voll. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste.. lead us on to Lat. rare. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. arkiusan. chippe. select. to stop geschoppt voll.. a knight. propagated. to try. gdnse gekrose.vonic languages are Pol. — Cholera. kor6n. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. pluck. schiefer. kieser. haslets. a scale or fragment P1. Chap. kiezen. to taste.— B jag E. koren. of an angry — — — ' ' — . Schmid. caperd. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. kbhren. to experience. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. wkusit' prikushat. kiusan. skifa. crammed Choir. or original meaning is preserved in G. to ^cleave .freze. a chive. then to try. The I go to prove them. called cMtters in the N. taste. kaup. then to shiver. Walach. gusten. schevel-steen. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. of E. and Vf. an onion. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. fresure. —Chorus. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp .' Verie coinme Cot. bile. all seem slate .ceosan.

who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. civetta. koppe. — — — . forms are Chrism. a lump or piece chump. capitanus. cangiare. gobio capitatus. To Chop logick.' Jam. to overturn. as in Fr.. choucas. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. -chron-. gold. caqueter. capitone. kolbe (club). Fr.\^s. chrisme. to knock. — Dief. Chopino. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. fat. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. chub. to clack. chrysalis (Plin. Chrysalis.sohola. time ra . ' ' What's that? Dap. who took in the Turk- clack. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed.• — . because she would not endure this husband chopping. Chough. ley in Giiford. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. — .— Chevin. traffic. that will thank chiaus — you richly. cauc. cresmeau. P. syllables chat. whence the Fr. cavena. E. kaej Lith. xpi'^lia. Sp. a stump. dial. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. Sw. Ant. as Du. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. Fr. a The What dhy ^. — Quabbe. chack. soul-couper. . bearand aits. G. one who buys and sells horses or cows. AS. Gr. to speak thieves' slang. shop where clogs and pattens are sold.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. That Face. chatter . we find the following passage Dap. Kil. chouquette. overset. of which such strings are made. Jam. XpvaaXic. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. cheviniau. ON.. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. whence e. plump. To coup. chuet. xop5>}. and we actually find champman for chapman. a bullhead. Du. Lat. klopper. from kloppen. e. for to defraud. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. In Sc. chevane. — Chrisom.X. kaulhaupt (club-head. dial. dealing. Gr. Du. the intestine of an animal. in i6io. Chord. a small fish with a large head. To Chouse. kaw. caphatenus. E. I bring you the Cloughs. —Shakespeare. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. gull. Fr. In the Alchemist. Come. cambiare. If I discover. by the Robert Shirley. to chatter. Confounded with the bullhead. See Change. kowe. chronicles. short piece kubbug. E. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. the teeth to chatter . chop.povucd. Madam. i.).' They are forebuyers of quheit. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. What do you think of me. noble Doctor. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. Cot. the string of a musical instrument originally. caker. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. Nominale in Nat. capita. chapma?i. which was written 27. claquer. chevin. thumb Fl. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. yiSA. whence — E. cob. chroniques. quappe. an offence against the fitness of times. Picard. cheap. connected with G. Gr. peace. chouette. chapineria. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. ceo. to strike in the hand. kaufen. E. 49. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. kowej Sax. Fr. a messenger or envoy. Chuck. Peace. merchant. thick-set. high clog. e. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. whence apparently the Sup. kubbr. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. the same word with the It. to turn over. Chronicle. From the Turkish Chiaus. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. Anachronism. kauwe. a trafficker in souls. Marin. klompe. . to cant. cauvette j Fr. 4. or miller's kaycke . A jackdaw. equivalent to the E. Chub. prattle . Wall. monedula.). Gr. clogs. chevane. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. xftovoq. &c. chapin.— Landnamabok. Borgoens happen. in Chaucer.(. A fish with a thick snout and head. gull. sent before him a Chiaus. kobe. cow-couper. clat.—Chuokstone. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. Fr. kubb. capito.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. applied to an owl in that language. slipper . a thick piece. Alchemist. OE. See Chaff. The Turk was here As one should say. p.

a douse on the tores. ON. Hence -cid-. Sw. a lump. Sc.for the residue of stone coal. Jennings. whence church. to cut decide. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. AS. with It the Lord's house. Wall. pith. chofu. to turn from blossom to fruit. Sicerawry face ceffata.— Chu%. pp. KaxXij?. cado. a cutting round. Chuff. as water running over rocks or stones. sinter. Gothic nations. a fellow. geaflas. to fall. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. * Cinder. calculus. kirna. or choice part of a thing . that the word is an adoption of Fr. joufflu.rendered by Kil. gffe. Gr. -cide-. cheek.' he adds.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. Lat. tindra. — of the two words. Lat. joffu. To chuck in the fall from. spuma metalli. to sparkle. Fris. i. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone.' And cold. Cieling. &c. Ir. a man. Probably from It. The spelling of chider has Chump. calx.D.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. -cis-. a miser. ceaflas.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. cinders used disjunctively. Aasen. sicera. . ceffore. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. as a board. ciuffo. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. the kernel. sintel. a pebble . fat-cheeked. to make a rippling noise. It is certain. . from Lat. 24. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . a resounding object. OFr. . to churn. as in E. however. The derivation from Kvpiasov. See Cheek. blow on the I io6 in Mur. Wall. chaps. a man. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. chuffy. a pebble. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. chack-stone. casum (in comp. Fr. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. Cob. to cause the milk to grain. surly. -cise. In Sc. marrow. The origin ation. to make a aiKipa. Ka-^aiva. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . from Lat. a rustic . giffle. domhnach. cheeks Cincture. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. KvptaKolg. to strike clatter. to fall upon decide. kiorne. -cisuiri). AS. to jaw chack or snap. whence deciduous (of trees). &c. countryman. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. set kerti. have given rise. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. swollen or puffed up Cot. ON. an old man. . cinctus. accido. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. Gr. a man. chops. or. dial. e. Lat. log of wood. -cido.. tie about). scoria. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. G. cut off. as Fr. Church. ceffo. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. we have to chack. x^^i?. to throw out sparks. sindel. jaws.^. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. to fall at or on. a cutting an old chuff. cinis. a girding on. to To Chuckle. -eris. as Epkema explains it. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). to Newsp. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. and thence an ugly face far ceffo.V//a'6'?. sindra. in circumcision. sive piratiam facere sciant. cidre. i. kern. a husband. ashes. ChurL husbandman. . ladre from Lazare. dust. See Cheek. ccedo. klakka. comp. Cider. whence ON. kjami. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. See Ceiling. chack or stane-chacker. then the on oh StX iv roXt.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. Diss. — . so as to make the happen . to separate the kernel of the milk. to form grains of butter. incido. Lat. Du. C^z^j^ churHsh. has been impugned which it has really no connection. but by way of explan. As AS. residue of burnt coals. the snout of an animal. ceaplas. kakka. karl. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. ceorl. sindr. e. in Sc. Du. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. cendre. lamak. G. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). kernjen. chife. to gird. kaerle. to determine incision. Da. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. Fr. ON. thence a belt. Cleland in Jam. flower. male person. to him a sudden blow. kerl. Chunk.— . Du. chakil. — — A — ' ' — . cinctura {cingo. in the face. . Churn. chofe (Grandgagnage).

clamp. — (Dozy) ing blow. dob. a cleansing place. a boss . accordingly find the roots dab. clangor avium . cluster. to appeal. &c. cista. Fr. Dan. Lap. —Circuit. excite. cisterna. clamare. Du. civitas. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. cisterna. to knock. as. See Circle. clatCot. . klekotati. a lump Lat. about. lash . bunch . Lat. klimp. . W. circle. cit^. castus). Fr. Lat. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. klqb. circum. ring. to chatter. CION See Tinder. See -cid-. We . chupon. cry. scion. sifr. and E. . to clatter. a circle. . klabb. scion or sucker. noise — — a cistern. Clump. clack-dish. clambar. . babble . a reservoir Probably from Lat. -cite. a place See place hiddern. a knob. noise. ON. ON. a ring. We . . clot ON. a shoot. a Pol. of citta. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. klump. claim. a pop-gun. to cluck. . clapper. Circle. to clap at a theatre. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). radical identity of the Fr. as caverna from cavus. a. a'upiav. * Cistern. hringr. wasserkasten (water chest). klak. slam. to set in motion by means of the voice. klater-busse. clobyn. to toll . cry out . a judgment cern. claquet de moulin. Sp. a rattle Fr. cion. Lat. cittadella. City. or quill to draw waier through Fl. clamer. prattle. civilis. cifra. ter. from chupar. with an initial s instead of c. fall. Dan. compared with It. klap. -cis-. to gnash the teeth. Bohem. clack. kluV. 'mass. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. The syllables clap. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. and. G. sip. vociferation. To Clack. cion. Comp.' sione. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . klubb. a kind of rattle. sound of blow. E. a split. klompe. KpiKoe. a whirlwind. to be empty. a block. a for water. cieo. Du. Excite. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. a clod. . klemte. Circum-. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. to chatter. belonging to cities or social life . —Civil. city. dim. to call. To Claim. a cistern. is traced by Gr. rattle. circum. Clam. in the frequentative form. E. sajira. Alt. lucerna. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. lump of wood or with the nasal. . and Sp. Sw. cittade. a citizen . claquer. Arab. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. around. chest. sound- — hands figures. Sw. to cleanse. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. uproar. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. glamm. around. Gael.— . klamp. sound. KipKog. to go. bunch. claquer crash. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. sphere gleba. to call. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. klepati. Mack. whence cistiti. clump. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. citujn. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. klammer. a city. klacke-busse. Citadel. a hiding-place. lump . Lat. The Gr. clap. Clamp. * Ciplier. kringr. chupon. a ball. See Crankle. or clap-dish. crack. trunk. as in Sp. clack. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. Gr. a lump Du. to bawl. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. to clack. to make to go. empty Golius. Lat. to chatter . clapping of klacke. Gr. the door was slammed J slamem. Fr. a block. The notion of a lump. twig. It. klacken. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. forms — — — parent plant. Lat. clack-box. cittd. lump. a loud uksa slamketi. claquer. clasp. sprig. klappe. glam. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. outcry. It. globus. Gael. prattle. civis. clog. Scion. ball kloben. and clash. Lat. In Fr. mass .. crack. a city. Chaste. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . clamp. Hence Incite. a Lat. citrus. It. chatter . cito. stimulate. log. the tongue. to mention. domern. circ2tlus. a mass. to call by name. klumbr. a ball. a circle. smack. kringla. suck). G. a circle. Recite. clap. or split with noise. lump. ruin.to suck. the place of . biw. klopati. klappen. Citron. So a light. a clod Russ. creak les dents. a kind of pipe. From Arab. Cite. gutter. area. for Cion. rattle . lump. lump. Fr. . klateren. tinnitus . a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. ciste. Du. to strike. clamras. . Cot. to cry out. parallel root is slam. crack. a young and tender plant. sindri. a whip. clat. to summon or call on. may cite w. klambr. circa. ON. ern. chijfre. a lemon tree. Hal. a rattle . glambar.

' to take coals to Newcastle. massy. Lang. originally a heap of large stones. A i. c). a rattle . clamber. a noose . sticky Hal. a loud tingle. Clamour. E. viscous. a burr. Lat. stick. clav\f. of the children. E. beat. to claw oneself up. . &c. and hence to pinch . coagulated cream. . klimmeii. of which the locative case. sound of the trumpet . dia. clang. resonance klingen. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. klam. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . dam immediate modifications — . OE. scendants. Clap. sound object . The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. also to clog up. klibber. To Clamber. tingle. B. to seize. klavre. Dan. to Hal. klippe. diver. dial. and hence moist. clandestine. In like manner Du. solid. See Clam. klepanie. clapas. klamm. klubber. tight. a sound made by a still . cluster. cramp-iron. klappre. descendants . to climb. Gael. klamre.p correspond- ' without order. klammern. glambar. Clapper. cramp. clangor. to knock. clibby. to hold fast with the . dank. tinkle. chatter. klank. to dame. klam7n. klemmen. Du. damras. to daub pinch. hook. to climb . klappen. a heap of stones. a whip. a claw. a place underground where rabbits breed. klem-vogel. klappen. with cramp-irons. E. a claw . offspring. bandage. viscosity . a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. to cling. pinching. to clap on. tremble . or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. The E. as the clapping of hands. pressed close or hard together. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . clap. anything hidden. G. klamme. from the w. cling. kluppel. to starve. to glue. The equivalent of Lat. ancestor. substances of a stickydam. to hook things together. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. salaan. kleben. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. dam. strain . a trap. kleppe. E. Du. cream Manx doan. nature . tone. to climb. sound. klammer. Clink. as the Lat. holdfast. rattle. These words To are closely connected with damp. is used in the sense of secretly. in a hidSen place. Salainen. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. G. dienklebber. Hence the Fr.' klibba. klemmen. apprehend . bond. . cleave. dam. children. clapper of conies. a stone See Claim. uproar.. from birdlime. accent. Sw. gum. to climb. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. and that from celo. to climb. whence sala. salafa. seize. Clang. — — . Dan. G. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. kloben. . to clutch or cling oneself up. ring as metal. a hawk. Fr. dap up. Clan. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. to glue. clammy brace. dientes. dam.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. Du. . adopted Lat. to. gliong. dial. grasp. a heap of stones or other things piled up . Bav. children. compression. beating. klettern. strait. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. of money Gael. sound. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. klopfen. klampen. dapier. dang. the in many languages. . kleppe. to patronus. — with hunger. ney. clann. club . rumour. hold. To sticky. chatter. closely analogous to that of the fast. These are imitations of a loud. klemmen.1. Swiss kldbem. knocking. Clamp. clajnmy. to do anything with a clap. to hold to pinch. — Climb. but perhaps not directly from it. to gingle. dandestinus. dapi^. a sound. for tame conies. Dan. dee. brawl. G. take hold of. klynge sig op. The root which gives rise to klibb. to pinch. grimper. to hide. sound . klynge. dink Du. G. Mampe. a bird of prey. To clap in E. Russ. klebern. to knock. — . clink. dem. AS. contraction. dapier. tenacious. klatten. clap. klepati. a craCmp. — Lat. buckle klamp. run to lumps Clandestine. klang. — Cot. damor. Dan. a sound made by a lighter clink. to stick conceal. clasp. to climb. yf. gripe. Halma. privately. or klamp-vogel. dren. to beat. daver. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. chief. dambar. prison. klette. compress. Clank. G. Bohem. kleppen. conceal. The Fr. to cleave or stick. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. to clap. to stick or glue. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. narrow. celo produces Fin. crowd . who occuG.er. to clamp. klepel. B. hands or claws to grasp. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. Swiss kletten. to Sw^. where- A — unto they retire themselves. G. a stick. clear sound. klobber-saen. tattle. Du. is a nasalised form of gripper.

the collar-bone. Pol.Z. gaspe. ghespe. Fr. forms are the Du. cinnamon. to rattle . biichse. ivy. claw (what fastens together. schnalle. rubellum. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. sound of the foregoing description. &c. Eau clairette. Clash. to fasten together . klampvoghel. a water made of aquavitse. E. in the sense of a mass or lump. Mask ! plask ! thwick. Wyutoun in Jam. klot. — tells us. to fasten. hook. a distribution of things into groups. from its use in fastening things together. klouwe (Kil. a bird with powerful talons. ictus resonans. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. a key KKtitid. pet. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. the cracking of a whip. contraction. Nightingale. row aii/iaTos. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. an on the one hand. or as G. klouwe. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. crying. vinum helvolum. to end. a claw. clas. straight-mouthed. diver.Gr. . sauna de classes. thence a definite head of an edict or law. to patter. klatschen. i. a buckle. Fr. It. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. chatter. seizes) . chiarello. Gr. Identical with ON. Originally clasis. Owl and that by which cleave to. a little hook . clopa. chiarino. Du. under three modifications dava. in the sense of a claw. same class with w. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. G. biichse. teren. fracas. fragor . is preserved in Lang. to clap . we pass to the E. is used in Sc. clamp. Du. claret win e. Clasp. klampe. and clavis. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. klase. — Kiittner. locket of a door. rion. The collar-bone. ansa. waU. a key origmally a crooked nail. Lat. It. a. fibula. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. to shut. which signifies a ball in E. Class. and shrill-sounding trumpet. klc^i. a kind of small.w or u on the other. a lump. Lat.). from clinging to the tree which supports it. Fr. clatter. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. . to cleave. a ball. Commonly made. flap. cluster. globus. skeria-klasi. chiizjj-o. kluczka. To clew. insularum nexus . mass.— CLARET clamp. applied in their harness. a clod. klaequivalent to clack or clap. pellet . kiosk bicza. e. In the same way is formed the OE. and through v into a. Serv . thwack . a lump . somewhat clear. to do anything with a . klatscha pop-gun. to ring in such a manner for the dead. clausula. a lash. — Clarion. From claudo. nail. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. an ending. klaeret.. clew or fasten upon a thing. a claFr. kletse. a complete sentence.oi. klijven. Claret. climp. to knock. as G. chasguear. as Mod. a. Lat. mass. KXeiSi. sphaera. and old red rose-water. it is called clamming. a bunch. assembly. a club or massy stick. clavis. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. clarin. to clash as arms. vin clairet. hawk. globus. clairon. In E. klauwe. —Kil. with a reddish tint. from the resemblance to a key. — Clarinet. So Pol. Eya-klasi. Du. kleeven. but not the full red of ordinary red wine.It. to draw it up into a bunch. also a knell for the dead. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. a sphere . an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. a nail. Lang. clump. clair. K\a. Sp. kleuen. clew. Nawith stavis. klucz. Prov. Klatsch- a pop-gun . bawling. chiaro clear. The b readily passes into gleba. The form clew. the primary origin clapa. syrtium junctura. klaterbusse. clarinado. &c. as it is written by Chaucer. glcis. whence kleuer.\x\xvn. Sw. Kil. klatsche. vin claret. Du. to animals Sp. buckle. clavus. clausum. nawith stanis. klatschen. Russ. blab. Thus from Lat. Clause. dap. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. classis. a clasp. puUs. compression. Du. clairon of a trumpet— It. Analogous Jam. Lat. stop of an organ. uproar.to cra. Clavicle. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. klauw. from scknallen. klamme. Thus from clamp. subrubidum. cloi. Claw. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. Cot. Rayn. he of white and red grapes mingled together. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . Du.ck a whip. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. Dan. Clatter. a heap. noise. to snap. a key. Clew. klaskad. From clairet. 269. But clasp or elapse. klos.

a bunch of When flax). Cleft. The word is . glan. glbr. as ON. i. glbram. kleg.' was nailed to a rock.). 154 CLAY dutch. as Lat. clear. a flash. the latch of a door. vice. klijveii. The word may be — . cleave. clean. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. to clinch GB. of iron worn on shoes by country people. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. from the clinking of the latch. dial. clemens. E. kloue. give a shrill sound Jr. Axletree clouts. a latch. neat. holding together. The Dan. klinka. . pure . kluft. gingle. neat. clear. found in other cases. clash. calm. gleit. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . 2. klafwa. The proper meaning of the word is shining. polished. the original . bears nearly the same relation to both senses.— Clag. . to fasten. an object is simply cleft. Lat. doff. Wilbraham. viz. to clink or sound. vissticky . mud. klouen. Du. to clench. pure. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers.— . klinken. kloben. Du. viz. klieuen. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. dedgy. gentle. glandse. Clay. a cleft or fissure. Sc. Da. to chink. . a noise. from nitere. river. either by the coherence To Clepe. W. and E. kldnkelein. provinciaUy termed dout. This word is used in two business is finished off. Kil. that was Torriano. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. together . klinke. it cleave together. nitidus. glan. G. E. — : A rivet. to clinch a nail. ON. klor. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. dams. a — — . a mass. Cleat. pure. Clean. klouen. the fork of the body. or from being divided into two parts. Bav. G. explained from the klinken. danche. glint. split. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. ON. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . and Celtic glan. a cleft. clout. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. kloben. bright. See Clam.Q. from diquer. klieben. shine. a in that of sphtting. . Sc. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. klirren. Thus from G. Fr. Halma. to 2. famous. rive. klincke. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. glor-mhor. Sw. a clincher. to sound or make a noise . The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. as Fr. klutsch. in two ways. cliquet. a key. . From dob. clean. ON. kleverig. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. kleevig. glorious. clear. and. daggy. Du. dut. as the Du. sticky earth. klinken. to tear or cleave asunder. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. glindse. diquetcr. Clinch. Sw. a noose. Dan. to stick to. sticky . a one end. Mar. a claw or talon. a lump. Clemency. tongs. a plate. loam. klinke. sleek. klove The Dan. that was a striking proof. Sw. dench. to cleave. to dag ox dog. opposite senses. glance . Gael. klink. Da. the two parts of Du. kluyte. Clear. From clap. a lump. clibby. to separate into parts. a mass. to glitter. conserere antklankjan. klceg. pellet. E. to fasten. doggy. glitnir. glatt. Du. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. klyft. lump. merciful. glitta. To Clench. glent. G. to shine . sticky. date is AS. the To Cleave. hook. klinke. to stick or adhere . glan. klov. kleben. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. dags. AS. chaps in the skin. kloben. Du.— Claggy. a fissure. A — A Clement. kla:g. Du. cloven wood. rift. clean. to shine. door-latch. to Brilliant. klag. a cleft. polish . clink. speech . piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. is fast and sure. klank. as explained under G. splendid pohshed. and Dan. pretty. bogs cous. clean. This is probably one of the clean. clay . a fissure or division See Cleave. seem formed dial. dag. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. gaklankjan. voice. kluit. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. geklonken. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. See Clog. klirre. dinquet kleeven. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. G. Omklinken. celebrated . (Cot. Lat. to fasten E. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. Probably a modification of the word doitt. To call. kluftholz. klinken. bend in a stream. smooth. words applicable sight. deot. Da. radiant. G. to be composed. Die zaak is zS. . rivet. kleg. or of a tree. B.

score7i clif.Lat. klinke. klouwe. as a click with the tongue. KkrifoQ. clif. from clifian. clever. Climb. claw or talon to dek or deik. corresponding to Fr. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . klinge. nimble. diofian. icXi/ja?. to confess . dial. Det er en Mover kerl. cliquer. klaiv. derigon. kleppen. to bend. to rattle. cliof. catching. with hamarskard. a precipice. G. click. rock. klaffen. a hold. Clergy. temperature. —Vocab. which is used in Scotch and N. a child's or clack . it must be observed. klikklakken. dicher. as from derido. We movement catch. click it. Lat. dutch). to wink. clyf. exactly Gr. globus. scar. has kl'dver. Clever. to catch. duik. The origin is the Gr. Jam. a claw or clutch. Klover i munden. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. Clerk. cautes. OE. would have been derida. highest is attained. diquette. deuck.— Clue. crackle. &c. skard. gleg. klika. Bav. babble. precipices. to clack.— Clicket. Clam. But the Dan. cleft of a hill. crack. to cleave. AS. deudi. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. cleke. a mill-clack . . In I Peter v. Chaucer. to tattle. as Lat. dergi. Climax. CLERK sound of a blow. rugged ascent. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. Du. klippe. precipice. an inclination. corresponding to the Sc. had a form. cliquet. a tumbril. dink. and hence climate. a sphere. a figure mentioned. clerus.dergie! Wiclif in R. to move. region not observe it.) Brai. Fr. d See Clan. neither as having lordship in the. a latch. — — A . one admitted to the tonsure. Now the OE. the clergy. to talk as a parrot. clatter. hamraklif. cleugh. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. CLINCH De . in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. slope . Hence Lat. sonare. a latch. to cry. cleopian. kloof. deuch. a lump. chatter. dob. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. klippe. Clew. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. syn. on. call. glomus. a cliff. clever.. Climate. call. dexterous. which in Mid. clep. abrupta rupes . See Clamber. See AS. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. verge). ready of speech. cleft. a clicket or clapper. a ladder. Dunbar in Jam. frap- per rudement une personne. a clerk . Commonly derived from deliver. clif- stanas. light-fingered. or Sc. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. to seize. stein- kluppen. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. Cot. dial. to teU tales. -Toe (from KXivm. kliv. what so men clappe or crie. to sound an alarm to clap. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv.' ii. Claw. dial. Click. . See Clench. Norm. klok klep- crepitare. Lat. the clergy clericus. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. dichet. Happen. rapidus from rapio. ized . that is a clever feUow. ginally from dob (extant in W. click. pen. Cliff. klev. a cleft in a rock . say. name. G. derjon. clack. quick of perception. littus. clap. above the pole. a latch . a lot. Somner. a trigger. kleppe. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. — have the notion of a short quick in E. IS5 Du. chatter. has also deik. as Sc. one of the clergy. pulsare. rock. chat. duke. the dick of a latch or a trigger. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. cart that tilts over. sink. Rouchi cliche. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. a lazar's clicket or clapper. Gr. Du. crepare. de ripa. seize (Hal. Client. Da. a baU of yarn. klinket. on. a clew. a ball of twine. Sw. dough. Sc. cliff. click. . and hence deik. derigo. Du. clypian. cave .). diver. kliket. or an object character- Clerical. klever. . and (with the nasal) — clincher. ravine. clima. dever. to stir. Lat. deik. is NE. to snatch. 3. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. in precisely the same sense as the E. e. 3. the knocker of a door. dek. declivity. a hump. snatch. The Sc. Sp. dook (identical with E. quick in motion. expeditious. a hook. prattle. to tattle. cligner. derecia. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. agile. speak. climate. klikker. Boh. lively. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). cleft in a rock. deik. in rhetoric. whence Fr. /cXi'fia. to prate. to catch. chatter. in the sense of active. from Gael glac. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . rupes . klif.

parva ruptura. klungeln. to bend downwards . as G.' for a dry stick. Gr. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. globulus' (Gl. in Schmeller) klunk. E. four of the bell. at first probably on a wooden board. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. G. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. klingen. outcry. cochl. sloping upwards procUvis. to cling to a thing. klippe. sloping downwards . klunge. a hood. 'Till famine cling thee. kXiVu. klicke. to lean backwards. hlinian. klippa. klungelin. incline. Swiss klungele. to strike. Fr. Sw. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. also to wink . glungelin. hill . a ball of thread . to snap tongs. clato make a noise. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. G.. S w. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. I. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. . . ring clag. klynge. to crowd together klynge sig ved. a rising ground. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. clino. toga muliebris. G. klok. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. OHG. as thick or curdled liquids. G. compress . lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. klippen. chcng. . to make a loud noise.D. pinch. especially of something soft or clammy. knippen. kukla. Clink. schnippen.— KSS. klippa. to pinch.' From Pl. iissura. Du. pallium. to crowd or squeeze chingy. and 'E. klupen. kleppe. klak. The notion of a loose moveable substance. Een kliks bolter. gang. kolbe to E. to resound. clingan. kol- The word . a faction. clivus. ON. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. Gael. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. glocke. fetter. a snare. hluccti. kima. and so' to contract. hluk. clique. knippchen. See Cowl. sticky. dial. a lump of butter. Esthon. . clinker. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel.und zuk-lippen. rima. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . kliks. hlinen. a lump G. and a similar syllable without the /. cloche. related to clock. from klepati. Sw. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. knot klynge. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. . straits. as we now say three or four o'clock. klik. to slope or bend . ON. To stick to. whence E. Flem. Ir. -atum. — clot. nip. a separate portion. . g. to beat on the board. by bits. Pl. a beU. Swiss klokken. clinke. klincke. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. also to form a compact mass. G. To Cling. to knock. klipa. dial. a lump. Clock. disposed to a thing. See Clang. incline. to . Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. to pinch klupe. dag. kluben. to wither. ' . to snap kneipen. Da. to shrink up. Du. Ang. Du. Sw. Hal. to beat. difficulty. verklungeln. recline. Sussex peasant AS. bow. gUong. klippur. G. a tinman.. toga. knippe. * Clod. -CLINE make pinch. cloak.. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. Bi klik uti klak. hooded . a cluster. . klocka. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack.. Serv. kldpp. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. speaks of a ' clung bat. like cling. kluppe. to clip. to lean. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. &c. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. Cloak. . a clock. To cut with shears. quincailler. Bohem. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. slant.— Clot. to snip. clog.D. To Clip. Lat. Fr.ginglej Fr. 2. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. to cluster. Kil. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. Walach. The E.'— Shaks. a bell. Bohem. N orman clincailler. to clink auf. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. dial. klaka. claw. declivis. difficulty . met. . noise. clock is a variation of clack. E. to AS. Decline. klinken. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. a woman's mantle . w. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. Cliofue. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. klo^gen. ON. pinch. to shrink up. Du. ten. clangere. acclivis. — a mantle. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. Sw. to sound sharp. clutch. to snap or fillip schnippen. klunker. -cliv-. to wither. to form one mass with. klocke. club). clips. kolki-laud. a bell. klinka. sloping forwards. shears. tuft. brett-glocke. to clap or clack. klepalo. a clog or fetter for a beast . to clunge. to ring. klocke. Lat. 156 -cline. as to snip in the same sense from snap. Sw. dial. or bagging clothes.

lobbig. to bodies. bloutre. kloden. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. spatter. a clod. a Christmas log. A . slop. finish . to flap as loose clothes. klotzschuh. aspersion. loose. terminate. Pr. Idppern. bowl . Du. lunch. -clusum. Mat. a lump from Du. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. slabberen. AS. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. dab. kladde. to shut in. boil. . to play at bowls. . from claudo. Fr. to rattle. . gelatinous. chiuso. kloten. To Clog. lobberen. to dabble. then liquid or loose substance. Fr. zocco. IV. slops). a clod Swab. of something clammy or heavy. clausum. kloteren. to lobberig. da- . in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. analogous plan to clod or club. lump of butter. an imputation. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. inclose. geschlotter (as E. Lat. dag. In the same way Dan. . Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. klokotat. laggery. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. loblolly. congeler. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general.D. G.— Clothe. kleck or lack. kloster. slab. a bal!. tJokok. . Hence inclose. claggy. . schlotter. schlott. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). G. clotted locks Dan. log. . to rattle. shaky. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. to shut up.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. klod. Pl. cloth. He was a man without a dag. doitre. clot.D. clos. motzen. E. be found rattle. mire. Sc. The origin of clod and clot is to . in comp. Gr. a portion of something soft and adhesive. I clodde. to dabble. whence klack.rge lump. splash. in accordance with Pl. lob.' end. bespotted with mire E. is connected with pludder. -close. klotz. shut up. Clog. plod. unctuous. shut up. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. a dirty wench claggy. tuditare. je amoncele. separate part. lopperig. klottern. we pass to Schlatter. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. slobber. compared with clump. klot. A — — A Thus from Bav. Russ. clotted milk klotte. pattens G. to slop or spill liquids. is a blot on one's character. Bav. lump of mud on the clothes . klakken. hanging loose and full. thick spoon .. loppe. . Lat. to shut. . or drablyn with separate existence. beklakken. close. slobberen. a log. I doda clod. -clus-. klag. slobbe. and Gael. lopin. with Fr. Pm. clogs. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. dunch). from Fr. daustrum. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. or Sc. . clammy loam. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. dangle. loose trowsers. to rattle or shake to and fro. loppered (of milk). spot of dirt. 3. rattle. to dash like heavy rain.dial. and Du. wide bagging clothes. thick sour milk. a skittle-ground klos- sen.). to spill liquids. to wabble. fors. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. Swiss schlott. • lump. . a log. Du. dial. to a. be&c. schlattern. paddle. Fr. . to flounder in the wet. Dan. the radical sylla. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. miry laggerit. curdled. and thus seem endowed . to claggock. a monastery. clog or overshoe. klunkern. Klak also. E. lump of something soft . neither spot nor hang loose. paddle or dabble in the wet. clos. meat from Du. klateren. a block. a trowelful of mortar. lumps of butter. a blot. g. to sup up liquid food. of a body of any kind. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. pludre. clorre. fat. tramp in wet or mire. blot. and E. dirt. a babbler. to paddle in the wet. klac.'^ Palsgr. slops slodderen. TZoxapov. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. dirt. clausum. to shut. kloteispaen. ! . in forms like Du. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. daggerey. to close against one.. lag. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. or loppern. MHG. to cling locks. slob. a blot. Klottermelck. motte. enOE. foreclose. mud klcEg. Fr. lobberen. a spot. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. we pass to E. from Du. watery. schlettern. mud. Cloister. klos. -cludo. . to bubble. Closhe. klakk. kl'dnken. claque. Yule-clog. to bedaub. without. wabbling from Du. bemired. claudo. chiudere. Pr. The game called ninepins. truncus. like G. m&se noch stain. closed. a clog. . His heart was franlc without a flaw.1a. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. Close. paludosus. . loose mud. a field inclosed clos. schlottern. figer. laggyn. It. forbidden by 17 Ed. clatk. or E. zoccoli. I clodde. clogs for the feet klakk. klos-bane. kleck. in accordance with It.

Fris. cludadh. a clubfoot klabb. Mabousfrom Lat. loggish. a . To Cluck. klcBdi. Du. a thick mass. nourish . — . whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. with lout. of sloppy materials. Sw. a bunch. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. the air. . a ball. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. a ball. clunch. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. diboter. chiodo di girofano. clyd. esdaboter (Roquef. from W. ON. a blabber. from OFr.clod. lumps of curd. clothes ment.bar. clunch. and clout d eudaich. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. de Champ. AS.D.158 . Kiittner. del mattond. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. nelke (dim. clavo di especias. dial. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. w. a ball. wisp. klubb. dote. and of a rustic unpolished person. Gael. zolla dell' . formed lump or thick mass. but confounded with cailler. dabaire. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. to lump mend clumsily. lump. also homo obtusus. kldverj P1. klonte. w. from Du. . motte. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. strike. dob. Clump. a curdled sky. The radical sense seems to be an unE. a nail) Fr. klunds. Rouchi dapoter. cluster. bunch. cobble. klebek. een klaven kruflook. caillebottes. probably from daboter. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol.ft. dys. ball of thread Russ. ON. log. 2. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. Imitative of the note of a society. to cleave or the splashing of water. sticky. warm place . clods. hebes (Kil. and -the word Clove.D. eene ODu. klqb. botsen. spice) G. blockish. G. Gael. the terms expresssplit.' Sanders. lunch). It. clothe. a bunch. boucher. shel- kloen. clod is used in both senses . a breach. are also used in the sense of a stopper. to cleave.). Move.). to stop. clue. botch. CLOUD an awkward clod . clot. of nagel. klotz. E. mass. The priClout. daggy. a knot of people. From dog. klove. cloud Delfortrie. rustic. Pl. block. Das volk hat sich in splitten. Clumpered in balls of clouds. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. and clay. clammy earth. warm clothes {dillad. A kind of spice resembling Du. mire. duthaich. klu77ip. N. indispalte knoblauch. zolla. G. clothes). — — — . In the same way E. little nails. lie clyd. clydion. I. knob. dump. clot. a boss. clobyn. tered . puddle. to cloy. lump. klotsen. klump. unpolished. Ir. a lump. To Cloy. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown.). mud (Pat. stock. choke or stop up. a clown. make warm. milk run to lumps. Cld. kluppe. warm.D. Cloud. a ball of twine . dash (Cot. and tapp. to strike. of a lump of earth and that figure. E. Dan. a nail. cobio. and closely do conspire. nagelein. kUid. Du.). klaven. when something has got into the touch-hole. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. Du. naegel. lump. CLUCK rustic. to curdle. piece Cot. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. Met. a fissure. group of people Sw. Du. E. a bobbin. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. Clown. to tramp in the kluyve. eine to slop. sheltered up warm. a patch. kloven. to beFr. a clod. Sp. mary sense is a blow. kluV. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). a bousche. dabosser. a. More in R. coarse. . from cates the application of the root dab to Du. sheltered . lump of earth aria. of thumping clumsy action. clumhar. warm. from kloven. ser. a clot or keeps one warm. Properly that which covers and Du. dirt. a lump. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. a log. klubb. kloete. clog. Club. . klever. a clod or clot. klumba. klumpfot. dial. G. a garthas. cob. dut. dillad bumkin. Du. a bunch. a clove of garlick. AS. dial. Du. Then applied to a lump of mate. . to splash. G. a cover or coverture . clot . clump. klubba. aglio. matte. Fr. A division of a root of garlick. cludaim. a log. a sky Cot. davus. clod. a sticky. klieven. are often connected. to strike . clou de girofle. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. Clover. knob. to cherish. to a lump. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. as Fr. Sw. klotzig. So Fr. tuft. kl'dnne. klobbersaen. in the same sense. cluth mhor. (kruyd =. The significations of a clod or lump. to cover Bret. clotted milk or cream. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . clump of a clout on the head. . klubbe.

or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . Sw. klump. — . kluntfrom KKvKdi. COAL dumpish. from laver. to rinse. to wash. plad or plod. to lie. Beklummen van kelde. lavesen. Cluster. in comp. hands stiff with cold. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. to benumb with cold. Hence snatching. clointer. dussomed (Wilbrabam). Hindust.Ancr. Champ. cliboter. Hesse.. a litter. koetsie. kohle. and koetse. coucher became in unhandy. a lump.D. Ray. a noise. clotted cream. dystere. xXvariip. -cludo. having the Pl. Hence cleik. 130. to tramp or tread heavily. dumps. a clod clunter. kichlemmit. —To Clumsyd. —More. cluster. conclusion. and make ye strong feeble knees. as Fr. strum on an instrument. claws. a pinching time. dek. are the nasalised forms of klotte. cluntClyster. wagen.mene tied. to shut. as clumper. limp. Teulazy. hooknosed. n. differing only in the absence of the duik.E.' Benecke. Pl. the word is more probably connected with OE. OHG. . Sc. — sen. exclude. ' Thou clontsest for cold. crooked inwards . Pm. as from seken. to curdle. klamp. 159 E. klos. kol. ' . ill-made . Cheshire. benumbed with cold. Riwle. Com. klister. MHG. finish. klikonosy. * Clump. E. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. klisse. G. -clusum. Du. close. clutch. See -elude. Fr.D. klunsen. idle. gelidus. — ' — — tonista. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. Variation of clatter. dumpers. obstructum. klikaty. a clod or The noclot. inclusive. klonte. ball as snow. In the same way Du. Analogous forms with a tongs. . as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. klonte. clip or pinch. acomelydfor could Pr. ' Uorte (for clogs. klimpern. whence koetse. Lincolns. — Cot. dial. and klonteren. also a cluster. cleche. klont. Sp. unhandy. . MHG.' Vegecius in Way. Graff in Klamjan. * Clumsy. a lump. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. dial. klette. hondis. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. G. A group. klontet. Coach. havi. glocire. awkward. enervatus.forklomme (Outzen). clook. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. rial. Pl. klemma. might be reached from clump. clump. klods. heavily. thick and clumsy. unfashioned. dial. a block. of Du. dek.D. may recline. er. ball of snow on horse's foot . clabosser.e. Compare Swiss klupe. a lump or compact mass. koetsen. or from Sw. klocken. esclaboter. with E. awkward. Clutch. Fris. or aclommyde. a clot klissen. to wash. -elude. calling her chickens. a coach. eene beklum. G. OE. properly to do anything Fr. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. beklummen. From the notion of sticking together. tight — — . coccolare. Sw. klunt. to tramp. a nasalised form of club. Gr. viscous material. Muster. from ON.D. algidus. unhandy. clumsy. a ball . a clove Sw.' Wycliff. klumpig. eviratus. But clunchy. ether comelia P. cleik. . claudo. lump of soft mate. a clod or lump. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. seize. glousser. in v. klomen. pinched. to collect in lumps.— — . splash. wooden sole. Lat. -CLUDE hen Du. through the senses of lumpish.' Comfort ye dumsid. -olus-. Fr. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. paste. pladdern. dumpse. verkommelen. a couch. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. ment. klemmen.D. clopiner. bunch. klummklummshandt. koetsDa. Clump. clausum. ON. klamen. Du. klummerhdndt. G. clutch. to gingle. eviratus. to syllable click. beklommen. Coal. of garlick. klumpern. carriage in which you klodset. Ang. -clus-. klompen. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. to pinch. to grip. smart motion. -close. Clutter. to curdle. koetblockish. log. unwieldy Hal. hand to cleuk. with a quick. The sense of awkward.P. Fr. It. Isaiah. a bunch. See reclusion. Cath. klampa. E. Du. claw. &c. to curdle. lay hold of. wooden shoes. to paddle or dabble. dial. The Fr. doquear. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. to tramp. Du. to klotz. conclude. Du. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. klobber in klobbersaen. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. Lat. fingers (familiar). and klotteren. a clod or lump. verklomen.'— animal. — Hence include. from klupen. cleuk.pare P1. to stick together . klcise. ' Clumper. a ball. Boh. klomje. to squeeze. an instrument for nasal form e. duke. a claw. to to snatch.

from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . atter-kop. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. broddelen. from bearing a bag. dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . may be A found in Sw. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. habble. The dirt. an egg. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. — Cobbler. cule cocosse. top cobio. properly to daub. and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. caleo. T' waerkopet. and thence a lump cobnut. plaisant. * To Cobble. give the full meaning of the word. a nest. Dan. walk clumsily. cokes or fool of him. an old idiot. Sanscr. or upper . to hobble . used in — . e. cochinilla. . — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. says Varro. to bungle Sc. in Du. e. Sp. glow. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. a large round nut cobstones. then to work unskilfully .— Cobble. a cobweb. to peck as a hen cobyn. a rib. united. to bungle . — — .—Atkinson. a pock mark. — Cleveland Gl. dial. flame. cluster. COCHINEAL Cobber. side . to knock. pustule. kylla. A spider's web. . Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. Trevoux. kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. haggle. and the spider as collectors. to .' And colo. sweets and the other of poisons. bredouiller. burning. ridi. that is. s. niais. w. pustule. Du. to be inflamed .. hakkelen. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. Fr. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. pockbecility and liability to imposition. and E.the water boils. probably left his home. one Pr. . the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes. To cokes or coax one then is to make a w. a sow.). kop-ar. and imperfect or unskilful action. 3. glowing embers. Fin. klabba. probably from the Fr. CooMneal. meaning that she is plain and coarse. as in arr. It. glow jvalaya. ailina or colina. to cobble shoes. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. to wheedle or gull vermin). gull. E. Fr. grown together. long standing. to speak or act confusedly. of E. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. Colina' the place where a fire is made. to pdt with We may cite Fr. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. from some fancied resemblance. a spider. to stutter. a bungler. to burn. Coalesce. koppe. cotta. to glow . boil. cob.(pi. or cobble. quele. any kind of coat. universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place. a kitchen. — Pr. Coalition.' — Thus from (Hal.inflated with air or liquid. a darling. and hobble. a tuft. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. Cobbles in the N. In the E. kuppa.. It. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering. H^cart. Flem. kop. petrilla. v. dial. cotte. to kindle jvAla.). verkommelen. The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. of cochina. of E. Du. ignem. The OE. to beCoax. large coals. costa. cob is a dumpy horse. also a coast. cofasse. a bunch. The primary sense is doubtless koelA. unfledged bird. and jval. to strike. a knock. . to Lett. pryf-coppyn. Formerly written course. frock. acomelyd or aclommyd. however.. a crea. When the . Coat. Pm. inflammation. ordina