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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


but nothing she herself knows the animals. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. or. and. and mully or mully cow is the . or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. in language of the present day. or Mollein. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. come Moolls. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. and where we are seeking. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. the closer we shall approach to the . Molli. muK) and mae (rfie. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. is given to a cow or calf. when we is represent to our children of the cow. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. with an initial m or I. the baaing of the sheep. The syllables moo (mu. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. by whom the be understood. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. persons of different tongues at the present day. to the syllables which are significant to the child. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb.NURSERY IMITATIONS. name of the cow. mind of the of the animal. in other words. when neither name for the object to be designated. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. the present day. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow.

gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. schipp. when hungry. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. A member of my own new sfop. mumm. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. to work over with the mouth. for things. I had watched the growth of this word.' he says. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. by the natural humming sound. Finally an n was placed before it. . partly from sounds which the child caught. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. Gradually. . an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. had nim. He would now say good. then. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. he called to to drink. analogous to Magyar mammogni. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made.. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. hm. repulsive to eat. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. and nim came to signify everything edible. On one occasion he said^e nim. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. for everything fit to eat. fiafifi&v (Hesych. as well as the mind of the utterer. to For instance. p.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. and which we might express thus. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. nim.). &c. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. We have. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. 72). nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. became more perfect. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. Gr.' In ordinary speech mump. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. to eat. First. for bad. his nurse adopting the word with him. Heinicke. and some were very clear and distinct. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. family. nineteen years old. in children's language.

Wolof nahenahe. Swedish dialect gamsa. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. to be pleamind . Africa) nimi. mujnpa. yamming.' says Quintilian. nvrnma. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. to eat. palatable. voracious. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. p. crab nam buckra man. delicacies. to take. make djamdjam). the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. on. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. ut tinnitus aeris. i8o. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. aptantes adfectibus vocem. memmexen. iii.minis. Vei (W. to move the lips in continued chewing. oves lalare. 130-1. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. snatched (Whitby Gl. . Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. buckra man's language the white man. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam.' says the author of Modern Slang. eating. to smack in eat. j ing . to taste . South Jutland hiamsk. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. Nimm'd up. the Scotch poet. stolen. to chew laboriously. mumpfeln. to mump. Gothic niman. jammla. food (Tylor. savory. and some of them . taken up hastily on the sly. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. sweet (Koelle). chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln.' — Lersch. at hiamske i sig. (in chil- dren's language). in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. greedy . mumpfen. to eat mampfen. Africa) nimnim. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. dial. tidbits nama . clangorqae tubarum. i. jamsa (yamsa). to fill the mouth. and the fizzing (and Series. A negro proOr. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. as to .ONOMATOPCEIA. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). nobis vix permittitur. nam. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. Soosoo (W. nyam nyam. ' Motherwell. jumla.' And Diomedes. or word-making. to Sw. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors.). mumble. aves tinnire. ' id est. Galla djam djeda. and thence to be tasteful. lita. 1 86). as well as the Sw. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). Primitive Culture. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. namnam.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. and the crab — p. agreeing with Ein. we can call them so. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) .

who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. grunting or squealing of hogs. und growling. chattering of pies or monkeys. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. ^6^. do not speak of a bowwow. twittering of swallows. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. or. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. chirping of sparrows or crickets. barking. dove and cooing. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. 'I doubt. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. howling. hooting of owls. cooing or crooing of doves. for the purpose of bringing the animal. yelping. bellowing of bulls. cackling or gaggling of geese. gobbling of a turkey-cock. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. might be used. a lamb. purring or mewing of cats. might be used as the designation of it.' he says. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. not of a moo of Lect. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. neighing or whinnying of horses. 89) with less hesitation. lowing of oxen. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. baaing or maeing of lambs. snarling. whether it deserves the name of language. bleating of sheep. croaking of frogs or ravens. not of a baa. before the in other words. p.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. but of a dog. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. snarling of dogs. between dog and harking. or thoughts of our hearer. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. Yet we ing. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . bumping of bitterns. that there is When Man.' And elsevs^here (p. sparrow and chirping.' — We speak of a cow. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. yelping. We . anything connected with it. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. Indeed. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. intended in the instance to represent the cry. when circumstances required.

Sauscr. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. kae. In Basque. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. We imitate the sound with a modulated. and gaggele or gagkelein. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. it announces (Salaberry). The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. KOKKvi. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. gackem. a crow (Pictet). 380. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. and means a shouter.' kd). as which is unmistakeably the source Du. kuho. is kuM) for the cuckoo. Bav. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. 349. He to is therefore derives kdka. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. caller. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. or quawk.). he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. Manchu The kaha. a bird that is be driven away. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii.). when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. Sometimes the hoarse i . having a general predicative power.IMITATIVE NAMES. Malay gdgak. a crow. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. whose sound (Pictet. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). crow. a daw. Arabic kdk. a a crier (p. according to Durga). But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. Columbia kahkah. caw kuhii-rava (rava. 'Kdka. and the sound of that direction. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. kdka. Kdrava.' common sense. crow. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. Aoo-Aoo. birds. and Bavaria respectively. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. in g. Barabra koka. layitavya . In Lat. fi-om apakd- i. lion. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. in is Gr. 4th ed. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. Origines Indo-Europeennes). kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. e. ist ed. kauwe. Hungary. sound). Georgian quaki. ghak. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. coccolare. Picard cau..

Du. and sometimes both together. Da. coucouva. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. Sp. and e. tur. Fr. lilits. 6.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. gugu. German and Eng- krahen. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. or Gr. turtle) as the Lat. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. tbrtora. kraukti. kurre. yell. Ibo akoka. kukhuta. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. while crouk. French dishuit. to cry loudly. Pers. tbrtola. It. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. Magy. Esthonian kikkas. kukko. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. and e. tuquheit. a crow. name. a crow lish Lith. koeren. girre. wood-pigeon. to crow. "Welsh hwan from hwa. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. either in the same or in related dialects. German kielitz. to crow. So we have Polish krukac. in the North of England.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p.. Lettish kiekuts. coqueri- Languedoc. t. hibou. Arabic tdtwit. Dutch kievit. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . tortbla. uhu. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. reduplicate form. k. xi. name of its is the bird. by the verbs gurren or girren. gufo.Gr. p. lulo. Swedish kowipa. kraeyen. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. to hoot. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part.. German luhu. cock. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. krauklys. great variety of oKokv^uv. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. kraeye. a crow . Heb. another. korren. Walachian coucouveike. synonymous forms of similar structure). to croak. giving turtur (and thence It. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. krahe. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. to croak. libufs. Malay kukuk. The consonants p. to howl or Lat. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. Du. coccovaec. Hindi. lUyrian kukurekati. as well as of Sanscr. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. are represented. Mod. Zulu kuku. Scotch peeweip. The crowing of cot in Fr. ghughu. kruk. kuku. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. Albacuculi a dove. 219. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. kirren. Yoruba koklo. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. tor.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. the name of an animal will gen- . teewhoop. the name for a crow.

may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. din. ajo. Danish dron. Naturalist on the tocano. in allusion to its music. to be compared with Sanscr. a hornet. a fly (Tylor) . ' Sanscr. swirplys with 6. i. cricket is from crick. a bee. to grumble. oE. Sanscr. to creak Bret. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. zirken. skril with n. succeeding each other — with noise. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. and probably indicates that g. ta-na-nd. a sharp sound as of a 6. knetta. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. grylhis.' Amazons. schirke. resounding of musical instruments. dhran. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. and yelping cry. The drone peal. horniss and from the buzzing The. bambhara. little intermission. as . buzzing. g. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. words imitative of humming . the humble. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. a beetle druna. Lithuanian tranas. Sc. skryle. to shrill sound sharp. German dronen. The Arabic sarsor. The Welsh chwyrnu. Lat. The name of the cricket indeed. PofijivXwg. glass cracking (Schmeller). frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. Corean sirsor. German hummel. sirkka. g. Northern Farmer.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. common. e. kong-kong. with or Fr. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. Australian bumberoo. a small as hawk is . g. ' — Pictet . Danish gnaddre.vf3. Fin.IMITATIVE NAMES. and he kong-ko-rong. to chirp . flight its sting considered as a horn. from schrick.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. give a faint sound. schrickel. bee. to rustle. and not from E. droning is . growling. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. Albanian tsentsir. or a gnat fly. North of England. 'The natives call it tanand. gives rise to chwymores. — Catafogo. booming. to chirp J may be compared with . schwirren. German drohne. the drone or non-working bee . Lith.' — i.or bumble-bee. to sound. Speaking of a cricket he says. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. bamba. sound. pip-pi-ta. chirk. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . from the humming. hollow noise. We may cite Gr. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. a drone. skirl. resound. to hum. Arabic tantanat. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). whirr). which they make in their flight very . buzzing.' —Tennyson. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. In the N. 337. loud rumour. Gaelic dranndan. schrecke. shrill. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. there are infinite varieties. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. grillen. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. (Jieuschrecke) . humming. representing a short sharp sound. thunder. of England it is to the b 2 . grille.

Galla boa. bullock. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. to bump as a bittern Illyr. biibnas. bull. make to it laugh. With these analogies. to make a noise. a bullock. to low. grumble as distant thunder . OFr. bukati. or moo. a cow. to sound. bwla. to make a loud deep sound. lulauti (to hoo-loo). fivKaofiai. bae. Lat. — ^Tylor. whence baula. in same way. ox. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. to mew. a heifer. as that of the cow by boo. a bull. to beat hard. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. a Geiger. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. k or g. bu. has bilbilgoda. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. to shout. It. make poo. bugler. Da. to or bark. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. to ba-L-are. boo. Fr. bue. to make. maukati. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. representmake bow. muJiati. (iove.XX called booing. a buffalo. bugle. or bau-l-i. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. a drum . from the imitative moo instead of boo. as the Illyr. verb is evidently identical with our shout. baula. the animal. w. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. be-l-er. Gael. bovis. to low or bellow. Piedmontese fi bau. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. bubati. are (with a subsidiary k). bae. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. or with on. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. bos. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. to boohoo. Illyr. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. and from to ring. to . plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. miau-l-er. forms a. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. p. From baa. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. bauli. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). loge. bullus and e. cattle. Cult. Fr. the Fr. bolt. shoot . bucula. to bow- own bawl. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. to the uses goda. mae. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. and djeda. From the same lioao). to low . to make. bubenti. say. mugire. On the same principle. Manx booa. Lat. amuse. Norse bu. 167. to from bau. Lat. The Piedm. verbal form given to the say. The Galla lilbil. and thence Lat. buculus. to shout. is inadmissible. and in Hottentot baa was the . His analysis leads cow. representing the mew of a cat. mugler. to weep. btibleti. mamoo-heeheek. that the imitative syllable are Lith. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. w. Zulu lulula. Thus from miau. in a imitation of a ringing sound. bo. Hottentot bou (Dapper). or formed Lat. or a z to the imitative syllable. agreeing exactly with Lith. to bellow like a bull.

name of the animal itself. hound. in v. grumbhng. a goat. /xijeao/iat. (iriKov of forms like Sw. Magy. It is probable also that e. grumpf. curmurring. rumbling. to bleat . mekegni. cry). is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. meckern. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. by which the shingle gives rise to It. the designations of a dog the term cur. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. does not produce a e. name of a sheep. grugno. meil. meketati. and grumphie. hunon. ^. — . with the root ypaipm. The g. groin. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. although the imitation embodied in Lat. a goat.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. this obstinate race. and Circassian maylley.). oe. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). . Gr. grogner. Among dog. hund. a sheep (Lowe). Manx meilee. a sheep or ewe. or in any ! way ! persuading. a. Gr. sound. Kurren und murren. / The same Gr. to howl. G. Illyr. lambs. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. signifying a snarling. as lou of an ox. name. and snorke. to grunt. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. hadg- Magy. to growl. a pig Fin. a hog. and thence groin. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. meugler. leknuti. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. it and e. purr). Africa laa. Illyr. and of (maelon). leg-et-ni. . from knurre. a dog. Moreover. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. a wolf. 6. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. may with to snarl. hwch. a sheep. With gen. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. lekavica. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. in Wolof bae. . remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. hundi).' Moor's Suffolk words. a sow. may be identical with Esthon. hunt (gen. lek-eg-ni. the snout of a pig. a pig. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. to bleat. Gr. a goat firixal^ta. a (Hesych. Welsh and Breton). he would hardly. grunny. meigeal. Illyr. houch. a sheep or a goat. and with the subsidiary k or g. Da. and hoc'h. knurfisk. grumble. to bleat. as the proper name of a tame sheep. grumble. lecco. Fr. karra. It. Idgge (Rietz). cite as by grunt. to grunt. ' In driving. a sow. kurre. Gael. sus-sus. we have Sanscr. menAda (ndda. from hundama. /xj/caScj. mutter. guttural tone. grunt. nire. to themselves. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. kurren. sheep or goat. for the voice of the ox). goats. corresponding to ohg. mecati. a grunt. And it is true there between hog and grunt. growl. grunlike a pig in eating. smack and naski. naskia. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. undoubtedly imitative. From the imitative mae. Hence Breton hoc ha. to rumble. Fr.

the cry to stop or back a horse.. hobby. and it is behind that wall that language really begins.). In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. So Sanscr. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. cockade. Sc. like artificial flowers. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. without a — we root. Esthonian hoibo. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. e.' 2nd Series. M). ^6<. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). p. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. houpy in Craven. when he found peculiarity. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird.' ticular bird. hobin. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. to go backwards. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. .' — ist Series. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. But words of this kind are. a horse. turn a horse to the is In Finland.root. of the character in question. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. Thus we are led to the Fr. g. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. hoppe. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal.. (Craven Gloss. animal. hottihuh. hobben. . but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. There are of course some names. hiine. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. p. coquette. 91. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). as in Yorkshire highly right. coquelicot. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate.). which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. If onomatopoeias can . whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. from the cry animal. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. to whine. such as cuckoo. humma. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. a little am- bling horse. to the left. a mare. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock.

whitename in in- throat. redpole. signified It. e. ginniken. g. titter. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. lapwing. horse. ance or habits of the animal. swift. hresh. diver. Lettish sweegt. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. hikkd. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. to Sanscr. creeper. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. woodpecker. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. moan. Sanscr. giggle. nitrire. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. Sw. nounced with a guttural). When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. wrenska. frenschen. little speak for themselves. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. command of language was attained. Sp. wrena. hennir. but whether there kind between them and other words. Fr. cough. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. Irieschen. as sigh. runniken. hresh. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. Du. . animals or certain kinds of sound. fehtati. than to the sounds represented. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. wagtail. wiehern. Bohem. rinchar. hukkup. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. hross. Pl. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. form corresponding hresh. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. to neigh. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word.D. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. xxiii ginal object. groan. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. sol. goatsucker.

to beat. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience.' So imac. to throw violently down. for the sound of a fall. the God of thunder . heart tick-tack. wheeze. mer. are familiar in ' to every one. beat of a clock child . — Sanders. a large bell. for a small one.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. scream. Vei gbangba. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. pump. atchini. tisio (tisho). knack. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. hang. an attempt would be made to by the voice. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. a more expressive than the e. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. Wtb. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. atchian. &c. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. lumm. for in such sound of blows. for that of breaking. beat. aritischane. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. to drive on. to sneeze. 1865. bang ' ! trenches. haw. banke. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. thunder (Tylor) . To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. or the w. &c. for the creaking of a wheel. or tliat is accomit. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. banga. for the for the sound of . familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. oren : Klapp. heaven). klatsch. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . on the chops is represented also by pratx. haitshu. debhes-lungotais (deifies. to hammer . for the report of a musket (Colenso) . root kshu. a kind of drum. snort. plitsch-platsch. Mei gbengben. hoo. in a nail Let. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . It is represented in e. Australian bungbung ween. shriek. ting-ting. Zulu bongo. —Brem. DingBang. fitsche-falsche.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. pit-a-pat. snore. clap ! A smack Puff. tlirob. ding. to knock. to ham. hoo ping ping.' ! ! ! ! — dong. . and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. Of a like forma- drum . snukkup). bang. for the sound of a blow. for the sound of milking.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. for blows with a rod.' 'Haw. the dashing of the sea . White Lies. Da. strippstrapp-stroll. knarr. went the cannon. bangas.' it both sides went. ping came the bullets about their ears. dong Read.

pi. piccione. Lat. a fowler's bird call is lost. far pipi. pippione. not- . a fife or musical pipe. He Yet asks. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. a or cheep. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. a whelp. piou. to cry like imrli^u). pipe. pipio. part of the What consciousness has the child. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. and whimper. of a word will appear supposed to represent. — . laugh. The pi. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. the voice of chickens (Cot. In cases such as these. is of expression. ducing the sound. Lat. pigiolare. pipe. had been used laugh ? two. as in other subjects of study.sc. to designate cavity and hollow. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. —Lyndsay. bleat. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. chickens (Tylor). Magyar pip. pigolare. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. a chicken or gosling. child. pigione. G. and so forth. piauler. which he added to intensify the expression. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. scream.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. doubtless. and their relations. pipio. pipelni. Mantuan pipiare. young child . and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. pule. to cry pi.' instead. Fr. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. to peep It. piou. or the uneducated different consonants are man. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. cry of young birds . used as a call to . pipilo. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. De Brosses. to squeak. as the simplest implement for proFr. pipegni. Gr. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. is pfeife. a (young) pigeon. peep. pu. peep. pipare. as k. or a piailler. mobility excavation and hollow ^. . It seems to him that the teeth t. to cheep like a bird or a young It. e. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. young bird.) a chick. has been un- employed to designate fixity. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. calls S. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. cry. Florio.

Zulu raraza. vaake gorgor) . to gargle . like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. to thunder. pi . creak. lachachen. Pefuxela. Hindustani karak is rendered. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . i. crash. along with tinnio. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word.. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. rumble (Fl. girren. crack. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. loud laughter. in German. It. u. a short sharp sound. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). borrelen. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. to jar. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. of a loud strong sound. rumble. and lugh. to grate the teeth . to growl. rumble. kuruk. Indian chack-chack. to hawhaw or laugh loud. to gurgle. when it force than biscuit. like the noise of a glass breaking . bubble. kirkirdnd. tonare. to pant violently (Colenso). to gorgogHare rattle. to crackle like in boiling . or springing back. Manchu kaka-kiki. the clucking of a j hen . to ring pipio. to laugh. a closed or obscure sound. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. where the variation. a. sound of dry breaking. a prolonged sharp sound. to rattle. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. knurren. be cate to go on laughing loud . grumble. to be compared with Sc. murren.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. to clack. murmur (by . to pant bejii- zela. gurren. &c. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . thunder oil . The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. kniks. to creak knirren.Gr. to grumble). lachen. laqfF. preserved by Kilian. knaks. . and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du.. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. karkarana. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . a drum W. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. Poppopvi^to. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. knuks. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants .) Mod. make wood a clinking noise. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. kniks. a sharp short one. to fizz like fat in frying. ioriogliare (to make borbor). In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. to bubble. tintino. Hindoo tomtom. to cry pi. as the click of a latch or a trigger. or kaka-faka. {to It. to cluck. Pacific aka-aka. of something fine and thin. chack. . To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. cricli. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. garren. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. is very common. tontonare. coo. some small vowel or consonantal sound. cluck. turtur. the side of g. to grumble. along with Du. as representing the sound made when something breaks. sound).

fumtu. djeda (to say tub). Prim. Fr. chut. for the clinking Lat. shout. Maori pata. tup. Manchu kaka. to giggle. . or the bubbling up of to a spring. rifiirayov. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. bent her head. to strike.' Member for Paris. disturbance (F. noise. to whisper. and Gr. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. is based on the same imitation as the e. kiling-kalang. 192). sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. a drum . to beat. a nightingale. chinking of coin. Newman). Tiie Galla gigiteka. call. or to Du. agrees with g. and her heart went thump. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. ding-dong. tumwata. as Fr. Sanscr. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. coughing or clearing the throat. a nightingale. The syllables lil-bil. 368). for chut-chiit-er. clink. the sound of a stringed instrument. 1871. corresponding in e. to the purling of a brook. brings us to Fr. rain (Tylor. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. E. drops of i. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. indicating the origin of Gr. for a tTviror). Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. a workman. The whispering of the wind I. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. muro and e. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. kl'mg-kling. Magyar csamm-ogni. tumult. hala-hald-faMa (falda. sound). The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. box on the ear imitation of the . chuchoter. sound. jingle. for the sound of privy whispering. tubh. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. bulbiil.* the heart. Galla tuma. the gingling of glasses. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. caca and Finnish adkkd. bubble up. and bilhila. jangle. croaking of frogs. clango. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. to knock. spring of water in the a bell. correspond to e. make djamdjam). clash of arms. e. word. quarren. KaKog. uproar. Scotch sough or sooch. klirren. especially one who beats. are applied to the is excrements of children.and e. a boy's whistle. borrelen. to be compared with g. is Manchu tang-tang. simmer. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). to ring or jingle. identical with g. csam-csogni. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. at an accelerated note. the tingling Ming-Hang. and the imitative nature of tivgle. koXiw. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. as of Tamil muromurmur. to say chut. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. and e. or of bells ringing. compared with Gr. Calt. Turk. rvir (in tvittio. bad. while cacd / used in e. champ. wail. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. . for the ringing of illustrate bells. and Gr. awater* ' The Mme P. clank. thump. a smith. for the Manchu hak for the sound of .SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. of keys or tinkling of bells. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. cry. halaidlac'h. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain.

in e. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. Fr. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. murmur. to dance. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. thump. rumble. clash. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. gargle. twang. thwack. by rubadub. boom. mutter. brumberum.' — Nohden. tymmesll. pop. and the French pouf. to is blow. rattle. without the intervention of orthodox roots. slash. jingle. dabble. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. clank. whizz. a applied as well to the force of the bang. din. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. Nevertheless. answering to g. squall. w. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. chink. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. and Grimm. it is fallj AS. douse.. paddle. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. crash. ' Der puff. clack. report of a gun. puff. souse.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. parapatapan. the Germans puff. swash. crunch. dash. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. So in Fr. crack. flap. clatter. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. The beating of drum is represented in e. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. thump. craunch. clink. It. But although and also found in Lat. tomber. tingle. smash. disturbance. and soufflet. hiss. flop. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. at a door tarapatan. blow. bang. whirr. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. gurgle. squeal. smack. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. while e. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. clap. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. fizz. blubber. rap. The use of g. squeak. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. clang. bubble. tumbian (to beat the ground). 'pat. whine. Humboldt. whack. according to the strictest phonetic rules. tum-ultus. tap. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. tinkle. creak. or v^hether jectional. and Fr. lash. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . splutter. snap. hum. chatter. for (Sanders). we have buffet or cuff. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. splash. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. plump. ring. sputter. thump. patter. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. rataplan or rantanplan. guggle. to fall.

as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. wringing the hands. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. in the case of the animal or of the infant. the interj. hay. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. xxix on the contrary. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. by the nature of the cry. knows them. and found in the building of be burnt up. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. because they are spontaneous.' If chaos. of horror. the kind of action that is desired of them. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. in the rushing waters. and uttering plaintive sounds. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. Crying. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. 94. little who has time to want of her nurseling. is Thus ah!. ugh . grief. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. without a thought of symbolising to them. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. p. that he has taken the step in rational speech. an imitation of a sigh . or of any if wood. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. stractions. or stubble is meaner name. every little pain. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. and thus they become signs of despair. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. or any unsatisfied want. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation .'. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. the inteij. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. At the first beginning of life. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. formerly cited.' . as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. are made known by an instinctive cry. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. but if we must not complain on the beach. If. Grimm or Bopp. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother.

they are involuntary interjections. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. coughing. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. which are frequently so toned down cance. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. to solve the I shall call first. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. be more powerful. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. and some of them the composition of words. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. He says. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. If I wish to make a person of an . the lowing of a cow.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. interjections.' — ist Series. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. ^6g And to the same effect 371. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals.' p. more eloquent than a long speech. of all the mouth. should be remem- . And again. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. groaning. 32. p. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. them to exercise it. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. One short interjec- tion may fact. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed .' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. Language begins where interjections end. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. he cites from Home Tooke. sneezing. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain.. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. 344. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. as who them spontaneous utterances. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. shrieking. p. and the eye. more to the point. or which is of me as suffering pain. may become traditional. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound.

interjections. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. Tooke in truth. in Fin.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. when I arp humming and hawing. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. and thus. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. Gr. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. but the less am at a loss what to say. he says. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. some kind of language might have been formed. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. for example. and others from interjections. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. Lat. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. then speech begins. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. Kayxa^u). nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. demolishing here. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. hahottaa. in Magy. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. kahkahah. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. and more or less limited . bered. I am not hearer. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. hohottaa. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. cachinno. hahota. loud laughter. Koxafw. speaking. it them.

that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. What strikes him . And so in the case of language. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. if taken as a whole. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. . Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. and not. dumb is the language of signs. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. of the nature of this great movement. makes them stand and walk upon the table. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. and go where we now say stand.' he says. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. It as has ing their most striking features.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. the critical question should be. a deaf-mute himself. of the world. like peewit and cuckoo. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. a Picture-language. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. The following account is given by Kruse. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. But here nature soon conies to his help. Though. words receiving the meanings they now bear.

and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. he. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. for walk. for single objects. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. it means little. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. to name. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. that. and it is flesh or meat. The same sign stands and the act itself. that air. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. push it towards the person addressed for thou. particular sense in properly so called. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. The of sign for left hand. And is. letter To hold the two fingers apart. the sorecalling them to his memory. and fully serves to j . becomes roast meat. his action. what more. the whole secret.GESTURE most. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. he. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. as it now opens out. thought is already broken. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. nay. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. and forms further and further. can do better and more easily abstract terms. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. called Gesture-language. like a V. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. walkest. such objects. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. or To pull and flap with the arms. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. and we have roast goose. that signifies great . among themselves. xxxiii him between one thing and another. and And thus he makes himself a language. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. for the agent. and with his thought. walker. the lan- guage cultivates itself. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. thou. most striking outline of an object. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. and gestures. signs are taught for yet. but if I depress it instead.' In the Institutions. it seems. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. many when or but these. such as than the educated man. and to taste. for child. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. or the verb to be. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . walked.

would be simply beginning of speech. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. Do not bang the it is a verb. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. a colour red. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. and thus performs the part of an adjective. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. The same word . in expressing such relations as those indicated above. depend entirely upon the use. or a passive scene of existence. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. . and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. I say. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. the ture of white term pink is and red. and so is an adverb. He gave door a bang. or something of the kind. a number of alternatives are suggested. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. or an act. in other instances sentence. might be the knife. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. as in die it is a noun. it called an interjection. When a verb. You beaten . in fact. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. Who is has beaten you ? would be. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. and the as. to indicate the action of a certain person. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. or action.' dener's knife. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. as But when it is meant door. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. or a quality. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. according to the circumstances of the case. When I say. substantive or adjective. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. putting it into his pocket.xxxiv asking. as when Bang ! went the gun. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. the garden. whether by additions or otherwise. qualifies the against the wall. when I say.

and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. in the sense of great. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. verb nor noun has yet been developed. coalesces with the personal pronouns. contempt. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. wherewith. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. greatness. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. which is an old y ting (use stick). signifying an attribute of this person or of that. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. as cung. whereto. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. . or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. &c.. or some relation between it and another object. wherehy. pain. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. and to be great. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. middle. inside. or with elements expressing relations of time. and may be used language. or nei. wherefore. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection.^ — Miiller I. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. commencement of speech. in the is indicated by the syllable y. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. grie^ horror. some outward display of the affection. that is. with a stick. the man is great. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. wonder. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. but often self-evident. a groan. a noun. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. Jii ta. as kuo cung. a sigh of oppression and . whereof. that admits itself in of audible representation. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. Latin. 255. inquiry. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. Thus tafu signifies a great man. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words.

och. ochan. oi. ing action I. It. to yell formed e. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. n. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. Thus from springs otjucifw. guajo. oval. Illyrian vaj. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. In this way from the root guai. ocAJ. ach. and cacak djeda (to say crack. form. guaj- or cry out pitifully. gwae. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. wai-l. guai. It. lau-l-e. to lament. woe. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. Lat. wd. Fr. to bewail oneself. vce. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. to make). weh schreien. however. w. ah. oh. misery. to make bow-wow. suffering. first person. wehen (Schmeller). on. to cry n. as. to do woe. Gr. ohi. och. vei-a. tirr-djeda. wai. . e. ochan. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. cece. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. weinen. e. oimare. Such are g. It. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. woe. grief] affliction. as. jao. seen in Gr. guaj-ire. miau-l-er. wAwa. Gr. Jar lau-lau. the pangs of childbirth. misfortune. xxxvi grief. to sound yapyap. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. representing a cry of pain. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. in Gr. j. are ol-ire. to rriourn. Illyr. to cause pain. ochain. wehthun. die wehen. ache. to wail. at the close of the radical syllable. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. jaoh. mostly a ! %. . pain. aiai^to. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. wai. to chirp. ui. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. to wail or cry alas . a groan or lamentation vir. probably a deeper groan. to cry at. Lat. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. dchzen. la. ach. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. A widespread It. achen. headache. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. pain. och. gwae. . to gargle. o'i. is w. pain. has more kopfweh. g. ach. howl. weh. to ache. to weep. ahi. mew. grief. ! ! Goth. . to lament. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. gwe-l-a. e.-l-are. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. vaj. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . found in g. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. 6. on. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person.ez. grief. lament. w. ah. is Ay di me I Gr. ace. miau-n-is. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. Gr. oh.'). Let. It. ai. lament from oimi. to groan. al.. and to bark . g. hei. The form corresponding to Lat. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. to weep. &. to hurt Let. representing Illyr. w^wa. or r. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. 6. to ache. Bret. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. I oi[iot. Gael. to . ohg. vce. to injure. miau-l-is. . djamdjam goda (goda. waiidt. axofiai.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

this here. a specified were by pointing him out. or that it is. der da-ige. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. says da-da-da. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. The Fr. more emphatically roSj)j that.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. and may be rendered. give. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. and by a variety of expressions besides. indeed. . ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). as it Dieser da (as Lat. 'nay. the nursery da-da. Sanders (Germ.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. properly (give) be compared with by which a g.' this. Diet. or carry me thither. • The child. da. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. that is it. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. his trowsers' pocket. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. ToSe (or in Attic E. child. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. I add) . that gratifies me. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. as to express. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object.' all is is — their consent. Sie. is we I believe.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. In the expression Da. thata (ta-ta). but the truth is. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. Thank you. ' sees an object. nurseries. and so on.' then points to his wife. well as Goth. saying : there the ad- Trans. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. is-te). we may translate this by there (it is). or wants to name something. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. case. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. Phil. that. according to Menage. da. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. as. When we pointing. Please. implying the direction of its good will towards them. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. to here . of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted.' person. But. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. Dr Lottner observes. for instance. or give me it. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. a word of many applications in g. give me that cheese. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. Bav. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. when he wants something. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. when 1859.

then we have a pronoun demonstrative. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. dadee. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. — Cot. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound.' says Muller. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language.' • liv ANALOGY. moving. to knock. then instinctively interest. beat. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. to tion to another. reality. standing. which thus exertion. meanings. Thus Gr. and one in particular must. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. to beat. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. takes it — as When the soul. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life.' says Lottner interior. to walk. or metaphor. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. or dalliance. make dadada). The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. to say to oneself. thinking. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. p. in every mode of expressing the idea. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. tattle. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. strike. tasting. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. speech. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. its desire. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. childish toying. pay. sinking. and shapes it into an . to chatter.^ its ' utters : a cry. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. . The da is dodem. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. the original is that which he places first. to move step by step. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. stutter. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. of which any one may. sounds.

noise. to flash. same imitative root with Sw. extended to the exercise of the understanding. tumult. pracht. clang. rattle. make a loud noise. bilbilgoda (to make . to crackle. to quiver. fiapfiaipw. smell. tinkling. &c. to glitter. then to sparkle. is used in the origin. to sound clear In Galla. taste. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. to sparkle. while sapere itself. to ring. schmecken. also wise. spraka. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. to resound. esclat). knistre. sound. . properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. — 1. firom the Gael. wilistd. to shine. discreet. snot. to glitter. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. Finnish. knittre. outcry. to glisten Dan. Du. sense of brightness. bilbil). and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. to ring as a glass willata. Again. So firom Lat. may be quoted gUt. . is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. scTiateren. to sniff. in the domain of movement. wilahtaa. suspect Bav. snudra. beam. on. a dis- cernment. think. chime). It is The word bright had a similar In as. in popular language. Lith. to snilF. a ringing . and. wise. brilliancy. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . for example. splendour. snotor. the equivalent of g. snuff the sniiten. scheteren. air. prudent. as. Fr. gnittre. properly a clap or explosion. beorhtian. search . the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. Bavarian bracht. splendour. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. sprageti. 1654. from the . The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. and thence e. smell. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. to glitter. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. The 6. to glitter e. to . sapere (which signifies the nose. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. to shriek with laughter . to sniff out. as kilind. schiteren. Heo Du. a rustling sound Gr. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. bright. unlella. to shine. (parallel bilbila. In the case of sparkle. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. judicious. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. man of nice taste. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. we have and the and beorht. to crackle gnistre. may be it explained . and figuratively. a with kimmaltaa. wamara. magnificence. snutrs. to be wise. In the same way the Goth. ghsten. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. kiimottaa. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. kimistd. to smack or taste. which in ohg. savour.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. and schmecker. signified a clear sound. to 5 ghtter. to tinkle. iclat (in Old Fr. a brilliant light kilid. to have Sapiens. tintelen.

then in rpd/xoe. smooth. pleasure soft to the ear . extremely loose. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. v. mel. he says. Acre. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. fitting the letters to the sense. inside. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. shatter. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. the cross. eo ut res vol. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. in truth. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. Much of the same has been often quoted. the clank (stridorem) of chains. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. accordance with the way in which by touch. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. &c. \nrap6e. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. he framed the words ivSov. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. strike. briars. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. roughness. we hear of screaming colours. Tpa)(yg. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. crux. The BpavEiv. ipuKuv. wool. rend. flow and flux. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. whirl. within. of dressing loud. pvfi^Civ. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. Kpovtiv. tremour. as soft by the ear. kvTOQ. or . affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. itself letters are felt as sofl. and vepres. And observing that n kept the voice within. KoWiiSije. gluey. oily. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. power of the letter-sounds. is felt Lana. rough both ways. Kep^arl'ieiv. the neighing of horses. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. rough to the ear. the bleating of sheep. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. in of his works. rough. which The Stoics. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. 6\tadaveii'. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. rough. 1. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. to slide. . sharp.' he says. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. discusses the tone of a picture. soft. break.

cular effort Again. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. jih. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. g. ii. dig. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. to signify varieties of movement. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. shog. for exis ample. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. or checks as they are called by Muller. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. t. degree of roughness sound. the case of the voice. jog. sag-oter. to jogj sac-cade. corresponding to the ineor. p. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. jag. shag. stab. a rough and sudden .' It is on account of the roughness of pain. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. joli. to reel abruptly from side to side). in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. k. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. rug. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. and in the utterance of a high or or low. d. Fr.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. 138). dag. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. tug. 'and consequently form. p. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. stag (in stagger. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. as when. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. A greater felt. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. jig. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface.

a quid of tobacco. Hence Lat. then. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. micare. as tot. Illyrian migati. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. chiquet. is lanese toch. tecche-tocche. Fr. to say a word . Then. The production of sound. to mutter. mie. and analogous movements. The analogy then carried a step further. a . Thus we have B. is so frequent a consequence of movement. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. tack. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. a crum. Welsh cicio.. sound Fr. figuratively. Brescian toch. &c. for the sound of knocking at a door. Fr. a good piece of road . that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. or check. zigzag. chique. an old worthless horse or carriage. g. The syllable suk is jerk. a jog. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. schockeln. S-panish miga. kuk. The train of . to beat or play on a musical instrument. to glitter. however. as Italian tocco. a stroke with a French toucher. so to Italian toccare. and It. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. tech-tech. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . a cracker.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. (mitsati). properly a small lump'of . marked by the change of vowel from i to a. to take a thing on tick. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. is made to signify movement. like English tick. Bolognese tocc. a playiug-marble. to incite by light touches. mik. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. in cases like the foregoing. toch-toch. chic. Mucken. to utter a slight kick. to mark it with a touch of the pen . to ring a bell. to On the same principle j we have g. to stir. Accordingly the g. rough horse. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. a little bit. an infant . representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. mica. Sukkeln. to winkj micati is Lat. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. lead to Spanish tocar. to move rapidly to and fro. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. Dutch kicken. to touch. To tick a thing off. cica. kik. and e. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. It. motion. it produces Dutch micken. to strike It. mot. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. that we never can be sure. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . then. tock. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. e. foot. schuckeln. movement. chicoter. sound barely audible. to tickle. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. to have it ticked or marked on the score . also to stir. not to utter a syllable. zack. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. to pulses being knock. used interjectionally to represent a .Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. The Mipen or pencil. Ene olde suksuk. a piece or bit of anything. a small bodily object. passing to the signification of motion. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds.

tot. gni. tittle. ika. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. fragments It. tot. that iku. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. we have e. here (close hand). So. a small bird. anything . tot. a certain conception. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . not to utter a syllable. a. and dot. that. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. This kind. mutter. lix Sp. a small horse. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. a light quick blow. a little titty. this. e. anything small flax. further off. I. a tot .- a jot or little It. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. i. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. . totle. . 0. to jog. a small quantity. a girl. iki. mutter j dust. titilh. clay . you. to touch lightly with a pen. jot. often entirely arbitrary. a small lump or pat. titter.) . small titlark. tottle. Du. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. subdued manner. . neither moit nor an atom. 48) cites from the African Tumale. not because the pendulum makes a different left. to dot. taut. But the same is language has re Javan. The following table from Tylor (Prim. to whisper (Pr. or the converse. fait. or o toi. Pm. zitella. to jot down or note with a fro. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. . either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. tozzo. eo. here. syllable mot. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). to e. tot. this . is shown in murmur. for the three personal pronouns. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. Malagasy to. a lad citta. and out there. lump of earth. . as in e. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. a bit. to movement of the pen . zitio. or the like its It. bunch or flock of wool. a sparrow). The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. mot. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. little j to that of a small bodily object. tit. chico. a e. and mite. small of kind. and a small lump of something. Then. Cult. mut. move slightly to . ticktack. citto. a morsel. a small kind of lark. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. tit. 199). a morsel girl . gnu. there.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. motte. a bit. not an atom . to tremble. at where the order is inverted. to touch. the least visible insect. . little. gno. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. mossche. Fr. seesaw. ri that. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . (Halliwell) Da. mote. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. for the beating of a clock. and toddle like a child titter. the same organ touched with the man. In a similar the relations of place. corresponding to the personal pronouns. the vowel sound. there '(at a short distance). e. n. To jot. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change.n. . of movement in totter. Halliwell. a whisper. to make a slight mark. there (further of!) ao. titmouse (Du. motta. tiny. and he. .

) pronunciation of i or e. olo. uta. that. usho. here . thou ni. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. thou. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. Chilian tva. qu. . It seems to (fen. here this . this . Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. this fi. young one. respectively. ukko. that. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). that (intermediate) j wana. Sahaptin (America) kina. ojOo. as the act of pointing was ta. there. Lat. you. ndi.) nna. an old woman chacha. 6. here feraa. he. there. child. akha. little. Fernandian az. minution further. Magyar ez. ulri.araM. Ossetic am. me probable that • Vei also little. Gr. as in Italian Fin. this <t. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. Abchasian aSn. tiiio. this . to a like principle Ibu (Afr. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. thou . this ole. probably initial of distinction that the k. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. Carib ne. here . Japan ko. j Canarese ivanu. is Here. and a for the female. this . it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. (tt).. . this . that. . bi. that. Dhimas isho. . ofj. an old . here j ka. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. Zulu ajoa. father.. for the male. w. nne. ita. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. Botocudo ati. that. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. /e«. that in the distance. there. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. . here j abe. child. small (Pott. Mm. is father. that. Guarani nde. that. there. I . mother. as Mr Tylor remarks. mother. and origin. there. Tarahumara ibe. . femina ama. there. no constant rule is observed. Tamul i. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel.e^.. /wo. ^. mas cheche. . Then. /mya. to.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. that.. ta to ka. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. biii. It Carib lala. Mutsun ne. loo). mother. that. ni. here 5 Yoruba na. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. he. ne. man erne. km. . father k . there. ni.

the germ from whence the plant is to spring. — Douglas Virgil. trap. to make its way through the bursting envelope. pepin. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. nipple. Top. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. dance (Kil. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. Thus we have Wolof sopa. trappa. analogous to winy-piny. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. little To sup up. looking through between obstacles.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. din-din. and in the Pacific dialects. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. is to express simple continuance of action. the principle of reduplication. or even. The Sw. or chink. whence Fr. wenig. at pippe frem is to spring forth. stairs. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. &c. trSpigner. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. just beginning to appear. tion. sound of bells . of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. to teet. to peep.) . to leap. A little wee face with little. a child. the pip or pippin. murmur. in old e. trippen. repetition It. nab. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. Clank represents the sound of something large. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. for a succession of light blows low-wow. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. for the . lift 8. the idea is called. . titta. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. to tread.' making the voice as small as possible. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. knob. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. trappen. A little weeny thing. the simplest mode by the g. 401. nil. wean. to feet. for instance. i Sw. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. little. a little yellow beard. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. Da. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. a step. as j money. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. as ding-dong. Fr. to peep through. of smaller things. The sound trapp . the nursery few j Sc. trippelen. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. And perhaps the E. barking of a dog. fretful. From cases like the foregoing. to begin to appear . a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS.' — Merrv Wives. has tittafrem. don-don. keeh.

and thus by analogy employed in Lat. Malay ayun. if very young. or very very great. rack click. is language. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. could readily be conceived. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. ding-ding. child . the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. The same principle of 196. rack. 99). (to use a to speak. er. or in Fr. tache. to to call. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. Again. mawhiti. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. very long (Pott. to rock. serves to show and in this way. instead of being actually repeated. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r.' expression is — ^Tylor. to talk at to walk. So from clamo. kamha-gamla. clash of weapons. a spot. tach-et-er. clamito. to or rub. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). . repetition or continsignify long.Ixii REPETITION. properly speaking. ayunayunan. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . puka. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. very great. or imitative syllables. sopasopa. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. loloa. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. and the words express a continued sound of rack. ratsi-ratsi. to call frequently from Fr. the agent in panting . as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. Cult. a clattering noise. to skip. bad . to treat with contempt. to say pooh It is ! to. puka- puka. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. kenda. calling. &c. amusement. Mandingo ding. hardness. mawhitiwhiti. the and clique. to pant. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. to vi^alk about for flax. or rdtchi. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. little child (p. rapidity and strength. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. Susa di. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. racket. are echoed by the rudimentary et. to love. in familiar use with ourselves. very bad. 97). click. or el. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. the lungs. a grasshopper. didi. and Fr. mpolu is uttered. random . lololoa. or a little tee--ny thing. smallness. i. Thus in E. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. to cover e.. kendagenda. And generally. child . keep spots. from Maori muka. cliqu-et-is. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. the comparative degrees of greatness. a cradle. Thus in the Pacific loa. .

the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. Jickfacken. to puff. to continue dragging. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. which. to wail woe . the part that moves on a hinge up and down. waggle. crack. The Fr. as mAS. to hand-le. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. such asjlap. to move to and fro. a succession of cracks to rattle. wancol. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. are to cry mew and pew . be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. or fi bau. to crackle. to bark like a dog. to make a succession of grabs . guggle. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. itself. bub. dab. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. or Maori puka-puka. it. a from ayun. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. to make gug. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. shuffle. wagas ging. in Fr. where all direct connection with sound is lost. as to handle. compared with g. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS.Jicol. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. draggle. to make bau-bau. the knie-en to E. others. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. the lungs (the puffers of the body). wankeln. from puka. g. syllable clat . fickle. without the intervention of the frequentative element. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. or by association. rubber. bubble. he who rubs. Piedmontese bau-l-S. miauler and beler correspond to E. is In e. dabble. smack. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. Ihre remarks under gncella. In cases like these. to make a succession of shoves. wankel. kneel. The contrivance with any particular noise. wavering. to rock or wag. jogging. to hand. joggle. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. or omitted. in some applications. mew and baa . or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. by the side of wanken. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. to rock. rynel. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. or in e. and in as. miauler andpiauler.

no sort of difference either in outward appearance. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. A gull or a dupe same sense. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. or in aptness to combine with other elements. moreover. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. to cry ugh at. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. known in Italian. and comparatively few easily deceived. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. Polish. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. or how generally. which is the origin of the word. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. by a hard body breaking. will continue to be felt in daily speech. There is. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). it is obviously a mere chance how long. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. on a moment's reflection. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . deceit. or in mode of use. Dupe comes to us from the French. the breach. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. Breton. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. at was more familiarly known.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. to the separation between the broken parts. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. although it is not difficult. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. which. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown.

life. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. however. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. is. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. Hitl^erto. and the word is used in a secondary sense. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. founded in manifest blunder. nor any limited of ideas. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. . and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. language is . it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. or are afford satisfaction arising origin.

inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. of material things. and vescovo. compared with the duration of man. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. guages in South America. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. Naturalist on the Amazons. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. therefore. i. unintelligible to other hordes. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. episcopus.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. Welsh. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. hearing. in the course of many years' isolation. evique. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye).Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. and 'Russian. circle perpetrates a new slang term. out. French. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. 330. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. If English. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. change. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. I think it very probable.

Cijlt. . But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. to be taken (Prim. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. and . ancient Greek M . as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. Nor is there one of the letters. 8. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. is MN. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. 6. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. 7. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. A key must unlock more doors than this. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. i. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. it will leave figures 3 and 4. ao8). 9. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . as shown in the subjoined illustration. which are idenr Figures 5. or whatever the proportion may be. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. the actual it which would to represent. The combination of the symbols I and 2. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language.

The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. or. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. and the only safe beneficent Creator. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. known to us as yet. had its origin in imitation of sound. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. which either by direct resemblance of sound. leading him to utterances. If new 'modes of phonetic expression.' should be discovered. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. in the shape either of direct inspiration. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. for instance. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. what comes to the same thing. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. his fellows. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought." the use of a change of vowel in as. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture.

race were speaking men or not. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. by animal without a trace name of Man. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. of using imitative conduct . signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. until the progeny. the conduct of Ixix life. or beavers. and rose towards a higher state of being. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. or of their own reflected thoughts .COMPLETION OF MAN. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . and when we look back as far as history will reach. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. or not. that he started from the lowest grade. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . as elephants. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. for instance. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . in the course of generations. or else. and sooner or later. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time.

1737. English. Finnish. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. E. 1766. Biglotton seu Diet. Bremisch. Dief. Douglas' Virgil. Elfric's Fl.Saehsiches Worterbueh. AS. Anglo-Saxon. 1654. Bigl. 1850. Supplement to Dueange. Provincial dialect. Castr. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Diefenbaeh. at the end of Somner's Diet. Dueange. de la langue Cat. Cimbrisch. . 1857. B.-Eng. Teutonico-Lat. Brem. Dief. Cimbr. dial. Fr. Bohemian or Czech. or Dan. Cotgrave. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Dutch. Wtb. 1768. Bav. Esth. Gothischen 1851. Couzinid. Diet.Nieder. ^Ifr. Romano - Cas- traise. Gr.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Diet.. Baile/sEngl. Catalan. Supplement to Bret.V. Dn. Infimse Latini- D. Diet. Dueange. Sup. Grammar Boh. Danish. Fin. Carp. Due. Esthonian. Bavarian. Cot. Carpentier. Diefeiibach. Da. dialect of the Sette Commune.



sveritet Asknace r. plowied budowaer.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. r..5 ERRATA. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom.percurrunt kimista^x. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . yjnaifia r.nokkutama willekem. willekom Blab r. buque 118 brodiquin r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. puHti r. katowai perairrantr. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. Askance woud r. r. ^i?^i2! r. r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . word allagerr. (/ijtf r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r.>." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. woman r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. cruccio deyrie. haverie crtOT r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. baltresca nokkutomax. Blob plowied r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. cti. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. kilistaa bugiie r. alUger ahaverie r.


ar. Immediately from Fr. the er. an edict or proclamation. er. Thus ip N3S. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. until the event jlace . from a is to wake to abide. out of. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. behind. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. K . power : Than Wallace thing. Dent posture. Abaft. and — Chaucer.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. away from. us. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. to arise. onis aback. have entire dominion over. Parson's Tale. ur. vs. alike. from. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . A. announcement. erwachen. as.he Goth. literally.t G. orders. on. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. to subdue. on-bsec . dominion. abaft. to hold . And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. implying a completion of J. plesyt him. o/j of or . his. 244. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. downwards. particular 1 . rule. to awake. Thou spelds of mychty iction. said. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. but now )bsolete). iway from. To abuse is to use iway. ir. Passing tongues. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. into the Romance ftrseg . in. —Bruce. ab. in a manner other than it should be ablution. a. . to sauff the king or spill. Hence on-bceftan. whatever he be. Abandon. on. ifter. Lat. this word beand Spanish. The word Ban is common orders. AS. of-dune. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. AS. abs. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. OHG. Abs-. a washing off to abstain. Ab-. Jvery man shewid baft. and secondarily in that of command. off. a/tan. dominion. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. be-ceftan. In Lat.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. baftan. in the same sense. on-lic. 843. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. sion of 'an abandoned character. away. "rom a height. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. as. bandon in French. Again. ibandonner. command. state of sleep . He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. compounds. among.

to hit. overthrow. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. castle. esba.esbawi. bandon. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. abbas.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. to strike Froiss. at his own the lips. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. abbatere. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. abate. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. to overthrow. On the other in use as well as hand. law term abatement. It. father. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. and grooms besmeared with gold. R. esbahir. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. Hart in Jamieson. with or without a final sh.On princes. 364s. betrash. to take possession of an estate. to bate something of the price abbatersi. son bandon. other. to strike sail .which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. . Cotgr. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. of fear. In or. his eyen shene.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. to abaw or astonish. lish to abaisse orabaish. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. from Lat. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . . And he thereof was all abashed. baba. astony. confound. d. Custom. 1 1 8. and the verb was written in Eng. person. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. de. impulse. To Abate. to astonish. to make lower. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. abbatia. abbatere dal prezzo. down. vol. R.— — . Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. 1520. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. an abbey. impetuously. effect of shame. of wonder. Bate. as ravish. so common in the found in the OFr. may be explained. terminedly. drink.) . His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. where custom (Grandg. esbahissant. abbattre. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. Abbess. Fr. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. depress. ant. Castrais. c. of the Fr. See . burny. shame. et prirent terre. I was abawid for merveille. to put to con. his mouth. to beat furnish. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. abaundunem-ent. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. burny was formerly burnish . Abbey. and it that that it — . which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. More correctly written abbat. Beat. to happen. adverbial expressions at abandon. thing abbatere le vela. — Neccham.polir. by Wall. to gape. in the active form. merely the terminations ons. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. R. iv. faire tomber. Hence the OE.fournir. baer. A. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. to meet with abbatersi in una terra.Prov. to The . Baba ! Mod. to excite admiration. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. or society of abbots or monks. Abbot.down. and that from Syrian abba. Originally. abandonly. and sets them all agape. to diminish the force of any. uncontroUedly. or admiration.— R. beer. See Abide. — — . ne more vermeille. bawi. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. ais. Wall.' the surrender of a ' K. Hence Lat. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. polish. from ravir. weaken. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. astonish. Milton. to ruin. abbatis. to light upon. esbahissais.

. to open bader. deceit. to attend on . from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. bie. tarrying . literally white tree. F. bialodrze-w. songer. . endurance. watch. K. delay. suffer b. speaking of the Holy places. desire. — . a bay or opening in the coast. The verb atwaiting. to stay. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. to ance. aspirer. white. Norm. Quant voit le serpent. baier compared with It. abayer. 366. de Berri) Prov. bada. forbearance. Gloss. bana. Ni engigner ni abiter. bhr. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. to expect. beguiling on the other. is idenwait. on the one hand. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. (Vocab. — II. badare.— ^richer. and Prov. ' ' . abet. In We . to abide . the verb of abeyance. and alluring to his own destruction. ^couter avec dtonnement.— Roquef. m Abeyance. tempting. badigliare. abbadare. Norm. bida. Pol. to look. abSiance. to suffer death in Du. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. —Raynouard. to hook. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. expectation. qui iaaille. intent observation. syllable ba. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. See Abide. to deceive. inciter. attendre avec en^pressement. to It. open the mouth. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . Prov. to wait. Thus G. guardare. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. aspire to. lingering. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. . Abie. b^er. badare. to wait. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. pense. endurArt thou he that should come. also to OFr. Guernsey beth. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. OFr. deceiving. to expect gabeidan. to be intent upon. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. a right in suspense . or absorption watching. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. covet.— Chaucer. othres abidan' The effacement expect. abie. bide of the d endure. which the mind to an object. John. and in E. forms with the d effaced are OFr. suspense. . the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. attendre See Bait. take care. to tarry. warten. have seen abide. ne chastised them. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. beijen. Gloss. E. regarder. . listening. abeter. to yawn. beijen. beguile. to attend to. abetter. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. badar. or do we AS. house. Boethius. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. delay. beter. were called Brothers. usbeisnei. exciter. to wait. abiiance. to be intent upon. Corant sens lui. bie compared with Dan. bouche bdante. Du. verbeijen Sw. incite . in Fr. tity of E. ne wist what way to chuse. abet. Goth. us. delay. 1 • . listen. expectation. Cat. to gape . trick abetar. or in Fr. waiting. tenere a bada.. abeyance. to remain or endure. Cat. and E. to mind. bder. gridare. beidan. The white poplar. inciting. to stay. to open the mouth. abaier. Ducange. gola badada. with open mouth . take notice. baier. de Champ. look for another. bida. desirer (Roquef. From abahier. to desire.Fr. bouche b^ante. abie. from Halo. wait To Abide. ceive. says. wait. Abele. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. To Abet. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape.to wait. expectfamily. baier. we sceolon ON. Fabl. tical with It. Corresponding to keep in suspense. bidan.) abayer. signifies the direction of tend. with badia. Q. to In great amaze. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. badare. which is certainly related to It. — signifies to suspend action. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. beijden.' is in AS. baer. in Dan. Thus we have It. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). bocca badata.was formerly used in the sense of look. while the monks under his control ing. abidan. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. compared with (Bosworth). beidan. to desire earnestly. — ABELE Epiphanius. to deanimer.

habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. P. Fr. power. abolir. being disabled in the highest degree. In this to erase or annul. — e. . and Cr. from Lat. and death for handsel pay. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. R. habile. and the simple buy. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. must suffer for it.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. durance in both applications. habilis (from habeo. AS. Fr. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. abigg. habilis is closely preserved. abycgan. bide. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. Cassar. him with che. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. ! ! Cotgr. Tr. God — dear. powerful. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. strong. abie. O If tion. to redeem. abeye. while in later examples As I . consequences of anything . the Pardoner In the original. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. al- be found so some will dear abide it. Mids. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. L. within the walls of a ship. abidge. the Fr. in for any special purpose. Chaucer. The —Boucher. to . to pay the purchasemoney. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. 2. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. beidan. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. Prol. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. at kasta fyri bord. abilh. 2nd Tale. Abie. She shall abie that trespass dere. able. properly abuy. sufficient. the Sir Tristrem. as E. use. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. purpose. within the ship. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. N. Milton. to perish. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. bord. Innan bords. R. to wear away. from AS. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. on board . convenient. —Bacon in R. to pay the penalty. Dr. ON. as habiller du chanvre. abie to Goth. Q. to have . as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . P. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. abide. abilej Prov. F. For on board. — P. the side of a ship. fit. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. — Able. aboleo. willing to schewe his wrathe. was often used in the same sense. to dress hemp. expert. &c. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. bidan. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. Boucher. atling hem to her proper offices. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. or bie. Merch. without special reference to the notion of retribution. at hand). a board.ynes. though sometimes confounded with it. It. forbid for mother's children should abye. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. God. i. adapted . seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss.^and to make his power knowne. have-like. de la volatile. when compared with Aboard. fault being simply clothing. is the verb abie. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. Spenser. suffer the Jul. Wickliff in Richardson. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. If it badare. abicgan. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. Lat. to draw fowls.

to AS. Lat. brood. disastrous portent in some passing oc. pedigree from brevis. sec seftre — Chaucer. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. abufan. alan. and also. without. that greatly agredge their sin. while the verb alleThe root el. abowen. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. which may God avert. full ofte his words for to Fr. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. life.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. See To Bray. breaking out in language. alere capillos. to break off. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. from Fr. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. levis to the Romance languages.ger. becomes leu in Prov. outward. to nourish. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. So in Lat.— Abbreviate. See -und-. above. to main. s —Casdmon. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. or young forth. natural ed direct from the latter language. To Abound. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. — . to beget or give birth to children. and in-d-oles. Sc. to light a fire the Abraid. Severe the threatened evil. the form a&^^. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. gravis. from . gravity. Of these synonymous adolescere. draw out. ABOMINABLE adolesco. onbutan. kindling. for ligeth butan. Quod abominor. agreujar. currence. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. AS. leading immediately to Fr. abutan. abredan. around on the out. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. abrdger.ymbutan. nurse. ala is made to signify to rear. nourish. abbrechen. giving birth to. to progress. af-oleii. the identity of which with ting. to snatch.) .abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. OSw. a portent). oil. to grow up. Then. or cut short. Prov. abrcBgdan. to bring up. Kiittner. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. — ' — — preceding verb. parent.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. Abundant. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. below. Thence to regard greugetat. on high. by the to bring up. the OSw. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. . alan. and bidden him abregge. is not from G. and to do something to avert abbreviate.. the hair grow. awaking. break out. as the duty of nourdisposition.. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. abbrechen. to rear. to let sleep. The primitive idea seems that of beget. seems aras. af-oolden. titan. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. the vital spark. AS. to grow together. is a ively.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. while the sense of beget. literally. the man dwindles away. OE. AS. en. OE. to turn. of any kind .' Parson's rence. abbreviare. Abrdger itself. be-ufan. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. butan. as AS. al is growth. adolere. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. Tale. abracan.aboon. alUger. In the same brevis . to awake. progeny. Fr. D. side. ufan. Du. bufan. to produce. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. way Sw.the older form. agredge. as withotityn and without. whence the Fr. ol. . shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. snatch In English we speak of away. Virg. to cut short. which passed into English under Abominate. heavy. Above. ala. common in Chaucer and Abominable. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. to aggravate. to start. Thonne Abroach. vital PI. about cockcrow. For on broach. Finnish stock. hard. but from Lat. To abray or abraid. Melibaeus. Goth.' Ymb hancred utan. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. motion. coalesco. and alere flammain.1. to feed. and also to abridge. d. nurse Lat. Gael alaich. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. explains soboles Lat.foda signifies to beget. boven. to feed. Abray. to rear. greu. abominor (from ab and omen. The radical idea is to feed the flame. be-utan. the idea of breaking about . his contemporaries. to fatten. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


any is that which partakes of the nature of one. anticus. To go antiquely. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. from avTiipoiuia). set aside. whence Prov. whence anthem. a gift. verberas. to display pario. gabeigs. af. Lat. In like manner. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. Hall's Chron. from eigan. a preventative . and ig. choke. to strain. as we call it. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. villan Gloss. all of gold. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. — — — . incus. were chiefly of the former class. anxius.is to be given. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. amboltj Du. a block to hammer on. Fr. to sound in answer. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. to support. apanage. plenteously with red. part. to imitate gestures. something ler in R. one at the least. rich. as posticus. Lat. Fr. Jorioc. on. anxi. As the browcalled antiques. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. from ango.D. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. or in a ridiculous dress. swaged. —Spencer. to nourish. Prov.—Aperture. surimitation of the ancient models. one. of. to strike. a few. younger child. in Shakespear. G. Aphorism. from in and cudere. To ape. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. cenig. should be received. a small quantity. ReApe. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. before. So Lat. from an. separate. Gr. and devils. to go in strange disguises. panis. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. one having wealth. Apartment. trouble. or antique single chamber. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. strangle. d<popi(xnbs. aside. aperio. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. Anvil. wealth. : . anapoz.— . Gr. See Cover. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. apatiar. to bring forth. transferred to the grotesque characters. avri^ava. Ful- Apanage. panar. Aperient. a definite . Apart. inAgain from the same author cudis. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. Anxious. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. which by anvild. eigs. Antidote. Gr. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG.legacy of given against. AS. ab. as from as. Pezron fiUist. but the expresent day. Antler. d. three antike pillers. before.th centuries the recognised models of antic. the anticks — behind. left as the . vex. Thus from gabe. Lat. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. to strike G. stem. from Stephanus. to have. such as savages. were andouiller the second. finally applied to a whether grotesca. andouillers. AS. Hence the applica. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. as the Italians. what Roman civilisation. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. Percutere. apertum. press. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. AS. and claret wine. bread. . from. separate purpose. Fr. Lat. Mannequin.. E. work. from an and — - . Apartment. Otfried. white. a puppet or an anti^hona. Any. fauns. from the imitative habits of monkeys. ambeld. antifena. from. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. antefn. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. to open. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. like a jack-pudding. Antique. a termination equivalent to Goth. post. from ante. Ilvtwotov. some one.made out. anfilts Pl. burnished. Antick. i.

A — . from aTroorlXXu. The Fr. to take away or lose the vital powers. Hence appoind. to come near. to lose one's senses. e.t. to catch hold of. prope (comp. like. Formerly apricock.propius). Apprehend. and metaphorically to take the meaning. Lith. — Apprise. were formed appropiare ejar. aparelhar. dress. consent unto. Epistle. to — . peace. a thing for one's purpose. esteem. jabloko. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. apar. Apostle. 'LaX. Cotgr.—Apprentice. apparecchiare. Apoplexy.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. fit- — ness. Fr. w. apal. of. purpose. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. Fabian in R. away. Approach. to accord. An old appalled wight. It. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. d-n-o. array. cepl. irpaiKOKiaov. a'^opi'Jw. Fr. appartenir. Gr.— . to mark to define a bound. find Then like Fr. — Appurtenance. Palsgr. poind. to fit. Friar's Tale. Pliny. horror. value apprdder. : — — speak 'Lz. plight. apprendre. known. in commendation. Sp. the good. appaiser. APRICOT off. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. To cause to pall (see Pall). to set a price on. The PI. 23 . set a price on. in good season prendre son d. Cotgr. despatch on some service. prize. OFr. Prov. in Chaucer. pronounce fitting). off. properly to join like to like.pareil. Fr. taking. Mod. To praise. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. probare. to Lat. Parson's Tale. Walach. prover. They were considered To Appoint. one sent out. —Diez. apin R. And whanne sum men Lat. 'L-zX. . in fact. oVooroXof. corresp. to — — . make a composition between parties. AS. From Lat. apropchar. pronounce good. allow. appris. — prehendere. Nouv. quoth the frere. piteux poind. D. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. Gr. From Lat. a price. . to suit. to dress in this fashion. Gr. To Appear. to make a thing Apparel. i. to learn. Apple. pertain or belong to. a learner. Appease. word was specially applied to clothing. agreeing with "LtA.parecchio. Cent Nouv. from paix. Lat. approcdare. APO sentence opoQ. mine.his giving evidence against his principal. preparation. poind. to deter- to strike. . to store or put Appal. one is in. diroBrjKr}. praise. ON. a crime. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. Fr. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. equal. trim. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. whence the e. and appoinder (to find fitting. to rate. obolys. to announce. to learn. iwKjToKri. to be open to view. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. case. laven is used both as E. good. appareiller. habilUr. diminutive pariculus.parejo. apropid. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. ciously than nede is. En peach. to deem good. when the . that it outfit. Cotgr. Yr. diroTrXriaatii. Fr. — dirondtfiu. They werin his approvirs privily. (cited by Diez from a late author). Appareil. apprehendere. Ir. par. aptly. approcher. after his mind . order. 5w. ^wss. and in the sense of condition. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. To Appraise. peler. to send to. proper time came. For their acquaintance was not come of new . I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. From Gr. one for his defence. pretium. xv. to understand. approver. to deaden. appellare. S^.prix. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. ar. ai. near. avail. decree. apprise. N. to strike down. to seize. one the MLat. apal. Yr. landmark. lAfiaam. Apotliecary. to which it is often referred. 11. in data. to assign or grant over unto. manner. to call for judgment. opportunity. rise to \t. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. — Approve. ap. Prov. Fr. Gr. And among other of his famous deeds. H. pragigua or prixcoda. to approach. or E. agree. to commend. Hence It. Apo- good time. to finish a controversy. and also as appraise. —^Apparent. habiliments. or the like. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime.probare. from. like. I prise ware. to send off. apprentis. to disable oftat. kind of action. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. appareo. Fr. an epistle or letter. prohts. to approve. Fr. whether through age or sudden teiTor. become dizzy . point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. seiden of the stones. to call.

and a protection of the clothes. Beryn.o. most conspicuous situation in the garden . where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. Aquatic. 31. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. grande nappe. a lot. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. From OE. proper. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. tion under trial. sestimatio arbitraria. and the one who gives oracles. Freshly turnid Arable. however. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. Flower and Leaf. ap. Albanian. 331.. is taken in is a soothsayer. short. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke.] in the N. la nappe. herbere. auguror. arbitrium. to preserve it from stains. Gr. Pm. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. be That it inne groweth. She made. ear. pracoqua was not an adapt. a river. {mies ^=ia3. Lat. aqua. aa.) E. Lat. a pleasure-ground. however. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. It is certain that the apricot oracle. Roquefort. rofe and all. conjectura conjec^ra. water Which that benchid was. properly the arwella. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. The loss or addition of n very common. or eft. and taken away before dessert. arbiter. conjicio. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . 2. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. . Naprun. arwelo. quod he. a soothsayer. P. nected. symbol. or barm-cloth. OHG. scr. . as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. . suitable.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. OE. — . This path Aqueous. nawl and awl. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. naperon. opinio. From OFr. as ihe diminutive. Maan initial . to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. arbiter in re censendS. man. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. as an eye-witness. and thence fit. garden. — napkin is Naperon. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. doubtless is the origin of E. the spelland umpire. to plough. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. arwaus. aha. ughe. wata. Marsh. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. Thus we have natiger and auger. arbitror arwaaja. Now one of the points — — — . a cloth.sors. Prol. hariolus arpelen. aptus. and with turfis new Goth. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. Arbitrate. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. . The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. fastened close. aro. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. Hall. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner.meaning at Shrewsbury. arpa. It may be doubted. C. As is a pretty parlour. P. to decide by lot. divining rod. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . delon. a lot. and sortilegus ation. Now we find in Fin. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. found in Fin. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. a lot. Pr. words derived from arpa. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. shortdr. Arbour.shrubs {arbor). con.' —About. derived. J. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. aestimo. Alban. Lat. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. sortium ductor. A. intensitive of nape. sorcerer. ahva. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. account for either of these significations. of of divination arpa-mies.

branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. mischievous. receptacle where the public acts were kept. stuff. aj-f. * ArchjAiTaxit. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. un malin enfant. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. especially shoulder-joint. Fr. a burning or setting on fire. Arch in composition. i. high. Aristocracy. weapon may be simply an application of annus. wanton. ill-tempered. fabricate). as in E. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. arm'ee. worker. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). sly. faint-hearted. archangel. From the verb armare. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves.. from areo. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. kpxi- beginning. det arrigste snavs. Arid. adjective. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. erz in G. a bow. morally bad. to rule. bad. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. ardeo. Sp. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. government. whence the body of the nobles collectively. while the Fr. a rule (princiruler. apxri. arwe. apx^iv. Ardent. the a brute. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. G. erg. a noble. Du. ardre. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. sly. ON. Arcliives. weapon. arm. argvitugr. Lat. arch-bishop.' Paul Warnefrid. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. apxtipfve. arduus. raineno. gwyrek. it signifies roguish. sluggish. Arduous. lofty. . Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. . Ardour. wretched OE.' the Gr. to demonstrate. Gr. TiKToiv. make clear or prove. arga. to be in comp. ardIn G. vocaveris. a threshing-floor. arma. It. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. to dry. is essentially the same word. an arrant rogue. difficult to reach. armada. arrig. A construct. Fr. een erg kind. arrant Arms. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. area. ancient. troublesome. arcA in e. contemptible. the best. W. Gr. ardor. curved. bravest. . gwyro to bend. branch. to Arch.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. to be on fire. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. arm. ein arger knabe. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. rame. Arcadia in R.aioj. — Wtb. Cot. curved line. an arch boy. 2. an extent of flat surface. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. argr. a court yard. exercise lordship). D. which has been referred to W. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. Lat. apxh. Fr. Uo^a^. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. a branch. ^Argument. bad.4 rir/. and our army. ramo (pi. from nixa. There can be no doubt that E. first. and not with apx. Lat. in Due. ars. an arrant usurer. un petit rusd. Perhaps erz-wticherer. armata. Lat. armee. malicious. signifies chief or principal.' Lex. a bare plot of ground. the terminaGael. Applied in modern E. apxtlov. Lat. earm. Gr. man. Dan. and must be identified with Dan.— Army. ' — Argue. shoulder Boh. fainthearted. Gr. burning heat. shoulder.. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. Brem. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. by Russ. earh. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. Lat. arsum. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. as the arch of a bridge. forearm . And thou as arwe coward. Arm. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . which is derived from it. ruling by the nobles. Area. AS. to arm. are formed the participial nouns. erz-bischof. a. bad of its kind. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. vescovo. arg. an arch-deceiver . The . 3340.In E. aridus. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. the court of a magistrate. patus). earg. et vulgari verbo. timid. to burn . and Kpurka. arcus. Lat. ers-betriiger. arguo. the most arrant trash. — Architect. Alisaunder. Langobard. .is the natural weapon of offence. Sax. Du. ramend). it is posculine inflection en of the PI. G. From apxeiov was formed Lat. Lat. . arson. taxed with cowardice. Arson. a chief builder. mischievous.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

Rouchi ban. Ballata. To baulke the Sir H. balle. Ballot. on. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. a clump . beaten road. a. balk. ballare.of men . a ballad. ballare. bolyaf. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . bacgtteter. ' is a piece or confused talking. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. vacillare. Perhaps on. says Ray. a together in the form of a ball. a separate portion. Bale. a continued noise of waves gently beating . balla (with the augm. to grieve . dial. vcdra bdlkr. Sw. plague. ill. a ball. a skin. taich. cka. hue et illuc inclinare. a washing-tub. ballone. Gr. w. a clapping or flapping of wings. on. calamity. baalie. bbllr bulla J. — A — — . to be ill. the ballet of the theatres. to on Holmedon's plain. i. It. a balk of foul weather. balle. Da. Fr.). blister. A balk. Grief. ball. a pill.Fr. to avoid it. balken. Pol. Russ. See Gall.— Ballet. ballan. Dan. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. balken. misery Du. (Hesych. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. . a bubble. afbalka. G. a scene acted in dancmg. boleii.' speak gibberish champurrar. . ne leaving any balke. to by beams. * Balk. wickedness ness . to ache. balloon. It. balkr. pain. baloier. Sw. a division of the old laws. TtaKKa a pail or tub . stage or scaffold. from bacquet. ballotta. bal-daed. palla. a wooden partition . a great ball. to be balker. grieve . to stir. baler. pilula. probably Lat. To Bale out water. lealo. palcare. Venet. OSw. E. a globe. a partition. ballo. package of goods. a ball. Bowl. to dance. bjdlki. Balloon. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. balka hopar. uveirs bolk. bol. a ball balla. whether of wood or stone. balk. Mid. bielke. with the perhaps from balg. ballet.Lat. bal. ballar). pallo. balge. dial. maan pallikka. bold. to plough for a boundary between lands. bal. a pail. palloilla. to ail. a beam. the beam of a ship. Hence Dan. and evil in general. e. torment. a pestilence. to dance. a boil. a dance. to bale out. Da. Du. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. The primary sense seems as in G. and the dim. to shake or jog. N. pila. maleficium. similar connection is seen in Sp. ON. to see-saw. may exhibit the original development of the signification. . to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. Bret. globule. Bohem. Baulke of land. bol. to plank. balle. destruction. balka bunge. bolyatchka. to wave. balle. balk.ing. bolker. dial. ball. balk. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. to signify washy drink. trouble. mass. ball. to rock. bal. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. . to move. roof. to roll. F. to speak an un. a ballot). In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. Boll. are applied to a From the same analogy. Ball. bdlkr. separaison. Sp. Goth. on the shore. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. from the more general notion of moving up and down. bala. Sw. to pack Da. We have then separate dial. as we say. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. to Not sparing wight. boll. dial. 3. Sw. a water-skin dim. weak liquor. to cause another to miss pustule. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. balare. bealwes. I. a But making way for death at large to walke. It. to partition off . ball. a clod of earth water. chapurrar. pallukka. bollr. other while. Fr. . the object of his expectation. Sw. a ball or pack. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. Wotton. a dance. heap up. OHG. . balka. pallo.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. balveins. tum. a ball. a beam. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. AS. on. Sw. It. It. Ugutio in Due. wickedtorment ON. G. In like manner Fr. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. Sw. floor. shouting. as in a barn or cow-house. Gael. ache. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. sickness. Du. bolawy. Ball. pallikka. Hence. . ballare. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. Fin. 2. hooting. to paddle in water . bola. baalien. sick. ban. gen. Fr. malefacGower in R. balva-vesei.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . Q. balja. ing. the breadth from side to side . OFr. sorrow. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). at giore en balk. Sw.—Ballad. a ball.

called Bait. a useless load. barauste. a fragrant gum. curse. command. balconies. bamboccio. Sp. analogous to what is seen in It. and Mid. of balusters. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. baUa. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. Cotgr. ballast. To make fun of a person. a nettle. ranked on the outside of cloisters. little round and short pillars. It is explained back by Adelung. terraces. is in Sweden and Norway.. A — — . inutilis sarcina. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. enchanter. ^Arbuthnot in R. astonished. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. . Balm. a rod. balsamum. to walk. The Sp. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. because. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. a battlement . lest. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. The Baltic sea. the backload. lastra. To Ban. the act of walking. lastagium signified not only ballast. the flower of the pomegranate. seems the original form of the word. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. To proclaim. lestage. i860. mare Balticun. Gr. bumbazed. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. Venet.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. small railing. Balluster. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. This is the backload. Fr.Lat. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. Sept. in the first place. Bret. fonts. bertesca.that the going vessels. an Old dotard or imbambolare. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. dial. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. explains ballast. Bamour. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. bag-las. or movement of one who walks. To Bamboozle. to enchant. R. a small balustrade. from bara or vara. more serious objection is . . blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. Balsam. Said to be from balaustia. make fun of a person.000 tons. more frequently than outward-bound. ballustres. Dan. to preserve equilibrium. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. bambocciolo. ballustre) is a corruption. bambolo. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. Fr. forbid. lastre. galleries.' And Kil. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. railing around altars. baume. it is forced to take in stones or sand. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. for want of other freight. like Fr. a false tale or jeer. baranda. balustrade barandilla. a young babe. a duty on goods last. If bambocciolare were child of one. Ballast. from Lat. When a ship discharges. Mr Marsh whether the a load. as he says. endormir par des contes. Du. puzzled. baU. Bret. denounce. paid for the right of carriage. barandado. sorcerer. Baltic. &c. bag-lest. or ballast of a ship. urtica. for a load or goods (Roquef. To deceive. deceive. objects to the foregoing derivation. Lat. Report Pennsylv. but loadage. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. deceiver. — — oltriga. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. inutile onus. by met. ^a\Ba\iov. To Bam. It. But Fr. bam. It. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. &c. 43 — Cot.). 1. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. baltresac. last. bamein. back of the ship. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. also with flatteries and . 1854. In OSw. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. age. Lest. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. Sc.

acquired the sense of proclamation. D. theodscipe ut abannan. margin. tener da alcuno. It seems this signification has arisen. Commun^ment son bandon. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. 26. 'A son bandon. i. region. Goth. In a special sense the term company itself. etc. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. populum. says Muratori. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. Sp. and thence to any proclamation. G. R. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. band. v. Band. OE.^ bandy. power. fahne. bando. The to . In like manner we find bannire adplacita. to excommunicate {lysa. bannire in exercitum.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. and It. to form parties. ligue Taboada).e. side. to . a coast. bannum or bandum. Fr. See Abandon. bandi. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. bound. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. then the signification w. to unite with a band. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. bandon was used in the same sense. at his own discretion. ex. authority. a company. &c. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. passing on from proclamation to command. side. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. banda. curse. biddal. band. 2. also the band or of marriage. Baud. bandon somewhat party. is That with which anything AS. bann. banda the colour or material. bande. R- He Translated by Chaucer. Fr. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. &c. To Bandy. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. Cot. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays.—John Villani in Due. Thus the word is also used in both senses. ba?idare. — To partito d'alcuno. he assembled his host. bannire exercitum. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers.is further developed. bundun. banner marked the place of assembly. Les saiges avait et les fols d. 15. in hostem convocare. Diss. It. summoning to serve So in Swiss. banns pany of footmen serve. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. Car. to reprove. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. sostener Torriano. to take one to task. It. — R. 813. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. bande. banda. he bannede his ferde. Spebifid. to ctide.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. Leg. — excommunication bann-lysa. Sw. Bandus. those who side together (bande. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. In Fr. Ripuar. Se il — Romance languages. Bandear. the ensign or banner. It. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. Sp. to follow a faction. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. to side or to bandy (Florio). to ban. Mag. we constantly find the expression. . to bring corn to be fahne. in Fr. change to the feminine gender in banda. from at the Lord's courts. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. Goth. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. whether by way of injunction or for- command. bandera ground at his mill. Assises de Jerusalem. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. Capitul. permission. —R. bindan. There is some doubt how Fr. 1. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl.Lat. faction. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner).. border. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. 19. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. and in E. . hoc est vexillo. Wyntoun. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. bande. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. admolendinum. to publish) banna. flag. parti. A. From the verb to banda. E. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. eiiseigne.

Draw. Bantze. bank. to knock. banca his creditors. to work in wood. banke. bana. 2. Brewer. bow. beat. canis vinculis assuetus. broken. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. Bank. Fr. banditti acquired the like signification. in the same way that E. to bend a. and poise Their lighter wings. Bacon in R. Lingua. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. b'ang. counter. . that the word is used by Romeo. . that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. follow a party. Banister. the same verb the It. a table. de- party. to make a stir banke. a wound OHG. ruptus. With many a stiff thwack. Hudibras. bander. The ridge of a hill is AS.^ knock. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. a bench. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . for shame. From a desk . a sand-bank dorsum jugi. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. bana-sott. Mercutio. AS. tumult bangas. to beat. — Fr. bannire. as of an explosion or a blow. The word is in E. hricg. Roquefort. a sand-bank. banka. Bandy. pastoralis. bakke. band-dog. Bankrupt. shoal. AS. Bang. It. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. banqueroute. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. clouds. desk. banja.HG. death-blow . to foment factions. forbear this outrage. . a de Vaud. roupt. a i. Dan. disturbance banga. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. banc. bankruptcy. panca. Sw. of bandying words. in the sense of place of business. Lat. benk. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. to slay. bandi. in the sense of a pirate. Ripuar.: . Banditti. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. bank of river. Your stool. a bankrupt merchant. bench. among rotta. When a man fails Lat. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. from banc. to publicly order one out of the realm. put under the ban of the law. and therefore tied up. the back. — — whence E. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. bandear. beating. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. distinguishes bekkr. 45 — — Bandit. ON. stir. and bakki. bander. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. back of a knife. g. See Banish. It. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. has bang-bang. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. eminence. ON. whence the mod. de sable. hammering. bank. at canis peciiarius. See Band. N. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. Fl. Du. It. Benchi. bander tin arc. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. standard. murderer. in R.z. to knock. a counter. bana. a long raised seat. But natheless wife at I bank. band-hond. —^Vocab. From Mid. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). se joindre. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. se reunir. banca fallita. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. bank of a river. . a blow. — Kil. Diez. . Fr. banc G. bench. It is in this sense nounce. bane. death-wound. language of W. rap hatike et som The Susu. banish. Diaconus in Due. destruction . eminence. bance. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. seat . s'associer. Bane. Milton in R. bana. home — Bandog. A Shipman's Tale. Bandy legs are crooked legs. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. and hence. Tibalt. a bank. Mid. to hammer in a nail. The child cries bang! fire. banco. to cabal. The ing. outlam came to signify a robber. the former Fr. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. a bench. E. dorsum was applied to ject. bana-sdr. Banner. large dog kept for a guatd. was formed the OFr. Fr. &c. ON. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. bandire. Africa. Goth. Benvoglio. bent as a bow. death-sickness. &c. See Balluster. bank of Dan. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. a rising bank. the slope of a hill. — . many a bang. to join in league with others against Cotgn. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. bang. — Paulus drive in a nail. To Bandy. to proclaim. a bench. and OFr.

such as the Roman Eagle. ON. Banneret. to wash. wrapped. merki. The origin is in all probability Goth. OHG. of banco. men. a tree). and with an initial s. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. to wrap. barra. to having that signification. barrou-gwez. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. banner. ban- Baptise. sparre. It. Celtic bar. To mock or jeer one. bandiera. &c. milites bannarii. banneret was a higher class of knights. bar. banne. an animal a year old. indeed. a. speaking of battle. senhal. —Cot. out of a wound. nestling. Leduchat. jSdirTO). a sign. dim. which is surely in barbed arrow. Fr. ing term appears in other languages. of a sign in general. Flesche barbeUe. In a similar manner are formed yearling. Barbar. It.the analogous syllable viur. banda. rod of any rigid substance. as they call it. then fell among the foot. brushwood. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. It may be thing. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. of wind. Fr. . and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. uncivilised. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. remarked. and he would seem to derive Goth.8ap6^o)voe. Bret. to beckon .. sign. a bearded or Cot. top. branches of a tree {gwezen. barbarus. arineXov. Barb. Lat. It. barbed or trapped as a great horse. a bantling. knight Bardd. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. E. A It. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. banneret. Gael. in Gr. Lat. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. and the work is done. senh. Fr. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. and from ensign or banner Prov.hinder. 3. barreau. from the same source. Duo. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. banda hendi. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. — We A . inferior to a baron. Banquet. i. &c. banchetto. barrer. 2. signuin. Fr. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. says. rarii. Hence ner. ^oTrriKio. bannereti. inur. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. Fr. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. to bend. a war-beacon or war-signal. iandvo. banniire. manu anto make signs nuere. Bap. the word came to signify rude. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. barbe. senhal. benda. summit. ON. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. Thus Ovid. chan. OHG. bandva. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. heri-pau. Hence Fr. Fr. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. The spar. from reifa. E. Barb. period vexillarii. barde. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. According to Diez the It. The barb of an arrow is the sign . Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification.aTa Kul nest. a which the barrister addresses the court. OFr. jSa'pjSapoc. a bench or table . The original import of their own banner in the field. and even of calling it banter. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. a barrier or stoppage. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. To Banter. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. barre.cruel. Sw. senheira. token. would rupted from Fr. Gr. and it was accord. sparro.. a ban. BARBAROUS reiflingr. hence a repast. branch. either in the Gr. or of this bantering. then branches.46 BANNERET . Barbe. by a repetition of the syllable bar. E. barrack. G. Lat. himself in Pontus.— Swift in R. a beam or long pole of wood.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. barriire. probably corSymbol. that the noise of voices Bantling. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. barba. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. ingly very generally known by a name branches. Gr. privileged to raise Barbarous. sbarra. to dip. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi.

brim. ala. horse armour covering the front. Pr. murmur . berries. the beard. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. upper chamber. used 2. bdla-khaneh. i. barbeter. to bubble or boil. waschen. — — Hence. Bare. Barbel. Hall in R. Bard. to bubble or spring up. skialldar-bard. A7 to the and warlike. dial. — . Sp. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. tree. to plash or dabble. a shingle or small board. barbarkama. lb.) . Bret. a jetty or outnook in a building. the flap of a hat. tattle. as well as thwcEtta. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. Lex. Mod. bare baskojis. which was of talking. mutter. also to bind or tie across. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. barbar. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. barbelin. to make an outcry . as well as the modern twaddle. muttering. Diez. small pack-saddle. and Sc. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. It. border. Barde. border of a garden bed. and foolishly. on. bdsas. borbotar. guaszare. barbeum. to gurgle. Exposed to view. Cotgr. the nakedness of a woman. bardes. to rumble. . grumble (Lowndes. Cot.— BARBEL merit of water. fortia —Strabo. Festus in Diet. powdered all over. speak confusedly. barbulla. barefooted Sanscr. barbeau. Cotgr. barbugliare. quarrel . barz. Port. /3£pjSepi^w. a rumbling. open. boil. barbacane. Gr. to It. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. Port. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. Fr. to grunt. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. is lb. OFr. Lith. borborinha. baragouin.' Cot. gibberish. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. skola. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. jargon. back. borboglio. Barbican. g. w. and in Flanders to vociferate. Hatt-bard. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. Arab.— — Pm. the edge of a shield hval-barct. barbel. barguigner. A shrub bearing acid Diet. Fr. Gr. to stammer. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . Barder. unqualified. name Fr. Lucan. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. a tumultuous assembly. Etym. ready money. barS. G. skirt. to barbe or trap horses. and flanks. Russ. formerly used in the sense of tattle. An outwork for the defence of a gate. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. in poetic language Bard for poet. albardilla. barda. barda. axilla. bdsiis. Sp. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. twcEtta. and the word was used in OE. guazzolare. — . brabble in the making of a bargain. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. saddle-cloth. Applied in E. a pack-saddle. uncovered. bar.— Fl. Fr. — Cot. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. Fl. such as houses are covered Bardelle. Etym. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. Barber. in Fr. the quilted with. to mumble or mutter words. It. borbulhar. twattle. Fr. bardd. also to wallow like a seething pot. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. bhasad. Barberry. skirmish. bds. a long saddle for an ass or mule. barbaris. to boil or bubble up . to wash. barboter. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. or more properly (says fer. to stammer. berj G. baar. coping. to chafbargain. Thus the on. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. a bardelle. in the sense of fight. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. barbier. baares geld. The Pers. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. Bardeau. scouthouse.) to wrangle. But Sp. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. — — — men. Bargain. to prattle. /3opj3opwJu. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. albarda'ah. borbollar. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. Hindost. Mod. haggle. albarda. Sp. stutter. . uproar.

Vocab. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. and is probably a true bartig. commonly explained from bere. houbartij fsnile. bard). — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . bcerme. Lith. Leg. ber (ace. at barka. barone. It. W. beorcan. border. barge. charlock. Manx bayrn. but the woman for the man. hemlock. baragouin. herbs. prominent part of a thing. w. prasepe . mhg. dispute. Ibid. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. aheap. Prov. Romance barsie. bcern. Camus. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. bosom .. barnacles. (Ihre. to skin over barkandi. Sp. struggle. giving rise to It. disorder. Baron. Barbour in Jam. barn. meta foeni. Alam. bargain. So ON. berm hoys. edge. wine. confusion. adj. baralha. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. * Barnacles. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. Gael. a load. tumult. 2. also a boat . berm. a cap . as baces-ern. name being given to spectacles. barley. Dan. AS. brenig. dispute barattare. Provj bar (ace. barn. —Bark. as. quarrel. See Barm.) lihtes-ern. a stack. corn-shed. Ripuar. strife. lap. fray. Sp. baimeach. Spectacles. and llysiaw. entangle. barizeins indicates a noun baris. Acervus. . bernac. skuta. quant a perdu sa barja. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. i. . contest. baerm. a heap. OFr. one who stirs up strife. — de Berri. berma. ON. beer. . bamagh. Sw. The older form in e. barajar. OFr. Kil. as. to scold. barlys. — Zeuss.Barum vel feminam. Garlick. the A — Ihre. and ern. baron. barn. On the other hand. Swab. Sp. Bailey. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. dispute . and hence probably (by a metaphor. It. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. to chop. ThS man was not created for the woman. Leg. skutr. to wrangle. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. Bemiques. . a place. is simply the Bret. and the word. barafustar. in the Brim. tion of the sound. trouble. barafunda. beornt. to rout. baralhar. Barn. squabble. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. contest. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. Gl. dispute. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. baaren. bark . a beak. the slimy substance brewing of beer. ON. barley. a. berem. to cheat. See formed Yeast. hlaSa. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. and may therefore be an Eastern word. astringent. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. Isidore in Rayn. baratta. bread-corn. barki. Port. the rack or manger. a lap. to shufSe. as in the case of Lat. dial. quarrel Port. hladi. plants). hay-loft. in Nat. bread. to strive. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. berm. a boat. Tarn baronem quam feminam. also to exchange. dispute . Du. the G. a lantern. as well as Scandinavian tongues. from an imita- Barley. then honoured man. was barlic. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. From Fr. borkr. E. barms. Barge. baratta. ON. kani. we pass to the vert) barguigner. Port. The origin may be throat. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. Uzen.' bardagi. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. strife. barlys {bara. am. a heap . bere. Originally man. v. The Goth. altercation. bosom. dregs of oil. limpets. to all the barca. ON. barlich. limpets . chaffer. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. strife. baron)^ Fr. then the bows pectus navis. limpet. barnis. Antiq. bern. the fore or after end of a boat . husband. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. OSw.^Voc^. spectacles. barii. baarm. louzou. and 1. bern.. Du. barley. Dan. AS. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. barja. a barn. Cornub. Bark. barmr. a receptacle for barley or corn. So also ON. Bret. barretor. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. 2. barahunda. the or prow of a ship. To Bark. baniffa. varen. baarn. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. baaring. put to confusion. a baking place or oven. Rayn. — battle. — Barnacle. As Goth.

by early examples. barile. MHG. w. 1. booth. or simply bahre. a barrow. whence Barrow. baragan. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. bera. squabble. change of goods seems. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. bara. Fr. heap. It. — — 15th Cent. AS. S. alongside of barrow. G. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. Goth. vir. cover. (Schmeller). ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. and in several instances. a hiU. from cavallo. baroncelli. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. strife. barri. Sp. This word introduced into Fr. E. baracca. to carry. signifying. Barricade. fortification. perhaps through Prov. a. — Kil. 2. barrique. facture. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. beorg. barraca. became bidre. a kind of coarse camlet. breinej Du. Sp. Bamnculus a baronet.' that Barrier. and not from Fr. a. barrack. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. See Barter.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. baraignej Picard. bark&n. sepulchre. ^Barrator. implement for carryAS. ibid. beorh. vel pretiosos burellos. bahre. AS. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. — A . noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. gravis et authenticus vir. bier. to * Barragan. a word is always used in the plural number. barre.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. Formed from Fr. barril. barchent. boar. Barrack. also termed bannerets. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. then traffick4 Barrow. Fr. baronculi. seem to be radically the same with Lat.parchanttuech. from a tree to which a man is hanged. an obstruction. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. man and wife. Bern. like bargain. a bar. which would barragdn. A. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. barrila.root signifying confused noise. especially those killed in battle. todtenbahre. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. Barrister. as cavalcade. shed. litter. were sometimes confounded. the braw. garment still used in Morocco. D. borov'. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. habeant. braeck.have been named from the haggling and gant. mound. G. See Bar. cise formation of the word. Sp. It was not until the time of James I. barBombicinus. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. OE. in Nat. On chet — We — — their resemblance. the two names. Barratry. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. Baron andfemme. bara. a castrated hog . Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. uncultivated. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. as. baronetti. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. It. Barrel. to shelter. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. hut. dispute. It should be observed that. fear. whenever Barrow-hog. staves. branches. gwr. qui have not much light on the pre. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. Gael. berewe.. barrique. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. baronuU. sterilis. a horse. The feudal tenants next Fr. from beran. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. tomb. composed of dry branches ofer. vair. bredhan. Antiq. a hut or booth. 26. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. bouracan.. a man. Bohem. a bier. StiU he shows conclusively. in the first instance. Russ. barrier. Gael. Nominale of the from braeckland. iver. OFr. Bret. rolls of Parliament. Barren. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr.— Gibbon. semen non accipiens landiEL. nobles. over him. calico. a barrel. The Sp. bearg . An ing. barague. berwen. brushwood.' Op. beorgan. ^Vocab. Bargus or moreland. fallow. man. It. Joshua vii.

beguile. Dan. barley. fraud. imbastire. Al is dai. w. Du. found in Turkish . the thin skin Dan. ibid. Sp. But according And Dan. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. bark. he. Bassus. barter. It. pdrdt. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. BassuS. to bind hand and foot. . a ipgli So Turk. a tying. It. discourse Nay. humilis. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . The like property hath the iasilisk. at basta og binda. plaiting of splinters basged. Bastard. baraand especially teria. beortun. back. bestan. 516. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. bast. aiKcig. MS. basg. bast. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. i. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. Lend me your hands.' Gl. but born in baste. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. a king. and tun. It. Sw. It. bastear. OFr. HaUiweU. To Bask. mavult dicere Roma suam. bast-reb. mean . baste. Du. to Diez. to long — a British word by Martial. F. low part of the Hickes in Rich. on a. See Bath. to truck. from /3aR. God it wot. and Bret. lift me above Parnassus. or running away with the ship. court-yard. oe. Barbara de pictis veni patch. low. . Arthur and Merlini. Swed. a court-yard. a halter. dwelling. Sp. fornication. which covers the grain Ger.). mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . bast-maatte. descended of an honorable lineage. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. Barton. chasa. Sw. which sets up its hood when angry. to stitch . a basket masg. Basilisk. MHG. exchange. Gr. curtus. Newman. peel. unrighteous gain. The original meaning. Halliwell. baxoj w. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. corn-farm. to bind. beretun. low. ' Bosworth. fits de bas. baratar. pressed down. from bere. the manorhousfe itself. baste. To stitch. or wic. bestcn. but he dreth presently. Kil. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). a ftiesh. over-reaching. basso. Fr. baraet (from Fr. Apparently of Celtic origin. low note. preparatory stitching. said Base. chasa ogli a bastard. then cheating. basta. — hanging. also to Cotgr. foist in bargaining. — Bassoon. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. a bass rope. hoops of a cask. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. ing for profit. bassin. crassus. basso. Sylvester's Dubartas. Sicamb.looketh upon his eyes. to bargain. bareter. as It. It is mentioned as . bds. lattice-work. /«r<fSp. Isidore. ' He was begetin o bast.' Papias. Basket. Pl. Fr. besst. Bass. scale in music. See Brattice. Fris. to baste. lust. more noble in blood than notable in learning. — in Rich. to baste piece of cloth. basta. bas. baste. Bartizan. truck. Fr. according from Gael. basgod. to cheat. submovet omne Lucan. inclosure. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. To Baste. him. flat. HaU in HaUiwell. of the same sense. MHG. berewic. PaaiKhms. Dan. It. would be. n' is n' is bacino. HoUinshed. fhe outhouses and yards. a deceiver. imbastire. netting. mock not. There is not one that. fornication. baratear. commonly A joined with the word binda. the a wide open vessel. a bastard. Bass. embastir. cog. bast. Bast. Sp. . ^Is de bast. barter. Lap. cheating. to bind. ohg.D. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. rope for — . Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. bass-matting. baos. A fabulous serpent. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. piiiguis.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. bdtir. stitch. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. also the demesne lands of a manor. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. G. tierer. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. besst-u-b£nd&t. partieren. as the diadem of the basilisk. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. AS. to deceive. husk bast van koren. come near. shallow. to cheat. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). bran. OFr. leviter consuere. thick. binding. It. exchange. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. the — — to kill those that look upon it.

To baste one's hide . to cudgel. the original has corneille. vespertilio. whence ledrblaka. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . to build. Pr. settiilg up. bastir. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. to quilt or stitch wool into it. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. Cot.fortress or castle furnished with towers. devise. to flap. in the use of the E. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. bastia.— Bailey. also the ricado. bastione. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. the bat . 164). bastear. club. set up. a pad. to give him a sound bastingi 3. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle.— . 2. baston. contriving. beysta. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. and Cot. Dan. — — Fl. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. That yche blak y dar wel telle. dial. the clapper of a bell. to lay the Sp. flyinge best. blakra. bastilde. nade. passage Imbasto. the winged . basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. e. to beat. frotter. vledermus. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. to thrash . bastille. translation to a bat. the night-jar or goat-sticker. a packsaddle. and Arabs.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. a barSp. batta lucifuga. For the loss of the / in back. has bastine. Fr. E. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. compared with blakka. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. a things prepared for future use. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. R. To donjon. boste. Mid. disposer. comp. . Sc. bastonnir. R. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka.Lat. blatta. p. Bastinado. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. 2. or implement for 4 * A . * Bat. natt-blakka. which to rest the load. bastine. to Due. staff. — Bakke. basto. Sp. worth (Nat. Supp. and ditches bastion. Fr. to set on foot a war Bastion. business (Altieri). ment. quelqu'un son roulet. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. bak. a. a stick. bastonada. iinbastire. packsaddle. Rayn. baston. as weU as besteau. which in the E. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. badger. a bastion. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. cudgelling. victuals. to stroke. to spread bread and butter. basa. guerra bastir. Sw. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . to belabour. bastir. bast. Sp. I. basta. put it together. contrive. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . blakta. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing.baste or knock soundly. bladier. Pm. in the Romance languages. but this is hardly satisfactory. It. to whip. It. to pack a saddle i. Sw. Dieiif. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. blaka.. raise. . agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. Perhaps baska. like the owl and the bat. bakie-bird . ari instruineht for beating. Fr. bat. explains Sp. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. 2. 11864. stryka. Derived by Diez from iasi. blakka. beating. to beat. military term of a bat-horse). frame. It. ON. bastida. Fr. Dan. For the origin of baston see Baste. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. a with a stick. erect. provisions. a pad or packsaddle. to drub. BAT neither. aftonbakke. bastimento. Florio. a blow cloth for dinner. to devise or begin.stick. 'iJipistreUo. To beat or bang soundly. a blockhouse. dial. Cot. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. to rub. night-bat. from Fr.-^ Chaucer. to teach one before. Sw. Antiq. — — — . a bird which. the E. liiake. to rub gently.stitching in general. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. also to cudgel. blatta. bastonFr. to build. set up. vespertilio. stryk. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. is explained by Cot. pre. Sw. All from bastir. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. iastir. back. blacta. blows. a sconce.'CaB. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. niammal. Prov. bdion.

Batyn. certain bend. a stirrer-up of strife. heat. and as a verb. to beat. perhaps first used adjectivally. battre. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. from battre. Pm. to fell. Battalion. Chaucer. or break down.Bathe. to heat. altercation. to fire or in the sun. A batch as wood. Fr. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. Eggs. lessen. Jeddris and covering. solen baddar. Strife. makebate. Batter. batna. Fr. beat down. battre. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . strife. battre las ailes. bataille. Bat. and milk beaten up together. Sp. better. then to warm by the application of hot water. I. also a sun badfish. to thrive. as E. by projections or in any licoure. allay . a great seems related to baden as Fr. G. and about an inch thick. Flem. beat. solbase. tradire. The bat with which a brot bdhen. baz. Slav. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. badask. Gael. Hal. a battalion. dial. squadron. Battery. I baske. to warm. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. to refresh oneself in language. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. bet. 2. To Bate. to for fighting. for biia sik. bludgeon. beat.— . See Better. to foment with hot applica. busk. in the sun. on. a battle. to warm oneself at the fire. From bat in the sense of rod . to become convalescent. gebdcke. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. w. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. — To . Du. a blow. oneself at the A into faggots. an arrangement for giving blows. abattre. made of bats. To thrive. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. fashes basking in the sun squadron. bdda. battaglia. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. Bailey. Pm. To Batten. dial. Fr. Sw. to dial. Bate. remit. bdt. bdhen. as wood-en. baka. of bread is so much baked zX one time. Bret. baquetazo. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. to get better. PLD. It. to beath wood Battledoor. dispute. baden. wet linen in washing. hot. Jurgor. dial. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. made of — A made by one Batcii. batir. dial. — Cot. quhar he suld assaill. sich bakern. badda. a from ON. batador. E. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. to betake oneself. the root of e. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. tagUone. battions. term in falconry . debat. to heat . — — — ' — . badda. to fight. betten.Hence in the augmentative form It. gebdck. Goth. bastille. and with staffslyng. Battlement. a Baiffi. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow.' Palsgr. whence the sun burns . from on. to warm oneself. to cudgel. to feed. Holz bdhen. a main battle.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. battere. e. battle was used beath wood. to foment. Ayenst the sunne. batte sig. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. fortress or castle. flour. to become fat. bdda vidjor. to beak. or make debate. bada. was formed bastilU. a staff. as E. batacazo. G. basa. Battle. Barbour in Jam. as signifying warm baths. signifying to give repeated blows. buask made like a fortress. . G. batterie. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. water whether warm or cold. to bathe. gabatnan. pak. adapted for defence. abate. to toast bread. the heat of the It. bat-en. Plkkis. From OFr. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. is in falling. baeddu. . is a simple adoption of Fr. in the case of a wall. a beating. to be profited. to beat. Sp. A Bath. Mgy. trahtr to It. quell. . Fr. to bathe oneself. Pr. to flutter with the wings. Battery. Baka sik vid elld. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. Florio. a band of armed men arranged basa. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. to beat. Hence pro. I bathe in water viz. also. battere. more. In some parts of England it is striking. It. on the fire. a blow with a light instrument. Sw. bat. a stick. Fr. to beat se battre. or a dry stick. ON. Pr. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. bake. cudgel.— To Bask. Batten. a washing beetle. howis. to foment. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. In OE. Fr.

a dog). Beaus^ent. horse. bausan. Baw — . to talk Lacombe. Ball-seirc. ground. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. R. baue. the face. a horse marked with a procession. balbob. trifle. collar. Zalli. a tassel or hanging bunch . to void the bowels. — — ' Lydgate. form with an initial seen in Fr. because made of cloth of white. excrement. disgusting. E. Lat. to vociferate. to me-wl. Fr. instead oi s. to low or bellow as corn. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. The It. baffe. is Bagdad stuff. speckled. c. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. b \% bouala. Fr. guigaw. and Sp. It. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. Cotgr. or toys. or the animal so marked. faisceau. nastiness. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. Formed from baw. fagot. Hal. bow-wow. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. or Cot. to cry. balGael. An analogous noisily. dacchino. child. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. from Fr. fooleries or fond To Bawl. in OE. to play the babby. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. bouaila. Baldrick. A name of the badger. a spot. Fl.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. to the same origin. i. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. also the canopy carried part of his body. From ! an interjection of disgust. brush faggot. bal. Piedm. or sheaf of Bridel. bal. From Bret. obstrepere.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. P. baugant. dial. BAWSON Swiss. In like manner Grisons filthy. dung. toys. tab. rotten. scarf.. is used for a sented by bau. cluster. a lump. a lump or cluster babhaid. pegma. s. babbole. E. bau. Irel. whimwham. dirt. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. to trifle away ment. Fr. 8. W. propugnaculum. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. a tassel. whence the E. an — — — A — g — — — . mew. ! Bauble. Cot. bad. babiole. also more Bawdekin. an object. The word may perhaps be sticks. It. Filthy. Cot. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . s. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. E. E. 2. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. baubare. librillo. Ball.guage). bauch. as Fr. and authorities in note. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). Pr. Bavin. pie- . zano. Bagdad. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. bobbin or cluster of thread. exactly corresponds Fr. filth. spotted. dirty. P. lewd . ish baubles.— P. OFr. bablyn or waveryn.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. having a white streak down Bagdad. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. babsmall toy to play withal. sorry. sword-belt. baudrat. to bark. a zan. baw. It. bauU. whence pouacre. a white mark Bawdy. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. P. —R. a plot of Chaucer. Swiss Rom. tille. expressive of disgust. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. Prov. represented by the syllable miau. trifles. was simply a field gold. baudrdj OHG. Bawson. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. Cloth of gold. to make the noise Baudrick. javelle. baula. balderich. Pr. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. fe bau. spot. baban. an embattled wall. and to-tore also.' ' Pegma. on the face of animals. to 53 manure the To baw. Batylment of a wall. a gavel. Descript.. from Baldacca. Gael. ballach. ON. a horse with white legs. filth.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. — Pm. Sc. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. to bark . It is all bawdy. ball. the white of his leg or foot. bow (as in our nursery Diez. divided between black and white. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. Jam. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. OFr. miauler. bobine. fields. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. a belt. Pm. the Swiss baben. vacillo. dente. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office.

— A At Bay. A hollow in the 'line of coast. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. It. to open. — Schmid. or at bay. to iiitent nected PoL white. laurel of the ancients. arose two forms of the verb. —Bay-windo'W. he turns and faces his pursuers. which however. berries. baga. —F. baca.' Bailey. the cod of peas. Fr. Prov. Sp. From Cat. bai. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. Bay. life. Catalan hadia. living Ir. Feb. dividere. Piedm. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. BauSfi)/. badarse. house . A — he brought her to stand listening to him. bdcr. in order to keep the enemy in check. It. See At Bay. baer. Bay-tree. AS. so called from its bearing bays. Fr. It. badius. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. watching intently. as gazing. &. living thing . to keep at a bay. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. baya. Arts. husk. to amuse stare a bada. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. the laurel-bay. . buidhe. like a pie. aux dehniers abois. bajo. Lat. Fr. weary of running. window-sill. Such Antaeus seemed to me. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. Abide. expresr sion tenere a bada. or recess in an apartment in modern times. beothach. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. baie. Q. stare. grapes or nuts. bilyejiti. to stand watching one. and the To bark as a dog. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. stood watching him stoop. to mark. especially beans. bay. to gape. Swiss beie. the cod or husk of beans or the like. It. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. S. open the mouth. to be Bohem. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. a mark. or to have been first used at the Cot. Fr. from an imitation of the sound. From the former verb is the It. It. berry. Q. bay. barn of two bays. trahir. badia to Sp. baca. bialo. desiring. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. and zndly. * To Be. The — Fr. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. window . baccello. dehiscere . one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. a'uno.. to split. as if to signify a window of curved outline.c. Cot. bijel. to on anything. Gael. It has been shown under Abie. a hole. Fr. Lat. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. . Fr. . badarc. &c. A stag is said to stand at bay. baionette. gate. bde.—Journal Soc. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. a beast. buidhe- The ruadh. to open as a blossom. a berry. bayen-stein. the world Gr. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. 1. BE Probably conRuss. Swab. at his last gasp. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. F. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. beo. to betray. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth.. See Bald. yellow . would give but a partial explanation of the expression. by the term rendre les abpis. Mod. Gr. 25. Holland's Pliny in R. bahia.' — — 54 bald. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. Bayonet. BAY marked with bjly. baja. Bay. bahia. bilyega. a cluster of bacon. To Bay. OSp. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. Vielp. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. —Diez. is perhaps not directly from Lat. alive. The word bay. siege of Bayonne in 1665./^ bau. baye. Serv. bacca. ist. life. put to his last shifts. a dagger. batibari. white. Sp. Sp. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. &c. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. hddhe-dhonn. large window in a handsome . when. corrupted into Bow-window. w. to keep one waiting. See Bawl. abbabayer. beonj Gael. bagaid. 1859. baher. Earth — By Nature made to till. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. |8i'os. ing-floor. and keeps them in check for a while. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. baier. or berries. bate. that from ba. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. bioth. . overture. or window ' (in Fortification). tradire to Fr. Drayton in R. the step is the same as from It. from badar. baiare.— Stalder. Gael. bayo. waiting .

which is. like most nautical terms. becco.fer-re j Gr. Sw. vii. into a snjall river. G. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. OSax. Fr. l^ax. fero. — to bow or nod . ohg.ad. atUndre. bauhan. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan.' Suetonius in Diez. bidello. be. — Bellenden in Jam. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. beans. Moreover the name.fui. or any action done with a pointed thing.' adheres to the root. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. beacen. fd or faVf beans. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. nokkima. Beck. W. to carry. Beadle. a single bean. bohne. salve his hurts. faba is Kvavoq. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. Pardoner's Tale. AS. To Bear. ffaen. He says. backe. baum. Chapters on Lang. not applied to the yelping of dogs. would say. beugler. bdkna. The nutu significare. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. was introduced from England sea. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. however. W. Du. Catalan becar. -phxr. Bret. the part overflowed by the tide. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. a tree. bek. Beak. It. a single bean. «va\ioQ. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. on. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. bead. Gr. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. to nod . . Hackluyt in R. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. 54. boom. Thus the final en. . small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. It forms a. or beic. A two-year old nephew of mine p. bank. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. See To Bid. Trans. The wild beast. Beacon. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. fromthe danger. signifying a point.' Hall's Chron. ON. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. to nod the head. faba. post. bagms. a sign. bairan. bob. Gael. ON. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. Q wait upon him. to bellow. —F. bokan. bakke. Lat. g. bar. Beach. pierced for hanging on a string. Boom.to have a French origin. Goth. A Esthon. Farrar. baun. a nod OHG. bydel. Goth. to produce young. bakkje. * Beagle. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. a prayer. E. a beak. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. Miss Gurney in Philolog. Netherlands or North Germany. ffci. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. into France. according to of Sanscr. bM. and Lat. or however. signifying individuality. bohnej ON. It. bearti. N. beck. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. a presage. a tree. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. Be. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. Bear. Gael. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. as well as f& or fav. gebed. rising ground. vol. Bean.fuis5e. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. The immediate shore of the Menage. Bret. bidan. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. as.. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. beacnian. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. to wait-. — : Beam. a curtsey. badmr. . prodigy bauhnjan. bean. AS. beic. to wait. support. It is BEAR SI court. pig. stock. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. Slavon. tale of prayers or doxologies. a hill. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children.from AS. Beckon. an attendant. — bedeau. bedm. The origin seems preserved in E. beic. fora-bauhan. Gael. G. as. to beckon. Fr. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. bee. or breathing.

In a second sense to become is to be ing children. brada. birth. battere. fallinn. gebank. produce. Beckon. e. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. ON. fitanimal. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. bava. Prick of Conscience. to fall. and on. duty. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. obtain. ON. fit. fitly . bestiaj Gael. connected with ripa. to bear children. Lat. becuman. He becom on sceathan. gefallen. to the good hapHalbard. riviire. riviera.' every way suited to a prince. to be incumbent upon him. beatanj It. behkr. as the babble of the child. See Bat.AS. Slav. place to lie down.' are equivalent expressions. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. 1. to happen. pens unmixed evU. See becymth anfeald yvel. handsome. Beck. agreeable.we call the arrangement becoming. the beard. suitable. — A — A — . decent. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. to please. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. It. rying. bearing. Fr. to attain to the lot of any one. it is probable that here also the to become. to shore. E. bring forth. Bedizen. bard. biber. Fr. suitable. decorous. chin. whence baveux. bach. ON. Bosworth. Beaver. tidig. AS. living. receive. bello. talkative. but now a river only. Do no To It fallith favour. ON. ziemen. AS.getiman. limpian. tidy. a bank. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. bekkr. The quadruped. gelimplic.to clothe to slobber. comely. befit. Dan. baba. biivre. brook. I do thee pray. to happen. to happen. burdr is used in the sense of a car. to G. border. The OFr. or river.— Kiittner. bobrowai. because made of the fur of the beaver. On the same principle. to happen. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. e. dress with unbecoming richness . from baver. Fr. bart. i. i. to dabble . the ece thurhwuniath. proper . byw. brook . Fr. from the same in the sense of bear2. bellus. boroda. Beat. Thus OY. if sound of a sharp blow. Lat. to hem. nod or sign. dushmak. Cal. bave. to appertain. Prov. bel. bavec. an notion of being convenient. beo.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. G. R. becuman. slobber. ting. befall. Diez. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. to be fulfilled. timan. opportune. The moveable part of a helmet. bcek. as. G. Bo. while from Shep. E. to fall mode of being. limpan. to happen. Secondarily applied to a hat. bebrus. baviire. bekommen. 2. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. agreeable. See Bank. or special purpose. In like manner condition. bur. pleasing. Goth. a bank. Russ. and also in that of birth. a lip. proper. bave i. our taste. Thcem. covered the face. R. judgment. G. blast. W. now confined To Become. con. get J ' He got very angry. E. bequem. Lith. to those goods which endure for ever. baurthei. G. The fitting or suitable. That thou mayest attain Goth. the latter are derived It. formerly a happen. pretty. happening as it ought. seemly. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. bett. OSw. Fr. to sleep on. name applied originally to the bank then proper . signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. To load with ornament. See Beacon. barba. Sp. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. Beauty. when up. a. .of being very angry. to come to or upon. Chaucer. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. to arrive at. Lat. to be a part of his to. to wade through the water like a beaver. babrad. — . Perhaps from Pol. G. Beck. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. badi. perhaps a living thing. As rivus. to assume a certain form or Turk.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. Lat. a brook. godum with ON. byrcti. convenient. Boeth. gabaurths. from beau. taste. which. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. and Fr.fit. nothing to thy name make. o. limplice. Now the Beast. barf. venient. beauts. fiber.S6 fero. bobr. to live. to get. iida. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. and to acquire. to carry. bib or slobbering cloth. imitative of the case happen as we would have them.' ' He became very angry. den. or a feeling to be gratified. to fall in with our bavard. It. dize or dtzen. g. bedr. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. edge. to the brook itself. With shepherd sits not following flying fame.

waarin. from the hos. beyki. poculum. Pett. a horse-fly . fall. also the bite or sting of a bees. . comb.' So Gr. I put the flax upon it to spin. as in It. buka. Arab. Fr. bove. drink. beta.possible. translation beOj. Bee.cz//aj. D. bbtel. blow or thrust. cogionare. bedde-redirj ohg. AS. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. ' MordiThe Lat. bovis. E.ON. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. sang vermeilh betatz. fagus. G. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. thick. kivih. imperative pi. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr.' the last word corresponds to cofly . betel. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. biene. Beef. bossen. KXlvoTTiT^e. badigeonner. crespir. beer. de Fierabras in Diez. Originally. extant in Bohem. Cot. I dysyn a dystaffe. Fr. Let. &c. 1 to drink. The first milk after a dizen. Bernese. ProBeer. /SXirov. trees in a forest .^ drink. ris. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. . 'La Gl.D. Gael. taglio. of beatmg. beost. clog for a dog b'oteln. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. Lat. a clapper. cozen._t from the root pi. whence familiar. to parget or rough-cast . cow has calved. ^. It. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. Grimm. from jtst-. g. to beat bossel. an Beetle. 1156. bedskiissen-bUren. madhouse. buk. by-flugaj G. bet. Confined to bed. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. Gr. drink. from Lat.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. The honey-producing insect. briest. speach. briesch-milch.). i. to fall. PI. . may be shpped on and off. G. bibere is a re. For that was law of lend. tree. beest. 1. a pillow case. vaar.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox.'— GL ^Ifr. beetle also signified the impiti. bytl. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. to coagulate. a drink potus. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. red curdled Arab . GaeL bior. thick. Fin. 1. cugino. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. the meat of spinach. qui de lecto surgere non potest . the loppered sea. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. bette or blettej Lat. bably named from the destructive quali| T. to flatten In OE. to poordma. to and ale. doubtless. bedawi. G. E. duplicated form of the root. Bethlehem. erroneously modified in form. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. curded or beesty. It. to knock. Fr. bitela. * Beestings. a pad or cushion). to become Beech. Lat. from risan. door. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. a wasp. Fr.D. bos. AS. boeuf. Bed-ridden. the biter. Fr. Bedouia. The meanpainting. Bav. to rough- cast. Pl. a wasp. In a passage of an Old Fr. on. to turn. an inhabitant of the desert. Esthon.— JI14. cushion-cover . woman that is newly delivered. stakes. kiissen-biere.(paddi. a stinging bieUe. from blood. ir'm. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. to twist poorma. beutel. and in driving piles. a bed-tick. The beer al for te shenche bate. a wandering Prov. buche. used for boull. to drink. whose face is clotty. pettiriso. mars betada. water. Beet. from leberen. Cot. pital of St Mary. But possibly bedizen 2. as the milk of a that purpose in London. P1. boytle. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. . The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. Horn. AS. biiren. beach-each. may be from K. prigione. I A pillow-beer. and lebermer in G. Rom. a Properly a cover that biiren.. case. also bienst. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. cited by Diez. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. a pillow-case. prisons Venet. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale.ing of the word is curdled. calleBedlam. 57 — Palsgr. the ox. by the analogy of bedaivb. in Schmeller. a cover. which also 2. wedges. Dan. knock. . sela que environna la terra. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. an ox. a paviour's beetle batail. turn (a garment). to curdle or lopper. beach.— B. turn. a bee. byst. a agulatum in the original Latin. batAfter mete in sale. garden-herb. . paralyticus. a cup or implement for AS. a malsense of drink. to colour with lime-wash. It. to change . piwo. Fr. pude-vaar. desert. a mallet. in Nat. Beetle. biest-milch. bitel. Slav. cousin. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. bletumj Gr. as. Ant. bukva.

bag {baigean.— . pose-pilte. vir mendi. to go a begging. but in the same language from poc. on the bag. fangen and Lat. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. to be acquire. is com. V. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. Mundart. one after that other. Lith. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. but probably erroneously. ysgrepan. capere. 2. 58 BEG BEGONE G. Du. Vocab. can. 'ex quo. Political Songs. on further examination. P. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. steinbosil. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. It.n. Of brede full ycrammed. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. touched with emotion — . to arise. to beg. although it ' the future. Bruce. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. Barbour. seizing. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. gigno. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . ken. bertola. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. on the tramp. ytyvwfT'Kw. in Lat. 'Dz. it is both to acquire and to beget. yivwajcw. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. to take. yivofiai. Fr. a beggar . anfangen. be^nnan. a — wedge. viii. air a . &c. chisel. 40. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. Gr. beginning. P. beitel. ' .3. To Beg. taking up. P. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. oppressed with woe. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. a bag . bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . When Q. Du.' about undern he got down.' A. V. aginnan. Schm. to reduce him to beggary.bag full of the G. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. Into the are D. So from Gael. genus. beissel. Mod. lapidicinus. literally. In Luc vi. gan. incipere. yivtrri. ken. two betels —a grete oke. beitel. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. — yivsaiQ. a little bag). su with gold. not began to alight. signifying to conceive. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. Ancren Riwle.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. word. from whete G. giving in Gr. — Stillingfleet. is formed pocair. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. to begaan. a chisel. ' Begone. OHG. onginnan.' for ye shall lament and weep. woe-begone. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. to be able. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. y/yvo/iat. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. above quoted to get beaten ON. He did alight. in D. ' ' . whence the E. P. to know. Nov. a stone-cutter's chisel. 1430. To produce children is to acquire. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. hags. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. origin. krapszas. Goth. It will . to cleve. P. Skinner's derivation from bag. & go a begging. a wallet. baigeir. Deutsch. ip AS. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. Cold-begone. Du. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. 142. Beghardus. a scrip euXaiciJoi. covered with gold D. 25. From w. chap. P. at geta talad.pose. of Gr. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. begging. and Lat. to bear young. a scrip. iv. P. P. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. affected. a wedge for cleaving wood. 'Aboutin undern monly. 1867. cans. a bag. ornamented phoc. in E. Si'Xa/coc. P.D. yiyvo/uat. image is cleft out of the trunk. beriolare. V. kind. to get children . beis- plement driven by blows. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G.quently used in OE. duginnan. To Begin. can. also called Bigots. referred gan this Erie alight. a bag or poke. as alighting is a momentary operation. appears improbable at first. begger. to begin. the fundamental notion of attaining to. tale. to be born. or Of a pure poor man. 168. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. P. Lollards. a beggar. a beggar-boy. Creed. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. sel. &c. AS. gen.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. Florio. ysgrepanu. beutel. ykvog. The tother seand the dint cum.

name of the head is used to express what hbva. tail. Plautus. heeten. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. is supported by many analogies. to carry. To place are most naturally ex. G. guardare. G. a follower. betragen. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. to tend. to look. behaviour. to heave. what he wishes another to do . zijn. Kiittn. gehat. the name adapt. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. hove. or the hence advantage.— . gehouden. heave. to be well pleased out. hafwa bort. vow. To Behave. when the verb will hoof. ward. to call. zu etwas gehalten haitan. adjust. advantage. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. se porter) to fare well or ill. to regard. right. — Behest. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. to keep. have the sense of calling or naming. garder. fixed upon any object). to halten. Robert in Warton. to keen or hold. behoof. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. Goth. Paladino. han- — js Kil.). keeping. what is so required. premi curi alicujus rei. It. Aan iemand bid one welcome. gecall. gehaben. nittaa. The It. to take away. take heed of. to carry. Command. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . hevja. to gehouden. to be be named. to command. ge' hatan. healdan. to look upon it as true . beholden to him. Sw. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. habere. promise . to cast or throw. keeping. on. hafwa. to have. or purpose. OE. hafjan. to turn one out . bound. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. to be obliged to one. heita. to carry corn into the barn . furtherance. hcef tig bort. behatan. tion. To Behold. The seyn. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. us-hafjan. heeten willekem. The Lat. commonly expressed. hofwa. AS. to be named. to keep. exhort. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. gehalten seyn. Sw.' Richardson. to meet. to feed. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. to lead. —Hest. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. laborare. invoke. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. G. G. AS. use. to hold. to vow. portarsi. to vow. is on the top of or opposite to. hatan. habban. to the equivalent of Du. by the compound observare. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. to R. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. R. to be obliged to do a thing. ufhaban. AS. to hit the mark. 17. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. behete. At the back of The re.to vow. behold. behind. hcefwa in seed. G. the two verbs seem radically the same. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. to be fit. to lift. behat. But. injunccommand. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI.for throwing it. hafwa ram. to fit. behces. taking notice or care of (Gloss. hevja. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. to name.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. from tragen. Sw. obliged. behefe. And so from hania. and (as Fr. AS. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. to lift. to bers of the body. the equivalent of E. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. solicitum esse.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. take yourself off. holding is originally derived from that of looking. vow. seeing to. at the tail of. according as the * To Behove. K. the distance of anything. hantyri. hovast. beperson addressed. hces. promise or a command. AS. to command. to behave. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. servare. as in the case of E. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. to follow.the figure of throwing at a mark. To look steadily upon. to hold. is also found in the sense of looking. to be suitable or becoming . ifl fact. to call. or necessary. to bring forwards. hafwa. G. N. To be expedient. Thus in Finnish the heave. observe. and the E. and their senses intermingle. to promise. to raise. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . to carry. promise. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear.

and E. to extol the worth of anything.alyfan. Pl. satisfaction. esteemed . allow. laven. or high estimation. were civil terms of address. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. to resound. with the consent of the heirs. Sw. berfroi. under the forms belfredum. To Belch. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. to praise. and. to lay be- around. frid. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. ungalaub kas. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. moderation. are innate .D. Fr. Hence to simple approbation. . to hit hafi. The word be- Belfry. we have Goth. to boke. appearing in Mid. Northamptonshire. to cry out bell. bellan. To praise is essentially Xo prise. pro3. verloben. a tower for defence . cela est audessus de votre portde. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. ON. on. Bell. From AS. to give leave. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. glauben. then. — mankind. if a narration. bellow. To Believe. belja. fitness. erlauben. beffroi. AS. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. to promise. to lay the cable round the bits. overspread. to belay. Fr. praising. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. Du. lov. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . AS. battefredum. lofa. and E. to fix a price upon one's wares. resonare. to bolk. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. to believe. to believe. true. a. garnish. loven. . bettifredo. an implement for making a loud noise. Another application of the same word is in Pl. to put a high price or value on. leave . to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. ornament. In Mid. or a sconce. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. gelyfan. permission. from mhG. and Du. promiser. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. honoured.D. OHG. fringe. Q. filu-galaubs. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. reach. See Gain. — Diicange. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . ON. or house. then. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. bertefredum.. OFr. peal. bealcettanj OE. permitting or giving leave.. lyfan. is (Sternberg). bercvrit. laven. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. reputation. loben. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. to give leave Dan. bialla. to sanction an arrangement. to express approval. and bergan. to to make A Templorum campana boant. Fair sir and Fair lady. to believe. tain a certain end. beau sire and bel dame. esteeming good and valid. beset. to be required for a certain purpose. Du. to permit. P1.D. — . G. bolken. bell. bervrit. laubjan. leaf geleafa. b'ola. promising. It. properly belonging to the church tower. a tower. —F. on. to promise or engage. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. locus securitatis Schilter. bylja. bounds. Du. border. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. a watch tower. for purposes of low estimation . it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. stand. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. to der swaren lave. boare. To Belay. to a loud noise. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. a vessel made for dishonour. to estimate them at a To believe. legsel. Du. to roar. if a promise. orloven. beffroit. Then. bulken. turris. aim. hesfa.Lat. galaubjan. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. Det er ofwer er hofwa. Pl. mark ON. loven.. met.Lat. ley/a. to sound loudly . to praise. galaubs. belief . in nautical language. certain rate. giving leave or permission. beleggen. is used in the sense of approving. to befit. precious. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. Goth. measure. 6o BELAY BELL loven. . consent. are other modifications of the same imitative root. range. a little shed. is an easy progress. portion. praise. to protect. to bellow. to praise. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. In the middle voice hofwas. distance to which a piece will carry. to give leave. behove. Doubtless an imitation of the sound.D. bealcan. to make it fast.

In E. because bcelg. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. to do good to one .Fr. Benefice. generous. bimpsen. Benefactor. a border. Bav. I araye. — Ducange. a round or bubble-shaped root. bags or bellows. blister balgan-snamha. bander un arc. Javanese perfume. vulva. Lat. To Bend. Benign. langen. benejicium. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. . beneison. Benzoin. Gael. to exert force. blast-bcelg. pod. See Bind. to touch one. is a kindred form. To belong is thus to reach up to. a good deed. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. bendan. Lat. by itself. or sometimes louban. kind. The ing-skin. needs no ex. benaigon. balg. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). poX^ri. benjoin.pinuz. Beneath. from benedictio. gwaldas. — See Numb. Lat. See I . benjoim. or fyle with myre. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. . bilbil-goda. to reach. loubdn djawt.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. belly. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. means seeds of plants. To Benum. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. Bench. a accusative. to concern. See Bank. from another modification of the word for bubble. a water-bubble builge. to arrive at. one who does good. bellows. border. ' I beraye. attinere. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. to attain to. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . or a It is times the to signify services. Fr. pino3. fyle To dirty. hence with ashes. or simply djawt. was in Mid. to use words of good omen. bienfait. to say. Fr. to belong. to concern.' Palsgr.. is The word balg. to make bilbil. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. to bend a bow . to come to the crown belangen. incense of Java. ray. Benedico. Ptg. pervenire. bag. . to become one's property . wallet Benefit. . ball. bolch. to touch. a leather bag. Lat. From OFr. volva. from Arab. welt of a shoe. a bellows . The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. balg. G. to. as. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly.' The term had been previously planation. cod or husk of pulse. I marre a thyng. . Was das belanget. the skin of those animals that factor. a speaking well of one. To Belong'. a bellows. Gael. belt. I say). bendaj as. attinere. becwathan. belly. vulgarly the belly. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. bimaissen. Bent. Gum benjamin. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi.videtur. a kindness. Sw. binsen. rise against external force . ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. est matris in lucem editus.polch. a spring. to attain belangen. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. hem. the womb. — ray. bellows. w. Dozy. See Nether.— Belly. bilbila. welt of a shoe gwald. belgr. ' . to stretch it on a frame. pouch. to ring.' — Hie fimus. benehusk. Benignant. I soyle it or araye it. Kil. pertinere. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. binssen. Eenison. bandoir. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. taken absolutely. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. G. To Bequeath. bolg. attingere. bcelg. a blow." — — . ON. OFr. a benefit. Fr. pertinere. bellows. disposed to oblige. benedictio {bene^ and dico. G. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. . are stripped off whole blase-balg. . the ipsi Caddono concessimus. gelangen. Lat. ^To Beray.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. rushes. Lat. belliJ Lat. wallet. ON. benedicere. benir. OUG. — root consisting of concentric skins. a blessing. leather sack. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. to hold to one. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. on. se bander. from cwcsthan. the word. bolg. skin. balteus . skin. bless. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. Belt. bell. J'emboue. Benediction. fens et hie liraus. to bless. Bret. dirt. to hallow. G. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. Quoth. well. belch. benignus (opposed to malignus). Du. has assumed a plural form. an inflated Lat. benefacere. from which is also bulbus. as concerning that. bene/actum.

See Better. earh. profit. roju. the origin of which is to be found in ON. to mend. dung . Du. and Du. Hfence backing. . what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. but in practice. To help. besIn sen. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . bdt. So too Yorkshire arf. fearful. same word with the provincial barth. advantage. to on the other Goth. eld up- On is to be placed A — .irova. stealth from steal. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. Devon. make better . barthless. to entreat. from grow. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant.ot-i. beseech. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. amendment. So Lat. but it is specially applied mister. Berry. Tha het he micel fyr betan. lewth. better. From abet. to fire a funeral pile of . besein. ^•n. broom twigs. houseless. bereafian. in the sense ctf beria. rods. and on which the wager is laid. an incendiary. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. brem-bessen. and also to entreat. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. Du. AS. as in growth. basjaj Du. it seems hard to separate as. from AS. betan. as. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. To Beseech. The proper meaning of the bale. position. Fr. bota.fish the other hand. to supply a want. advantage. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. G. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. making better. vi. To bete his Jam. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. to put on the saddle. On the other hand. botesward. rubbish. BEREAVE Wall. to thrust. to the place boarded off in a. burrow. Du. what does it better a man. or to bestead one. to be-place. berry.X. — . as Du. bacca. To seek something from a person. or the space kept clear betan. scopse spartis.• 62 Antiq. betan. arwe. To Bestow. boteith Goth. dial. ^akka. vol. to make better. barfham. bet. To Gl. solicit. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. preferably.— VixHsm. to exercise on a definite object.t. * To Bete. the guardian . person to lie in. might have been . besje^ Sanscr. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. a fire. to thrust. The dry. buttare. think more probable. beorgan. small eatable fruit. Du. reparation. barth may be for barf. — Chaucer. R. to give a place to. The origin is AS. ariierf to 113. Bestead. Beet. protect . boeten. because used for making besoms. dirt. to defend. to cast. When men of mekeness him baet. dust rojahtaa.iooA. bal oppbota. Grose. — amendment. as bouter selle. E. roju. BETE dirty'. hva mannan. is to perform a serviceable office to him. stede. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. 3. G. supporting on the one side Lat. * Berth. a berry. bestow. buttafuoco. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. encouraging. het vuur The serise of Boeten. R. Beere. ropahtaa. fyrbotare. bat. OE. seems twigs or rods. stow. — bota. AS. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. besmas. p. a place . to make it. jnore. sweepings. fall with sound. from It. I from lew. a horse collar. Fr. mud. put. Fin. sets fire to. to seek. as. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. AS. as. to light the fire . an incendiary. See Reave. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. repair. — Biglotton. or. Sw. Esthon. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage.D. as conversely a besom is called broom. berwe. to strip. the side bhakshya. reparation. Goth. Best. to To Bereave. roe. Kil. one who shelter. of ffeed a fire. lay out. to stand one in good stead. Besom. as. boeten. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire.bhaksh. sheltered from the wind. put forth. noise. baete. to amend. supply. place. boutefeu. to fall with roisto. peto. bur-we. what does it boot. .— Hal. to to deprive of. dirt . then ordered he a shelter for cattle. earg. boeten. ship for a make amend. compared with bargham. basya. Rob. besnij Pl. Sw. bouter. E. bdt. Ihre. p. To Bet. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. baete.—^fake. It is the restore fyr betan. Beit. Tusser. to kindle the fire. improve. besen. berwham. Zeitschr. So roto rattle down. to word is shelter. reafian.

his eyen sheen. Bav. . larks. Fl. Goth. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. e. better. Friar's Prol. to fall Some call it a bevel. not to have the heart to give up a thing. G. bet. Mich self a good glass of wine. Fr. ON. in the same way Lat. regen. as from obdir. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. better.— .D. from Fr. obdissais. deign. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. trakir. evidence of life. G. Fr. bouter davantaige. fate. zimet. betst. batizo. i. or with again. It. from. I approve of beveau. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. riigen. betwuxt. Now the stirring of an object. sloped off. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. tima. is treason. whence beveraggio Fr. tweoh. betaemen. to accuse. Sw. make manifest. gatiman. by two. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. Hence last G. trahison. bibere. suitable. *Ah. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. ON. moveable and compass branches. is used for the — R. in the middle of two. To Betray. pair of compasses. are there Regt R. OE. AS. bet. Dit tungomal rendered in E. betray. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. E. Dii. from Lat. betera. are commonly to one's lot. betest. find in one's heart. from invadere. a bevy. what does It is forward him. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. twain. traitre. two. abash j from polir. for measuring angles. bedriegen. awry. afford. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. Buveau. dispose (whence schicksal. better. dir. E. advance. ziemen. which may be compared as to form with amid. From It. tradere. fitting. betweox.' Dialogue on Witches. — Betwixt. bevere. R. e. -to appoint. Fris. kein leben mehrin no signs . best. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. as trahissons. In like manner folissais. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. betwuh. thy speech bewrayeth thee. more. E. spritigs from schicken. roebucks. to drink . Bevy. proficere. a brood. deem suitable. betriigen. x. a traitor. BETEfiM translated. tima. amidst. Car son umbre si le trahit. find it good: Goth. tradire. Pl. R. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. of quails. some attention. polish. suitable. it bewrays itself. obeish. To Beteem. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. Tinia eigi at lata eit. order. Ik tame mi dat nig. progress. To boot in coursing (i. R. taemen. — See To Bete. traditor. trahissais. Du. roja. taemen. amiddes. The as. batista. beuvrage. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. Better. a drinking . betweoh. ruogia.D. trahir. On the same principle ON. as tlock. to Teem. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. verbs in ir with a double ss. zemen. an instrument opening like a a thing. to happen. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. to deliver tip. the being pushed to the frbnt. &c. as envahir. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. Percy Soc. i. Det sig sjelft. 88. From the former of these are AS. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. wreia. to cheat. Lat. — that schickiich. Thus from dbahir. betweohs. of pheasants. Slant. to stir. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. to make forwards. vrohjan. Golding's Ovid in R. A — drink. baet. gesiemen. against. e. beverage. /alia. Fr. Best. become. Between. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. — of the authorities. Sahissais. Fr. to deliver up in breach of trust. his mouth. fallinn. to discover. wrogia. It. G. gezimet eines dinges. bat. r'ojer dig. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. has — In a like sense tanie>i. said he. Pl. G. To Bewray. To vouchsafe. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. bevde. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. treachery. by a final sh. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. Cot. Goth. a different form of twa. springs from ON. In the water anon was seen His nose. as one would have it fall. The inflections of Fr. be fitting or suitable. beva. to deceive. Ober D. Chaucer. to fall. AS. and thence twegen. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. to Hence It. In like manner from twain is fothied between. in the middle of twain. to happen. lot).

sloped. Pers. to move. bis. Bible. Bibelsworth in Nat. sbrisciare. discover. sbrisso. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. Bias. . roggle. To drink hard. him. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. The train of thought is then. Bice. Schiitze. Prov. to creep or crawl sideling. bezling or skueing. — crooked. metaphor). then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. Bezoar. biberen. Fr. Bisect. bibaculus. it were the mouth. 172. to give signs of life. a fragment bieco. foul weather. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. or by any rapid motion. babbi. Mantuan. To Bicker. bickel-sieenken. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). When the edge of a joiner's trickle. slanting . . expelling or preserving against.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. he is Wtb. bescompte. to sip. specially in a bottle. biberer. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. whey count . Diet. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. to shake. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. Bib. Lat. inferiority. a sloping edge. to it evident to sense. sbiagio. bebble. It. kwijl-bab. Fr. In Arab. dial. —Dozy.D. notice. liwell. bickeler. babbefore the eyes. like guzzle. to a fight with stones. a Galilean. sbiesso. kwijlen. to purl. to well up with Cot. a bezle. its clothes. Ant. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. baverole. biberon. wrogen. ice . to make tongue Du. biaiser. asure-bice (Early E. and zahr. besanca. makes ble. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. pible. to stir. or kwijl-slab. beregen. To Bibble. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. Dan. Bezel. Oh when shall I bizzle. Misc. An inferior blue. In comp. bavon. edge of a plate of looking-glass. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. I Wallon.s bellum for duellum. slippery. to slaver or drivel. tailU en biseau. from pdd-. the word became bddizahr. misFr. to tipple. Hal. presence. sbriscio. Hal- — do something aslant. to tipple. used in precisely stone . per\'erted belief. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. Lat. biascio. the papyrus. biais. bickai. (according to the Fr. winding or crawling in and out. ber-laita (for bes-laita). It. bickel. poison. bias-wise. baviere. bestemps.' bibble. or in and out. sbiscio. Probably.{ioin dua. snout. Fris. bisel. The It. Fr. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. sbias. love first begins to life signs of him. Sp. b&zahr. the basil Sc. Biseau. bark of which paper was first made. petit-lait. Pl. to glide or slip as upon. Piedm. To Bezzle. is explained to clatter. sbieco. Fr. has a singular stone-picker. in him. sbiescio. To skirmish. Ci^.a. Fr. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows.as in Biped. sliding. Sard. two- footed. OE. bisdare. bes-azur. bending. in two ways for duis. to stir up . rogge. It is especially applied in Sc.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. a bibber. to be a paring. bring under ' Thy accuse. To Bib. a stone-hewer . to stir. aslope. it becomes (Jz-. Du. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan.or from obliquus. of the sliced off. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. reveal. by throwing of stones. Yes. as an eel or a snake. to cut in two. Cat. sik beregen. evident. . dial. to Jam. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. to slaver . wrangle. pddzahr. rogt un bogt sik nig. beslei.to drink much. An excellent Basil. — Bi-. wraggeln. sbiasciai. crooked. . to the stirring of their conscience. 78). whence Du. Sardin. biax. Uprogen. bibo. to dispute. convicts thee of being drink. Gr. biascia. To bicker in NE.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. . Fr.D. sbrissare. stock still. bible. Piedm. Jamieson. E.two. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . though such a change of form would be very unusual. which good bibbeler. bihais. twice. —Bickering'. lips. in Fr. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). See Wriggle. a slabbering-bib. bickelen. shows the P1. Cat. oblique. aslope sbisciare. kwijllap. one who drinks in excess. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. to stir. /3i/3Xof a book originally.

may plausibly be derived from Goth.' Pope in R. bolga. as tears from the eyes. from belgia. belly. OSw. to build. swaggering. a chip. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. bidill.Leta). bidel. bidjan. — prepare. swoln.t. to inflate E. W. to ask. bugt.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. Kil. bedun. as. praestare. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. build. bis and in comp. to cultivate. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. bieden. to bulge. ' Bug as a Lord. rising up. becoming in Lat. Jam. athird class. ON. to look for. to inhabit. anleta. bidan. ON. — To Bid. iiQ. the meaning of bid. faurbjudan. to curve. buga. The original Swollen. bauen to cultivate. from seek. beodan. be bug. to offer one the wish of a good day. or third order of penitence. To Big." buque with E. biddan. bigan. to abide or wait on. A bjudan in anabjudan. abidan. a flexure. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. bua. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. Bickelen. to offer. beadle. to marry. who. bolgna). For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. Bigamy. by seek and beseech. einen vor Gericht bieten. A pose to one to come to dinner. Hence Sc. 1. repair. twice. bath. and consequently ordering or reGoth. G. bieten. to belly. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. The 'La. the belly of a ship. boa. which is stiU. from bidan. OSw. It must be observed that the word bidja. to dwell. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. AS. to build. bced. . Palsgrave in Halliwell. besides the professedmonks and nuns. and Gael. bend of a shore or of a rope. to build G. balg. bouwen. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. ten. to have one called before him. consisting both of men and women. or. to presimpler pare. Compare also Sp. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. porrigere. G. .. R. a suitor. forwards. Big-swol- . bead. AS. to start out. The ON. bit- bidja. bulge. pressing on one's notice. bend. With respect to logical pedigree. spelling seems to used in the N. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. called the tertiary order. quiring something to be done. belly. of More ' in Richardson. bo. gebodenj G. cultivate. to offer it to public notice.' Addison. explaining the Sc. pray. to swell. bag. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. BIGOT beidan. to forbid . P. bat . to pro- command. bow. praebere. inhabit Du. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. AS. The . or bad. and the Sw. — — — Halliwell. Two verbs are here confounded. bilge or bulge. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. To bid the banns. Bigot. offerre. bidan. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. bog. ewes. to E. Einem einen guten tag bieten. to move quickly. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. To Bid ' Big . a swelling. to solicit. proud. verbieten. and yajiBui.uddered len heart. bugan. G. ON. byggan. bulky. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. form. England for swollen. related to big or bug. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. to look for. From Gr. byggia. bulge. bug. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. as G. Du. Big. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. biegen. The loss of the / gives Dan. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. to arrange. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. Wallace in Jam. to forbid . for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. Bight or Bought. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. bi-. bygga. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. swelling. in the sense of ask for. bulk. to bid one good day. bugne (answering to ON. bolginn. an entire skin. inhabit. BID of stone. to bend. beidast. 2. to ask. ON. to bicker. to pray one to dinner. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. Analogous expressions are G. qucero. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity.peto. gebeden j G. has leta. The ON. are also used in the sense of asking for. to bend.

66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. bighellone. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. natural grey or sheep's russet.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. begutta. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. homespun cloth. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. all apparently derived from Ital. alii Apostolici.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. author quoted in N. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. honesti plebeii amictus. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. with reference to A. and also unlearned common men. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. vocati Fraticelli. says. as well as bizocco.' translated by Muratori.' They were however by no means confined to Italy.— Ducange. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. signifying bagmen or beggars. A. From bigio. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep.D. 15 18. a blockhead. In a similar manner from bigello. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. Bighini. which must not be confounded with begardo. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. Bizocco. aliqui Begardi. probably from biso. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. A. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. vol. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. clownish. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. xx. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. G. A. both men and women. corruption would easily creep in.' Us petits frires bis or bisets.D. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. and Q. coarse woollen cloth. S. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto.— BIGOT bigardo. the nobles to Rienzi. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep.D. Bizoccki.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured.' says an Venet. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. D. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. beghino. Flor. and hence the variations bigutta. rustical.' Matthew Paris. grey. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. the other form Per te Tribune. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio.a. sed maxim^ in muliebri.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. bigio. &c. a dunce. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. 560. dark-coloured cloth. face VIII. ac labores manuum detestantes. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. borel. ix. Francisci communiter appellabant. absque votorum religionis emissione. 1243.' Chart. Augustini dotarint. bighiotto. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. Hence the OE.. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. They wore a similar dress. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. alii de paupere viti. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. was formed bigello. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. beghart. bigotta. biso. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. to adopt a similar course of life.' says one of of bigio. grey. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. Beguttce.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. 1499.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. In the same way Fr. perch^ i Terziari di S. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. Bighiotti).

fluctus maris. beil. — bigardia. seems to be rather the unda. AS. billet. the o changing to an i to express diminution. Bilge. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. In the same way are related Pol. Kil. Bigin. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. axe. The Du. the trunk of a tree. and in Lat. 5 * . to be angry (i. bull-berries. NFris.— — — . e. To Bilk. Du. a hypocrite. whortle-berries. Lat.' bilio. Dan. billot. ^Billiard. bill in parliament. Thus we find in It. bwyell. horn of an animal. BILBERRY nated. billard or billart. buail. belghen. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. as a bill of indictment. from Mid. of boja. I. OFr. p. Dan. Bill. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. buie.. bulgja. an ingot of gold or silver. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. bigardo. Du. bill of exchange. however. as craneberry. dziobad. clog to a fetter. loi. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. So in Gr. boja. false pretender to reUgious feeling. a sword. A lorum tam in — Diez. Sw. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. bill. Aurelles. dziob. is properly a sealed instrument. to swell with rage). bolghe. might be taken to express a hypocrite. 2. an adze . billard also signified at billyards. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. of E. Billette. Roquef. Deutsch. Piedmontese bigot. at sea Billet. symbolum. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. — — ' . an ingot. genus vincu- Bilboes. a bigot or hypocrite. deceit. topor. Kil. now A Bilboa blade. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. bullet. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . dissimulation . a beak. bigot. bigotto. a floating log to mark the place of some. An instrument for hewing. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. Bilbo. a shackle. inscriptum. Sw. beghart. Bohem. crowberry. Billow. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. e. the bill of a bird. obsolete. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. In English the meaning has received a further development. a name given to a. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. See Bull. to peck. G. Fr. A slang term for a sword. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. bla-berry. — Cot. Bill. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. a seal. Gascoigne in R.' mariners.' in Richardson. to job. b'olja. from the dark colour. See Bulk. 2. on. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. blue . a false pretender to honesty or holiness. the swelling G. in the sense of a writing. Lat. billet is the diminutive of this. Sp. to pick a millstone. bisoch. an axe. Mundart. . that of swell. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. . bile. an axe. gan. an axe . and a billard. buoy [i. Ludwig. in the same sense. AS. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. bulla. Bojce. plog-bill. bui. 3. Langued. tepati. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. blaa. names bill-berries. Prov. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. bila. a negro. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. a devotee. Bille. a short note. irons or set in a kind of stocks. Tartuffe. a hatchet. biilge. bigot. AS. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. used in legal proceedings. an axe. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. Bilberry. abelthe fetter itself. person of religion leading a loose life. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . from OSw. . The proper meaning bylgia. a of the sea. w. Johansen. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. a seal. the beak of a bird. procella Kil. The origin of the term is probably from bole. Billet. To defraud one of expected sinking. bizocco. blamand. to strike. bille. belgan. boia. Fr. fetters. top. gleischner (Frisch). and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. Fr. Gael. a man who rests on a stick in walking. weapon . Sw. 'tumidi fluctus. to strike. bil. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). boeye. and dziobas.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. ferrese quam ligneae. Du. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. bulghe.

Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. Thus I suppose the Gr. AS. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. poultry. propius videre bij sicndc. Lat. which is expressed in E. where the compass stands. G. To Bite. pinnu. bundt. doubtless a stone. or bin. ON. piccione. brut. AS. a habit- Binnacle. videt. Lat. bjork. Habitacle. bhurja. Gr.. an overseer. i. Lat. biclie. bita. beisseii. IV. and of Fr. biscuit. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. evegue. by the verb knit or net. Goth. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. hith.68 BIN Bio-. Lat. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. pippione. Bisson. i. to bring Biscuit. a bear. bundun. . Dan. a brood or hatch of young. Bin. . while bind-wood. The proper meaning is a heap. Bisen. Bind. to bear. a corn. to fasten it together. Bitch. Sw. pin-ti. — Surrey in R. . piiiti. G. bij sien. — See Bittacle. bundle. bundt. overlooker. life. the young of an animal. bund. — Kil. burt. V. 'tumens sequor. AS. Birch. terial. to bind at . In like manner from knot. Lith. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. To — — —D. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. is rendered in ON. beorth. a hind or female stag. v. G. Lith. nodus. The term ON. beize. pinnii. Bailey. habitacle. to hang. bindan. AS. or petze. properly a young pigeon. e. binda nat. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. Fr. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. or baked. evigue. are commonplaces. viz. is in Scotland applied to ivy. — properly near-sighted. It. to bulge. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. a bump or knob. beran. Fr. Bisom. a bitch. pundas. a little dog. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. EpisETTiTOOTToe. a weight of 48 pounds. to build. lusciosus et myops. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. forth. G. a female dog hindinn. Sw. Du. bin-wood. hiindiiin. Fr. a bitch applied also to other animals. copus. Goth. a bunch. brid. wine. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. a heap. band. Fr. . truss. or ben-wood. bikkia./«idere. AS. from \t3\. bunki. AS. a female stag. Bing. bord. binge. bundle. a knob. bund. ON. It. qui nisi propius Blind. berkas (z=:Fr. an eagle's young G. from Lat. biscotto. Bine. See Belly. . a gallinaceous bird. I would derive the verb to knit. betsel. a pig petz. See Breed. also a stone weight. j). from Gr. Bittacle or Binnacle. Lap. a truss. bitill. ge- from AS. twice cooked. the young of birds . isfiw. — — . vescovo. to form a knotted structure. bigne. evesgue. earnes brid. Sanscr. a bitch. expressed by Sw. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. . in Swabia. See To Bear. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. bitacora. by binda. Bird. beitsl. Then added division in a granary. to knot nets for fish. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. Bizened. to twine. to swell. bircej Sw. to plait.' and the like. biccej ON. sc. &c. pullus. bij sienigh. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. to be derived from Ibfiaq. than vice versi. E. bunch. We — A Birth. When compared with Fr. episcopus. H.. bunt. to net. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. to bind together. a heap. Sp. to cook). Fr. bunga. fowl. admota non Bit. beitan. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. bis-coctus {bis and coquo.. Bindweed. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. bindan. BITTACLE /Siof. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. and especially to a small poor horse. pittjo. from pondus. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. a weight. The bitol. to wreathe. a house. poule.

first. ^aj'/^r. Je N. white. "uivac. Bleak. 'fuscus. bihovac. Sp.' by Gudmund. 156. Black. as in that of pale and white on the other. bitts of Bitts. Bohem. blabaran. ON. Nagt huis. quoted by Ihre. cut. NE. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. ON. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. indistinctly. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. blebberis. to talk much. pale. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. Hal. a babbler. things —Palsgr. blabbre. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. pale yellow. bitter. to bivouac. pale brown . A a rail. to let out whai should have been concealed.— Blabber-lip. ' plabraich. mona mid Dan. a stammerer. bittore. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. v. Fieldfare.' G. /ealo-/or. Why presumest And laam's asse. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. The Gz.. It. 332. blakk. dark. faded. obscurus. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. chatter babbler . Gael. blob. Fr. blakki. 't kompas huis. yellowish. faded. buft". beiwache.. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. blac-hleor ides. Applied in Hin ON. to speak Dan. viz. beitr. ^chops. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. a fluttering noise. a* mast . — Hollyband. G. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. even humour seemed and beuin. a large lip.' It would thus acle. apparently from its biting the tongue. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. fallow . iroxafealo. the palebleff. to chops. To Blab the anchor. to babble. blunt we say it will not bite. to loll it out. —Neumann. synonymous with baber-lip. Cotgr. blank. an edge is sharpest sword. butorj OE. bleich. term. Again. from whence we have adopted the. blepLith. baitrs. 't huisje. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. a large coarse lip . blabbern. to To blabber blabber with the lips. .plab is used to . garrulous. round which the cable is made fast. Percy Soc.D. whitish. x. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. a tati. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. plappem. Gael. blab. Mag. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . night guard. The bitas. biti. to watch. AS. babbling. Sp. Deutsch. a beam in a house or ship. ON. Mund. In Legrand's Fr. on. his blacan light. So Fr. in contempt. blob. Pl. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. quick. Sp. Blabber-lip. — cheeked maid. shining. confusedly. a childe dothe gasouille. . bitor. bleg. In a similar manner Gael. Wit hung her mourn. To or he can speake. bites. gabble. Du. is placed. Goth. blubber-lipped. Sw. Lydgate. In like manner E. white. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. maculS. out the tongue. leohte . as of a body falling into water. is apprehension of danger. — Collins in Hal. as of water gently beating the shore. blesmer. Fr. blabhdach. corrupted in Fr. . blanc. a flapping. gulblakk. whitish. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. biacca. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. ' Biovac. Alex. black. baboyer. bitr. Bivouac.. from wachen. pins of the capstern. small guard-house. I blaber. AS. blob. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. Fr. dusky. bleikr. to babble. pale. on the one side. Mantuan babbi.). Hald. bitones. beuni. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. as of wings . a shelter for the steersman. to the sharpness of a weapon. an additional watch. yellow . Cot. pale. Se bleek. Fr. mouth. fallow fawn-coloured. Bav. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. stutterer. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). plabartaich. brunblakk. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. Ai-mstrong. unintelligible talk plabair. a continued soft sound. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte.' by Haldorsen. bird of the heron tribe. blobach. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. white lead. pale yellow . thoughtlessly . parallel with Fris — — — When bite. babbe. Bittern. shine. discoloured . Hist. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. ON. to wax pale or bleaked. light-coloured. mouth. bittour. whiteness (candor sine It. G. Sp. blake.€i. as is seen in sputter and splutter. or water beating gently on the beach .

—^Webster. biasimare. blanchir. blaere. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. blather. to make or become white blanc. Blank. broad. to omit. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. white. Dan. Wott. Du. borrelen. 5/^a/^ of colour. the ON. as scullions. branches . Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. livido . candidus. leaf. foolish talk. blister. a. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. — — — to jabber. name originally given Blackguard. Besides the examples of this connection given above. blegen. most complete example of leafy structure. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. Sw. a boil. D. blame. or of an oar G. chatter. But perhaps a more Gr. roar. speak impiously. blather. coat. commonly called the Black-guard. and E. blad. Fr. to vocifer- — Cot. madder.—Blatter. p. and Q. the origin of . to glitter. Fr. to bleak in the sun. Blancli. mud. tree. also white woollen cloth . mud. revile. bladder . blanchet. blank. is identical with Flanders borlen. Blame. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn.— Kil. and he shall be sure to have O. to blanch. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. linkboys. board. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. a blanket a bed. Blain. Bav. . Sc. Eadmer. Now. bladder. blanchet. leafy. Play in Nares. blatt. pXaatpiiiiHv. vagabonds. It. to purl. bladder. to —Blaspheme. blad. and others engaged in dirty work. boys. or blafich. to dabble in water. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. and thence to babble. blinken. to Hence Ital. blether. blaeren. The radical bubble. Reliqu. 86.. leaves. to To bellow. Fr. with all other loose idle masterless men. from candere. plate. Torriano. plat. PI. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. Dan. &c. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. dial. and wandering men and women. and the agitation of liquids. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. a blank ticket. also tanned by the sun. Jan. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. bladder. leaf of a. irXariQ. Cot. blanc. G. to blow. Dan. Lat. cited in N. white. smore. sheet of paper. black. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. on. G. The present forms then should be classed with blether. bladra. or as E. as. Du. Bacon in R. whitish. to bubble. bladdra. a pustule . Sw. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. pallido. Du. rogues and wanderers. blister. Du. in R.TaaVi%^-&\xxi.— ^o thehotsun. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. To Blare. as blader. imbrunire. which we . smother. flap of a Du. — Sw.. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. bladre. moere. variable than the signification of words designating colour. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. blatter. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. Blade. e. Blanket. G. gabble. his meat burnt. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. plat. polished. tattle. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. To blank. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. Sir. pimple. and G. also jabber. pladdern. to glow. to shine. a leaf. blister. chatter. blein. to shine. as Lat. . skola and thwatta. a bubble. — . blena. Hist. vagrants. contracted from bladeren. bladeren. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. blegne. blanqne. pass over. dripping-pans. as. a white or unwritten ticket. a bubble. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. blactra. Gr. blasphemare. shining. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. slush. a bladder or pustule. a buible. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. mire. . Du. blatter. biastner. waschen. blahen. 1854. defame. piatto. to disappoint. I am degraded from a cook. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. reproach. —We Bladder. 7. or a mass of bubbles. blister.—Blatant. mus-blackt. Perhaps from blegen. — rura. See Blubber. on. Blank "verse. probably ate. pluddre. the leaf of a tree. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. whitish. Fr.

a shield. i. bawling. I. biter. loud . embraser. blass. bleis.' to fastum . blaodh. Blast. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. First from the E. blast. to publish the praises. Dan. Cot. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. blasa. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. an conium. brasa. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. in the same way as we 2. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. blossi. a blast. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. to blow . blase. To blast. blis. blason. Du. blaser vid. also praeblczse. baladrar. oured. The AS. blcEsan. brasa. — Elazen. Sw. beast. a coat of arms. to cut off prematurely. used. A gust of wind. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. blazen. blaterare. and to make him word blaze. blason. a flame. of an animal. Sw. quus. blase. splendour. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. or to the sound which it produces. on whose behalf the herald appeared. a loud noise. ther it was erst not knowe. much plausibility. blaze. Du. A strong flame. Blatant. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. is used in the sense of manifestatio. blus. Sc. the matter incendiary . Gudmund. senses. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . to extol. Du. e. clamorous. To Blaze. proclaim the virtues of. OE. blcest. or blazening. to blow. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. a voice Jr. blys. blesse. Troilus and Cressida. commendation blason funebre.whence the Fr. But now. might And sain. a torch . blorach. bliEsan. laudes (Kil. kept up. blose. friend Cornelius. baladron. light-coli. in that of praise. Prov. . to blaze Sp. coloured prints. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. fire. stultd loqui. blezo. 'op een trompet blaazen. thraso. to publish.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast.). Du. the noisy. a shining spot. ing of arms. . See Blare. a lamp blasere. blatero. — ^Jam. blesse. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. to bellow. noisy blor. boasting. — — ' : bless. also only pains and excellent endurance. 2. abroad. is from AS. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. ventosus.' painted or figured . a flame . proflare tues. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. oron-blasare. braise. Kil. Du. by stripping off a portion of the bark. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. among other . and. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. whence Blazonry. visui patet. and which. live coal . to trumpet forth. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. Lye. to spread news. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. Golden Book in R. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten.sound a trumpet. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. each of boaster. blaodhrach. blasoen. G. a funeral oration . a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. Cot. g. She roade at peace through his heraldry. A blaze is so intimately Then. blcEsan. to de. somewhat different train of thought.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. Blanches illuminies. magniloquus. ON. blaesen. magnilo. Fr. might spring from the same origin by a . AS. Fr. gloriosus. Blaze. a shout. also blazon or the blazSpenser. With inversion of the liquid. like the in English. ill-speaMng their proper colours .the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. blasonner. abroad. AS. As Kilian. to set on fire. The other derivation. as a verb. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. to proclaim. bldsse. blysa. indeed. Fr. blcese. . has also blencke. Du. pale. Dan. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. is the imme.— . If armour. blaeteren. how. Gael. a flame. ON. — ' — stroy. a MS. redness . declaratio. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. G. to blow. a whisperer. blcesett. besides blesse. blateroon. it is manifest. shield or surcoat. To blow AS. an empty and two theories are proposed. The origin of this exSp. bles. a torch.

' He blarrede or roar. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. Palsgr. blakna. to spot. — — R. livid. G. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. . ' — — ' : — — . as of dust or mist . blac includes the notion of pale and dark. And By a similar metaphor Pol. blesmissure. to wink at it. a boil. to humbug. plama. blesmir. ' — — eye. Blemisli. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. to start away from. And now are these but mansbond (i. the livid colour of a bruise. tumanid. 419. bldmi. blot. a spot. or blemysshen — blaken. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. ^Xiixaoftai.' God in his wordes. pier vor den augen eyes. exposed. c. start vor den augen. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. To Bleat. to disgrace one's name. bleakness. p. dead-coloured Cotgr. Pol. wan. to stain one's honour or reputation. to spot . AS. See Black. blister. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. to bleach.v. souiller. a stain. blink. Bleed. a red watery eye. light-coloured. a blemish in one's 2. pale Du. splamii!. and thence to a bruise. (faith or creaunce) Be war. confound him.filerren. Richardson. a spot. Blear-eyed j having sore i. whitish. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk.'he cried till the tears ran down. Sw. ' . a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. Manuel de Pecch&. Sir J. bleikr. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. bloken. to cast a mist before the eyes. Fr. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. from on. Mac. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. to make him feel blank. guenchir. wheal. which are blurred with the have shewed you. Blear. blemissemeiit. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . . to soil. . So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. From the OFr. a been distinct. tutnan is a cloud. 115. avoid looking it in the face. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. A stain in a man's reputation.P. a disgrace. — blink the question is to shrink from it. a spot. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. wanness. to bleat as sheep. As AS. I chaunge colour. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. blench came to be used for a trick. a spot. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. goda nainn.' the devil makes a vain back. N. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. blot. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. from the than schal I go. spla7nU sie. to cry or weep. is Blench. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. Gr. To totally different from the foregoing. color plumbeus bldma. blur before their eyes. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. a blot or smear blanking one. To salir. novice. Ancren Riwle. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. sugillatio. So in Sw. blema. spSt. The term blear. pimple . paleness. inflamed eyes. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa.D. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. the formal equivalent of English wink. pale . ^Blencher. See Black. darkness of vices. a fault. boggle at something. . to blear one's eye. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. geplerr. or blemish. . to wink the eye. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. Bailey. to become livid. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. Bleb. on. a blotch plerr. drop of water. A Blab. B.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. blarren. what blenched him therwith. to blare been weeping. flack. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. Schmel.' to deceive one. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. blcecan. sinen langen tranen. Gower in R. or to low as oxen. BLENCH obfusco. Bleak. in the expression reputation. 242. like one that has long P1. while the agent ac- From . tacher. livor. See Blood. Blancher. Bejaune.

blent. blazeny. make these hands 3. to be blind. blatida. blind- ON. cascultare. bliss look . to rejoice. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. as in the case of blaze. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. a blick-ooghen. thou knave. blende. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. blogi. to glitter. blessed. blican.blinze. Dan. . tire. csecubrandish. to bless. Sc.blunda. to dabble in water. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. blac. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . sertion of the nasal. . Sw. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. III. blithe. goods. —Brera. blissian. graceful. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. — Goth. . Swab. Blight. as in Du. flash of light . bluiter. blindselen. also to wink. a flash. j). G. lightning. 375. Blind. Du. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. Paradises blidnissu. to glance. G. blincken. I hold thee a grote thee. Serv.D. Russ. well blagaya. liquid filth to bluther. a wink With the bletsian. to dash wine with water. giving (Fr. the Slavonic languages. is I shall Gurt.' To — blunge clay. lighten. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. window-blind. the sign of the cross while blessing one. an entry which leads to nothing . to rejoice. blitzen. happy . blich-fiur. blicken. bludder. ' Pl. pale. mix from blekken. to dazzle . AS. riches . A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. Deprived of sight. to make happy. sweet. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. blinzeln. joy . with or without the nasal.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. glitter. to act like a — . Du. joy. a blessing. blessed. glitter. blicken. Du. happy . Kiittner. Thence apblinds. a dead nettle. . To Bless. blide. well blahy blick and blink. ON. blicksem. to twinkle. lovely Bohem. ^Jam. lightning sweet blago. G. to shut the eyes G. .eyed. . glance. to lighten. .blinken. blick. to pro. Du. to blithsian. . doors. to plunge. happy . wink of sleep . blotzen. blanssen. pockets. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. a gleam. trix. lightning.' or Dat Koorn verblekket.. From the action of the hand making Sw. Blink. to merry. a wink. AS. to mix. to dilute too much . be glad flash. blindr. . Blazena Bea. blitz. Swiss (obsolete). Pol. sung. but by no means therefore a pre. a. to make a rumbling noise. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. to shut the eyes. OHG. a nounce happy. as a vatn i vin. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency.corn. to shine. plonsen. OHG. weaklaveny. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. blago. to shine. happily. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. a glance. tative source of the word is wholly lost. to — make it thick and muddy. glitter. or nettle which does form. although in the in the next article. blendian. plotzen. to shine. to fall into water with a sudden noise. De Sonne ' verblekken. — A A — . blahos. To blunder water. burn up. to bluiter up with water. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. blidu. money. To Blend. joyful. Needle. bleg. the verb to bless is some. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. blink-eyed. seems the simple netel. vious one in the order of formation. blind.blinkard . Wtb. mixing in general. livid. to churn. false windows.Q. blahoslaviti to twinkle. Du. a glance Swiss blenden. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. blag. glimpse. blinde fenster. riches blajennii blicksem. A . The inblissful. blithe blis. Bliss.wink . AS. (=bene dicere). Biglotton. in potters' language. shine. blinzdugig. to consecrate . blinzler. — when he — Bailey. and joys of Paradise bliden. AS. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. blund. blend. blet. blaziti.not sting thiiren. . The sound of k before an s. as a blind entry. fortunately. joy. Sc. tless —Gamm. F. to glitter ful . good. gives blinzen. G. — . . to stir or puddle. Tany. wink. to bluiter. Nares. a look.nasal. readily passes into a /. as taschen. glad. Owl and Nightingale. to flash. The term then self or others. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. pearance of the blighted . to glitter . gladness. a. dazzle . . to bless . blink. the G. moment.

to swell. to blow. mild. blindsehn. from blcsr. in Nares. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. to bubble. Of sheep. The stem or trunk of a tree. in the sense of a soft tint. puff. or the like. bloc. a bubble. buclde. a little blisg. blab. . or is inserted or omitted. It may be formed Blithe. blijde. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. blautr. husks. Blond. mild. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. an unformed mass. — . To Blissom. soft. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. In Fin. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. like manner the coloured. a small lump of anything thick. a blot or spot. blaustem. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. ^vaaa.—Bloated. The blow E. Fr. pimple. Jonson. blithe. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. blcesma. blote. to dash liquid. ON. — Sw. to blissom. while Lat. a See Blot. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. a bubble. to to puff and be noisy. a block or log en bloc. Langued. Bleb. soaked. blide. and easily changes its place. — Blob. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. pausten. and F. Hence. A solid blouquette blisters. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. strawclod. as a blab of ink. joyful. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. weak. Blob. Dan. Sw. bluster. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. Dan. viscid. speaking rapidly any . orbicular.—Bloater. blod. I believe. bloated. Sw. Gael. frequentative. ^Jam. as if soaked in water. to blow. blindman's-buff. blesme. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. bausen. is formed squad. a lumpish head plubach. B. A under this name was imported into England. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. is also used in the sense of swelling . blad. The roots /. Sc. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. . and bouclette. blaud. to desire the male. a bubble. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. Blister. G. busten. Cotgr. merciful ON. to soak. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. in bulk. fiustula. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. blobber. separate portion. Thus we have blab and babble. Boyd in Jam. swell. bloc. Bav.plisg. whence blast. blot. a blister. to blow. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. blinzel-maus. blister blasan. Svt. B.. blobbes or droppes of water. having an unsound swollen look. to block up the way. any lump or mass of things. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. — — — — — From blabber. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. repre- pusula. soak in water cured fish. the unhewn bole of a tree. Du. a blister . a drop of water. To Bloat.— Bailey. as blinzeln. round. or the mark which it makes. Du. .— Hal. . a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. as in E. to cure by smoke. or blinde-kiih. N. or bleb. Fr. Blob. kostua. light yellow. to steep. soft. boucler. expressed by cognate roots. shells. Kil. it is must be observed. kostia. pusula. mass. taken altogether. and pisg. must be referred to AS. Gael. To a smoking or drying by the fire. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. signifying in the first instance to soak. like clot. See Blot. bleiths. G. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. blond. plub. lagga i blot. biota. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. Ibid. W. fish blind person. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. a . bluyster. a dirty blister. to breathe hard. senting the dashing of water. bubble and blubber. blot. ON. in gusts. cooking. Block. a blain. Mod. —Bailey. blouca and Fr. sloppy dirt. pods. gentle OHG. Lat. inde humiditate tumidus. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. blubber. soft. to close it with a solid mass. also to set See Bless. and inarticulately. must be classed with forms like Gr. a ram. blidr. Hence E.pusta. formed spot. blotfisk. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. pustula. in the lump or mass of wood. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. For this. blister. stone. And so from squatter. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. Egillson. Goth. buckle. blot.

plot of land is a spot or small rage. S-wiss pladern. dial. to glow. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. shine . The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. bldts. plattata. blond en blaauw slaan. blois. ^Bleed. straw.blauschlagen. bloutre. blat.' the rain is driving and blue . a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. pale tint. plotterwis. to slap. ON. gloss. Ir. bloetnsel. of a blow with something lios. E. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. Hatch. probably connected with Pol. colour of the cheeks. platz-voll. bit by bit. — gush. a gush of milk . See Blow. a blot or spot. yellow. or the sound of it . clod. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. It. blaeuwe ooghe. Sc. blostma. blatte. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. blou. soft or flat. a Halm a. Sw. ])erly Du. bldmi. fall down . 2. to be red with blot. Lat. . Wflz<^«. a cow-dung. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. Russ. bliihen. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. livid marks. coloured (Diaz. Sw.D. on. to dash down Du. a Schmid. Stalder. blad. blut. to strike with something soft or flat. blue . pale. a deli. whence plader. fall to overflowing. couleur livide. flower. to blush . a black eye Du. blue. blotting-paper. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. Harmar in R. lustre. blue. platschern. gfyssa. mud. Schwenck. G. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. proto shine with bright colours . E. pale biavo. to spot or blot. to strike . The bright-coloured part to portion of land. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. a beater. (of cattle) to dung. to sparkle. plet. Blossom. from G. parallel form with ON. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. Blot. blose. E. a blow. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. blauwel. Schmid. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. blooth. to strike with such these objects exhibit. Blow. blue. E. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. bleustern. blady. It should be of filth blak-blatte. bloeme. Sw. Dan. PI. blawels. bletister. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. a nature. spots in the sun. in v. j^ blottir. blosa. a flower. E. kuh-plader. . Plots. blus. Blotcli. gleam. bloed. gammon. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. . bloi. to blot the land was in a leme. to shine . blaeuwen. blodelsa and blawelsa. bloedsd. to glisten . to scribble.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. See Blow. Du. Blad. pladdern. Schilter. Erploten. blomstr. a spot or blot. en blau ach. . Fr. kobladde. yellowish It's G. Jios. blosma. to squat or lie close. to flame. Sc. AS. a lump. Fris. Dan. lidmr. splendour . to exists in biadetto. ON. E. platz-regen. spot pletter i solen. bloemen. skam. glus. to splash. great leaf of cabbage. to patter. platsch-voll. sbiadare. a. a drop of water or colour. Du. . ON. livid . to slap. . leme. blondheid. to From . to dirty. glose. Pl. a torch blusse. blaeuw. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. to grow pale). a The form platschefz. ^lys. dirty spot on the cheek. biado (of which the evidence plattern. brilliancy. bloto. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. — Blotch-paper. to dabble in water . a water ploutsche. Du. plants which prepares the seed. glasi. —Barbour. blowen. wan. cow-dung. to blaze . Bloom. light. blotte. blase. to blaze.^ Kil.platter. a pelting shower). blistaf.properly to scatter liquid . a flower.— . the bright to blot paper morsels. as the skin or hair. Prov. Ein platsch milch. a blaze. fair in en blat vand. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. blond is used in blatt. Blood. — — . bleistern. a Usaae. Du. Fris. bloi. AS. bliise. bloi. Florio). to be red. from the bright colour which 7'vci. to dabble in water. to squander. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. pladern. glister . dial. platt-voll. G. lump flower. . a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). blysa. the bright colour of the cheeks . splashing full. lump of anything soft to blad. D. OFr. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . . blust. blosen. to dash down. — Cot. The G. — Stalder . blond. bluish. redness. Dan. blue. plottra. white blatte. Wendish blodo. a flower. bliithe. bfys. blosem. ' — . glossi. blotter.

quod bloot et blawe dicimus. blue. to bruise Roquef. withered. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. Deutsch. plubair. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. and the forms mentioned under Swab. to show flower. blawan.xo'»'. marking some application from that bladder. Pl. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. to inflate. G. bliihen. glas. to bubble up. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. a Blossom. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. The interchange of an initial gl.Jlasa. The primary sense is to shine. — . v. Blowze. Du. a paddling in wate r. Lat. coup. Chaucer. w. MHG. blahen. chatter. bldt. to Plodern. gloeden. where the word may be compared bliggman. . . to'disorder. — Bluther. 51. 2. gliihen. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. blosen. Gael. blut. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. E. to glow. bluod. Du. Kil. ' BLUE or guggling. bledniai. A. bruised Prov. dirty. bloemen. vi^ound. into flower. bloes. d in Sc. grow pale. — — Mundart. In agitation of water. pale OFr. bluther. pale . broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. to breathe bouteiUis.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. a.. blust. to beat with a mallet. fqded. Raynouard. — . pludern. bloi. . OHG. To Blow. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. to fade. sound like water. blow. to beat. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. Mund. blazi. cheeks bedabbled with tears. blois. to with Bohem. We . fem. to guggle.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. green. flower w. It. Prov. plusig. blduen. E. tache. to gush. or gr. bliuwan. to hard. plodern. bloeyen. wan. fiubbem. to shine with bright From colours. y\r)yi»v. Pludern. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. Langued. to flap like loose clothes. blubonciti. meurtrissure Roquefort. to flourish. P1. foam. Notwithstanding the We . To Blow. a blow. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. blazir. — To Blubber. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. pale. sponds with Sw. is confined to the — . Chaucer. gloeyen. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. glansj Ir. to blurt out. blau. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. in rapid or indistinct utterance. and closely allied with Du. Deutsch. a bruise. a fat. toused. . And. plubartaich. to blow. a blast. The radical sense is shown in Gael. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. jabber. blau. plustrig. to blow. blodern. gUd. boasting. The aUied forms.' — Palsgr. blezir. blao. bruk. Danneil. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. and thence. the red fluid of the body . a continued noise of agitated water. to breathe G. to make blue. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. 92. red-faced bloted wench.D. a flower. heath. Gr. glede. Wtb. ^Jam. bliihen. bloom. glaodh and blaodh. especially with respect to the hair. blubbern. plubraich. B. . It is howbliuwen.D. blubbern. to spot.nify bubble. to fade. blodelsa. sense. bludder. G. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. pale. a gurgling . bloeden. |8A)'. to blow. glowing coal .to blossom. to fade. — To blubber. wan. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. a herb Gr. is very frequent. flower OHG. Sik upplustem. blue .— . to gabble. gliihen. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern.D. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. grey. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. blebber. grug. corre. 1. —SchmelIt. blaw j biavo. 1292. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. br. Bav. fied vowel. to puff up. to make bubbles in drinking. OHG. to exhibit bright colours. Her sweet bloderit face. may cite for example G. bluh. Blue. blodyn. boil. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. disordered in head-dress. blava. glow. Blowzy. blass. closely difference in of blabber. G.' Hamburgh Archives. like manner Lat. OFr. bliithe. Jla-re. florere. AS. bl. . Bret. puff. Pl. /idXavoc. disordered. Tumbled. to glow. These are — Bludder. G. piusen. blady. in E. -ii. glas. ler.D. little apparent resemblance.

It then signifies something done at once. a boisterous violent man. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. I blonder. biava. herauspoltem or sloping shore. blunder. to lose colour. as well as sbiadafe. Dryden in R. Then with the nasal. which is rendered by Florio. blunderhead. a shore abruptly rising. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. jaune. Biada. buller-bak. a fore. a plain coin herausplatzeu. from an imitation of the sound. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. to puddle.//aay. — — — . an ill-done job. like the Celtic glas. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. from the brilliant green of the young E. OFr. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . Halma. blue. herbe. his business with much noise. mix It. Romance bluiter. G. plo-wy. . G. To blunder is then. Bohem. discoloured {plowiee. corn. bluish. abrupt. pludder. in water dobbelen. flav-us. Lat. polterer. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. bloi.make a noise. pale) is provincially used in the. yellow. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. and bustle . In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp.D. tutte le semente ancora in erba. And blunders on and staggers every pace. liebefactor. blond. find accordingly It. . pale yellow. flodderen (Weiland). blahir. pale. glundra. See Blurt. blue. It is remarkable however that the E. confusion. Kil. in the same way as from It'. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. bawling. blac. - reddish yellow.. plomp. to fall suddenly on the ground. Analogous forms are Du. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. Roquefort. non rotunda. Ditton in R. sense of yeUow. E. We Blunder. dial. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. buller-bas. in plur. blandum. glundr. Dan. je perturbe. to become pale or wan. — .• BLUFF biado. Dief. tradire to Fr. planus. used for the work of an unskilful performer. to agitation of liquids. Sw. to blunge clay. to blunder water. devenir vert blavoie. from the Lat. rustic. trahir. Pol. G. Roquefort. to plump into the water. blake (identical with AS. Bladum. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. From G. and sbiadare. See Blunt. polter-hans. blutter. to confound. and Du. The word is here synonymous with amplus. blunder. blavus. Supp. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. has donder-bus. a blunderbuss. blaf. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. sloppy drink. having a bluff forehead. verdure. to dabble in the mud. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. Pm. mistake. all representing the — . speech. Blavoyer. to become pale. segetes virentes. something. and metaphorically. like Du. and then generally idle talk. fawn-coloured. a flounder. to mix it up with water. as well as biado. Blaffart. or an abrupt manner. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. Bodge.— . disturb. — Pr. without image or superscription. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. Kil. biavo. Du. Hence we pass to Prov. G. contrasted with the dle. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. puddle. verdoyer. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. The Du. falb. blanssen. Hal. to work To blunder out a fronto. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. to become pale or livid. is.' trouble. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. blave is moreover. originally growing up turf and water. Blunt. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. Du. bleu et blanc. fallow. yellowish red. poltern. A bluff manner. The Du. blunt. Hence a Slcelton in R. Altieri. Blunderer or blunt worker. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. 't — —Hal. sbiavare. bullern. and biavo (Diez). Kiittner. blue. superficie plani. Bluff. to dabble Biglotton E. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . bUich. pale straw-coloured. corn. bulmanner. ploffen. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. Pl. Palsgr. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. earth and water mixed together. biada.in mud or water. applied to green as well as blue. Flor. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. to fade). The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water.

unpolished. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . bald. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. naked. — blunt. dial. Dan. or blab out a thing Kiittner . Kiittner. fooUsh. down. that the sense of bare. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. to make a noise of such a Stalder. pointless. Then cometh indevotion.— — — . rudely. viz. . unfledged Sw. plumbeus. biosso. platz-regen. blue. it will be well to point out a sense. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. to plump into the water. unwrought. — Kil. edgeless. bloss. blott. rough. seems to be derived. good plump person. It. ang. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. biotto. nature. but of something soft thrown on the ground. identical with E. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. Plontp. —D. It is from this notion of suddenness. Now the Swiss bluntsch. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. Q. maol. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. plump J to plump out with it. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. to bring it suddenly out. the absence of sharpness. and the like. exactly corresponding to the G. silly. and. obtusus. Won by degrees. Probably radically hlekit. stupid fellow. and hath swiche languor in his soul. Bare and blunt. from the loud report a fire-arm. Plump mit etwas umgehen. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. is The word dull. . poor Sc. raw. More in Richardson. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. blout. blait.pludse. blutten. as in E. a portion To inquire for slaves. Chaucer. figuratively. G. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. blat. homo stolidus. without Maolaich. platzen. heavy. a thick and will person. Dan. blunt. a blot. The syllables blot. plonsen. through which a man is so blont. dull. inaKil. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. plains The large bech. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. clownish. unceremonious manner. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. bluntschen. without the nasal. heavy. bare or blunt. insensible. The blait body. pale. to plump down. united in Gael. duU. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. Stalder. Woddis. blotta sanningen. Sir T. Du. of a knife which not cut. without horns. clumsy. ineffectual reason. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. thick. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . and in the same sense. used in both senses. Plump. Pol. bare. viz. Halma. Blaitie-bum. or heraus plumpen. Bluntet. naked. Molof something wet. V. V. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. a simpleton. sheepish. Swab.plompen. nis. like a thing thrown down with a noise. blunt. plump. plutz T)\i. bare. blait. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. that it not easy to discover the connection. obtusus. plotsen. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. pressions. mit etwas heraus-platzen. dull. and an unintelligent. naked. plump. to handle a thing bluntly. —D. awkward. bleak. in Richardson. a bluntie. blunt. massive.to fall into the water. it will be observed. blunsch. as Sw. plump. V. forestis. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. without preparation. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. as cow-dung. rude. Ford in R. — — pidus. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. Sc. plotz. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. Kiittner. void. to blurt. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. inactive Swiss bluntschi. wan. awkwardly. blunder. naked. with or without the nasal. absence of preparation. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. Sc. hebes. A modification of the same root. blatte. fling down .—D. blunt. to blunt a thing out. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. Sw. is thrown. G. azure. heavy. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. F. A light blue colour. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. Blunt. blockish. It will be seen that the G. bus. plump. to make foliage.

to be out of temper. whence bob. edge. burra. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. — — — * Boast. whence bordvidr. is formed Du. to puff. bdd. e. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. cocodrUlus. bliise. to roar. Schmeller. pustern. Blush. border. to disfigure with E. bustuous. — To Bob. botte. common. blader. a flurt with one's fingers. a board or plank. Du. The to radical meaning D. to make mouths. 1. OE. puddle. to bark. as in Du. . to blush. De Boat. to dangle. plump. a mist before the eyes plerren. both used in the sense of boasting. 156. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. and the latch . See Boisterous. the sound of a blow poffen. sudden. lacerta. blunt. BLUR Boar. strong. Slur.plerr. dull. to blur. P. bit. to puff. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. blotch and botch. bdtr. bludder. borrar. to snuff. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. . G. to blore. bludder. blaste?i. a blow . splurt and spirt. to breke. blusse i ansigtet. a tassel. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. to endeavour to terrify. AS. Sc. it implies that it is empty sound. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. berd.D. a burst of tears. gabble Sw. To splirt. blot. boccheggiare. bord. Fr. crack made by bursting open. It. to guggle. Bot zeggen.—Bobbin. an ear of corn. ever-swin. bleuster. blast. of the word seems .y. and boisterous. Hal. planks raised up outside the roofs. chicchere. c. table. See Blossom. pfludern. the Brem. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. blurra. beacon fire. i. on. stupid. baban. margin. Gael. Pl. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. Swiss blodern. to blow. 29. to threaten. to dabble. Explained by Jam. dial. a grows to a great bigness. lindwurm. Du. coarse. a border. Fl. blaere. w. rude. swagger. to smear. violent G. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. Supp. or bog also thread. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. blirt of greeting. bateau. Fl. a bladder . short pieces of any filthy mud. will fly up. ON. &c. a club foot .pusten. The elision of the d is very to chatter. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. blasen and See Burr. edge. 274. to make a noise with the mouth. Dan. Du. fringe. primarily signify loud noise. Hal. boa. to talk quick and indistinctly . rude. blarra. a blotch. eafor. Gael. baiag. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. blose. bot-voet. to rumble. to jabber. E. aper. geplerr. brett. properly noisy. pof. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. ground. a mistiness. hot. as splurt to splutter. puffen. G. a short thick body. dial. To move quickly up and down. bhis. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. table. To tinct. and when applied to vaunting language. a Jam. Bav. Wright's ed. eber. a smear. AS. acre. bord. pluddre. boistous. voce intonare. cluster. bord. Sverris Saga. bora. blaustem. It. literally edge-wood. Du. Fr. flat. Related to blutter. V. — a blaze. and Du. a tassel.— . ader. bobine. bausen. to dirty. Pull the bobbin. or blurt with one's mouth. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. Boost is used for the boast. . 'Ba. blosken. to crying. be a crack or loud sound. batello. G. gabble. Wtb. blodern. boord. Boa. to sound like water boiling. to make a noise in boiling. Sc. As the as. bakke bleustern. blaffen and baffen. pausten. to puff. to blubber. Du. . stellio.plodem. — From mouth. Board. boot. To brag and to crack. to blurt out. BOB 79 — To Blur. a. Lat. to say bluntly. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. to spurt out. Du.v. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. — ' Dief. to blaze. and swimmeth very well. Boa. bdta. bobbin. to glow . then applied to indistinct vision . to give a crack. beer. to brag grande loqui. Bluster.' — Red Riding-hood. E. a dangling object. mire. bluter. A large snake. 9396. a small lump. or backwards and forwards. AS. outward edge. my dear. a torch blusse. violent. margin. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. cheeks glow. To blow in puffs. board. bar. an end or stump. planks or boards. this root are formed Sc. blur. bluther. large. blubber. a blot. Halma. It. a baU of thread the mud. margin. like the parapets (viggyrdil. . to chatter. Comp. bur. Du. Kil. and E. an edge. blot. imitated by has also In like . bladdra. bot. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. Wallace. to render indisbhir. To Blurt. skin. pludern. — — . The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. to bounce.the syllable bot.

by the syllable patsch. Ptg. to waver. gog. mud. Lap. gog in gog-mire. bodig. nave of a wheel. move. bot. swelling. So BOB To Bob. baboyer. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. See Bid.' A — Sherwood's Diet. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. potig. corpses pot. or stem of a tree. bod. the stem of a tree . calf of the leg. bob. Miracle-plays. butt. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. bayonet. to fail. to be unsteady tich. Supp. bodene. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. bog. Ptg. the thick part of anything. toss. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. as in stammering or staggering. to commit a blunder. The signification of the root bot. needle. '£. fickle . and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. to be uncertain what to do. shake. to stick. bolr. the boss of a buckler. bole. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . Thy i. potacha. to deliver a message. bogadaich. the body. the trunk of the animal body. formerly bodies. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. shaking . . To mock. potacha.gmh:t. VI. patsche. meaning the round part of his body.' Bogglie. W. to thrust. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. the belly. barriga. bo tich. bogadh. to bob. point. bodak. message boda. daubed or dabbled with blood. Bodkin. precept. round. unsteady nature of a soft substance. biodag. See To Botch. Ir. We . palleg. Schmel. boll. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. Crist. wavering. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. gago. . to dabble or paddle. Gl. to roll. bodies. barrique. bogach. Reliq Antiq. to butt. . expression hogglin an bogglin. stitch.\\i\c\iset. anything soft. unsteady. stumpy. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. or bag. e. to fail. a cask. is a lump. a messenger . . to make a mow at. to scruple. pall. bodi. the body of a shift gaguejar. 43. stuttering. a cask. — 2. or a pair of bodies. bodnu. Commonly explained as if from Sc. AS. ^Jam. To Bodge.a (i\ia. to stir. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. bogle. speak of the barrel of a horse. corset. busti. Now unskilful action is conmire. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. corpset. gebod. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. to start start and back as from a bugbear. It introduced from Ireland. . dies. a round body both. goggle. body and G. is identical with Fr. cask bottich. See Baber-lipped.rabodi. a spur. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. as signifying anything spherical or round. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. where bogs form Gael. agitate. to prick. gagoula. a body. belly. In like manner E. a command. Banff. — as well as the body of an animal. nodding. a prick. Bog. a prickle. 3. bodhag. Gael. to stammer. Gael. body of a shirt bol. Bodice. quakmg. Bret. badyti. as a horn. arise E. bog. The Sp. Body. — Grandg. a dagger. bogan. stutter gogmire. bog (equivalent to E. a quagsoft. a .hollow. BOGGLE trunk and G. boftich. whence paUchen. — H. to bodge. . a ghost . woman's stays. to push with the horns. gogach. an awl. bodat. . bodi. a sting . Wall. Lith.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. bothog. bottig. thrust with something pointed. . from fitting close to the body. to smack. bottich are derivatives. an announcement. ON. gag. bodilo. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. Bohem. Russ. AS. To make bad work. anything protuberant. exhibit another modification of the root. a bog or morass. moist mire. bod. then from the yielding. a puddle.! . represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. * To Boggle. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering.. strike with the horns. And waves. gagei. to make. and the word is well explained by Bailey. potahha. moving backwards and forwards. French bouter. bodian. of which the E. biodeachan. bagges. Shakespear has badged with blood. . To portend good or bad. so large a feature in the country. and E. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. Gael. bayonet . to blurt a thing out. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. whence Fr. unsteady. bodetz. waving. rounded. Cot. quagmire). corset from corps. To Bode. With With this we charged again We bodged again.

warlike. Bole. bolr. prince. Pr. bal. — ' — tagliare. w. chatter. to hesitate from doubt. bolt upright. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . G. trunk of a tree . buller. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. stud. bula. to be prominent. pimple ON. G. It. bold. stutSw. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. a cushion. Sc. bhster. to stumble. tulum. ballr. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. Boll. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling.D. a head . Daring. bolt. blow. Du. Swab. To Bolter. to stagger. a quaking mire. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. up of bubbles. furfures. bolc'h. — 6 . bald. In the same way Sc. haughty.— D. properly represent belly. 1430 in Deutsch. G. as. then violent. stameln vel bochken. See Bulk. intrepid. proud. a bakazikni. a bubble. bout. boss. pall. boll. Lat. Chaucer. in the sense of handsome . polc'h. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . bolstar. ohg. to boil. the body . Love. boil . to stammer. animal as distinguished from the limbs. tartalear. Fr. OG.palleg. to tattle. quick. Sw. folliculus grani. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. puile. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. as.— — . This iv. a swelling in ice. courageous. bulla. Pm. capitellum. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. bochken (titubare. Boystous. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad.rounded part of the body. a fastening for a door. bSlstr. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. a bump. — — which the cushion is stuffed. sels of flax. perpendicular. and then applied to other husks. which are not used for a similar purpose. in speaking. E. bald. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. boly. Lap. bolzBold. bolster. strong. strong.). swelling. tartle. Kit. from Du. to swell. cheerful. Fr. Goth. . see Boast. a bubble. as E. The bob. OHG. E. bollen (Kil. rough. scruple. 374. b^gayer. to be at a loss a shirt. courageous. balldr. tomentum. to the belly as the or dislike. round the first instance to the materials with . bold. Bret. swelling. repagulum. balder. bolla. bolzen. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. To Boil. Chaucer seems Dan. bola. biiilen. gluma. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. hollow. ON. strong. Du. Me doth awate.w. bolster. * Boisterous. buile. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. A. the. to give a hoUow sound. bulla. Properly noisy. G. Kil. bolle. Du. treated under Bowl. Boil. . glass phial. Westerwald bollern. bog. * Bolster. flax-boU. roydeur. bul. Mund. insolent baude. belc'hj. puilen. pillow. V. impetuosity. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. free. bol. Da. hero. capiing into a cavity. noise. Sp. also a blister. Wall. Cot. gerade signifies straight to the mark. bulr. Bustuous. coarse. hakogni. i. as those of nuts. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. bout is explained by Kil. bolleken. bok. notes. boutpijl. (of Mons) b^guer. whence bulla. Stalder. or the like. 45. Test. boggle. globular bod)'. to puff. confident. tar. styffe or rude . Gael. pustule.' Mrs Baker. may be identified with It. bol. tartajear. 304). obex. is probably a modification of boll. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. from the branches. shake. bagaji. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. wag. to stammer. ON. a boil or swelling Du. bog. Lat. beule. The term applies in — — impressed . Magy. Fr. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. boystousnesse. stramenta. the husk of nuts. the lir.Du. excellent. used. ON. . the gurgling sound of water rush. ^Vocab. the body of a man or of ter. a bubble. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). bul. Du. bold. bald. ^Boistous. baud. cows the people from speaking. bealder. he will speak out. bol. pusten. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. to waver or hesitate. merry. fiausten.. dint in a metal vessel. as baltha. . but that Bolt. bola. The round stem of a tree. bouil. poppy (Bailey). bag or bog are derived Piedm. caput scapulse. chaff of corn siliqua. brave. bullire. by which it is moved to and fro. and manace for to de. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. ON. huge.

a bunch.D. Bav. I boulte meale in a boulter. a rattling carriage. taraabout. So also we pass from Lat.). taratarrum. barutela. Hence Palsgr. have Lat. . to bolt flour burato. bortelen. buUire. die treppe pressed. Pl. gebolder. we see that the one consists of a words. a clump of turf. And as the agitation of cream in .Lat. cro. bulstrig. taratantarum. buletare. a clap of thunnences. Champagne burtcau. to E. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. a club-foot. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. Sw. cruddle. ler. as Fr.protuberance. the name of bolter mixed flour and water.agitation of the meal in the bolter. tling or crashing noise. Du. buretter{CQ\. Wtb. holier poller. projections. mole-hill. bulk. hammer. the wheels groaned. budeln daz mele . and to crash. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. or a racer from the course. tumultuari. bolzen. beliitea. Brem. baruta. lumpy. OFr. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. hump. to coagulate.u. Du.through a cloth of loose texture. . a millpoltzet augen. . OFr. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. a crashing or racketing noise. knob. crotlar. or the like. a clod. burclct. Here the radical image is the violent O. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot.D. with E. a rattle. In the next place. kloteren. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. loud and fast. poltern. . From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. zen. . tar.noise {brattle of thunner. buletel. to start with palpitate. barutela. barutare. MHG.). a . pattern. uneven. vessel with narrow opening. to bolt meal barutel. hulter de bulter. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. projecting eyes pul. clump. from G. as of a trumpet. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. Bulte-pook or bulstar.— . ex•wagen. OFr. The ulti. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. Sanders..On the same principle. to spring forth E. and the Thus from So. staff which sounds tar. bultig. je bulte. hole. to come rattling downstairs.by forms like G. Pr. we der Brocket). : ' — — . pultare. grasbulten. a small portion. by the representation of a racketing sound.i5a//^«. bulla. Prov. to become lumpy. G. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. Dan. hammer. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. tuft.D. bulio. rugged. ' — — ! ! : — . was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. It. zare. abolter. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. then to knock. to bolter. small heap. to knock. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. as above explained. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. to significance of the term was overlooked. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. bolzaugen. bluter. Lat. Fr. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. a clod cloth. fied bot. we pass to Du. bullern. bolt-foot. to shake. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. uneven. on the one hand. bultred. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. Supp. sestuare. the sense of right on end. to agitate. to bolt meal barutel. crod. brattle. Pm. pull. beluter. poltern. btilt. tantara. to make a knocking. to clack. crash. Pl. Dauphiny a sudden movement.as the essential element signifying the talum. On this account Mid. Lang. as a rabbit from its baritel. a bolter Prov. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. protuberance. swelling. to form lumps. a bolter or implement for bolting. racket gepolter. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. boss.D. to talk pulzen. hulch.clack. . jolting. as snow balling on a horse's foot.fe/2?. bolzauget) Sp. curdle. bulk or quantity . bolting to that of form. — — — . / is transposed in Fr. The ment and the operation. Hence. representing a rat. also to curdle. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. bolt head is a retort. one after the other. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . poll. or ill. rugged. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. Mid. blotttre. . Schiitze. to start out. ' Holler poller / bulter. buideln. agitari (Kil. a sod (Schiitze).) E.. a round glass ending — bultig. P1. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. croler.thump or blow. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. we have Du. bolt. 2. .nature of the operation. in S'W plotter. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering.

the silk-worm. bombdra. bolting-cloth. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. Near 6 * . . a stock. borel. Du. Kil. stump. HoUybandin R. bonfras. bindan. the shank the shoulder-bone. and called in Mid. crook-shanked bondew. a stem or base. agreement. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. 83 Gr. to shake (as to shake the head. from boom. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing.^Altieri. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. we speak of a gun to resound. bombe. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. burato. . accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. bein. ties. buidelen. bwmbwry mar. biire. rimbombare. iuttern. — having a stem or stalk. The material called by this name. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. Dan. and that from Fr. gunpowder. bombase. thick from shaking. butteln. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. E. e. a word of which we have traces in several English names. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. bombasine. a baker. tree. d. to shake. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. thick-legged. as Banbury. buttel trueb (of liquids). breast-bone. cotton stuff. coarse. In legal language. buidelen. band. achsel bein. In E. bunden. bambagino. stuff.D. From builen. bone of the . of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. bonds. Bomb. a hollow sound. sijde. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. sye. bombicina. as in . baun. a ligature. a —Bombasine. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. produced the Pl. sericum arboreum. bambacium. bande. — Bombard. Bone. bommen. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. to shake down fruit from a tree. Castrais barato. bon. It. been. Mid. Du. also thick-shanked. whence bomme. Schm. to cast to and fro. It. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. band. builen. barate. and Du. to bolt meal. ODu. ^o/j. It. bond. however. — AS. baum-bast. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. tiffany. brust-bein. basin. must be explained Fr. booming over the water. bwmbwr. bras. Bibelesworth in Nat. i. bauniwolle. G. from teu. beuteln. &c. derivation. Moreover. Du. a beacon. to which the leg. Need you any ink and bonibase. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. the murmuring of the sea. 155. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . It. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. the leg. tie. cotton. .Lat. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. or trunk word in W. to resound. raw silk. tie.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. bombice. . and Mod. to thunder. As cotton was used for padding clothes. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . which requires stuff of a thin open tex. and in fact we find the and Du.). to ring bells. When ture. banitola (Fl. Gascoi^e in R. and also the leg. Fl.Su?. a boulter of meal. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. Fr. bommer. gossipium. lana lignea. term is appropriated in G. OE. a drum bombammen. a string. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. has repeatedly varied. bombarda. to thump W. Bonfire. . the Fr. to boult meal. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. — bombast came guage. bopin. assuming the of leg : special signification W. silk. beuteln. Banstead. bonog. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. a thundering noise bomre. again. thick. Fr. to beat a drum. to bind G. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. bureau. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. band pi. Butterglas. bulter from It. the contracted form of Du. G. bombasin. It.bast. Antiq. an implement of binding. a bone in general. boulenger. . q. sije. beil'n. bambagioj whence It. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. . any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. bomba.) . bombast. and Bond. It. Dan. G. bureau. bongam. butteln. is supported by the analogy of G. silk-worm. a churn for butter. PoUitriduare.

Build. ty Gael. bosig. to prepare. swinbusa. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. — To boot. biikui. — From the participle present.. Jr.n. to gape. Gl. Boot of bale. See Butt. the scriptures bokareis. Bootless. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. booby. . lofty. dress. botte. bd. bonaid. b'ukvdry. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. to set in order. the stubble of beans. Mrs Baker. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. ass. . N. foolish. Bonnefyre. a bag of skin or leather. chaff. to yawn. bota. bonad. to ask. But bosg. of wonder On the same principle Sp. Prov. The origin of the word is probably the W. Fr. bosih. A favour. busu. Gael. reparation. and fig. from gape. as a lying-place for cattle. bonad. simpleton. See Bomb. . A peasant. a good turn or re- meaning. remnants of hay or straw. petition. a silly fellow. literally cow-house. AS. ON.Boos. bose. gawney. bote. petition. to aid. and Gael. Palsgr. E. Perhaps. Pr. Mrs Baker explains bun. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. clown. b^er. one who dwells nigh. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . in Phil. Schm. to gape. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E.^ —P. Boor. Thus from the syllable ba. stabulum. a vessel for holding liquids. ben. boer. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. are formed Fr. at everything. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. buch-stab. — e. bid). . The latter is the original AS. botta. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. Du. wall hangings. Wall. whence ban-ffagl. * Boose. bauer. been. ON. a letter Russ. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. to cultivate. a letter . Bun. bolt. dolt. Booby. boia. bommen. inhabit. till. Hufwud-bonad. a tree. babb^o. p. a lofty blaze. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. . . till. prayer. the alphabet. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. bonnet. a. \ais-band. boten-shoen. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. Du. succour Bailey. Busk. is Du. Swab. a scribe G. bobo ! interj. Du. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. prayer. bowwen. ON. or Vanns. G. a head-dress. boom. and Ban in w. although in the OG. . inhabit. To Boot. . w. Fr. pig-sty. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. botte. bua. the name of the letter b. Book. dress. to cultivate. wondering signifies not only straw. The character of folly is i860. Goth. also called Brecknock Beacons. In nautical language. a stall. from beida (E. Bonnet. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. Basa. desire. bene. gaping hoyden — Cot. the mouth. head-dress wai^g. and from AS. however. fool. — — . a lying-place for dogs or swine. writing bokos. bds. a bonfire. blockhead. badaud. betere thing werse. house. gaby. boandi. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. dial. boubi^.—Bootless. Hal. pole. bua. beam. G. the possessor of the farm. set in order. Thin ben Luke i. bAkva. Ox. AS. and thence Rouchi baia. where a cross (or a gun. feu de behourdis. It. tigh. high. litter. boutig. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. E. From bo. tall. bdn. ganian. boo. 13. Boot. the first consonant of the alphabet. to dress. boa. from Du. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. short boots. in w. OSlav. netis stall. Boon. master of the house. as the Brecknockshire Banns. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. signifying beech. Pm. Hal. A stall for cattle. letter. the cultivator. tapestry. to litter bosu. ON.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. OW. bas. help. to strew with straw. bauen. from badare. . baier. Kil. quest. Boom. comes bondi. hu?idbusa. buandi. The i. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. babin. 232. — Bailey. a. often cut for burning and lighting fires. — . Sp. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. by arbitours sholde bote the P. countryman. by itself for head-dress. b&ber. beiSne. bos. relief from sorrow. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. Fr. a hollow skin. See Bown. Fr. a simpleton. bobo. pero. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. boubair. dial. gehyred. build. . boutig. Kil. dog-kennel. nachbar. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. build. babau. without ad- . G. It is commonly explained as identical with It. remedy of evil. a dry stalk. bossen. Trans. but stall. which one gaping and staring about. Binau Brychyniog.

purra. the . Bohem. to bite. bud. Alexand.. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. • — To Bore. OSw. A phorically a drunkard. bdra. boeten het vier. to hut.par. pi. a wave. N. a border. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. as afford a satisfactory explanation. Booth. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. See To We speak in E. boards. and E. lappolone. differs only in termination. to . a sharp-pointed tooth. bata. Compare Manx birrag. fimbria. bord. to bete the properly to mend the fire. G. OHG. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. to profit Goth. to bite. . cottage. to build. sculpo 05\xiik. are derived from G. to swell. swell bara. making good again . Border. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. Fr. bite.— Return from Parnassus I inR. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. abode. . . In the Fin. cup- awl.por. forare. a leather bag or bottle for wine. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. purra. better. cellar. AS.. boede. Fr. a borer. dens mordens vel caninus. purro. a word. to importune. remedy. bower. nor E. repair. betan fyr.—Burin. of an edge that will not bite. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. a hut. But probably the E. to restore. Lat. . bora. to foam. It is admitted that Fr. hut. — ON. to mend. to pierce. piercer. or the gradual working a hole in anything. borino. It. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. sharp. admovere titiones. a bladder. burin. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. Fin. barn. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. to stick unto as a bur. or anything pointed. Fl. baete. amendment boeten. wine-skin. a hut or tent. to bore. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. scsdes-bod. . scalpo. bohren. reparation. which are probably from the same root. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. struere ignem. to build buda. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. biorag. Palsgr. bottino. recovery bata. Fin. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. drillen. urboro. furni. beute. a great bur. bordi. lappalare. ON. Pol. to quench one's thirst . pointed. kvit-bara. Fin. a borer. borracha. boeye. sawroot. chisel. pu purro (saha =: saw . p. to profit. budowai. and parrets. Gael. BOOTH vantage. Gael. on. See Bower. baara. And so in ON. puru. and hence to fine. Gael. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. bdt. yfirbdt. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. To Bore. See Burgeon. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. welt. bardure. bolino. ora.. bothan. to expiate boeten den dorst. 3. to The Sw. The as G. The ON. a cupboard. chewed food for infants. ON. to divide. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. bauda. a borer . puru. 266. make . Esthon. byte points to the verb byta. and thence to eat build. a shelter of branches. tent. fire. Burke in R. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). a. . boete. dust. margin. Booty. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. a shop budowati. in Lap. comminuted by either kind of action. Magy. uzboro. terebra sculptoria purastoa. Esthon. batr. hem or gard of a garment. to repair. aid. limbus. The Fin. 1. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. a chisel. to surge. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. a shop. mat-bod. . It. Du. terebro. botjan. butin. puras. wave. to to . edge. to patch. in Ihre. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. The cor. are parret. a booth or shed. BoracMo. Another derivation from Fin. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. budka. rof. . &c. a tusk. a shed. borracha. a responding forms . bothag. limbus. from borra. amendment. extremitas Bore. both. Sp. exchange or divide. Bete. a granary . . is purin. from bord. ON. furd. cure Sw. puras. Kil. Mag. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. a bothy. and meta- Fr. an engraver's chisel. to boot. butin is explained by Flor. to anything Neither G. bauen. Du. from deila and skipta.

Botany. less. D. ^ma. to knock or strike. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. and borough in the sense of a town. Lat. from their grey clothing. borealis. burel.bucklers. Gr. to keep.' the chief of the ' borh. Hence knot. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. was origin of the term is the OFr. whether from the fact preserve G. a surety. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. boss. a. empty. The primi. to take in. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. head.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. or perhaps also To Borrow. a blow. bergen. i. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . of bail throughout the country. Fr. Bosh. borh. undyed wool of brown sheep. Bos a surety. cnap. baurgs. Goth. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. the sun sets. Borowholder. bierge. a bunch or hump. Hence borhes ealdor. ^o^^flj. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. knock and a knob . a giving rise to It. nonsense. Lang. bundle. destitute. AS. Altieri. a knob. into borsholder. bom. a herb. Fr. It. Fr. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth.' Vegetius in Diez. Newbury. beorgan. a little blow. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. to conceal. vain. bossen. striking. is used in the sense of bussare. to strike so as to Bureau. burgess. pitch. to strike . butse.mass. to give bail or answer for an. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. is probably radically Boss. to save. basse. or head-borough. the hollow between the Borsholder. borgese. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. And that unsittynge is to here degre. to save Sw. a pushing or striking out. byrig. borough or chief constable. So Du. Turk. E. boschen. See found in Bav. botch. surety.any round sweUing. to pick or cull plants. — — — A — . connected. Jam. bttssel. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. busse. bourg. bosseu. Bailey. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. to save. (Bridel). to give a hollow bizo. Du. beorgan. a bouncing baby . from AS. unpolished. rude. — ' wind burya. the Sc. a boss. borel. hollow bucklers. G. f graauw. bail biirgen. northern. burh. the N. that which biirge. when that system was forgotten. coarse cloth made of the Du. a citizen. grey). empty. boss or knob of a buckler . boss of the side. tive idea seems to bring under cover. formerly used in the sense of knocking. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. /3oraMK6f. bos. bosh. bump is used in lump or piece. as if from the verb to hold. a wen. projection. Borough. (1867). bos.vr\.' if thou give money on loan. a city . knob.' or system of bail. viipyoc. secure. by which of or belonging to plants. boussi. without. gum vocant. . tuft. ' — — . ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. the North Wind. cormpted. brown cloth. one who sticks to you like a bore. pego.. Boreal. or because a blow berga. in the body struck. the ordinary a swelling. borough-holder. Bunch. to contain. ' pledge.' every man be under bail. ON. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. boss sound. or perhaps it may be See Bury. in instead of without. bussi. huschen. plain rude fellow. I. Borrow. bussa coarse. empty. Jam. butsen. cob. loan. a tower. agrees with E. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. . borg. poor. botch. The other. rustic. . bourgeois. hollow. while Gael. Du. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. In like manner It. to protect. whence the burg. Cot. . 106. bunch. AS. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. V. tempest. clownish. knocking. and thus could not shake off the old burr. knur. a citizen. useCanterbury. to protect.ribs and the side. pegou. borg. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. primarily signifying coarse sound . borei. AS. Russ. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. poor. It. Hal. the must have arisen burgensis. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. Swiss Rom. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. The origin seems to be the Goth. storm. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. plant. Sc. blow on a hollow object. boss. &c. bosse. to become is emitted by a hollow body. cnoc. gesylle. bump. as we speak of a thumping potato. which now signifies a knob. borgo. cnag signifies both a clergy. botse. a boor. botsen. an eminence.

Canut. Dan. See Bound. Podge. from the dashing of water. Bouds.' to the fiery Csedm. a root. bile. for a bud. blister. a bundle of straw or hay. however. ON. a slop. maggots in barley. to knock. bossu. . a. bot. Kil. shoes. bun. to we have OHG. to fall : with a sound batsch. to stir and mix together. buazen. a slop. stem or base. as a push or windgaU. — — belly-worm. Danneil. a knock. See Boss. botel foenn. pother. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. batschen. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. patch. the other hand. in the sense of mend the fire. buts. Both. . dim. to put on a patch. abbu. botse. repara- — — See To Bete. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. bots. Gael. to podge. gen.— . Hal. a bunch.) . any plain round viol glass bozzo. Fr. fire-bote. is also a bubble. Here the radical image seems a bubble. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. bottigUa. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . putra. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. burgi vel pontis refectionem. a wisp. bundle. potra. Du. a bottle of hay. boiteal.foundation. It. botm. btitse.— Swift in R. bluster. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. 212. hurly-burly. • Bott. an abyss or bottoniless pit. abyss. nets. blain. any round ball or bowl to play withal. ba. botte. round lump. A — oba-dwaj Lat. to make a make a noise. botn. to mend. The Gr. a patch patschen. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. buddl. a waterfall. — . It. a pit.ments of the same root. butse.— Hal. Lat. — Bottom. — Dief. AS. Bouteille. pozzanghera. bottom. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. an imperfect and bunbutt end. bosser. To Botch. &c. the lowest part. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. to simmer. Lith. a cesspool pass. bethia. disturbance to . schuhbosser. blow. Fyre to botme. stump. Boa two. e. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. butwo. Leg. to stir and mix together . to mend (kettles. mend. pozzo. See Butt. Gael. to strike . buddeln. tumour. Fr. bozza. boiteag. the first rough draught 2. . pocciar. House-bote. bide. * To Bother. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. H^cart. . a pit. was called a push. butsen. Again. bSn. See To Bodge. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. dial. especially in Gael. a cask. a boil or swelling Halma. empty or hollow. To confuse with noise. podge. ^kvBoQ. Wedu.of a ball of thread. whence the name ol pool to podge. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. G. we have Swiss batscken. mess. boccia. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. to botch or patch. Jtidu. ing out. i. Fl. AS. Prov. we two. — Jidwi. — — . a cess. BOTCH understood). Diez. a plague-boil Kil. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. the science or knowledge of plants. to bcBta. From the dim. a tinker schuhbiisser. scuohbuzere. stock. Fl. contusion . Bottle. A bottom depth. bunch. Bailey. both. a vessel for holding liquids. to dip in liquid (to Gael. botte. bodem. is boteau. E. ambo. Hal. noise. It. gipuozan. a pock. ubhau. and E. a depth. AS. — duj Lett. corresponding to . turmoil. beggtaj Goth. bouteille. oba. to from the root bot. ' G. — Fl. Bochu. thing soft batsch. to work without order or know. Botcli. . Judwi. boitean. A horses. bdsser. a bubble. &c. to dash about . puddle. to make better. Stalder. a maggot. a bump or swelling. mess. . . w. a humpback. On — Du. On the other hand. Bret. — . boden . ixorapudder. bativa. Pl. buideal. And so we speak of an eruption. Butu. a bottle. I. ledge It. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. mutter. j3i/9os. by met. a bottle. to rage. Decorde. what pushes outwards. to smack. Mudu. N. noise. abbution. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. stock. signify a in OE. botus. to give a sounding blow.^Dec. a cobbler. stroke. dabble). Parmesan poccia. bozza. as Fr. a bott . botsen. abbi-diwij Slavon. baiothsj Sanscr. to froth as beer . biissen. bAdtr. Ancren Riwle. G. boute. poltern. knock. and ajSvamg. — — A 2. a lump of somebatschen. whisper. bulderen. disturbance. botel. Du. ON. boss. gling piece of work. you two. or plague sore . OSax. of botta. pimple. they two. the bud of a flower . abbi.D. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. boil. a botcher of shoes. ON. botola. bulder. Lith. botch. kessel-biisser. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. fundus. bund. bdt. botte.

Du. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. a blister. to hum. in contrast to klappersten. bend. Coxcomb. to thundering big one hum. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. as that of E.' round and round in similar circles. bonndn. bamsen. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. nor horn sound. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. round. debodinare. dial. I assure you. Bret. a large stone rounded by the action of water.'— Charter of K. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. bouton. he fell so that it sounded. the bay of Benin. baby. . knock it sounds again. a bouncing apple. Bunche. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. See To Bolt. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. to set out by metes and bounds. nave of a wheel bothel. turn. bottom. has hot. bay. Bough. as a nosegay. Bought. limit. mcn-bomi. or Bow-pot. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. to knock at the door. to thunder. — — Bight.D. the larger kind of pebbles. The W. Bonny. iv. to set bounds. bodina. bog. Bout. a boundary stone (men stone). E. 2.' B.— F. Q. its kind.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. from bugan. Webster. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. to turn. a round body both. bonna. a boss. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. bun. And the new stools set out. of thread. bunda. . to fix limits. and Prov. tnndo. to bow. geration.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. Fr. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. Ducange. — — leap.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. like bobbin. bugt. pothel. in the absence of actual e. a large pebble. root (see Bottom). bonzen. volta. carpet. language a * Boulder. an occasion. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. Brem. — No i ausiratz parlar. To Bounce. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . to knock. frequently used in the same sense with bound. Ni gacha cor bondir. to make a loud noise. to spring. from volgere. to resound. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. AS. Pr. p. Halma. boss of a buckler. a bound. gulf. From Sw. a stock. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . Bound. a blow. the smaller ones. signifies a sliort thick mass. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. as a bout of fair or foul weather. boh. Alpine Re- — gions. bolder. by Bujns or Buns. jump. Sw. ing. bondir. Dan. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. a turn or time.— Boundary. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. the hollow of a bay. The branch of a tree. and F. dial.>a bout. Raynouard. To Boult. a button. botwm. Primarily to strike. Boulderstone. See Bunch. Bowlder. Bough-pot. Bodinare. jungen. an de dor bunsen. 3. bons. Probably from the Celtic root bon. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. bunsen. bugan. mere. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. The Bight of Benin. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. see Boss. To Bound. the verb bondir in OFr. bend. contusi. boriie. bullra. 136. . boundina. winding. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. Fr. A Langued. a bud. Fr. whence buj7isen. till The dat et bunsede. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body.. to spring. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. from AS. Wtb. So It. boujtce. Pm. buUersten. ni motz brugir. march. signifying in nautical coil of rope. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. pimple Richards bothog. bumper. butina. strapping. bounbounejha. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. came home with his face all to-bounced. Mid.— — — - 88 BOUGH . is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. ni frestelar. bone. — Take care my house be handsome. Nor a centinel whistle. thumping. — strike.— Cot. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained.

in Fr. pot. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. — — — A pare. A water. their time -With "wailful tunes. pusta. has also buirleadh. bwa. Comp. firm. bage. limit. is. souf. good. ready. to hum as a bee. bonus. to banter or laugh at. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. Bourdon. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. Du. to take deep draughts. bend Sw. Bound. Bounty. belly out. epaule du vaisseau. bugna. spelling the word iox bound. to take breath. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. bug. buga. ruption of bonne. identical with E. that ON. beygja. also the humming or ON. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. flagon. staff. drink deep. bommen. schulter-bug. an arch. a drone or dor-bee. buzzing of bees. It is the participle past buinn. bourdon. bordo. way ba7n. Fr. bov. trick. ready to pike or spear . Fr. a mill-post. potio. to indulge in his cups . the fixed. bontS. a jibe. Prov. . warbling. Cot. to swell. kroes. on. Sc. It is remarkable that we find vary. bugan. lance. Sw. addressed to. . sotich. and not in the sense of curvature in general. the burden of a song. to — Hal. Du. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. as was for. to drink deep. bogr. When used alone it . burn. Goth. bogha. the shoulder of the vessel. different modification gives ON. to tope. address. Gael. pre. hence musical accompaniment. Lat. Dan. sense durd. bound. to trick. gurgling. ing. curvature. biugan. bourdon. pausen. bugne. sport. Bourd. burt. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. to bulge. to bow or incline the . language of folly or ridicule. . a pot. It is bov. i. bonitas. whether by sound or gesticulation. grumble Sw. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. to tope W. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad.. a brook. btiga.bass of a stringed instrument. The meaning of bound. the Bourdon. bourd. Burden. Sw. like quaff. . a. game.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. Du. bagna. jest. It. bogen. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. a well. set out. from spring. to take one in. . w. a. bourde in the same sense. bordon. patesten. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. Bow. a — — . G. borne. puff out. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . brausen. spring. bog. burdan. it is probable that the It. sausen. when we speak of. beogan. are applied to the bow of a ship. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. a bow. bunaiteach. G. crutch.which see. a prop. A —Cot. steady. Spenser in R. Dan. a for New York. Du. drunken. to pre2. Bourdon. shoulder-blade. a corToward the garden. on the whole. bog. to tipple. burreti. to drink deep. cudgel. bending. prepared for. a cup kroesen. purlBav. Gael. G. And there in mourning spend Sw. fresh* water. buzz. Immediately from Fr. ^<7r«i?. deceit. the ting of a bell. and that probably from a Celtic root. As the Gael. cheat. whence buysen. burdan. The foregoing derivation seems. analogous to Fr. springbiirn. to mutter. Swiss bausen. a humming noise Macleod. . repartee. Dan. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. Dan. verb bua. brunna. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. pared. bue. schenkelbug. Gael. bend. bending of a joint knie-bug. AS. Bret. burlare. buys. a from Du. mockery. a go to. Eown. biegen. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. bogna. a jibe Shaw bururus. joke. head Fr. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. Sw. or of an Gael. hous^ Man in the Moon. Chaucer in R. Fr. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. bovne. burd.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. G. bausen. Burgeon. fun of one . g. buigen. buizen. to bow. — — . purra. . brummen. Gael. a humming noise. of the ON. bending. — probably through this latter signification. taunt. buyse. Sp. must be referred to the same root. to our bous. tinton. So Sc. the big end of a club. Gael. saufen. bugna. to draw a deep breath. Cot. Borden. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. drone of a bagpipe. a sing-song. explaining Sw. bdgi. to draw a deep breath. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. bordone. ridicule buirte. bow to shoot with. to hum. a drone of a bagpipe.

a buck. boucle. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. buga. bow. a little box . a polla. bulka. a black pudding. a sack. a sleeping-room . prominence. Fr. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. . bola. intrenchment. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. as in AS. ku^o. pullo. bubble. guestchamber . puffy. Bret. different position in ODu. hiidel. a chamber swefnbur. to make crooked . bolle. trestle. . crown of a hat. a drop of pullistaa. bugna. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. hill. ask. biichse. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. as well as the name of a. of a wooden ball to play with and — . biicken. a parlour. bubble. the bogna. a pot. biiske. bolla. Hence. . horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. . blister. a ball. A Bulk. a box. . the head. kupula. beuz. bulcken.a. bol. similar shape. a hump on the back rossbollen. bukke. bulk compared with Sw. round glass phial. . . shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. kuppelo.) to incline oneself .\s. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. bowl . Bav. to buckle G. the crop of a bird. a box. the box-tree and articles made of it G. PLD. Gr. bouzellou. bhugna. kupukka. at the e. . Cable. convex. a hen-coop . . a bubble. buigen. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. . a box. to bulge. belly of a cask. ne. a wine-can . tumour . beutel. a box. to guggle. a protuberance. buis. the box-tree. Bret. Thus we have Esthon. . is applied to a coach-box. Fr. water pulli. botulus. bwra. Bohem. a. belly. bolne. iri'iaQ. to bend down. E. boor. the head. the box-tree It. Pol. G.cup Du. polla. mausbollelein.. an inclosure. ON. as in E. bossola. bug. to bow buck. bugyola. hollow wooden case. acsian. a knot. AS. then by the loss of the /. AS. to stoop biickling. belly. and to a coachbox in particular. It is more probably from the G. hollow place Fr. See Crab. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. a boil. Lat. bock. buk. zich onder jemand under to him. purse. bending. dial.. an outhouse AS. bog. a wardrobe . swoUei) Lat. OFr. gut. bulne. boel. cumena-bur. passing on stud. in both senses. to bubble up. bur. boxtree. lump . bow.). convexity. to swell. See MHO.). bosso. From the other form are G. bog. Du. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. crooked. bogla. . . Du. W. a ball. ON. utibur. biisse. bolla. bol. globe or spherical body. a box Lat. the skull or brainpan . without the and grits. ^o«/«. bugy. a ball . wisp of straw . then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. make obeisance. bocka. See Boil. bucka. a separate apartment . . ken. boss. the barrel of a gun. In like manner the Pol. box in both senses. Sanscr. swell. buchsbaum. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . spherical Dan. spring as water bugya. bulge.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. bugyani. a bud. give in to. bent. OE. painter's easel. pusspan. . a stud. to puff up pullakka. knob From the former modification we have bolla. a bubble. compared with Fr. box. Sw. in walking appears in a . the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. bwr. sausage. (in pass . stream forth bugyogni. head of a cabbage. . a bubble Fin. boxtree pusska. with inversion of the round. bouge. anything globular. . * Bowels. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. Sp. peated in Magy. Du. a bubble bolli. Sw. w. boil. bulb of an onion bolleyield. folliculus . ^o/a. bouellou. or. to yield to one. bowel Box. busse. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. bowels. fyn. bolgna. bugyni. to bend. fata-bur. bhuj. a thing of liquid. A . boss. budel. . kupu. . . bur. &c. The word may probably be identical with Fris. bollen. Bowl. a bowl. busskai. buckelig gehen. budello. Hal. round bead. boudin. to stoop. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. buckel. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. The / a bow. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. pocket. inclinare se (Kil. buello. W. G. Buckle. Sw. signified by forms like Gael. a round glass or bolg. hollow. to raise the back boll OHG. Dan. tumour. a croft by a house. globular body. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink.flask It. bulla in aqua. . globular. a iDubble. bulla. to puff up. Dan.D. . Boll. and on swollen. a swelling or rising up. buxus. honse-bur. a bundle. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. koziel. ttuJic. or in e. Fr. ON. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. . Bower. . heafod bolla.

whelp as. corruptse. from a root brak. fault. rakke. braca. .D. Swiss bub. moral or physical. foul. Thus brack. Brack. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. brabbelen. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . to stammer. brack. root). s. buah. brae. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. unmarried man . braque. . ON. &c. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame.. rakki. One girl. A brace probis. brae. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. brageuses. Gael. filth . break. rack. parallel with OK. OE. Rouchi Then as an adj. then from break. . to stutter. ghebreck. The different meanings of the brageux. wrack. bragos. a crack. a guard to torf. See Brake. salsus. s. To fight with the fists. brace on and Du. bue. bube. a box. Prov. brague. to give a gebrechen. armour for the arm. G. brechen. La ville ou y avait Brace. clay. ing from a mixture of salt. a girl. V. and string of his bow. Brach. — . Prov. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. It. dog Sw. Swab. bou^ba. babble. Pm. — . by an overflow of sea water. BOX To Box. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. Prov. . Kil. I sal slyng. suppuration. baske. Pr. MHG. fuse. to Swiss batschen. whence a as by a mixture of sea water.. and F. in R. defect Du. brago.nated by dirt. which sigof straining. baukscheht.with a noise. to crack. his eyes are failing him). is a rope holding G. cramp-iron holding things together . refuse. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. Swiss Rom. bracke. mud. boiste. compressing. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. G. a bubbling dura del mun. thwack.— D. jabber. Cot. or defect. A — — . boy. brakke grund. acidus. bracil. brassard. Fr. damaged board a ship. beagle. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. Water rendered boubo. a sounding blow. bray. ' — A — — — . fault . . to fall. flaw. boussole. the first instancebya physical tie. a braceOFr. want. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. brasselet. strike. dog that hunts by scent. want. 91 the Dan. youth. variation of babble. a pair of braces. confining. the arm. To brace is to draw together. A to halt between two derivations. Brak-goed. murmur. isolated part of the text. Bracket. Lett. Brack. posh. odorinsecus. to smack the hand batschen. or bracer Cot. It. by the same inversion of J and k. to slap. land spoilt Kil. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. brae. braquet. briche. braic. Lat. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael.. and then Pl. ratch. bresta. brek. . Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. boy bouba. pus. Ptg. bracco. breach. Sp. Sp. Boy. breach. disturb. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. . salo sive aqua marinS. con. Kil. to is derived brestr. Brackish. mud. to burst. OFr. as noticed under Box. land batsken. On the same principle from the buksteht. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. dirty. Pl. a comworld Rayn. Du. to be wanting. Bracelet. Du. which has many representatives in the other Europe. — . rakka. to give a sounding blow defect. pube. race. Fr. a grown youth Cimbr. want. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. Fr. In like manner the It. Sp. let. .D. . in R. braco. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. — . bracha. to give a blow with the fists. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. an languages. brek. a bog or pass Fr. lalear-eyed Prov. breuque. bracer. matter. brechen ihm. brostia. a boy pupa. bruxula. flap. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. breptati. to box the ears. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. See Broker. ON. wristband.puddle. Hdcart. brae. To Brabble. mud. bracket.. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . defect. taneous talking. bracon. quarrel Bohem." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. loud smack. — . need. AS. wnzC/J. Fr. brack. It. OFr. pupus. braco. Prov. priated to the original sense. Kil. brec. — — . bouibo. flaw. merely in our mode of considering them. bitch Du. dog in general. It is B. braecke. bask. brakke Bracelet. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. Heligoneed.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. spaniel. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. to want. defect.

brachittm. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. braga. gallant. — . a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . binding anything together. power. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . braga. To Brag. — From W. called by our braggard. about the hawk's fundament. Rom. braggard also valiant. to stand upon terms. brav. flaunting. w. bragaireachd. to sprout malt. strength. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. finery. To Brail. &c. Walloon bress. to strut. Lat. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. is Cot. . brazo. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. well-dressed. AS.^Vocab. swagger. in order to prevent its catching the wind. swaggerer. brave. to unbrace or let down the breeches. se pavaner. blusterer. bragd.. Hecart. also tion of this was brayeul. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources.. to cord a bale of tie up. boast. Brag was then used brisk. crack. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. gorgeous. the opposite of which. braga. boasting. se donner trop de licence. Cot. as the type of exertion and strength. ^Brave. Brain. brao. in numerous dialects.aburst. fine. bravache. or from braie itself. brayete. . a roisterer. brave. 92 Cot. Wallachian bratsou. gay. was formed brayele. breghen. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. the feathers ON. It is certain that the word for arm is.^ Sp. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. vain glory. to flaunt. brae. ative fellow. courageous. Brake. brave. affront. bragging. 2. . an iron for holding Zalli. bragging of his own valour. Primarily to crack. flaunt in fine clothes .%. goods. vanter une chose. torture . brails. gallant (in apparel) also proud.—— . proud. brag. showy bravery. to swagger. BRAG Piedm. or by gaudy dress and show. gay. Fr. handsome. Bret. braske. Cot. fine. breach. is identical with Gael. See Bray. to brail up a sail. Thus we are brought to the OE. drawers. Bret. gayly dressed. Hence E. empty pride. bravo. idle talk. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. the arm. . to Rouchi brMer. — Chaucer. Faire le brave. dhbrailler. braw. Haldorsen Gael. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. make a noise . —Spenser in R. breyne. From brayel. cry. compressing. a carriage for breaking in horses . brabhdair. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . de Vaud. an inclosure for cattle . braszketi. Fris. See Brace. braske. braegenj Du. From Fr. breghe. . and that from e. and it is very likely that the root brak. beautiful. fine.breeches. splendid. braka. be found. fine. bushy . — Equivalent forms are Gael. brave. in the sense of the Lat. brake in the sense of constraining. to boast of his own worth. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. also insolenter se gerere . The meanings included under — Bragget. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. Brail. brake is. bragio. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. subigere. Turk bazu are used in both senses. The meanings of brake are very numerous. h-avare and Fr. Sp. valiant The head are sumptuous. noisy ostentation. crash ON. used in the sense of force. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . brag. Fr. It. The plant y^r«. bra!. hectoring. braver. stout. bully . brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). bravado j Fr. To Braid. . bullying. se parer de beaux habits. riches. Bray. breagh. Lith. vaunting. expensive. crash. would be to brace. to make a noise. Langued. be noisy . in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. — A — . to crack.Shepherd's Cal. . Cot. Dan. brag or jet it braguard. that will carry no coals. also derived Fr. spot. stately. to rattle. excellent.hy which this idea is con\eyed. Dan. slight modificajoining the two legs. bravacherie. brabhdadh. smart. Thus Bret. Brake. A — Hal. Sc. . braicli.i5nz^. braguer. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. subduing. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. a noisy talkboasting. brave. From sprouted corn. i. confining. Chaucer. to shout.explosion. braka. braies. to boast or brag. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A .

pasture. In the case of the ne. to brush. nemus. farinam in mortario subigere. Fr. murrokko. breuil. . Fr. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. quarry from Fin. brambles. Prov. brego. It. bredza. a brace on board a ship. subigere. or A A ' . a harrow. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. a marsh. as in Sp. iSpsx". bregar brake. brook.D. riguus. have thus Du. might come to signify a swamp. to stiffen against Taboada). broil. Dan. brega. to pound. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. to fracture. casser le \va. is braukti. conSo in G. G. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. bush. glebas subigere. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. Fr. brage. brushwood. marsh. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. a stream. broyer. brambles. or a wood in a marshy place . marsh or swamp. to knead or mix up in a mortar. gebroge. a thicket. cover G. the original meaning of G. a horse's a horse's twitch. de Vaud. where from Esthon. gebroge.— . difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . to row. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. bushes. tris). — Fl. murran. for — Due. Dan. as in the case of horse-breaking. braca. to bend a bow. bregille. copse-wood. gebiisch. 2. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. BRAKE to external force. Brake. to break. broilium. frangere linum. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. to break or fracture. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. to break. breaking in the operation. brog or brake. gebroge. is formed murd. to harrow (Lat. braka. briser. Brake. bregar. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. properly braking or subduing them. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. referred brake.D. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. brak is a frame in which strip. braecken het vlasch. brook. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. and when once thrown down. P&. tnurdma. thicket. It. any thicket of brakes. or overthrow of trees by the wind. brog above mentioned. Lat. broeck. thing is brought under control. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. brog. dial. gebrUche. To the same bend a bow. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. a swampy Mid. to exert force in different ways. to subdue. Voc. —Bracken. Gael. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). subigere is used for any kind of dressing. gebrUche. in northern climates.. game. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. Pl. to The ON. —Ovid. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. cetur. In ON. In like manner Lat. murtaa. and Lat. break flax PLD. The Fr. brook. break of such a kind. It may be sus- . they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. low wet land bruch. the lever by which the string was drawn up. braquer un canon. to rub. it is not surprising that the word has here. braeken. ing of flax or hemp. to distinct. and G. fratto. brolium. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. el arco. in usus braca. Gr. broor bushy place Hal. ^raca. OFr. been confounded with the verb break. a spinning-wheel. 3. a fen. bruch. brogille. brake.bracan. Biglotton. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. Sp. to bend or direct a cannon. — — . brcekke. as well as in the case of the e. broillet. as in Du. bush.' It. gilum. In the sense of a thicket. We — . braken. broken fratta. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. flachs brechen. brake. word. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. Swiss Rom. briers. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. t° moisten. Corrfeze bredgea. signifying to sweep. to head must be bit. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. brage. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. e. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. Dan. to bray in a mortar. watered.

brug). is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. also pfriemkraut. to bridle. brin. a firebrand. gebriiche. virgultum. a bridle or bit . AS. as. titio. &c. . brarn. Thornas and bremelas. Grisons bruch. brandmurk. as AS. Bav. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . pfriem in the sense of an awl. thicket of brambles Cot.D. wood composed of twigs. braam. from gaggi. Then by comparison with claws or arms. bren. a bud. Dan. young buisson fort epais. a shoot or twig. brandiiialil. brandr. broccoli. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. broom. is the draff or excrement of the com. a heath. broembel-CBppel. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. broust. In like hrst. bushes. restrain." The bmno a • on . bruch. breme j Sw. a dunghill. brug. it glitters — — . The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. Rouchi bren d'orMe. piecemeal brindelles. Brancare. braeme. branco. from Servian pnit. iii. brous. The same form becomes in It. from virga. brem. burning brennen. brang. Branch. . to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. and waste growths. bramble Du. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. pfriemen. bruk. It will be found that shrubs. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. brano. Port. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. brenn. to or iron. to burn. A mark made by burning. G. brambles. or ling. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. brandello. piece of anything. ear-wax mud. bretnel. i. Gael. clutch. G. That beareth the red hepe. heath. heath. bromboli. in the same sense. brwnt. Sir Topaz. 1 8. briars. — . brouskoad. Fr. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. Bret. apiece orbitbrandone. Pl. brank. Brand. bruch. bruskoad. Bran. to brank. gebroge. 2. compress. that is to say. But we find It. brancas. a shrub from Bret. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. a shoot. . bruk. w. a burning fragment of wood. G. a vine twig Bav. broem. Russ. pfropf. It. bronbo. the branch of a tree. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. from brand. cack. . chaff. — branca. dirt . constrain. nasty. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. brand. brosst. and thence a shoot. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. to gripe. branchia. ground full of briers. sedge burkni. or other plants of a like nature. heath (Bret. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. . Fr. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. brok. also a marshy low ground or fen . thorns and Gen. bro7n. Piedm. Fr. young twig {brom-beisser. Diez. a bud. sweet broom. . pected that brake. brenn hesken. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. Brank. bren. Bramble. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. breun. a shrub . Thus in Lat. a briery plot.D. w. bracken or fern . from brug. a roA. heath. a single plant of heath. It. &c. brin (as It brano). The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. Bret. —Ducange. sawdust. and E. berneux.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth.). the thorn apple or stramonium. brenda. a thick bush. snotty . Serv. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. Pl. So Swiss gaggi. Gael. a rod or twig. stink . cabbage sprouts Fl. brein. what is cast out as worthless. brugek. G. brin d.G. brenna. broussaille. . The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. Bret. a halter. Broom. Thus we have w. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. prufye. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. See Brush. heath ON. breanan. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. bran. . brom. to -brugen. Fr. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . hallier. brog. brake.. brank. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. sprouts. or with It. the bull-finch. brejo. E. a bud It. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. a small deri\'ation . in the sense oi fern. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. heath. bran. may be so called in analogy with Bret. . ordure . Bret. As ON. brushwood. excrement. broom. brughera. bit by bit. brass. branche. from Lat. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. bruk. The naof strain.

to braze or lute. shake. to burn. Brase. firewood. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. brasca. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. perplex. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. The corresponding form in Gael. Thus the bound up again. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. a pan of hot coals.. to burn. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. bragia. to make display . e. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. hot Fr. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. Du. incendium. as Jamieson explains it. hoisting to the fall. branler. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. a stick. Gris. bransle. bresil. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. Diez. bracea. as Fr. bruire. bum. stake. Fl. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. to crackle . braise or hot coals. — . crackle. brush. brasil. was in use Fr. gebrannter wein. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. firebrand. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . Fr. Hume in brand in ON. bruciare. It. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. conbillet. Brasil. brasa. brangle or brawl in E. brustle. 59. brausen. Guill. brane-wood. plained by Florio. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. brand. live coals. to shog. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. Port. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. became ashes Pied. brandende wijn. Sw. a To Brandish. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. in Marsh. and branchis shaiand D. briiler. put. To brase AS. to quarrel. brazeiro. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. Bailey. as again by well as the blade of a sword. forms brasil. branla. The name Brandy. branler. E. De Goes. braise. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. to hurl with great force. E. to brandle. V. the spelling to kindle. to rustle. brascct. to roar. Kil. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. a brusler. bra?ier. brouir. all. d'Angl. fire-wood. to make shine with shaking. the colour than hitherto known. faire fracas. Fr. Chron. AS. billet. apparently very distinct from each other. to confuse. to glisten or flash. to solder iron. a fragment. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan.pan of coals. to French brawl or brangle. urens. Braser. Lye. to shake The word brisil. to murmur. braise. brasca. weinbrenner. prasseln. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. Fr. It. brandigh. WaUon. a round dance. brandiller. to burn. morsel. With top trimbling. brus^. — ting to confusion. given to the country. to dash. — . to blaze. splinter. to and fro in the hand. make a — . from used in dyeing cloths. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. Bret. Milan. Formerly brandy-wine. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. G. ist. brazil. is bntan. It. to shake. spirit distilled from wine. In the same way the set on fire . glowing embers . to distil . to sound of the Fr. Chron. To brand. and bruir. to totter. Fr. Jam. a roaring fire.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. make an outcry. Sw. then brandr. brandolare is exbrandish. brastlian. set on fire. G. eldibrandr. So. crackle. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. to bicker 2nd. to brandle or The It. — . brin. before the discovery of America in the brandir. embraser. bruzi. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. to make sense of a bright red dye. totter. so. brasa. to brangle. to Bailey. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. Fr. and scold. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. bragale\ wood. from to vociferate. to shake. The tre brangillis. n. aqua ardens. De Barros considers vinum ardens. or in stick. not. bryne. ish. distilled wine. bruan. braza. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. Manx bransey. Brangle. N. comes from thence. flagrans. to brustle. noise. brandiller. bransella. brennen.^Brandle. Ija.well. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. bracia. du Roi et laine. braser.

a — A from the confused noise. 1224. Gael. from Fr. a clout. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. bransle. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. apron. breyon. to braze. bribe de viande. brat. 1156. breteque. See Bray. Mundart. Fr. a lump. boutures. &c. frame of laths. brces. bradlete. OHG. the calf of the leg. squall. P1. or on the top of a wall. bartising. cloth. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. Pisana in Mur. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. bronzare. branle. neita girl). Brattice. noise. a rag . bretesche. calf of the leg.— Diez. — Deutsch. bretesque. A dispute or squabble. baltresca. from branler. flesh of a leg of pork. a contemptuous name for a young child. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. a battle-girdle. boarding being sbranare. braon. as rashers upon quick burning coals.' Hal. bruir. Cot. A. bran. bralle. The same correspondence is seen between It. le repasser un peu sur la braise. braser Fargent. See Brandish. tasce. 368. Kil. any piece. slakker-bortchen. a fortification. bratach.^ — Sverris Saga. whether contracted from brabble. Hist. Brave. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. a lump of flesh. —^Bronze. brazen. especially that used in the working of iron . a parapet. a lump of flesh. braeye. a rag . or whether it be from Fr. coassatio. braion. Westphal. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. ni autres choses sur Due. to carbonado. — .96 Roquefort. Pm. slibro {neita. slut.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses.propugnaculum. the buttocks. as scrawl from scrabble. to solder. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis.D. as lattice. from Sc. ON. is The word — uous name for a woman. ^Altieri. brdto (ace. luncheon. to copper. Brass. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. calf of the leg. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. a mantle. esbraotier. a patch of cloth. strepitus 2. Sc. Lorraine bravon. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. equivalent to the Du. Bailey. Dan. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. to scold . Certainly a little girl. a Lap. to tear piecemeal. at brasa.walle — Pr. bratidone. brailler. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. bronzacchiare. Betrax of a —^Jam. Bartizan. Brawn.' BRASS BRAY et AS. For the application to a^child compare Bret. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. brat. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship.D. borderinge. braodhlach. frequentative of braire. bartisan. a wooden tower. to Gael. It. brass. bas morceau de viande brawhng. braoilich. and bronzo. in the first instance of boards. burning coals. The verb is probably derived from the brase. .— Braid.brettysing. OFr.— Fl. saillies. braede. It . 2. The muscular part of the body. berd. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). lat'te. Cologne broden. So also See Brag. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. ship. to talk at bralle op. A. bratid calf of the leg. bras. a slabbering-bib. rag. Sup.— Remade. bratdn). KiL Prov. Du. bred. —-Jam. a lath. Wall. contignatio. OFr. brett. Fris. bmhon for brado7i. brettys. as a brawling brook. solder. It. a rag. pan- — Rayn. then a parapet. roar. a contempt- banner. brat. muscular parts of the body. a loud noise. ' A vraale. deblaterare. G. AS. A land of dance. Fr. Florio. Many gambes. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town.D. Circumeunt cibertesca. to shake. a plank or board. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. bronze. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. bradon. breyon de kinds of . Brangle. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. Brawl. Math. pil. Brat. breyon d'chaur. as criailler of crier. slibro. Fr. a cloak. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . a. W. I. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. Paris. brandillo. ferruminare. to cry. cob. Jam. Cot. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. braiio. Sp. fraiche. trul. bretays). buttock Sc. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. Swiss bradle. discord.

baiyl. at braga eftir euium. relation is seen between Lat. To Break. Du. to break. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. which has given much trouble to commentators. to snatch. crash. to the seijauntes. V. Chaucer..used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. to work up in a mortar. G. to The cup was uncoverid. to tear Bret. Prov. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. . broad. and frangere. upbraid. father. to cry out. &c. to roar. to N. To rub or grind down Sp. I'll live and die a maid. Breach. augnabragd. soft . bregda. rustle.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. as OE. Swiss bratschig. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. the clash of ai-ms Dan. &c. brikan. Bret. to roar or bellow. the sword was out break. Bread. noise . braire. to bray in a mortar. Fr. will. and fracasously. &c. Gr. to resemble. ing. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. brot. to scold. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. bruire. a rent. to smack or the eye. And with a traid I tumyt me about. Dunbar braessem. riAprjyvvfu. vapna-brak. imitate or resemble one. Cot. to bawl. brice. rattle. to break Fr. Then is simply. make a disturbance. braa.ear rog. fragor. and make a hideous noise. to start. to rumble. 2. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. to crash. . — koa. crepo and E. a . D. breche. k. Lat. The ON. bruzir. disturbance. And at a braid he gun it bende.y. to pretend. Cat. mos. father. Bread. e. iU-favouredly — in Jam. as the notion of turning crack. From the or brack in a wall.ch. Bailey. Ppvxia. a rag f . bru. a mill. is . 145. to sound very loud and very harshly. instantane. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. Chaucer. ybrayid. Goth. bragr. AS. a brack. the sound — of arms. to have the lineaments of one's ON. or wound. D. fish. brage. E. rogi. The same He might don us both a villany. F.g. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. to resemble. at a braid. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. yell. to braid. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. a wink. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. Fin. on. and to signify the fracture itself. weave The ON. a brake for hemp or flax. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. crackle . . V. kind. braidar. breach.' To Bray. paxog. V. ON. R. 7 . &c. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. to cry Port. to t. — . to resemble him. to braid the hair. paste or dough. Wal. D. bray. G. rangere. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. brand. at once. Fr. Then. ^p&xia. in Jam. twist. braidir. bregar. Beryn. broyer. bradar. to cry out. brechen. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. fractus j Gr. to rush. braea.fracas. explaining a very obscure application of the E. abraid.^ Fr. to break. R. See Brake. yell. Prov. a breach Cot. to break. bragd is also applied nets. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. to bellow. resound . — — — explained motus loud noise. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. cyprinus latus. roar. W. to bray like an ass. turn. braa. with or without a final d. to braid acquires the sense of bend. braid. bratsche. the miller's dog. starts crackling up.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. breuan. to crash. brame. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. bragd — ON. ON. gestus. verb to break. i. to roar as the sea. regi. or cry out loudly . a crash. roar. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. as the voice of the ass. appearance Hal. The Lat. brugier. Q. crash. ser. to rub Fr. bregar. to knead. plait. OE. brak. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. to braid. brak.

subligaculum. trembling. bra. briosa. . Bruise. Fr. grill. i5r(Z^. E. Breeze. noise. crush. Swiss AS. broil. Dtyden. . Briss and buttons. — . Bracha. brasiuiii. malt. zare. bris de charbon. simmer. as the G. brise. to hum. a horse's twitch. b}-as. brut. sprouted corn. G. Swiss Rom. G^nev. one on the breech so that (klatschet). Breeches. burst. Russ. brezling. to murmur. Originally probably the word signified steam. drawers. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. breme. breost. &c. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. to rattle (as hail). Prov. brache. w. Bret. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. breeze. as commonly explained. It. — — strument for smacking. braciarc. Gl. to bray. briosat'. switch. AS. bresilles. . malt. to whip. from brace. Breast. G. Prov. also to chill and shiver with cold. Du. Hence the Lat. and other rubbish dibris. To Brew. We bragezj on. brimsa. braca. griller. Sw. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . Goth. bragues. little bits of wood Berri briser. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. of straining. brezza. a to lay fly-flap. See Brick. brijsen. Breeze. brossi!. fail. braies. to buzz. briosa. So ON. to fry .D. fastening . to resound. britze. morsel. in Schilter. to brew. trusts. to bind.britschen. braucn. grillare. a crum. Fr. an into shiver. brist. a cold and windy mist or frost . braich. Du. braca. The Teutonic verbs. Gael. breinse. brumtnen. point to G. are related to Prov. chillness or shivering. to burst. forms analogous to E. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. briig. binding. to feize or feaze. Breath. orts. an odour. to breech. Lat. briste. vapour. brijselen. brodel. to brew. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. brcEth. as. but more probably the E. Fris. or the blow itself. to simmer. brisoler. properly to crackle. Piedm. cloven. to roast. representing the sound of a blow. the soler. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. brcekur j It. fitzen. brew. Lat. to fry Then from a Gl. murmur. . — Halma. Gael. from AS. de bridse geveii. broden. sheep's droppings bruss. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged.). the breech or buttocks. a cramp-iron for holding things together. brok. of E. braia J OFr. Biglotton. the dry spines of furze broken off. Du. brinisa. met de bridse slaan. windy withal. QNtsterviald) pritschen. brciz. brasiare. — And blood. brugga. brisd. Gl. bratscher. The Breech (Prov. brodem. body brostia. braga. Isidore and Tatian. E. dial. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. to crackle. bremse. PI. are in like manner ' . braie. chilly. Hume in Jam. from ligare. as by the Sc. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. Swiss brdtsch. bris. applied to shivering. singing bone. a gadfly. braies. brasser. scent. polenta. Rom. remains of leaves. bruzir. forms. bracecs . bruise. bretilles. murmur—Vocab. brusc. siibligar. Fr. AS. braga. G. a twitch for a horse. so AS. as in the case of twitter. broiiwen. to be misty and cold. and brought beneath between the legs.t.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. their stings draw . a cool wind. to smack. braux. Breeze. Du. briiz. brissle. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. breath. bris. a crum Du. then to broil. breson. the bust. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. coaldust. xyligogio castigare. — See Broth. bandage or truss for a rupture. brdtschen. Dev. — . bruc. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. brosame. OFr./ssus. of trees. Compare OE. Piedm. brustia. /esses. Brize. to crush to break. a smack. Bret. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. and E. brezzare. a box.'— Gl. simmering. break. as. to break. G. brisciare. Dan. bark Fr. peitschen. corresponding to G. brimme. — Brist. a girdle. bryi^ga. brison. broza. einem de britze geven. braguier. . to shiver for cold. brire. bre- I'os qui bresole. rubbish. grillen. —Briss. clout for a child. . rubbish. G. with It. bridsen.98 borst. de Vaud. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. may be from the wurh fesser. instead of being derived from 'La. bruzun.vare.

A bribe is A — — arval. Trovarfor bride-ale. piece of burnt clay. AS. Hence OE. a little king's writs. Bribe. the equivalent of to the dial. collect bits of food. beaten way Dan. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. — . . bruarium. Brier. owned also propriate. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. broken. bribe de pain. lipdZu}. as. Diefenbach com. pier. Gael. to tlie brico. . Pro(merch=:maid). or brizo. any jot or crum. bygga. If the foregoing were not so clear. bridge. troop. a rogue . See Broth. brittil. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. peculiar. a Bride. brA. buskins. a briole. — . . Rouchi brife. betonica. betony brulicame. Brique. from the Normans. to boil. in the sense of OSw. one's ovin. pavement brolegge. . briiths. a married man or woman Lat. to break. to Isrew. daughheath. Due. brygga. fragment. ap. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. Thom. a fragment. a fragment. AS. a proprietor. brug. Priodi. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. brilt. bruith. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. bread. a wedding priod-fab. bruk. and ODu. graf-ol. brau. Fr. imprint. twopares Lat. brocaly. bruskr and buskr. BRIGADE dead. jipaaaiii. privus. the newly. stone-bridge bnikkoti. berwi. a bride Brig. braut. bitill. In E. frayer. with transposition of the r. from Bridegroom. a lump of bread briber. funeral. of burial. brood. Applied ous words derived from break. Du. bretonica. So It. E. bricge j G.Fr. It. Walach. to boil. It — is Kil. brutg. but probably Bricoteau. a crum. ment of anything broken. served (Patois de Bray). w. bride. OHG. The original sense thus seems to be to ram.privatus. to prepare. Bridge. Hdcart. bricou. Brigade. Gael. grug. boiling up brocoliere. a heath brughera. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. bruyere. a bush. brughiera. thick appropriated. briwo. to beg one's bread. ON. corresponding or letter. bulicame. from the last 99 of which. fit. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. Cot. brakes of high-grown ferns. birbante. a cheat. Bridal. guma. bruk. A — A — . Grisons bruch. bro. fervere. heath. a rogue. a beggar. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . jetty. a married man guma. a quoit of stone. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. .rough with brambles and bushes. AS. as so. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. to appropriate. and that from It. brukkas. a boiling. ' . crew. ' — .It. division of an army. . bryd-eale. a lump of bread. . consort with. Flor. E. remarkable that the Gr. bryd-gutna. fraoch. bo. bride. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. married. a crum. E. Sp. Ihre. a sow. W. In the G. Dan. brigade. briicke. to boil. broosekens. httle bit. gf2o. malt. bridelj OHG. which however is undoubtedly from brace. to pave brukkti. birbone. to press. fastningar-ol. Goth. son. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. it is applied to the letter to OE.gfiugga. briw. is still used in this sense. priod-ferch. and berweddu. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. ter-in-law. Ducange. berwedd. groom (mab=:son). arf-ol. but to a paved road.groom. . . OSw. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. bribour. brique de pain. feast. brieden. especially to a letter or command. bably contracted from brigantine. — — — — — — . to break to pieces bricalio. nurus G. brasser. pavement. to pave.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. Brick. appropriate. priod. Bridle. then the marriage itself. Brewis. AS. brahi. a bit. from Bret. the Fr. Mid. Gl. brigata. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . So in The Prov. whence berw. Fl. masted vessel. AS. brice. the marriage si in brigata. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. Neumann. In the patois of briccia. bro. The Sw. broken victuals. Fr. two-masted vessel. to brew. bidsel. broken bread. has briguer. breve or brevis. ibrukkti.bergantino. bro is applied not only to a bridge. a lump of bread. a heath. Pol. to stamp. brere.. to rub. brar. a brig or priodor. Fr. G^n^v. Lang. Lat.pritil . E. barren land priodas. bara briw. Bridal. sponsa. from bit. AS. sugga. feast of espousals. to circulate. a bride. Brief. It. a man. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. to meet together. malt. pavement Lith. hlafes brice. to press in. Diez. conjux. The origin of the word is the w. brigantine. company. buckler J ON.

Beorktode bene sweg. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. wilella. tuilahtaa. clang. It. tumult. to shine. brcEhtin. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. representing a sudden noise. — Briganbriga. Xa/iTTii). c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. brdgen. twinkling. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. splcnornd de brigandine. that of Fr. the gleeman's song. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands.Lat. tinkle.' The passage from the sense of a light. brak. — Brigantine. and. Wilista. — Probably then to strive. there are many armour. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. The E. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. at a later period. squamma . moment. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. cange has 'Veles. schiteren. . bracht. pugna. to ring. Lat. kilistua. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. Bav. to strive for. also called briganders. bragen. Brigand. outcry.glampa. briga. bright bearhtm. the grew high. to resound. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. 1654. himself to serve men of merit. to bend a bow It. AS. tion. to sound. and ner me hit iherde. with respect either to sound or colour. The Ir. and led it away. to cry 'Schmid OE. splendour. XafXTTpoQ. necessary business.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. in the first instance. From ON. brigandare. A. It. lay was sung. In Fin. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. The primary meaning of Sp. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. seems to be to exert force gar el area. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. and diligence. rover either by sea or land. and hence be explained glampi. 312. Gr. clarus. brigant. manifest ON. a small light pinnace pro. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. glamm. rixa. transparent. jurgia. biartr. tinnitus. Due. and to associate with them. from hall. brigan. to shine. brebrigare.— . It. to make a loud noise. bray. So G. shriek with laughter. See Brake. the bench-notes resounded. briga.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. a spark. strife. clare lucens. etincelle. a sound. loo BRIGAND lor. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. tinnitum clarum movco. to glitter. Gall. combat. — brigante. willata. brigare. in later times a robber or highway-man. and. 1351. Swab. on his — own account. and the E. Owl and beorhtian. praht. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. clear. to glamr. and secondly. to contend with another. \oice. In the same way to strive is. . clear sound. secondarily. glbram.D. A strepere. OHG. brigare. dine. a glittering. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. in the sense of a robber. clear. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . Goth. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . clear. glamra. is easily understood. Schmeller. —Capgrave. glitter.shine.dorem clarum reflecto. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. a brigantine. Heo — song That AS. glir.' torum. to reservavit. a pirate. They or brigantini. Mid.clare ^tinniens. speech. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. sound. beorht. show the origin of Lat. labour. Bright. Adelung. — brigante. to shift for with care.' The sense of strife or combat express. — Beowulf. splendens . bregar. briegen. riis ' — Chron. may play the pirate or thief at sea. Florio. braid. — A A . brawl. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. Flor. kii:'a. It. then. malandrini. schateren.' in Due. clangour. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . to cry. splendour. — — . dine. to rove. inde squammatus. Brilliant. hell. Du. to piracy. noise.pracht. — Due. to rob. a noise. bryhtm. Brigata. bairhts.

post. gresiller. clangor tinniens. fringe . In Fr. The expression is now confined to the sow. briller. to storm. briller (related to each other as OFr. is used of raging. brimmen. border. which seems identical with rim. brandr and Fr. a long. to burn. Brim. brummen. to sparkle. brdnnsten. breziller. greedily to covet Cot. to shine. to parch. brumft. a rod. to shake. brinfire. lap. Brimstone. Fl. excited. FJ. Brem. and 1. to long for a thing. fimbria) . E. kajata. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. Lith. hence the bosom. beam. Sw. reecho. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. griller d'impatience. crackle . the verbs Flor. to roar. brullo. glit. border. to roar. bry7ie. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. ter. Sc. edge Pol. 1. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. Tresiller. a border. sparkle. striped or streaked. fringe (Lat. of the eye. grisser. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. kimina. whether of desire or anger. komista. on. a stick. — g. It. lip of a vessel. Thus Lat. Kil. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. Prov. that the original meaning of the Sc. the heat of animals. to make bilbil). brame. to creak.). voux. In the same way Sw. whence bilbil-goda (literally. ous. a borDu. Closely connected is OE. bremas. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. earnestly . bramire. a streak. to fret . to twinkle. to glitter distance . brummen : de soge brummet. . dial. ling noise and a sparkling light. or violent action. spraing. to shine. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. Wtb. AS. lap of a garment . brama. ardere desiderio. to broil. bryn. grdzil. the heat of animals. frequently interchange. leonum). G.) brimi. Brindled. griller). from brandr. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. brim Magy. coloured in stripes. To Brim. have then in Fr. ring. Rugere. brissle. 754. to resound. from bringe. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. rym^. 154. brunft. gresiller. Du. to crackle. to shine. Subo. sonitum edere bremen. the meaning is transL' amour. cross-barred in colour. brand-krossottr. : ' — bone). barmr. barm-cloth or barmskin. to shimmer. Hence with an initial s. as is the case also with Pl. The E. border. barm. The meaning of the Fr. Streaked. as in Langued. brant. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. glisten. Swiss Rom. komottaa. bresoler (Gloss. kimmaltaa. breme. AS. vigorHal.' d'etre marie . — — — . brisoler.— Brinded. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. It. pMiller.preni. crackle. . strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. an apron. to quaver with the voice. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. It. as well as bl and gl. to sound deep or hollow. furious. broil . Langtoft. Dan. to . bar. chime). is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). small gravel. kommata. Dief. The identity of ON. to glitter.ioTiviS acutus. bramer. brommen. vattubryn. Tutschek. brennistein. brame. to utter cries. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. to glitter . — Rim. perent. Supp. to make a crackling noise. ON. identical with passion. bremmen. A . bremmen. parched.— BRIM . with an initial br instead of gr. tience. Fr. rut. to wish or covet. Rayn. greDiet. brim. rugire. burning. noise made by meat in broiling. Sc. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. originally the lap folding over the breast. s.' Elyot in Way. Said of swine when in heat. the singing of Sodom — — . and corresponding to these. — . fierce. griller.D. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. as of meat in broiling .its vent in cries and roaring. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. os qui bresole. also to reflect. fire. grisler. to creak. . shine. 1 1 64. broiled. brezil. der. bray as an ass bramire. rugire (cervorum. brastlian. kimista. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. kiimottaa. burning stone. the lap or bosom. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. surface of the ocean. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. brmdottr. briller. grullo. ON. ON. the eye-brow. to crackle. bramar. the edge. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. brow of a hill. s. breme. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. breziller. — — So Fr. sprainged. (poet. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. brillare. bramar. finds the Fr. the sow is brimming. margin.

' . . brichet. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. Sp. brocco. NE. to broil. ribrezzoso. to turn up the point of anything. a stitch brocher. Da. Boh. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. trembling. brim. Prov. bryne. breaking out into growth. broccare. chest. a rod or twig. birstle. a morsel . an awl. Russ. to break. to broach a business. Bohem. a skewer. Fr. brog. aculeus. brocar. 222. brusk. a spit. a rebours. Fr. strong itself. as a noun. shoot. Bret. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. Swiss to stand out . borzen. very salt brimi. to stab Gael.Lat. a shoot or sprig. bristly . Lat. . a morsel. — — . brime. In the N. to burn. 'V^. Liquamen vel garum. a belly. as. or the full • . britchet. brusco. has under It. fierce. brusque. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. Ptg. a stormy brimsea . fragile. and Sc. a brad or tack. Brickie. the twigs of a besom. hot-tempered. briser. byrst. roar of the sea saltr. to set it a going. sharp. brote. setting the hair on end. brimme. birsle. like the Broad. rude. of astonishment. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. Fr. Fris. Brooch. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. It. Fr. fiscbryne. Berri. the surf. coli. brezza. a deluge. thick — A elastic hair. Cot. p. crabbed. angry. broccata. . can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. brot.. birse. Then as the effect of shivering. Brocade. from break. It. ' breast. a bud. to bud. the brisket or . . brim (poet. Palsgr. Brisk.). of E. Fr. brisk in taste. Brittle. are used in the sense of brittle. saulmeure. bricho (with the diminutives. to set up one's birse.' Nat. Salte sand is called brimsand. bryde. — bryme. as unripe fruits. briota. spur. Prov.. Dan. suddenly angry. flames. ruffling. . brandello.D. brytan. as. a bud. Bret. a fragment. to scorch. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. bringe traced through the brano. to roar. brioshko. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. eager. Du. It. to spit. a button broche. to break. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). Hence ribrezzare. Sc. G. to stick. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. brittle. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. as.rcendij'i. to spur. brockle. spricka. to thrust. a clasp. brich. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. rash. broche. Russ. a bit . borzos (struppig). to shoot. See Brand. breidr. to spur. Port. and. is called a birssy day. brissle.procio. harsh vin brusque. man's throat. Bristle. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. brocciare. breaking of the waves brim sior. bringue. sprouts. Hal. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. Commonly explained as from Fr. Brine. prick with Sw. See Spread. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. to shiver for Sold or for fear. brindelles de balai. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. briota. bruched (Fr. a crum. reburrus. brim. briocho. humorous.'— Vita'abbatum S. expression. to birstle. from AS. from brande. Compare also E. Brisket.). a brooch. bringe. or — . an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. bresk. Pectusculum. . sour. to stitch. Zeuss. Formerly written brotil. startling. Mid. to break. brocchus. — A . — in Due. Sc. — . brddj Goth. quick. and hence. grim. See To Brim. a peg sbrocco. to begin upon it. to crack. Sw. Gl. fantas'* tical. Walach. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. borstel. brodden. a slip or sprig of an herb . broca. rebursiis. ON. brin. brissko). Gr. to put one in a rage . It. bruckle. sticking up . breast. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. braidsj ON. brcit. rebrousser. metaphorically. Prov. is to erect the hair. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. brust. britar. lively. smart taste. Brym. whence may be explained the Sc.g. bros. brijn (Kil. a cold and windy mist or frost. sprout. bros. form bris. britar. broca. against the grain . Abroacli. bruskett. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. brocco. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. brezzare. brocher. bronchus. craw of a bird. Alfr. brimhliod. setting the hair on end compare It. to goad. emotions which produce it. Fr. Du. wine of a sharp. Antiq. borst. birssy. brickie. Breeze been connected with the Sc. sprocco. The Pl. brisciare. cK) the . brittle. b. and forms on. birs. /3pE^m. e. broc. stitch. a projecting tooth It. i. apt to break. the surf. flame.

brocach. to spur. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. precisely analogous to the Sc. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. — The proper sense is that of Fr. Gael. Florio. tori shows that. from the white. brooked. Compare also AS. shuffle. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. speckled. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. broice. — . a brouhaha. It.sound. an edge. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. storms. Gael. to burn. embroidering. parti-coloured. a flake of snow sion. brouFr. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. From direct imitation of Brock. forming to jumble. Thus brod. a brecJi. noisy. to crackle. to darn. Compare G. thread. to broil. Fr. prasseln. to instigate. rustle. noise. W. to parch or broil. embroidery. a badger. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. Icnotty. brocart. stump. a flock or Gael. bramowanie. spots. a border ornamented with gold. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. or snag. brasiller. whence broccare. — Fl. bustling. broc. to streaked or speckled in the face. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. brasolare. bram. Broker. margin. brusler. — brissle. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). B. To roast upon hot coals. broukit. to knots or loops. brocco. borprick. rinj'. freckled. spotted. to prick. a quarrel. onbryrdan. hart of two years old. broccato was used to signify stuff . ciare. the line of development has been something different. parti-coloured. brizen. ornamented with a raised pile. a prick. .. bordar. dar seems derived from borde. froco. and bord or bred. Grisons brascla. has grisser. confound. The ON. prod. Bret. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. age was termed a pricket. — — . brodio. point to an origin in Bret. briefh. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. Cot. broighlich. It of br the Fr. a mole. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . to scorch. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. brastlian. silkes-borda. of pointing out their latent defects. Sc. broccuto. border. knobby . The Bret.. v. a b?-ustolare. badger . The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. gold and silver. R. tufted ornaments. broiled. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. broil. frocadura. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. to crackle as a shell in the fire. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. piebald . that these are themselves modifications of a common original. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. sparks E. broil. carbonado. broglio. q. broud. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. bordo. brullare. border ornamented with silk. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. and w. brustle. a border. houx. brod. Dan. blusters. Ihre has guU-bord. parched. . Sc. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. broder. speckled. So from Pol. to burn. brucilare. b?-od. Cot. brucach. a brim. a peg. Ptg. grislement. atoms . a To Broil. Sp. brasiller. the shoot of corn. streaked. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. here. Fr.— B. gresiller. to boss. bmsciare. to On the other hand the Sp. tumult broighleach. trouble. broc. A fried or boiled steaks). brych. or salted fish on coals. It. to embroider. scorch. Surrey in R. motes. to crackle. or roast on the braise. brasbrasciuolare. a confused streaked face of the animal. breard. Hal. a freckle. hurly-burlies. ToBroider. or It. a fallingThe sense has been out. Contracted from Fr. brusuole. trouble. to embroider. a freckle. sting. grullo. to stud broccoso. to crackle. parch. creak. bj'oil. initial . and AS. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. brasuole. to crackle. brindled. brychau. brerd. bawling. agree in being the extremity of a thing. braird. fundamental origin. kled breac. — Gower in It. AS. 103 embroidered. E. with Sc. brouda. frecSee Brawl. Fr. briz. or glowing coals broged. Here to ornament with needle-work. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. A badger. birsle. Brocket.tumultuous. bruler. a point.

Adelung. Du. brunds. Grisons brinzla. brae. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. Pro v. brod. • . brot. Per manus et old worthless horse. Du. sbrinzlar. criticise (makeln).D. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. refuse. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. a breach or flaw. racher. . is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. want. the young of any animal . and to reject the damaged and unsound. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. in which sense the OHG. To correct an exercise is to Lib. mud. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. inspection. raca. G. wreak. refuse brakovat. hot. brasa. matter of blame weak place. . cracker. ODu. See Wreak. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. brakyne. sunburnt. to emit sparks. e. but from the primary sense of the It. as. vile. Bret. inspect. wrack-good. glowing coals. whnake. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. ON.— — . of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. from makel. stain. bridde. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. Bronzare. correctarius. Dan. find fault with. or brascla. brak. term was correcfo^ir. to hatch. broiid. 396. rejection Pol. insects. vrage. fermenting. and as an adj. bring eggs and spawn into active life. broen. refuse Fr.— Breed. See Broth. S. To blame mens ware.D. to copper. corrector.— Lib. braken. on. in the sense of rejection. The Langued. In the . brydio. brokas. to garble. . to be wanting. brut. brack-gut (Sanders). reject. find fault — — — fuse matter. slaae vrag paa.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. Sp. w. It may be compared with It. buy and sell by commission. hrak. has exactly the force of G. bric-a-brac. Fr. faulty. to criticise. screatio Junfus . . bronze. 38. briiten. spittle . [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. to . . mediationem quorundam J. to hatch G. Pl. brokoti. a chicken. bronze. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. brid. — point out the faults. ordure. rejected. wraken. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. tussis. to roast on the embers. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. Fl. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. damaged. to reject. Pl. an operation performed over hot coals. to sparkle. bronze. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. embers. In those countries the term braker. Lat. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. G. dial. with. Sc. bracker. wrak. to spit . In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. from break. designation is indkler. Pl. phlegm. to be hot. merchandises de rebut G. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. to scorch. On • tliis principle the G. Brood. brod. sort. to nourish. et A. hraki. blur. OFr. analogous to Bohem. . : ' . brack-gut. It. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. try out. spittle. racaille. Jam. goods damaged by sea-water. — Fl. refuse wares. Alb. a fault. try . to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. Abbronzare. refuse. fault censure. bredan. hot. whence the modern courtier. fish-spawn broden. brasa. vile. brokers' goods. refuse goods. keep warm. brumo. This word shows the same relation to It.D. to sit on eggs. i. the spawn of fishes. cast Lith. brack. — . to brew. Bronze.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. an outcast or rejected sheep. to sort brakovanie. embers to brund. find fault with. selection. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. brackefi. a cough Hal. G. abject. which E. make out. filth.D. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. to pick. lack. nounce unsound. Alb. See Brackish. The use sunburn. burning. to pick and choose. Teutonic class : Du. progeny of birds. embers. brands. brass does to Sp. If to vomit . For the same reason the Kiittner. brak. — a spark. to pro- to reject . trumpery. braeck goed. brechen. damaged. raquer. cherish. to — garble. tan. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. a broker. pan metal. dirty. to blame. to throw blame upon. to braze. abbronzanchiare. Kil. an . and fishes . Prov. brieden. brwd. Tooke's Catherine. couratier. bronzo. — broeden. a makeln. Russ. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. a brood . to hatch. to sort goods . refuse brakowad. bronce. warm.

edge. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. a sprout. sap. meal. ale . broth. The softening down of the consonant bud. a little house or cottage of timber. bruach. briihe. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. bank. and Slavonic families. Russ. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. brus. eye-lid. juice of briars. . A — . Fr. . sprout. heat. waves. to scald." Serv. brennen. Sc. cia. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. to spring . brdtaj Gael. may be connected with Russ. dialects is very different. brushbrothas) gives the OE. to shoot. riviere. a source Gael. a caldron. G. brlgh.braubiti. the colour of things burnt. Here we find throughout the Romance. AS. Celtic. bhratrj Zend. a little . low The AS. brue . fabric consists. edge. to boil. bruithim. a bud. AS. hot. bruddeln. and Sc. bud. cabbage soup . G. bruno. augen-braune. brpuster. bordeau. . broi. thicket. Gael. Roquef. Sp. brothas. brushbroccoli. strength Ir. sprot. mettle.— Overyssel Almanack. The origin is a re. Bret. sprouts . a confused noise of winds. Gael. brouches. frucius. to browse. bruc. bruich. margin. . pith. or bushes and scrubby growths. eye-brow. of plants broust. Serv. brucan. to Pl. eye-brow. Tam de terrS. bruich. brodem. braew. boiled . branches. to border. &c. &c. . to use. Gael. brotar. chen. to use. &c. t— Cot. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. infusion. a derived from the boards. bank. as small-pox. to bubble up with noise. or broken up . from Goth. has briw. Fr. w. a . Wtb. properly boiling water briihen. Gael. broden. broth brothaire. borda. eminence . brstiti. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. bregh. . Prov. heath. useful G. brass. border. bntdien. It. brmi. simmer from the murmuring AS. broth Brown. heat explaining the Prov. It is Brother. browys. The AS. .D. face. to roar. eye-lash . from ripa. brogues. sense the Sc. circuindedit cum familia. briar. broth is sometimes used . eye-brow. and It. shrub with leafless pointed edging. b7-un. . a hill. bros. brouic. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . brwd. brotar. broieii. Brow. broeye. breg. Catalan brossa. to boil bruithe. braussa. who is steaming with sweat. briu. brow of a hill.spross. brink. braun. on. bryn. Cot. — ' . bryn. w. grow brossa. laissent Domunculum. brau. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. brocco. bank. It. broth the ocean Sw. on. OFr.brink. forms appear related to the Ir.brons. 105 Brook. . pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. signifying twigs. thairj w. Bohem. Fr. pfriemkraut. Bret. brow.. brad. brodo. Gris. strength. a bud brous-koad. broo. BROOK brook w. Gr. awl-plant. bor. noise. sprocco.) . frater. infusion the barley bree. broth. vigour. to sprout. bushes. vigour. juniper. brosst. spirit. to boil. enjoy Goth. sodden. eat. sordes seu strigmata young branch. &c. brio. bruceti. brudi. perhaps burnt coloilr. bruitheati. eye-brow. Commonly Teutonic. breh. to bear patiently. ceales briw. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. Browse. brd. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. surDu. to burn. grow into a bush. cabbage water. broc. bratrj Lat. bros. kail brose. eye-lid. bruith. brous. Bohem. steam from heated bodies. brosses. hovel. breg. iVlanx broogh. Ppim. broud. shrubs. OHG. to use bruks. the bubbling or springing up of water. fur Broom. . Pol. brouser. broit. warmth ch'an. . Lat. brozia. brst. was originally used in the innocent sense of . Fr. brov. Bav. a spring. broccola. braces. Kil. OHG. brost. signifying low wet land (Brem. bryii. . Prov. to murmur. a hut or cottage It. thick bush brousta. . to boil. brawdj Slavon. rage. — . — exiit et heath. Manx broie. and also border. dumetum. plants composed of twigs. brouter. borde. to browse. Brothel. Russ. Du. Sanscr. pour boiling water over. shoot. brew . or shoot. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. Due. shore . seethe. Mid. bruscosd quam de arabili. a shore. brusmalt. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. a bruth. Limousin broudi. brost. as Fr. (for brodem). bree. in which brinnan. riviera. Ger. shore. surface of Broth. Fr. a shrub broust. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. To digest. a sprig. broem bark. See Bramble. break out brewet. brauwe. G. protecting the eye. Pl. of which the variety of forms. G. Bohem. heath. broza. . spuma.' Due. bank. frui. brouet. Dan. wood .D. a river. shoots. brabruach. brewis. a hill. brouskaol. brun. . bordel. G. house of ill fame. brukjan. as rhododendrons. sprout. Du. 'Lzt. rerum decoctarum. — . juice of meat. sproc. brosses. But the Walach. hut. Sp. It. verge. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. . breg. pottage. broca. buds. bruth.

which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. seems named from burst(on. a blow. a brush . shock. brugir. a bud. . brosst. brossa. bruscia. a bristle. bruc. ca7-bo>i. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. brousso. bruise exOFr. bruire. bruito. coal See Breeze. wool-card. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. Brunt. dust. a brush. It.— — i. Pm. Fr. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. twig. brik. burt. Fl. crum bit . Piedm. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. bruscolo. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. to stumble.). scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. dust. escousse. and also Brush. Prov. brustia. and in the second place a besoiB. irruo. bushy ground. E. brustid. a briser. brist. Hall in R. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. brust. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. brist. Fr. — Fr. wool-card. effort. to cleanse. NE. a brush . blow burcar. * Brunt. Prov. bush. biirste. . brunt. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. fescue . brosse.— Palsgr. bris. bud. to make a rumbling. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. broken. . brusc (Diet. —Fabyan. twig. bruit. a little brizal. bruzir. britar. brusco. heath. bruiser. or sodenly comyn' dust. brise. also a head-brush. — those signifying a sprig. or shoot. Pr. appearin Goth. Prov. brusca. and sighid therewithal. to brush. bross.). It. The Lat. to butt. E. field. Gael. brysan. and actually come in collision. brist. into a multitude of points. Bav. a bush of hair. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. ON. dust. bruis (sing. wood composed OE. Piedm. Cot. B?-usske. brit.). brosst. broust. Bruit. Pr. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. brous. G. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. briser. orts. brusg. borste. a crum. a mote. biirste. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. Sw. mg Cat. to break or burst. a horse-brush. . tuft of grass or hay. a brush. broustia. brosse. Poems. briketo. to crush. Bruise. a — — (Agea) said. bris. . briiis (in the pi. Fr. Gael. brossar. shivers. abroncar. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. a bud or sprout Bret. Castr. a shrub composed of small twigs . 174. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. a brush . —Chaucer. K. a brush. borste. The same relation holds good between G. a rumbling. insultus. borste. 201. Port. brous. rubbish. dust. rods. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. brottcher. detergere . burs. Brush. britar. wool-card. bross. brisar. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. It. . desbrisar. rubbish. bris.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. and . Gael. Diez. brMt. to break to bits . borste. insilio. That in all haste he wouli. Beryn. broza. Text Soc. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. brossa. modification of the same root which gives the E. Palsgr. a flax comb. See next article. crush. — a bush. a brush Swiss bruske. to strike the foot against an obstacle. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. Wicliff. Pr. Fr.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. brico or brizo. bruscolo. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. splinters. borst. of twigs. tremely. brikan. Allit. as It. a noise. borste. Brunt of a daunger. G. brist j Port. brizeto. Sw. sordes. brus. Broach. brustia. — OE. AS. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. bricalio. remnants of hay or fodder. shoot brouskoad. fasx . quasi twigs. chips. brusca. quisquilise. On the other hand. ling or heath for brushes. 134. Cot. it schall be al Sw. but on whom it schall to brisen him. A. flax-comb brossettes. p. rubbish. bris. In E. brisd. brista) or breaking out . a tuft of heath . break. Bret. brushwood. bruskr. bruyere. OFr. Gael. a bristle. . to break. The Bav. Lang. a brush . And that best is. Lang. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. and It. broza. Sp. Prov. to break. Fr. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . OE. Alexander. Pr. to make brusshes on. brusco. an enmy. Pm. E. and Piedm. fragments. To brush then would be to dust.

. open lath-work.byka. moczyd. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. The place of such a 2.derivation has been much discussed. bouc. a bubble . the lower soak in lye. soft . bokni. to wet Pol. lye. erweichen. a fescue. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca.tare. bog-aske.— . .biiken j Svi. de la Floride. a push. the first wheal. very generally designated by the same puk. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. to butt. bubBuck. to bubble. buck-ashes.boukaat. caned' Hence those who established them. The natives of Florida. not so plentiful a commodity. says Laudon. ac. to filter. But see Bristle. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. . The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. boil animals. to soak foul linen before washing. to butt. or projecTo Buck. Our next illustration represents the Bocan.D. News. Fr. to buck. buquer. of wind. w. to strain. it is beuchen. also applied Una. BUBBLE bruschetta. a to the male deer. bucking. — . to a place used for the mouillir. and the bunch. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . to which in their language they call bou. blast or strike with the forehead. soft It. was called bucking the linen. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. tender. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. knock. mieknad. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. rap. pup. bucaIndies. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. pukkata. Pol. thunder gently . and uninhabited places in the West Dan.' Palsgr. and exercised their cruelties prin. Sp. and Fr. — . Cot. Gael. Magy. soft. hog dressed whole). The word was very generally Buccanier.buchen. mokry. Sc. or mok. from weich. hump.to allow a free current of air. bub. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. 1857. 17th century. soft. Bret. in which the flesh dish. buchen. wood. from colar. bwch. to knock the type of anything round and swelling.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. Bohem. to soften. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). a steep for flax. and as a verb. bugada. The term bocan is still ap. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. Sp. to Gael. buck-ashes. The name. . plied in the W. This bubette. buborek. is 1. set of pirates in the spread. bubbola. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. a bubble. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. Diet. top. Fr. See Dupe. It. boh. drying of produce. The cipally on the Spaniards. was called in Fr. Magy. a. boc. From an imita. tap . a bubble. bugd. the upper for coifee. colada. watery bud. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. a ashes. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. boucaner. boc. bifbel. A . and then to other wild tumour Lith. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. Bubble. to soak. Illust. bublati.steep or soak. 1586. Formerly. w. when soap was tion is commonly taken. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. bube. as a buck rabbit. maban and baban. It. does not hold. Fr. to bump as a bittern. a. mote. — — ' A : ' ' . the linen at buck. Esthon. mollire. buerj It. . faire la lessive. bukke. . March 28. pokka7na. different form. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. a knock word.wet Lat. Fin. Bohem. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. bucata. soft. bduclien. Bret. to soften . bubauti. Pref A. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. at a door. Dan. lye. tender. bubseti. blister. . a hole. Etym. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. designation of a knob. byge.-wtt miekki. moist. Pol. because bucare does not in Marsh). luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. I. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. bouk. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. to stick. to soften. It. to murmur. buquer. tuft. In G. bub. molle. bucquer. The male goat. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. who resorted to the islands beichen. bubiti. to soak. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. .lessiver. as G. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. hump. to butt or jurr Dan.

don't stir from hence. whom it is still much in use. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. A water-plant with leaves and gille. to word. budge. bouk is a pail and with the dim. bogla. a fold ceilio. skins pushit'. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. built. In Lat. and of the Lat. ON. Buck-bean. is doubtless fallacious. a pail or flowers. boucle. gjeit-klauv. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. trunk of wood covered with leather. Bus. to poke. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. boucler. bolgia. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog.. Mid. boccula. noise . Fr. Gael. to graft or bud trees. as in Fr. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. like a bean. to pen cattle.chissima.may probably be explained by N. the root of the Slavonic words gran. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. Swab. to 'soak. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. boucle. bunch . wallet. bollire. stroke. words is converted into b. brobrocchiere. w. no business to do that. Sw. a boy.. from bugr. from Gr. ble.' Boccaccio. a bud. a buclder or shield budge. stud. cattle. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. bulka. pwt o Fr. with let.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. * Buckle. bulla. a .). bode. ' . The entire train of thought is bucket. to boss or swell out G. butzen. . bub. having a boss.' And this sacrament bus have dial. bouljein. scion. bolgetta. clasp of a book. and weichen. clump. boss of a shield. OHG. belonging to the calling of the chen. Budge. bloquier. push forwards. a cowherd. OFr. in the beginning of to pierce holes. boucaran. ornamental stud. rump of fowls . G. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. ein. a navel. water message. It. * Bucket. bulais daqui. bougette. a stump buckle up. weich. . botzen. Fr. It termination is lost. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. — — . become bochen. dinted.anything short of its kind. inboachen. to thrust. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. — . Pied. macero. bucherame. protuberance. a short thick man. a bubble three thyngis. NE. Cot. So on. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. bucherare. Port. The dressed fur of lambs. Behoves. where the G. a little coffer or turgidus. bougette. butzen (Du. Pol. Prov. of a surface. w. Bav. — — . Lat. bulb. Budget. This expression boglire. the radical image seems to be a set plants. Russ. dint . probably from the notion of bubbling. bdden. fur. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It./a. with which it was ornamented.pode. bucolicus. to bud or bocla. botzen. Hardly identical with Fr. Prov.r//'. to butt.n. swelling. to stir. a dumpy gin. weichen. don't a baby). * Bud. with a central boss. from bo. a servant. prick in a target. bocla. turgere buczendig. crack.stumpy man. motus creber. . It. ' . above mentioned. weich. swelling. imbuere. a budget. Du. call. pulga. goat's hoof. bloca. To thrusting part of a long body. bullion. bouger. dim. soft. boulj. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. excrescence. It. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. of bouge. to un bout d'homme. is to shrivel up. boach. Bav. .' Hal. buckel. bulga. boglyn. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. The knob or projection formN. bump. explaining Fr. potz. to move. boiling. Fr. no wheel bogeilio. knob . pwtio. call bo. Wtb. bucket Fl. bo. set of a plant in bulk. — . the word w ' — . case of leather . call. . a leathern sack. Buckler.) as to soak. sboge. jSouKoXiKog. Bret.stuff. bugnir. a tuft.' Schm. to swell. bug. bedde. a shoot. boss. Bret. knob dwfr yn boglynu. bloca. bul. Dan. bouton. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. butt . It. to budge. Prov. A buckle or fastening for botch. need. Du. bukke-blad. a buckle or protuberance. Hence quel. bud butzen. . See Bulk. . also a leather tuft . loud Cot. agreeing with Gael. pulga. thrust. bouclier. a bump. Fr. a boss.goa. bouprobably identical with inok. stir. buachazlle. bod. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. bouge. bunch. were To Budge. a boss. Fr. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. to boil. blow. a pustule bout. or male of to boil .) . Fr.poot. Bucolic. a ring. Fr. knock. .Lat. Dan. W. butzen.— . great pouch. ' . rabodS. K. boqueranmis. II I'a feru desor I'escu. . The word is a ddyn. The Fr. a small shallow and open tub. convexity. of bac. bod. .. butz. bog and G. mani. male or botzen.t-le!L{ * Bud. Sp. and the reference to It. pote. boucle. bouter. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. a shield. a budget. seen in Hesse botz. boaLat. to line with fur. butze. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. hump. Mid. lump. child. put. a wallet. a trough). a curl. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. butzen K.

buffle-headed. buffare. or hath been Cot. Lith. le reste emplissant d'eau. bauwi. bo ! an interj. to blow . to blow. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. colour. Buffoon. human. puff. while in Sp. to puff. buivol. Bufetarium. made to —Bugbear. — La Crusca. bwg. and in Fr. bw! It. boo. stupid. Cot. It. buff leather. Sc. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. senses. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. Fr. bufHe. a side-board.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. Buff. Pl. site The two — — iii. a goblin). a puff. bukow Ikow. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. Cot. boman. bolgia. bufogni. to frighten . wauwau. It. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. . buffetto. — thence it has been transferred in E. leathern bucket. breath. Sc. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. Lat. from souffler. God's boast seemed feare children. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . to beat. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. The use of the exclamation children. wine may The verb in taverns. thus be translated to tap. buffen. bubiti. bubaRuss. a cuff or buffet. sounds. The children were playing in an oppocomer. also the skin or heck of a buffe. a bugbear. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. dial. Pl. Limousin bobal. It. bugle. from It. to a representation of his voice. Esthon. btifetarius. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. a hobgoblin. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. Hence the E. A puff with — Fl. bugs. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. to puff. the buffe. bubus. him but Boyd iugges. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. a buffle or a bugle. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. G. buffle.—Buffet. rebuff. as emblematically making light of an object./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . such as that conjured up by children in the dark. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. to rePl. either alone or with various terminations. to give a as of a blow. pulse . air. mumming. botffon. mingled with water. Lat. dausinti. to give benti. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. ' They rether puffed at him. Teet-bo. a hollow sound. bolgetta. buffalo. often blown upon. or wild ox. yar^aa. things in Jam. also a G. A blow. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. buffare. tabernarius. Mid. bw.' La Crusca.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. Gael. to bellow . Magy. baubau. — Bogle. From bulga. dausa. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. bugbear. to excite terror in Macleod. Buff. a jester. bobaow. &c. buffet. a dull BUG From 109 — A . Buffeter. bumann. smells . Lillo covering his head with his skirt. a clap. as wine that hath taken wind. bubach. buffeteur. — — — Buffet.D. buffet. bau ! children. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. Fr. cuff . often covering his E. buffets. to marre often tasting it . The cry made to excite terror is then used. word other cases. From buff! of terror. the place whence the wine was drawn. a skin. Buffalo. w. Thus buffet would a tapster. Fr. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . deadened. een duffen toon. — retailing buffeter buffetier. a block-headed noddy. to strike face to represent the unknown. tastes. Fr. Fr. buffet. a budget. Fl. Swiss baui. to blow souffleU. dull sound. by metaphor. buMagy. as from Lith. of colours. buffer. — Z. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet.' perfield. blurt or puff with one's mouth. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. A — Bug. caupo. soufflet. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. as Diez remarks. 265. a In . made by a person. for this purpose is very widely spread. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. bufogni. It.D. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. W. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. confused. duff^ dull. buffa. E. scarecrow . bouffer. to jest or sport. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. popo. —Boggart. Lith.— Buflae.D. Romola. to signify an indefinite object of terror. bouffer.

The name of bug is — . w. A similar applica. Lith. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. according to Coles. roo. high. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. Mundart. 493. the word is lin) bbgge. bogil bo (e. terrifying ward. a bugbear for children. tion of the beetle tribe. bbgni.. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. and is Deutsch. a bug-bear. 3. worm. bug dung-beetle. Manx boa. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. bogle. . scarecrow . fear. troll. bugar. also a baco-baco. affright. gad. blustering. Deut. is the dim. to roar Aasen. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. bwgwl. Stalder bog. Swelling. given in Chaucer. . bwg and E. — boogg. Lesachthal. roarHal. a beetle. . Bug as a lord. the buggaboo w. dial.Lat. proud. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. bukati. bauginti. threatening. Mid. ghost. — . Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. beugler. quos what produces dread or disgust. a boogg. a goblin. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. coco. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. and bugle. monster. bug-bear. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. disgust. bucula. xiv. of pipes sewn on.3uhtii&:. buffle.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. bold. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. Lett. a misshapen person. Illyr. Same as buffle. swollen. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. threatening. also a bug-bear. hert. baco.— . Sp. Fl. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably.. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. superbire. bug-bear. mask ' . Bugle. poggl. bukashka. boeuf sauvage. pujalo. is very common. provincially an insect. Serv. oxen. to creeping things. I. buggabod). of bugabo was given. to bellow. paws the ground . rose-bug. the Devil. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. banian boube. insect. boo. Bible. It. Sw. a. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. great or bug words. buculus. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. a buffalo. bwgar. Swiss ing. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. booggen. Bug. thus connected with bug. The final guttural of W. and a boggarty ing. — — terror. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. insect. bau (Pureiglia. Big.loud noise. — — ' . 1551. a silk-worm. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. a bug-bear. well as the terrific object. Grisons bau. fierce. buba. bug-bear. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. language any kind of insect. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. Hal. Lap. a proud overbearing man pujat'. Bdronie. as Buffalo. to take fright. the black a maggot. to origin in the expression bugs words. a rabme. vermin. The w. high-sounding words. Russ. and in child's Magy. Chaucer. bugler. to take bug. Grose. also a bug-bear. bogk. tumble-bug. larva (a bug-bear. to frighten scarecrow. biignt. Magy. . any disgusting animal. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. See The name terror). bugbear. bobal. Schmidt. Fl. : no BUG . * 2. with more or less modification represents bau. bugle. bok. an insect. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. Swiss booggen. shepe and gootes. to bellow. — — . bogil. then a horn for drinking. protuberant. especially to beetles or winged insects. Bogge. long. boa-peep. 2. W. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. saucy. big. Hence bugle-horn. pugaf. used in the same sense. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. It. earwig bau da grascha. i. An ornament of female dress condread. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. Magy. fette. bug.Fr. pugalo. il brutto Demonio. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . tion of the word signifying an object of 2. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. forSc. Parolone. (Spurrell). iv. BUGLE Tentennino. Cheval de trombugti. b'dgni. as an object of dread. to take fright. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. bogk. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. and in Lat. an object of terror. E.

to blow. the belly. Lith. sedes. husk. . and bulbukd. belly. Ptg. . The Walach. or feminine termination gives Bav. . body. snorting on a bulk.' Anat. globule bolg-lhuingey. of E. bwlg. (3oX|8oc. bubble. skin of an animal. bulge or convex part of a cask. a round bulky body bwlgan. a. a leathern sack or portmanteau. a stage or scaffold. blister. Bolke or hepe. as well as is very variable. acervus. Bourser. Hence e. Mandeville. knob. unevenness Sw. balg. I. swollen OE. compare Da. Bulk. habitaculum. bouk. bulgen. ne. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. bladder. hull of a ship. Gr. From till. blow. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. boss. byli. thorax buick. bulcke. boa. skin bag. bed of a river. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. bole. nave or body of the church van 't schip. to undo the cargo. bunch or projection. bolg. belly. ' .pulks. Kil. — — . in bulk. belly Sw. bolle. bulki. Lat. dial. Pm. belly Cat. Bulge. or cargo of a ship. Hal. The radical sense is shown in Russ. bol. bolle. bulwis. He found a country fellow dead drunk. pimple. With these must probably be classed ON. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. bulk or capacity of anything. bolnyn. Pr. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. to bubble up Pol. bua. be protuberant.). chest. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. w. and N. belgr. the contents of the hold. puff.' Cot. belly. to build. biilken. to swell. bilge. to raise a habitation. a lump or mass. PoXj3a. a prominence. bauen. balgs. pocket. to puff up bolginn. body of an animal. body of a ship .— . the position of liquids in the word In English. bulkaf. ball. swell. balcone. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. a straw corn-vessel. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. to gather. at riufa bulkann. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. . bolgan. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. . See bollekeii next article. bubble. a bubble Gael. bulbus. — . It. — Bulb. Boss^. in Sc. knob. bulbe. bolgia. bolgna. to spring. Jno. . stuffed bag. as water beginning to boil bolg. the carcase. bo. inhabit. boulge. the body Du. bullka.' Festus. belly van de kerche. bellows builgean. principal portion. to swell. — — . swollen. vulva. Muratori. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. of an inflated skin. or. the head of an onion. turgeo bolnyd. bolso. trunk. . For the latter sense ' — My . bugue. . belly. OSw. to belly out. bubble {palgan tiisge. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. trunk of the body. Gr. Dan. pouch builgeadh. buc. to throw out a convexity. the potato G. Lett. a bunch. Mister. bol. to break bulk. . Bulch. Pm. a dint in a metal . m um Placentiae. balg. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. jnake bulch. swell. on. Lith. or bear out as a full purse. The addition of a dim. bubble. gebolgen. bulgen. a protuberance. boss of shield. . it again. bauch. bug. To Build. pod ON. head . trunk. See how this tode bolneth. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. lump. 1388. bulne. ' . to bol. formed a farm. ON. . Here stand behind this bulk. bale. cultivate. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. bulked or bumped out. a leather sack or budget Fr. the capacity or burden of a ship. skin flayed whole. MHG. blister. pulkas. projection. Bav. blister Manx bolg. See Bulk. buhe. straight will he 2. buk. Palco. mass. a bubble. bouge. bulbe. van loock. or of what is shaped like a bubble.'— Cot. OSw. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. wallet. bag. Lat. ^ — . hold or bilge of a ship. has bulbuk. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop.' Fl. as it was merly written in English to bylle. Pr. beuck. boss. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. — — . womb. a heap. In the representation of natural sounds.d. ON. tumidus. bol. bulle. knot in thread.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. . were a habitation. domicilium. . A — ' — Bulk. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. the womb. bukr. G. hollow. a bulb Du. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. cumulus. a water-bubble). bulg.' Palsgr. . mass. bulge or bilge. ' . whence bylja. . Melancholy. tumeo. Sp. bubbling up. a tuberous or bulbous root . anything prominent. balco. G. G. belly. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). bolgetta. bulk is a partition of boards. knobby. in vessel. crowd. herd^ swarm pulkd. . a. villa. swell. Dan. lump. — . a globe. boss of a buckler. leather sack. . belgja. Othello. to bubble up. bulk. bulka. and put it home.

to emboss . Fr. bouillon. Bullfrog. a wasp. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. Cot. many to protuberant objects. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. whence Mod. stamped money. polten. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. brass-headed nail . It. and vellon in Sp. a noisy violent fellow. bulla. — — Bull. as geting. &c. Gold or silver uncoined. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. Sp. bellow. bulk of a thing. which may probably be the origin of the name. a beam or rafter.. and thence terror. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. from the use of the equivalent terms. also of the tadpole or young frog. any great-headed or studded nail. but is more probably iden- palchetto. BulUiead. boss. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. bwla. elves. is of a class with Pl. bellocier. of Witchcr. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. bullus. a hobgoblin. bwbach. bolla. bole or trunk of a tree. lumpish. G. thick. Pl. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. to boil. And The word bullerbak.lle de fusil. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. This word is used in several senses. large.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. eth and frighteth. leraures nocturni nigri. bauli. The bullfrog.Fris. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. ON. any embossed work. w. BuUiou. bulderen.D. a blockhead.' do not go by the dangerous water. Du. Terriculamentum. stamp. as the ornanails. baula. as in E. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. Scot's Deso. Gael. a seal. a hornet. from the noise. billon. also a parFl. bollar. N. bullos. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. urchens. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. poll-cheannach. pwl. pollach. bolli. a bulox polos. from baula. sloes. stud.. to seal. from the Lat. is called a ball. a scare-bug. boulct. a stud. bouillon. bulla. a little fish nearly all head. bal. Eullrusli. penbwl. tition of deals instead of a wall. on the contrary. however. a tadpole. it is boulet de canon. Du. dial. Bullet. signifying roaring. boillon. G. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. coarse. from Lat. it may be observed that a bullet in E. round glass phial. W. pimple. poli-cheannan. It. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. of boule. Dan.. hhint. bollon. to bellow. stupid . 2. bollos de relieve. ba. a tadpole . See Bowl.'— ' Palsgr. Du. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. I. poltern. b2iggaboo. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. the seal affixed to the document. beams or boards. biitzibau. in the sense of base metal. See Billet. 2. child by the represents the hobgoblin. G. spirits. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. w. The male W. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. The final element tergeist. assito. a cow.D. bubble. Bret. dim. as It. a hobgoblin. a bowl.. of the ox kind. . Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. stud. a bull. a bull Swiss bullen. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. bullocks. in N. bulke. a seal. bwlas. /SouWivu. as a mill-dam or the like. bulle. bulk. G. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. Lith. the matrix or die . bulloi. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. Bullbeggar. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. bietebau. Pm. 3.Gr. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. a bul-begger.D. to bubble. A papal rescript. — A tition in a ship. bugbear. to tical with Sw. Du. — Fl. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. bullebak. The wild plum. blunt. i. a framework of balks. A lace tree. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. billoti in Fr. embossed work. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. boss or stud. large of its kind. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. balgeting. Fr. witches. Bully. lumpheaded . blister. Bullace. bullern. bolos Fr. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. scarecrow. bolli. whence bullire. from Fr.

St. It. buller-bak. To Bum. 4 Hen. blaterare. Fr. a floor. Etym. IV. The decried coin. bottn. Bailey. poltem. buene. provides. bodem. by corruption boulevart. boene. primarily the ramparts of a town. hum. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. bolderen. The Stat. baluarte. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. Miege in Hal. polterer. c.. The cry of the bittern.' Stat.the ramparts. blunder-buss. to terrify by noise and clamour. 14. 1687).d. droning. Fris.' agger. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. Hence bom and ban. G. A. Bum. 9 E.' reals of standard currency.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. is bullion — A — buller. or a humblebee. — Boom. violent overbearing person. IIL st. then in general a rampart. bastion. on the other hand. 2. 2. John). Du. Du. — Bumto . c. agrees with e. buller-bas. a hectoring. is called bumping or bells. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. buller-bas. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. noise. boisterous fellow.. blunder-buss. sound. intonare. — — plate d'argent. bommele.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. propugnaculum. minari verbulderen. bustle. to drum Lat. G. buller-brook. boulevard. c. Philip le Bel in Due. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. 'lega. but now is the central part of the town. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. bomtnen. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. to make a noise . beat a — Hal. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. bombilare. a noisy blustering fellow. D.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. debacchari. To bum.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. Fris. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook.' ' mettre au billon. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. Hence — . To bum. The Sw. to . In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. a. ierd-boeyme. bol-werck. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. Thus ' ble. BULLY with which coins were stamped. To bully is to bluster. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. Kil. from boden. — Bump. clamour. buller-jaan (bully. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. ground. block-werck. AS.' Again. legaggio di metallo.D. Hal. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. and porter au billon. vallum. up was termed monnaie de billon. Kiittner. 2. a bumble-. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. Bully-rock. a boisterous. ^i^/«. the soil. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. G. resonare. Kil. ON. a stage. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. un faux brave. Sw. ierd-beame.D. bulderen. 1305. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. argentum and silver. From the notion of a humming. ^Bully-rook. — bombam?nen. III. botm. to make a droning Du. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. perturbare saevis dictis. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. Du.' for the purpose of exchange. a blunderhead. &c.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. The 27 Ed. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. Bully. For bottom. honunele. violent. biihne. Bum-bailiff. or work of defence. furious man. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. to dun. 10. scaffold. bottom. provides.

cluster. ner. to bang down. Bony. are dim. bans. pumpurras. Bunch. stock. S. —Bunny. truss E. — — Bun. Forby. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. Pl. bunkc. bottom bun feoir. bunga. He fult dat et bunsede. knuckles. E. applied to young persons. while bulch was traced through Gris. signifying one who does things in a thumping. trunk. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. bunch— Hal. A Du. pompette. as in other cases.' Palsgr. . Fr. lump. bmidt. a heap. a wallet. a heap Wall. a heap. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. to beat. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking.^Cot. bon. He buncheth me and beateth me. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. Dunchyn or bunchyn. .. bu<rnone. bump. See Boss. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. a bump. il me pousse. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. bunt. a. bune or boon. a lump on the foot bunny. bumtel. bunnion. a button. strike E. noise. the Pr. lenten loaves. . to swell out E. — Marine Diet. Pr. buns. bull. — — — — ' — knock. nor would it concern the public if he did.— Pr.D. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. root. explaining E. Du. abrupt manbuns-wise. Bums it's hit. passes Sw. to . botn. boi7ieog. bugno. Lang. a heap OSw. pompon. bolsa. bund. bunken. Bump. a into Dan. inconsiderately. a tail (Macleod). the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. Roding. bugnone. Probably from bump. . a bag or sack. bottom. bulto. bonuach.. a boil (punkos bot.D. dial. a boss Lith. a rabbit. Daal bu7iseti. from bunsen. to strike so as to give a dull sound. protuberance. poumpi. E. especially girls. clumsy. and signifies consequently a mass. a large . Gael. stock. knochen. The word is probably to be explained from Gael.D. Pm. large. stalk. bunan. a bud. Suffolk bonnka.pummel. w. w.D. Pm.P. stump. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). OSw. . strapping. any round knob or bunch. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. from knock) It. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. Then. . Mrs Baker. BUNCH bum-bailiff. a knob. seems to unite Gael. bun. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. bongie. — — de dor bunsen. stubble of beans. Bumpkin. Ir. bmike. a pocket Sw. gibber. Probably for bun-boot. Bang sen. a knock. Li cake. See Bunch. and related with ON. Bun. E. . to bang. clown. gibbus. bugnet. a hump. calamus. Radically identical with Dan.-^Fl. as we have seen E. binge. bunga. banga. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. A clumsy. Thus e. foundation w. to . round mass of anything. pwmp. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. knob or heap. mto Sp. one ever saw the word in that shape. pwmpl. a hemp-stalk. to beat. . whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. Again. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. to knock . . stump. callus. a dried hemp-stalk. 1. a knob . a boil or blain. Hal. bonge. bunka. Pl. bottom. Hal. bun with ON. Bumboat. hay stubble . Fr. banke. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. a bunch Magy. . to bang ON. a round mass .' he fell with a bang. a person employed to dun one for a debt. dial. bunki. to thump. . . a knotty stick) Sw. pumpa. bunke. a Sp. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. any round knob or bunch. Hal. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. also for taking a pilot to a ship. a swelling.! . Manx bonkan. H. bignet. bannock. ! — knocking. Dan. To bam. It. Bunch. — — Bun. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. a bowl P1. or grete knobbe. forms. Pm. Holland and Flanders. a pumpion or gourd. poumpido. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again.— Bunnion.). bonnock. Related on the one side to Pl. Bunk. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . throw down with a bang. so the form btmk. lungeous. blain. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. bundle. Sc. to ' . a purse . bamgetroffen. Bung^. — round fruit. an old stump of a horse. a dry No . should probably be a short tail. bulscha. . the tail of a hare. Dan. pwmpio. stem or base. Bumsen. Kyx or bunne. stubble Manx bun. bugno. awkward clown. a swelling from a blow. &c. bum-boot. awkward. — stalk . bun eich. See Bounce. bumsen. bunny. bunsen. Gael. root. bulse. butt end. Fl. Bunewand. a rabbit. Sc. bung. hdk passing and E. Hal. Hence E. Moor. a heap or cluster. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. bungersome. tundo. . a knob. a.' Bun. or to the mass by which it is given.S. a bunch.

bang. bote. Fr. A load. to botch. and now more Bailey. working in wood (especially with an axe).punt. the middle part of it. The Fr. a bunch Burbulas. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. Burganet. borgonota. Biu'geon. Burly. The Magy. bondon. bury. banga. klimpem. bondelj bundell. boil or bubble up. boei.— . it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. boj. See Barbarous. a bung. bui. clogs. Sp. an anchor buoy. to bolt meal. bongun. properly a Burgundian helmet. and van t' vat. G. bourjon. to bud forth. a bungler. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. To burgeon. Fr. loosed from bonds.' Festus in Diez. to in to stop the hole. to stop. boya. . the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. bourgeon. bounta. E. anchor or of a net boyar. klempern. Palsgr. See Bun. a cork. bunta. bond. Sp. bundle. Bunting. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. . bourguignote. racket. Burden. the loose open grow big about or gross. or tuft. is originally a wisp or bunch . impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. Sw. AS. gyves. To do anything awk- wardly. Burble. Sp. fetters. buove. Burden. to gingle. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. unskilful working. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. burboloti. borboUar. N. B. to stnmi on an instrument. with the head. a drum . Sw. bag to catch the wind. * Buoy. modem bummle. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. on. colligatio. bimge. to stop. So Du. — btiruii. fascis. whence in bure. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. banghagr. punishments for prisoners. the noise of drums. Sp. Du. Prov. knocking. bou^e. to strum on an instrument. coassatio et Du. Bung of a tonne or Lith. tapp (whence tceppa. Sw. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. tap. bove. boucher. to cobble. or used as a receptacle for papers. tinker . russet. To bunt. bonde. bouche. a water bubble made by rain. a bunch. to shove. Fl. or putting forth of a vine. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. Rietz. — Bureau. ' — work . most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. that the primitive meaning of shackle . would be the earliest float for an anchor. bunsen. bang. 202. Russ. to resound. dial. on. dark grey bura. clumsy performance. to knock. Muratori. The Italian buio. to bear. of a song. and bomme. reddish brown. Compare G. to float. ho-tapp. dark. Bunt. OFr. bolting-cloth. bondel-loos. stilmpern. biirde. — . driving in the bung. A Dan. bummle. especially in wood. guggle as water. — — To Bungle. bungande. Kil. B. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. . the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. shove . . to hum. buie. however. to pype. to bungle. shackles. and E. Banff. OG. the stopper of a cask). the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. in is Fr. the young cloth used for sifting flour. to work at carpentry bangan. racket . byrthen. Cot. Fr. stocks or such OSw. to hum. bon. halm-tapp. bommen. dial. Fr. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. Cat. Bunny. a boye.D. contignatio. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. bangla. Bundle. bondeau. bonde. A bubble.Fris. Johansen. stiimpeln. bangla. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . The stopper for the hole in a boia. to push ghebondte. bundel. buret. to hum. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. See Borel. la Borgonota. — — . bundt. generally known as the material of which bud. knocking. It. buret. bongani. a sort of helmet. and the Sw. Pl. To Bunt. a wisp of hay or straw. Bung. So in Pol. whence bunting. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. . to knock. G. and Du. to work ineffectually. AS. bindini. to push. to kick. See Bourdon. Hal. a botch. ghebundte. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. the float of an bundle. bourion. bouchon. bondir. tinkle. Bret. the bung of a barrel Lim. Prov. to gingle. byndel. sprig. OFr. something bound together (Mrs Baker). The belly or hollow of a sail. was formerly pronounced buro. dicimus rufum. The word is flags are made. to Somerset is to sift. also a piinple in the face. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. are from bouscfie. noise. knock. burion. rumble as the bowels. to push with the head del. p. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. do a thing bunglingly. from beran. Lat.

protuberance. explaining the E. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. purling. lorra. singe or scorch with fire. with little iron nippers called burling irons. fire. bunch. Todd. brusler being a faulty spelling.ireui£r:e. — — . as in cousteau. the flocks. OE. Sp. OE. borujon. to burgen or wax big. Supp. from bryii. burle of cloth. It. burgeois. A — — . Fl. a prominent eye borracka. lerre. briis^. laer. to bourda. sbornoi. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. Antiq. .— Pr. Burler. borracka. Lang. to polish. it of the knots. E. brustolare. a blaze. Nat. brunnen. boure. ' rugiens. a bud. Sw. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. BURNISH i5«r/. crackle wood in burning Hal. bruzir. brook. and Dan. &c. to bud . brunir. grancelli. an edge. burlare. knob. to burn. to polish helmets.. to puff. compared with G. bourou. — . to roar. Probably a modifica... ends of thread. a gurgling ^. bears. become big and proud. he rustle. It. borr. to tell lies. A burl. i5«r4 biiirte. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. to roar. burgen. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. Walach. Dief.Ps. tion of the root which gave the OE. Burgh. is connected with brim. to swell. From the same root E. the word seems Pm. as the / in purl. The in. flocks. to set on fire. broil. sidiary element. Burlesque. Pm. Swiss Rom. ends of thread. toast. watery. Swiss Rom.bryna. In the same way ON. with Dan. water.or bubbling up. boura. blow.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. to sharpen. abourioner. bruse. taunt. brynsten. from the roaring sound of flame. and the Burin. like straw or small . to surge. buirleadh. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. — . Bret. the J in OFr. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. to To Bum. a well. schleiffen. OFr. tahko. a jest. from Lat. Fl. j. a bubble. Fr. and the Burnish. boiirre. to sharpen on a whetstone. N. — Han to bruser op. bururus. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. brinnen or Also ein roar. barrel. an &c. angular . surge or dashing of the sea . a whetstone. to hum.— . burly. a fountain. jest of. sea. See Burr. ^ttsa. to roar (as lions. pressa puret. — — . and OG. pur (see Burgeon). is an Thus G. burgi latro. swelling borr-shuil. purrata. which has given much trouble to etymologists. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. brim or edge of anything. brandung. ample of polishing metal. Prov. Bav. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. 56. to puff up borr^ . to polish. the roaring surge of the — — — . Burly. roguing beggars. burn.' Cot. to rub.j'own. Cot. Fr. ridicule. Schm. embraser. de Vaud. mockery.. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. joking. to roar. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. Gael. It is probable indeed that Fr. Burgher. Castrais bourril. Bouffer. See Burgeon. to burn. the er is a dresser of cloth. a bladder. brAler. The Gael. to make a So from Fin. sicut sound. tahkoa. language of folly or ridicule. brunnr. dial. bourd. is termed burling. Pr. Bav. a purling hiwe brennen. Pren7ien. From Fr. brasa. bouril. See Berough. big. In the manu. . sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. G. ON. bud or sprout forth.). a knob. ^Notk. as Diefenbach bud. It. G. purra. leo Fin. to murmur. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. to ridicule. Hence Bridel. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. a spring a robber. brinna. The primary origin of the word. de Vaud. brinii. . brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. to grind on a whetstone. to have acquired the sense of polishing. brunna.). swell up or strout out. in Schm. tumentum. to bouronna. A legal term from the Lat. Probably. a margin. thence. — — . OFr. Bestiary. So also Sw. a lie. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. warbling. to ridicule. Fr. to roar. Burryn. Lang. like the wind in trees. brausen. must be explained on the same principle from G. fires up. brase. See under Bore.sharpen. to Gael. Goth. burgensis. brun. bururus. Sw. to give an edge to. explaining Sp. a wine skin. . born. to fiy. spring-water bumach. robber. to swell with pride. burren. repartee . Compare also Piedm. brimmen. bremmen.). to effervesce. like. to roar 5. 122. occupying much space. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. brustle. condemnentur morti. a bubble to spring as water. brima. ii6 BURGESS Gael. Limousin bourdo. a jest. borrelen. bourglairs.' a jibe. as of suggests. Burglar.. Burgess. Burn. has also borr. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. borni. to swell oneself out as birds borras.

a barn or cupboard. beurs. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. 2. . See Bulge. &c. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring.— . E. moss. a purse. Mid. Hal. whirr. brittle. foretell great storms at 3. caer is a — — — ' ' : . burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end.. the — — castle or fortress. any rapid whirling biarga. I. peluca to Fr. shelter. ON. to hide. explained E. ' BURR AS. Burser. i5(7&a. OHG. birgan. to P'air. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. Fr. and. -Grisons bulscha. ' ' — — burren. a sepulchre. In OE. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. whirr and burr. from whence we pass through Sp. bur. fortify. leather. to bury . Du. signifying protrude. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. also ' any such trash as chaff. Bursar. Burr is related to buzz as protect. skin. Cot. brisd. as it is still pronounced in N. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. borra. borsa. burgisli. makes the disbursements of the college. mentioned under Burgeon. Fr. keep. britar. berstan. bristeach. burra. shearing of cloth. bourrelet. appears under the Lang. preserve. G. byrigels. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. a pad. any kind of quilting or stuffing. some people in pronouncing the letter r. Gael. A rabbit burmotion. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. a rabbit burrow. a purse. ptcrren. Burr. bourrer. barza. brokil and brotil. This word seems safety. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. bolsa to It. borsa. bourlet. casting bullets. to burst. birigean. briser. In a met. brist. swell. byrstan. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. borsia. burial place. and spelling. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. as for the protection of a child's head. Port. blurra. and met. to buzz. bolgia. of a body hurled through the air. Fris. to break. perruque. ber•whirr to whizz. bristen. iii. dial. when they spring So in W. husks. . It. to save. Jam. briketo. S w. shales. Brun on bane. bourre. Sexy. — Clare. cwning-gaer. a place of defence. It. coo. brast. g. save. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. bergen. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . talk fast and indistinctly. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. Compare also OE. chips or anything else Fl. byrgen. borre. and thence flocks 'of wool. karborre. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. from Fr. Sw. a morsel. Burrow. as from Sp. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. a wallet or scrip. Swiss burren. Sw. Fr. Burse. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. bres- — tan. its own protection. to hide . ON. prsnuti. See Burgeon. G. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. that birds make their nests with. verbergen. to mutter Sw. borra. brizeto. briso. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. purr. birr. AS.' Harris in Todd. dial. tomb. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. of England. an exchange. as in Northumberland. beorgan. brista. byrgan. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. brjota. hair. Du. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments.' The same word with burgh. root borr. brest. — Translated by Kemble. OHG. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. borre. impetus. Beowulf. brit. brisdeach. also all such stuff as hay. brown. to stuff. Shelter. the officer who bears the purse. byrgels. from AS. shuffling. AS. With a slightly different ghen. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. brittle.Lat. To Burst. a harness or collar maker) . burre. buscha. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. The root forms brik. a port. borrow. -burse. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. be more in accordance with AS. . bourse. bersten. straw. To Bury. an annular swelling. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. Burial. brickie. preserve. Hence Fr. 225. ultimately resting on the Gael. pipaa. byrsa. brico.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. idiom if 4. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. break . a. Burse. stuffing. cover. &c. bourse. bris.' edge grew weak. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . Dan. but it is more probably a development of It. whence Kil.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. bur. brist. 5150. force. bris.

and from the Fr. boisseau. sur une litifere. signifying to entomb. bundle. to bury. : — . bo7ich (Fr. Sw. ' . oneself. for at buasc. a corpse). busk. Fr. to bow. a troop. bulk. . The primary sense of hair . . the deponent form of which is represented by the E. beorgan. boiste. bustula. It. bossen. berghen. we have Fr. OFr. bousche. a wisp. a bunch. van wijnbesien. bunch. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. borghen. a bunch of twigs. Du. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. boistel. abdere. that the lend had lorn thorn. a tuft. bos. or the like. ieorh. make ready. whence bouchon. Sir Tristram. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. It is certain that buast must once have Fr.-^Bushel. and thence Mid. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. basse. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. condere. a box. box wood to bush. to turn. Sibriht that I of told.) to hide in the ground. whence at bua sik. verb. to swell. a clot of phlegm sart. besom). to forest of Eyda. Mid. aheap of stones. whente beorg. biichse. bua. Bush. a -tavern bush. ' —P. the past participle of the same verb bua. The radical idea is seen in Goth. Brunne. gave Lat. bussare. to dress. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi.Lat. mount. buxula. in OE. diminutives. which would later have truast. brake. to direct one's course towards. Sc. is thus accounted for. busse. AS. The word frequency with which to busk is used. the Moors and of Morocco. bosc. To Busk. to dress. Bouchet. and he cites wisp bauschen. apparently a secondary verb. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. Brunne. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. a bundle. then a tuft Sp. bulge. in the For Skirnis .Lat. clusprobably Morocco leather. lump. thicket {buski.' The word is explained by — — . See Box. ' . boucher. grapes. wisp. G. Le roy Richard mort. to keep. at bua sig. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. R.— ' ii8 {chreo. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. busken. bouche. bussel. truasc. The bone in a woman's stays. to sepulchre. —Busk. or — Busk. bush. Prov.gur bidst austur um EySascog. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. ' . and we actually find bushel. defence.' The buskin is said Bret.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. a rampart. fiast. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. to prepare. hjul-bosse. brodequin tout noir. It. boissa. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. thicket of thorns . qualster-boscken. a bush. a gun biichse. tow. bousIn the other copy ser. to bend one's steps. burial mound. as boun is simply buinn. buysschen. In to Brutaine. boxta. a box for measuring corn. AS. hunch Du. Du. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. Bush. projection. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. bussellus. To prepare. bosch (a diminutive ?). bush. 2. a tuft guini. borcegui. bausen. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. preserve. bundle * Buskin. il fut couch6 l^jkema). Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. protect . iriCtf -ifoe. buskr. 410.fiasc. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. They busked and malced them boun. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. a tuft of hair.' sheath. . So from Fr. -idis. basse. a tuft. bramble. roquies. cluster. induere vestes .P. bairgan. from the ON. Thence byrigean. a bush. occultare K. Gr. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. bosta. . to enclose in a case or box. bousse. dead. barsc in Heimskringla. the land. rad. barst. Harold G.' a box. ch). Malberg. at buast. a box. ' . . to stop. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . bustellus. Ptg. a been written buasc. a hump. buxta. BUSH hreaw. a grove bosch van haer. See Bust.boisteau. knot. OFr. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. 'at bua sik. brodiquin. Fris. buxida. And her ful sone tuft. a little box Dan. and not directly (as Du. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. as synonymous with to inake one boun. the idea of knocking. . Thus Froister . bossida. Du. Layamon. tuft. borseof trees.

sera. outarde. body without arms and legs. — Thus we should have mocherqui. a stroke of wind. trunk of a tree. also a busk. bacio. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. a backstock. Xerqui. a kiss. putta. busq. body of a woman's dress It. geidha. biseg. a bulk or trunk without a head. a blow. lip. ship Sp. says. ottarda. as in moharra from harbe. and supposes that the common Arab. 2l box. a log. Bust. Prov. On the other hand. a boat or small vessel . Lang. hipista. Fl. a busk. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. I bustle. small. 7o\.> Also written buskle. besongne. Prov. borcegui. Box. 2. a kiss of reverence. With respect to bust. a kiss. especially of a woman's dress. ' BUSY 2. avuDiez. brostia as well as bostia. work. Fr. a blow. bus. inde discurro et operosus sum. So Wes- terwald munds. I. but. Du. bruskras well as buskr. — . of a doublet. baiser. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. So in Fin. basiuin. also a flagon. 119 bi{tr. otarda. a tree. Fr. Bulch. bust. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. Pol. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. Sp. bukr. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. abutarda. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. a great billet Cot. occupied bezigen. log . an affair. to knock . Cat. 10.— . 1555. stump. mogangas from gonj. snout. A great sluggish fowl. its slowness of flight. Edrtst. to Swab. brusc. Lindenbr. I. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. the point of a lance. worn to make the body straight . business. biist. a projection. tuft. from jnund. a. busc. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. also a It. austarda. a Mid. a kiss. The form brust. A A busquer (Sigart). a bust. abotarda. forms morseqiiill. bisegung. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). bysgian. putschen. would explain the G. beso. chest. — — — — It is like the smouldering. body. sunt quas Hispania aves . buta. Bust. bucha. knock. and by transposition morchequi. buc. love gestures.D. bust. ^A. Lat. busche. kiss. betarda. Fris. Business. the trunk. stir. ON. mosequin. pussa. Bustard. Swiss butschen. morsequi. stump. kiss. mouth. Bav. and also a sounding blow. See Boss. btcc. the body without arms busque. fe^a. buc.' ON. arbor ramis trunGloss. or avutarda. made stiff. a bunch of flowers . . a ship of some size. a bush. as in ON. Sp. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. ' bistardej It. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. bulk. Port. ViM. busta. Hal. busch. body of garment. The Prov. Cot. and then with avis again prefixed. 1372. box. Busitiess :c3iVi . buquer. To hurry or make a great B. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. forest. occupation. plated body or other quilted thing. Fr. stem. Busy. a fishing vessel. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. body . employment bisgan. mohedairova. Busk. bus and Pol. a sleeveless truss or doublet. an ostrich. buc. bysgje. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. — — difications of the same word. representing a blow. To Bustle. mouth. busy. busch. to occupy. — clattering about. signifying trunk of a the body. cata — . lump.Lat. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. body. or Cherqui. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. body of a man. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. to make a splash in the water. butz. AS. BUSS Dozy from Arab. in Diaz Gris. of the human body (Grandg. bussa. a mouth. tarda. statue of the upper part of Fr. the breast. crack . Fr. windbutsch. Comp. outard. busto. bussen. Buss. Namur — Champagne Fr.). vessel employed in the herring fishery. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. The proceedings of Parliament. bu. mons.bezig. besoigAe. to bustle. thick end. 22. Sw. buz. utarda. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. trunk. or chest in which the vitals are contained. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. Sp. I go strepo) . to make use of. Hence probably au-tarda. kupata. Rouchi. Nained from Proximse iis zia. ON. trunk. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . Gael. bustla. knock. . A large bird of the gallinaceous order. Prov.' Plin. bist.pjik.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. beezig. brut. bisgung. Walach. B. the long. a large cljest or particular applibox.d. bnist. A wisp. bus. buyse. lips. trunk of Cot. lip. smack. bisg. — hardly be distinct from Fr.

Whatever is in addition to Butler. equivalent of AS. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. without. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. A A .probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. without buiten-man.in which his brethren are included. The E. . the full expres. a butcher. bitten dai. butan ce. we find ben. bodifie.streets. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. add. the Perhaps besogne — . a goat. viz. gives at least two pounds sterling. OFr. But In Sc. boquier. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. body of a shirt w. sup- meat and drink. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. the trunk or body of an animal. bout. the precise correlative of but. botte. — we acle for liquors. Sp. and with It. then hoUow trunk. from boc. Tooke's dis. (children) boc. without the house kept in bottles. So in Italian from becco. Sp. boucher. If that where now we should compiler. or what in in charge of the pantry. as Pantler. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. belly. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. Where at an earthen jar . bocin. of the wine and drink. a leathern bag. without punishment . viz. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. calf. and bot. a wooden cask. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. bounds of. bouz. a butchery. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. the body of an animal.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out.jamin. AS. bol. G. bisgung. boteria. a barrel.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. but one thing. Fr. collection of casks. bitlga. As a conjunction but is in every portion. the bottles. Lang. wooden receptthing to be done. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. and the real origin of the and within . that which would be translated by Fr. a butcher .' — — ' . are. skin-bag. beta. bochier. Lang.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. Fr. beyond the Piedm. . Butt. the body of a tree or of a man. botilla. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. young mais. belly. outside that moreover. the servant in charge of the original object. besides that . ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . bag. Wall. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. Here the but implies the existence of an. Du. slaughter-house. hull of a ship.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . buta. to-boot. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. rotundity of the body. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. a budget._ bitten j biiten door. my is called the adversative use of but. earthen which the debtor has adverted. in addition. Sp. boccino. being wholly unten. ways. binnan. the present day we should say. Butler. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. an outlaw from bouche. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. able. without law. It. But when will you pay it ? the belly. bouteillier. biitait slaughterer of goats . bolgia. original sense of without. bhcciero. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. without care. a cask. bute. ' There is leathern bottle. a small winebag. mais. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. which the word corresponds to the Fr. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. ont jhi^ton. the jug and in E.' Thus Chaucer says.' ' write. "PLT) . beccaria. those in beccaio. similar train of thought is seen in ON. from as. butan. a goat (and not besides . tinction between but. be out. Buttery. Prov. is put in a class by himself. bole of a tree. Ben-house. bola.' there is really a negation to be supplied. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. moreover. barriga. the belly. the mouth). also a hollow vessel . the store of ten. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. bolr. — . is well explained by Tooke. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. by the mode in which he is treated. ' Besides all that. large barrel. trunk.The Sp. Fr. belly. beccaro. properly a butan wite. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. botija. a bottle. the name must have arisen before the within. bountifully. except. hollow case. a baiTel . the principal apartment. calf of the ' say. rumpf. bous. But It. Butcher. ox.

Buttock. To come full butt against a butts. See Butler. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. bout. an etwas anstossen. Kil. to strike. Buttress. botwm. ment being supposed to resemble butter. G. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. rabodd. courtaud. a heap of merly called pushes. on. Grandg. so as to make a sounding blow. — A . boutoir. boding. a button. Fr. boiUer.' thick from shaking. Buttrice. any small projection. boutis. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. dripping. a blow. put. e. Butter. a bolt. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . Boutje. bud. bocgsuin. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. having a rotundity . Kil. a. . . but. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. a buttrice. an ox. to touch at the end. the trunk. nursling. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. buttock of beef is called butr. Du. of the present day. Du. striking end. as in G. the prick in the middle of a target. pwtiaw. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. bout. fowl. to thrust. caput scapula bout van f been. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . stump of a tree Fr. butz. as rejeton.. Fr. botta. the store of while bottich. Butter-glass. thrust. as if from Povg. a little push . — A . end . from rejeter. a dle . — — — — . a button. boteria. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. then the thigh or leg of an to push . Btetter-schmalz. from stossen. to abut on. the thick end.thum and not button.rejected thing. R. bouter. able that Chaucer. boter-schijte. Mur-buttant. suddenly . &c. to abut a stone roof. a bot. large head. clunis. bottich. butter un. from the large knobbed head of botto. pwt. -ez. bothog. : . bot blijven staan. buter. of E. . Sp. hillock . clumsy . aim whence to make a support to a wall. a bun.against another which needs support . a stroke di animal. An erection built up as a Fr. bata. Bout van het schouderIt. to so close to the Fr. boil. gigot. bodi. It. Gris. geboogsaem. buttern. The word body itself seems identical with G. butte. to push earth . to boult flour. a leg of mutton. Schmell. a scope. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. tress. butte. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. to throw . a cask. a but in the W. waste ground. butt. So in English pimples were fora clod. nourrissons. a boss. is formed the augmentative buttatich. a large belly. a blow. Du. or person Schmeller . tout seat or breech. a ribbed glass for dient. butter. Cot. povrvpov. strike. &c. trapu.putan. Bav. Lang. butt of a person. thick. Buttel-triib. boter-vogel. to thrust. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . butt. Buttery. thrust forwards. Boutant. to be con. butteln. To strike with the head bags. fle>(ible. buttals. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. pied. leg of lamb. to bow. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. The Bavarian potig. give way. a mound of turf in a field to sup. Gr. at. botte. a flying buttress. to heap up earth or ihrust. oir spike with a k coup . Schmell. Hal. w. From Du. Fris. botto. a tub. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. stump. Hal. buttare. — . Kil. obedient. the edge forwards. short thick thing pimple. from notirrir.— BUTT leg . are the strips at the edges of the field. W. bouton. humble. From Grisons biitt. Fr. AS. butt. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. W. a stump or club foot. — . what is kept in a blow. a boss. to thrust Fr. bot. Fr. a mound. Halma. a thrust the thigh-bone. the Butter-fly. the thigh of a goose. or or shore post. potacha. by boE. Perhaps corrupted Lat. a hill. bott. to cast. bouter. a barrel. any short thick thing. a wall butor butt on. i. botta. bottig. * Buxom. a buttress Cot. boter-vliege. signify a cask or tub. butyrum. to butt. Bav. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. the rosebud. Fr. nourrisson. and the true derivation boar. botten. butter. both.arbre. obeto shake backwards and forwards. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. to thrust . submit shaking up salad sauce. To Butt. a button.. coxa. Fr. Fr. grease that sets by merely standing. but this is probably from Fr. bocsam. a. buhsom. A — — — . poke. to thrust. bodi'. from bouter. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. in the R. to blad. to femur. bot. a corner horses' hoofs. bouton.to push. Button. lams-bout. From the noise of drinkables in a house. Gael. Du. Du. from bugan.

confusedly. village. a beetle. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. bylove. to whisper. to purchase for money. . A ful benygne buirde. G. buzzicare. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. to sell. A A We — — — days' wonder. a borough.. Etynj.— Diet. Originally the law of a particular town. OE. Buzzard. from by. The ON. as Fr. depends upon a esteem in falconry. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. 200. from whom it was addressed.. bauhta. son. The sense of buxom. . bylag. Many good mological explanation. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. Cabal. buzac.P. lb. tions by one. Verstegan in R. to wit. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. Lat. to buzz. to stand at his side . and it is of good will. who makes abigg. good-humoured one. 21. bees. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. and boxome of speche xviii. AS. Sw. 116. —gracious of speech. and would have been lost in E. Mercy hight that mayde. stall. 3.busardj Prov. a meke thynge with — alle. bei. a buzzard or puttock. a town. buso. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. train of thought which has become obso. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. A by. Then applied to speaking low. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. blessing me with their of side. Dan. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. byr. called Cabala or Tradition. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. indistinctly. p. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. bycgan. ii.— P. to pass by. Byre. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). abozzago. town having separate jurisdiction. By-law. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. bi. AS. bij. It. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. favourable. byar-rettr. cow-house. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. Sw. jus municipii. as heedless as a cock-chafer. — 122 BUY P.in N. a by-path is a side path . 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. frabttg- To Buzz. groat in token of his good heart towards him. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. buteoj Fr. harty prayers and God speedes. \s\xy. Du. Goth. also say. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. farm. Pecock Repressor. big. bugjan. as in Da. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. See Abie. gracious. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . to jan. CABAL Goth. iii. P. favourably to a petition. lete. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. byar-log. bohte. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. leges urbanse ON. To Buy. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. bygge. . bozzago. to swear with him by . 519. bi. ON. buzarg. bar. It. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. & Q.

cabarino. whence Fr. Gaggle. forms indi. &c.. chadabula. . magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. lactuca capitata. aak! tandi like Fr. — Kil. dirty. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. Lith. Coticesserint Swiss aa. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. OFr.. . caboche. gabardme. cabasser. Cabin. giiare. the Slavonian. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. a cloak of felt or Cack. capo. vile. Antiq. OFr. nasty. geese. cabas. cabbage. name of the projectile engine. come the Fr. chaable. cabulus. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. — . havyar to caviare. ckaable. cab. kabane. cabuccio. ceach / exclamation of guages. to crush. It. hut. OFr. a car- We convasare. su/Furari. w. It. Celtic. a tunic. Cablisb. whence Lang. has kabbel. a booth or hut. It. disgust cac. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . to chatter. Brushwood — — B. would correspond to cable. and as we find stones Mid. cadabalum. E. from manganum. for the origin of which see Carabine. Tugurium. accablcr. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. —Diet. to hurl down. cadabula. kabas. prostratio ad terram. is probably unconnected. covering. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . to put or pack up in a frail. originally an Gael. (ca/coe. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. gaban. dirty. Item habeat vocant. cacare. Finn. a frail. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. mdhaigner. a rope. — the ON. kabaSsen. dung. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. manticuKil. as Turk. disgust. Du. and Or. Neckam — by the wind. The double a in the OFr. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. especially shepherd's frock. It is remarkable that the Esthon. gaggele. manganare.Lat. Lang. The name of the engine. bad. Mid. kabat. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. to hurl in Nat. . Lat. gaggi. Choux cabus. cacare . Castr. capanna.. akista. cabre. Fr. cadabulum. it would seem fundain children's language. : — from violence without blood. cabo. precisely in the sense of the lari E. Cabbage. — . properly windfalls. or rush basket. caable. and Ptg. Fr. traboccare. Mid. surripere. chaable. OSp. Due. serious injury — In like manner It. form kactal. chabla. or cadable. — Tarbe.. Due. vincially used in E. — Ibid. . overwhelm. a shed. signifies down. a rope or cable. to strain in such a manner . case. filth. cabus. band. agge machen (in nurses' language). see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid.Lat. caables. cabuyskoole. kakaloH. Cappa in OSp. heady.Lat. Imitative of the cry of hens. cabre. Cot. dirt and the Fr. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. overwhelm (Diet. cable . ! — . Ptg. an engine for casting stones. Fr. Fr. headed or cabbage lettuce. as Diez supposes). Mid. gatsch. a headed cole or cabbage . the Prov. calabre. It. Didot. head. from trabocco. cadabola. a rope. cables. Common to Lat. cadabulum. and the Arab. agge. hoard together. brassica — capitata. Sp. Du. Sw. main. a rope. as an expression of Gr. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. Du. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. The Sp. cabacho. hovel. Fr. To Cabbage. stercus.' Due. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. to keep or Du. Sp. laitue cabusse. as it must have stood in French. round or great headed. or as an interjection of disMod. headed. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. a head (whence cabochard. Cabinet. cabaii. disgusting such an engine was exerted. a jacket Fr. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. caable (in legal language).). Capstan. the bowels.Gr. Very generally used. origin is the OFr. aeggi. . Kil. &c. cdble. E. caqueter. aakkat'a. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. capuccio. agga. maim.ticula. cabane. To steal or pocket. deponat a store closet. cab lis. signifying properly a rope's end. caable. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. kakla. 'habl. Katr-iT-aKt. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. From It. a covering. Etym. string. Cot. cabo. . in which sense are explained The the OFr. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. a cabbage . CABBAGE effecting a purpose .the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. and Finnish lanLat. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. wilful).

Caldron. Arab. Cajol. kolo. En kaka br'od. chetif. a circle. an inkstand . . a wretch. It. Cadge*. to treat like lime. calpa. calculo. to prate much to little purpose. to throw themselves into the sea. Sw. KxiKivh^o^. cake. lime whence calcareous. B. See Kiddier. Calamity. frolicsome kaad mund. prate. for green fields. Calash. kauwe. Lat. kdtr. Gascon capdet. calentura. a waggon . calessa. marrow. a cake or loaf. to compute. chaudron. kola. caioler. Lat. kalb. Sp.— Cot. gavia. gaggle. Du. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. unruly . Dan. An open travelling chariot. Perhaps from w. to . Lat. on. incolumis. desire of land. calibre. especially of something soft. Fr. It. Pol. kaeckelenj Gr. ON. the pith or soft part of wood. a fever. gabberen is identical with E. a car. babbhng. signifies a waggon. From lerie. to heat. just falling. kolyaska. is probably delusive. kolesb. a tea-chest. calibre. rattaat (wheels). calamus. Mrs B. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. chaudiere. hot. hot . loss. calidus. jabber. Fr. a cylinder. pet lamb. wanton. It. kage. Lat. to cage. the lump and the increase. A — fall. a falling. a loaf of bread. dead body. ever and anon. A cuttle-fish. cykevie. pith. a calash . a mischievous dial. cabdillo. caliche. Fr. reed-pen. cageoler. kaad. a corpse. whence Lat. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. Roman reckoning. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. of the nature of lime to calcine. Calamary. Calocli. kaka. loss. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. * Calibre. and troublesomely attached to. Sp. kukje. Cot. little chief. Cadet. Cage. a small stone. kolesnitza. from calculus. or prattle. Sp. ratas. wretched. Caddy. lord. whence calash. of which. a roller. cadence. master. The Calf. Fr. Lat. when they are said to poor. Calc-. — in a kiln. Cadence.— Calliper. Cot. kakulla. Caitiff. pen Mod. Fr. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. capitetum. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. cadaver. . disease of sailors from tivus). The Lat. G. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). Lat. Turk. To Calender. kat. taking it Sp. cuttle-fish. Du. to cackle . — — — Dan. a low note. Calf of the Leg. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. Turk. Lat. To Cajole. a wheel . Sw. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. Russ. Dan. roller. calendrer. Lat. ' . limestone. lindrus. a caFr. cha'cmie cadence. the calf of the leg. Originally from a Slavonic source. captive. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member.Gr. N. frisky. Calendar. It. a calesh. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. The young G. caldarius. from the ink-bag which it contains. kalfvan hout. a reed. kolyasochka. from calendcE. calidus. cage. a wheel . coop. to — Fr.warmth . Gael. kolo. its mother. form) calderone. ben- kalf. Lat. to sleek hence a den. kdfich. gaggia. caldaria. or smooth Hnen cloth. calba. Tea-caddy. Calcialate. kail. Fr. KaKKat. capCalenture. It. calesa. gabble. a wheel. a hollow place. Lat. one unduly indulged by. Fr. Fr. colibro. bad . cadet. In the same way Fin. cadenza. kolasa. Serv. javioler. principal and interest. 124 prattle . &c. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. calentar. a wheel . Cadaverous. dial. calendarium. a counter used in casting accounts. It. —Atkinson. the bore of a cannon. of oxen and similar animals. koeck. kalfi. cavea. kuchen. the pi. As Du. cattivo (from Lat. Cot. a common cart. chattering. Calandre. a dence. gabbia. to gabble. an ugly waggon kolaska. Calp is riadh. joyous .uv. boy. naXaiidpi. cage.— . calcis. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. * Cade. the younger son of a family said to be from . misfortune. . It is another form of the E. gabbia. so gabble corresponds with Fr. Du. hence musical rhythm. . collop. a lump or large piece. from Gr. kolo. (in the augm. pi. calamitas. Flo. Sw. cauldron. A hooded carriage. G. or colpa na coise. coll. calx. from the Chinese catty. Cauldron. without loss. A . The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. Du. . safe. Lat. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. a vessel for heating water. Cake. kalem. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. cadere. calf of leg. Due.

koluvre. to abuse . To century was Squalibre. oldire from audire. So It. fistula. Bi. to proclaim. * Callet. longior. Calico. calibre. kal. Diet. a successor. Dief. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. coulevrine. calleting. coluber. to callet. chatter. Lang. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. to call. Fr. Sp. calat of leude demeaning. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. cauma. piece of bigger circuite. faint.' Slange. quality. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. caillette. Calm. overscalmaccio. of a column.position is much less common than the geschut.meaning of the word. the hard surface of the ground. calca. Ptg. — Fl. Fin. an adder. calgua. Ca. calma. to affirm. Mid. alta voce ploro. calcare.' Whitby Gl. sclopus. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . gossiping. depreciatory term for a woman. Call. Fr. scold. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. a. to be of a good or bad quality. kol. Due. Fr. sound. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. tittle-tattle. Unfledged. Sc. having a thick skin. dragoon. brawny. AS. but is only a jda-kallo. hallottaa. voice. the scalp or skull. sestus. Gr. Lat. of the bore of a firearm met. prattle. kalla. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. Derived by some from Arab. can be distinct from ODu. Fin. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. hollaing. calare. scalmato. kahcwe. khalif. heat. which is as much as to say. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. whereas in troth it is not. forms are undoubtedly from Lat.' But it is hard Du. cahna. . a feathers. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. whehce it was first brought. calc. a soldier who the It. E. B. Ibid. i. cauque. calvus. culverin. sence of wind. the Fr. To Calk. a drab. Turk. It. To call. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. a last. moso. calclover. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. people's remarks. serpentina. abto suppose that E. try. and E. on. from Calicut in the E. The primitive colubrina bombarda. Sir John Smith in Grose. coluber also. ululo Turk. a round of abuse. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. and dragon. ' pert. the Fr. however. skin hardened by labour. KaXka.from Ka'tm. Sup. 'A callet of boundless tongue. — — — — — . Callow.— . kallo. callus. harden by pressure. The word was also written cawme in OE. dragonder.' Winter's Tale. CALM to press or stuff. calibre. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. overheated. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. done with heat Alt. calme. 125 Prov. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. donderbuchs Sp. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. calcaich. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. Diez. a good calling. serpens. form in the kalib. hot. chatter kallen. water-tight. harquebus or handgun. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. Among these were the turn. nautique).Lat.en~ kinds of firearms. cotton cloth. . * Caliver. femme frivole et babillarde. dial. couleuvre. To drive tow or oakham. quA librd. the day. Mahn derives it from Lat. Antiq. or mould.' Chaucer. which has its memory preserved in Du. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. colubrina. to burn. Gael. According to Jal (Gl. to prattle. callum. Fr. Sp. faint. kind heat of the sun. caluw. moist. ram. The origin is Gr. form. or languishing drought is . diameter of a ball. calicot. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. saucy. drive. by many that the weapon Callous. tapulta. Kil. calo. bald. ' rine. NE. trull.. the latter of chamber.(jaa= ice). Hard. Lat. them &c. whence couleuv. colubraria canna. to call. — — — — — . Du. qAlab. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). and heat. klover. given. to say. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). the heat of Now these Du. word of mouth . calor. caliver. to hear. to calk. push violently. bombarda Cauma incendium.piicede Lat. heat. u to an I in such a colubrum. kael. to tread. The reference to heat is preserved in. to rail or scold . Indies. licht stuk The change from a. Kil. Heb. and sometimes a handgun. quiet. vulgo Coluvrine. calma. CALICO Calliper-compasses. Kavfia. to cram. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. kil-u-kal. or caliever. calk. kal. Mil. Caliph. glotton.

It. lie level. Palsgr. whence Fr. on. properly good country. Cambray. open and level ground. also an eatmg sore. Canker.conduit-pipe. the heat. mg Canister. Lat. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. bis. candidus. E. across — Bellenden in Jam. Candy. Canibal. An eater of human flesh. Sanson khanda. Mod. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. KafivTu. field . ko/utuXoc. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. died in 1526. a caught. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. to the force of the wind. fresh. Pers. Cameo.. crooked. a' Sc. the bed of a stream. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. campagna. Lat. a basket. chamold man. — Cancel. arch. different sections of the like the Chinese. chandelle. catmneo. a dog. campagna. chaitcre. samon. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. candela. It. Cambrav—Cam. Cann. having an aquiline nose. Arab. Fr. to glow. a crab. would plenier. a. white. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. Gr. spot for cattle. Sp.Gr. an eating. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. a large drinking . callar. to avoid enemy in their shirts. kanna. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. toile some of whom. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. when its substance appears inter.Lat. Camlet. Lat. to jut. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. to bend. lame. fair. whence the noun signifying an applicant. sugar. Cambrel. Cancer. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. slander. campo. The Grisons cauina.—Candidate. cambren. E. Mid. the spersed with white flakes like curd. crooked. hooked. cambr^. se cameloter. aspirant. from xaXbg. It. Fr. It was distinfrom work. campagne. B. a may have acquired that signification from plain. Or the word Lat. canalis. Calumny. Camel. crooked. . campo. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. — — — A — — escume de saumon. Cot. Gr. unwater chamelot . camaien. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. ation. camelot. camiscieia. good. and yspiuv. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. chommer. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat.— Hackluyt in R. arched. Turk. Lat. the calix. B. icaSoytipoe.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. monk. is Cambering. Canine. camp. champagne. Fr. at the ends. Bret. frank and sincandidatus. cancello. whence the Fr. cere : Lat. Calyx. Caloyer. Sp. See Canker. canna. to bow. canis. It. to bend. A — the Cannibals. India Islands. the salmondis faillis thair loup. camisa. — Lat.—Cambrel. Lat. cam^e. clothed in white. callour.— B. Fr. It. lattice. or hollow of a flower. Fr.— Chandelier.' Forme of Cury in Way. a goblet bud. salmon. ckaouma. . campren. a piece.—Jam. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. E. Canal Channel. cancer. In a different application It._ kamm. canistrum. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. had no r in de bric— Cot. campus. Camisade. water chamlet . Fr. Properly calver in the field during a war. crooked-stick. Sp. camisade. Ptg. camahutus. calj'x. a. Lat. campaign. cambre. cup. cAouma. champ. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. camafeo. to warp.who their language. Camp. From fluting or furrow in a column . camber-nosed. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. paign. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. Fr. Cambric. crook. cambrer. From campus was formed Lat.' ' Quhen a lattice. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. or Caribs. higher in the middle than Fr. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. Candid. the type of a hollow pipe. cup. Lat. to break. Calver of cane. Peter Martyr. Fr. It. from candere. KafitjUe. Kakoycpos. Campaign. — B. camiscia. aged. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. brought from Fr. is Candle. arched. nia. sore. calutmiia. a field Greek monk. cainahelus. co7nbar. camelus. the space of false imputation. w. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t.

as. chape. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. to shut. cheese. has kahn. schlapp. a gelding. chantel. cannu. Canopy. from . cantone. cantle then is a corner of a thing. If the word had been from cantherius. Gugel. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. territorial hundred. Cope. Germanis kdppen.n. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. language. side. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. From Lat. that the G. capello Italis. kq. gnat. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. a — A — Cannel Coal. B. schlappen. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. Prov. is found languages of very different stocks. a scull- — here. The word seems to be taken from Gael. A . Again we have Lat. corner. To canvas — . What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. cane. coat. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. It. kwvwxIi. Coal burning with bright flame. Probably only the augmentative of canto. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. kaput. as a cantle of bread. to contain.^on. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. cappa. cantref. was formed Kavtiiv. a rule or standard of excellence. ON. trine. cover kapi. Capacious. kapamak. It. a cloak. canon. Kavt\. Cape. a corner. . he discourseth of dissection. Goldast — in in Schmid. &c. being a yard or thereabouts . the heel. But it may be different source. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. Lat. a straight rod. kantr. the heel. lump. name. kanta. and met. pipe. the quartile. Capable. leiwan kanta. Fr. Sp. canonici. quarter . properly a large Prov. signifying cover. root cap. Schwab. From Gr. Cannoii. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. Palsgr. a pipe. . cappe. a hunch of bread. Kil. can. a small boat. Sp. kyndel. region. a side. hood. It. border Dan. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. a tube. Cant. KaTTiram. canton. a door . Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. Canton. to sing. a cap. a Fr. cannevo. N. Canon.Gr. able to receive. KCLvva. canevas. kandt-broodts. &c. and hence a gobbet. quito curtain. cannabis. cantred. canonicus. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. The — . regular. carcase . rumme. Hence Lat. call. A slow gallop. coarse hempen cloth Fr. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. cane. Canoe. clqse. Esthon. caparazon. Fin. Swab. astrology. Cantle. border. a wine-cellar or vault. kand. cappe. To Canonise. or cantell of bread.Gr.. Mod. See Capt-. a division of a country. a horn of the moon . a hundred. say. The meserseum and the mesentericum. A piece of anything. quarter. covered. to put upon sacred writers. cannone. margo panis diffracta. Jonson. measure for cloth. or hold. Capari. Alamannis. edge. cantina. Mod. from a Canter. a ruler. Canvas.CANNEL vessel. Gael. Fr. cannevaccia. from canna. It. speech. capax. OFr. and tref. . haitt. chanteau. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. It. Diez. capa. It. a cover Turk. hemp. canoa. a drinking glass. the part easiest broken off. canto. It. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. W. a cloak kapali. a ship canot. Fr. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. a boat. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. See Chape. canteau. a cantle of bread. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. also a measure. the tried list of saints. which is not the case. a reed. and the sex- &c. cover . contain. . to con- rummer. canvas. like a torch or candle. part. from cant. capace. hemp. cane.— Cot. Cot. from Dan. Du. Picard. a cane. hirnschlapple. tain. capevole. shut. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. Canteen. kynnel. canapaccia. it would have been found in the continental languages. coarse hemp. Sp. cainnt. a torch. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. To his judicial And trowl the tile. hamlet. Wtb. Of vena cava and of vena porta. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. cape. cane. cope. a reed. canapa.

to twitter as birds. hedge-hog. the hair to stand on end. as the means of earning profit. Lat. the head. principal. eruca compared with It. It. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. to shiver for cold. G^' Many words — ' ndv. roughening of the skin. Mod. riccio. grillcr. greziller.). belonging to From caput. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . and with an initial gr instead of br. capriol or caper in dancing. a buck. Sp. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. airoKOTrrw. frisser {frissement d'un trait. gricciare. horripilation. The same imitation of Capon.impressions on the ear. as in Lat. a little head. heath. and his body bristled We to castrate. a goat. gives rise to brezza. See Chief. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. Caprice. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. Capillary. caprice It. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . to ruffle the surface of water. fansuddenly angry. algabr. . Hence capitalis the sum lent. grug. capar. Lang. Capital. to fry. according to the Hindoos. arricciarsi. as Fr. or goat's leap (done by a horse). to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. and OHG. shivering. a caterpillar. to crackle. or represented by the syllable e. Hair-like. a head. birsle. — — A a hair. for which he cites the Comask nucia. And similarly to yearn. compared with Bret. Unexpected pleasure. It. ericius. shrub. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. It.— Fl. bruco. to desire earnestly. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. grisser. Fr. Acad. Fr. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. Hal. a . greziller. to crackle. the hair to stand on end. bristling. frort^Lat. Lat. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. a kid. Genevese bresoler. the principal part of the debt. II bresole (Gl. to . brissle. The true derivation lies in a different direction. 75. crackling sound Cape. caj)o. castrated cock. shivering. then to be in a state of vibration. ziki. ribrezzo. It.) grezille marid. alcaparra. hair. capitulare. Torriano. capitalis. So from Sw. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. grisser. capparis. It. p. where Burton adds in a note.) d'etre The It. brisciare. or. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. bristling. as Fr. It. toy. rihrczzoso. a separate division of a matter. cover of a saddle. Cot. they longed extremely to see it. Griller d'im' patience. to shiver. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. capro. the singing'bone). brisoler. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . I have shivered with love.' Cot. chattering of the teeth. gricciare. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. brisciare.— 128 CAPE a rustling. then find the symptoms of shivering. Fl. the initial mute of forms like Gr. of a coach. caprice. Arab. the head. or Lat. knis-hujwud . Lat. A . a yearning through sudden fear. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. curly. It is probable that Gr. cut off. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. <I>pi'?oe. hi. to shudder. Caper. a young kid met. explained by Diez from capra.' — (Supp.Gr. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. gives rise to Sc. abridge amKoTroq. Fr. capriole. to parch. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. brezilia. curl. or other things.'— Trev. aggricciare. — to yearne. A headland. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. also the capriole. with joy' Vikram. Capers. and 7tucc.standing on end. curling. sault. humorous. brug. castrated. arricciarsi. w. frizzle. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. caper j caprio. frisson- ner . CAPRICE twittering. It. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. of a fowl. rissoler. knis. Lat. to from capitulum. horror. brisciare. ticchio. to broil. prickly husk of chestnut. a chevret. h^risser. is either wholly lost. wriggle. cApre. capriola. end. as Fr. a caper in dancing. to broil. of a tremtdoiis sound. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. a capriol. a hedge-hog. then to shiver or shudder. erica. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. a ch illness. cappriccio. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. To treat Capitulate. frissoner. It. Fr. s'hdrisser. herissonnement. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. capillus. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. kid. ^piKos. cut. chief. upon terms Sp.

129 — receive.).s. Fr. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . to creak. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. Nordfoss. intercept. a kind of torture. to take to. -cept. Carabin. recipere. crepo.or -cib-. Fr. verbs gives rise to the element . and has accordingly been lost in E. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. precept. receptus. karista. chirriar. fantastic. oisr. and tropically. It. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. from head. and has thus descended unaltered to English.. Thus the musket. a sawing-block or trestles. a. seize. to take. capp%tccio. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. Carabine. to this is It. charret. di cappa. recevoir. a. recepte. — —Diet. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. a sudden fear apprehended. whence capture. also tresFl. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. Passing on into E. Capstern. decepte. captus.. however. at least. a fantastical humour. also a kind of rack. chevre. to receive receptio. carabin. bock. It. shivering fit (Altieri). karren. to creak. to take baclc. cabreia. trestle. Fl. Sp. chirrion. to load . man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. charger. of the Sp. Lat. -ceive. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. a hooded friar. Fr. cabestrantej Fr. Caseneuve in Diet. cabra. krul. -cept. a reception. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. concevoir. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. Capsule. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. calabrino. . dim. sels. Du. desire. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. or the (capo-riccio). Lat. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. karrende waegen. deceit. was converted into -ceb. was a kind of horse soldier. In cases. Fr. to accept. caThe hrestante. a she-goat. hold. caricare. Crab. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. Capt-. charrier. It. &c. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. It. recipio. carro. Fr. also to carry on a car . OSp. a cloke) capuccino. G. capra. Fin. the -cevofthe Fr. strideo. Captain. of capsa. In the S. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. fancy. where it forms a very large class of compounds. conceive. It is a standing crab. as in OFr. recibir. conception. See Caper. Kiittner. kerren. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. a cart. box. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. except. Cot. a coffer. latterly. karra. was originally a missile . captive. tnoschetta. carretta. a windlass. Fr. as in accipio. capuccio. &c. char. capio. Carry. Lat. acceptus. captivate. Sp. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. — — Capstan. a head man. Cot. capsula. perceive. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. crab s. to carry .— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). concipere. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. concept. cams. It. i The meaning Car. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. calabrin. an engine for throwing stones. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. Capuchin. Fr. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. deception. capitano. a sudden will. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. Cart. cabestan. a capuchin. and of captus to an e. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. de- price. Lat. caput. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. It.of these compound verbs. case. Etym. Castr. accept. concebir. one odd. contain. a taking back. commander. Capriole. It. &c. a hood (dim. caprice. conceit. to please. The It. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. Carbine. Du. capitis.). a creaking waggon. cabrestante (whence e. as the dragoons (Du. Derivatives are Fr. Neumann.

car. mural attack. Derived in the first edition from Mod. a dead carcase. Lat. It. alia sunt majora. a quiver . «capa'|8i. It. Card. matter. Gael. Sp. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. kerwan. ancient springald. Parmesan cassiron. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. carabba. OHG. quse vocant karabd. Gr. skeleton. carcaij. skeleton. of carbo). turn of a horse. a machine for casting large darts.. to hiss (as gee^e). carcanada. a lock of wool . to comb wool . . The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. carquasse. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. cassa. an engine for hurling stones. Venet. case. Lat. Cot. a small weight. contract. Cot. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. a crane. a snail. a wool card. a ship. Caraool. Lith. An implement for dressing wool. winding carach. carta. Arab. the core of fruit . Gael. carabe. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg.. a firelock. AS. carmiiiarc. caraffa. carcasa. krciti. cdrlag.. to turn. Carcax. the carob bean. Sp.z. kirat. cabreia. also (as Gr. karri. a quiver.. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. a winding staircase. It. Fr. seed of carob. casso. cabrita. wine- bottle.Gr. winding. card.— — — . It. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. a collar or chain for the neck. carquois. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. . KtpaTwv.applied to a battering-ram (G. carch. Sp. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. ON. eitar. cardo. Sp. boch. karszti. in the same way that the Sp. the trunk or chest of the body . Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. a quiver . carere. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. to creak. to ripple flax. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. properly a siege machine. karra. carbunculus (dim. to draw in. p. carcanet. Exot. Comp. wool card. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. the shell of a torcarcasso. a goat. cerran. caravela. a he-goat. Carat. Gael. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. and catapulta. Carrob. bend. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. a thistle.charcoal . a thistle. curry-comb. — seems to be something holding together. garafa. carduus. a kind of ship. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. ' Vasa vitrea. designated in the case of G. a case or chest . turning. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. kard boyd. poison eiz. fire . Carcase. Pers. . Cat. word is only an adoption of the Turk. Caravel. Bohem. the dead body of any creature. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. carcame. Mod. silique. Carbonaceous. shell. an ulcer. the case of the flesh. a gem resembling a live coal. restraint . constraining . teasel for dressing woollen cloth. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. to curry horses karsztuwas. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). the name might naturally Mod. or framework. eit.' From the same source are SicU. Gr. the . a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . avSpaS. carbo. See Carpenter. bock and Fr. Fr. is the word used in modern Lat. quilato. coming to four grains. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . Ptg. caracal. black dye. to card wool. cramp. the husk or cod of beans. also a small weight. chevre by the name of the goat. a quiver. a skeleton. for a gun. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. cabra. The Trjg xeXwwac. a twist.. the carcase of a fowl. . vitriol. Carboy. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. . I. carquan. espi7igarda. to card wool. &c. copperas. caraffe. burning coal. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. Sp. The radical meaning . a card or comb . is the chine. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. a ripple for flax. decanter. &c. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. W.Gr. to comb. carbh. From the battering-ram. of the same Caravan. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. Fr. Gael. a coffer. skeleton toise. Fr. military engines made for hurling stones. tcapKaai. a prison. a battering-ram). carate. &c. It. Carbuncle. confining. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz.

and sum.' Slceat. and thin. to load. Fr. and murhet.Lat. cardo. strideo. Fr. quaver a lazar's clack. sorrow. kara. appertaining to the flesh. to comb flax or hemp. place for exercise on horseback. caricare. Properly. to fry or broil. Carled peas. . de Parthenay. also a career on horseback. care. Lat. carFrom carrus. to fry. charie. wool cards. A quirito ut infans. mutter. winding. Trin. kroU-erbser. as carminare. murahtaa. &c. piger. It. karout. murren. ceorl. ON. carezza. bottom. from Lat. whence carricare. moeThe Lat. karantez. Farewell flesh. carina. Groler. car. Properly a car-road. to rumble. . fleshy . beans. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. to whirr (schnurren). the hull of a ship. from carus. giierlir. crosier. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. charg. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. Probably the origin of the word is the . cearian. 273. Fr. morosus. Chart. W. four. a turn. Mur. fundamental. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. what is felt as grievous. Cath. . A place where four roads Mid. karista. It. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. Bret. solicitous. to take Goth. charta (Gr. — — — Caress. essere in carena. charneux. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. that on wliich the matter hinges. . Cargo. G. caMid. carriire. Sept. charnage. niggardly . cardinis. Fl. from caricare. kummer. — — . to comb wool. voce strepo stridente. affection. kargr. charag. male person. quadrifurcum from quameet. Ptg. ignarus. dear. carcare. the keel. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. carcus. kumra. in N. to distress growl. Fr. Carnal. parched or carled. or grumbling —Due. principal. Fr. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. zanken . A mod-carag. that Fl. karg.— CARD karr-kambar. a highway. to card wool. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. It. E. to load. to care unkarja. be anxious. From. surrata. Charnel. Cartel. carnis. carnal. charger. act of moaning. kurista. Cot. sgritudo animi. No ' place there had. caritia. hoed. from the keel to the water . Fr. It. AS. at murmuring. cura intenta. in Carp. karrig. Lat. see Garble. grief. Bret. intrasset caro. tremble. 8. cdrle. & Q. to lie on its side. charnel. crawl. cargo. Coll. grolU. carnasciale. carnavale. kribina. It. compared with Fin. is to say. 1S66. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. crowl. karl. a deed. the several meanings of the words above Rom. OFr. clown or churl. carena. AS. the load of a ship. from carrus. Dan. graller. Fr.— Charter. Carminative. karry. Fin. W. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. — To Careen..Lat. carminare. in St Jerome. Carlings. . and compare Bret. — Carfax. Caricature. the flesh of animals . weyes. murista. Gael. soUicitus OSax. W. Fin. careless take care of. as quadrivium from Carnaval. an overloaded representation of anything. regar. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. p. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. carch. combing them out like the knots in wool. croller. tuorfurcm (Burguy). Card. It. Cot. care on. cura may be ror. Peas steeped and fried. carnalis. Bois crolant d'un ladre. ON. . Translated in MS. x'»P'"^s)) paper. love. carriera.. an endearment. Care. like connection may be seen between Fin. caricatura. Cot. a hinge. stridere. cearig. scharren. sensual. sorrow. caru. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. immediately before the long fast of Lent. ress. meet at a head. gakaran. to love. the time during which to Rom. one of those ac- 9 * . A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. Cark. cargar. as peas. OHG. . the part of a town where four streets kratzen. — — — : Cardinal. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. carener. A medical term from line —Boerio. camovale. to load. to parch. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. to scratch. Carnage. Carl. to growl. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. Roquef. or street. carrefourg. chartre. carena. a card. asper. the keel of a vessel. tenax. astutus. to scrape . G. Carenare. morosus sum. AS. msstus. Sp. is This however Shrove tide. Champ. w. record. Venet. For the root of carminare. — — Diez. Sp. road. carian. caresse. It. Fr. to shake. . the old theory of humours. to eat flesh. 2. to clean the bottom of the ship. a man. stingy. rixosus. quarreG. and G.

chirp. Mid. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. Carnelevale. Sp. 1 1 30. carpere. W. Discov. act of drinking a full Eq. a wheelwright. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. gar aus / all out is correct. The word seems of Celtic origin. zimmer. In a MS. i. sense. a drinking cup. Teut. linteamen. as carnaval from carnelevamen. whence the form carnasciale. to dance. tymmer. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. I drink all out. carpenticre. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca.' Raleigh. as Fr. as the Lat. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. Alluz (G. charpentier.— Patriarchi. at midnight which derivation from kroes. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade.— Neum.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric.'— Stat. Carnevale. course. krapati. to reel. used for stuffing mattresses. Templariorum — ' — Due. chatter skra/a. pluck at. vel coopertorio carebit. Lat. qui sacco. Here's to you still my captains friend. Beggars Bush. Cot. carpo. worker in timber Fr. or a carouse fully drunk up. quoted by Carpentier. ! Carouse. Palsgr. i. . yede tham about. Chanson de carole. garrire. carpetam (a quilt?). properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. koroll. a plank. to pull asunder. to dance. In Dominica d'autant. So gone they forthe. Fr. Pm.]e bois Carnelevale. To pledge them thou refuse. carnelascid). — — ' ' — — — I — — . a carder. tattle. carpenta. to talk. krapanj. Mid. A. carpende fast Carol. . On this. Pref. balade from It. bier. to pluck. to rustle. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. on that. Gael.' says Motley (United Neth. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. Ein we find the signification transferred from . charpie. skraf. fabulor. culcitra. The karole of the stones behelde.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. chariot carbad. Nomin.' Ordo Eccles. 94). carpenter only in the latter sense. zimmerspan. Properly a round dance. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. peta. carpetrix. Olr. ' ' — . in Carp. of Guiana.Lat. Sup. a dance. querole. in Due. Pr. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. The ' ' a chariot. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. is erroneous. Biheld within. Fr. Gower in Way. Carole. pluck. — .: . as E. All out B. garrulo. Carpenter.Why give's some wine then. 2. Ant. Lat. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. was formed Mid. e. 2. Dief.' Reg. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out.gonnella. maker of waggons It. ON. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. to find fault with. Mediol. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. Lat. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. cited by Marsh. carpentum. Shrove Tuesday. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. carbh.— Drant in R. to chatter coroli. The custom. in Nat. differing To Carp. or loose as a couch without further preparation.D.— R. ballare. Bohem. . Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. and F. lint. litter. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. On the other hand bumper to one's health. all aus). a song accompanying a dance then. carpita. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence.Lat. CarTo quaff carouse do use. a car carpentarius. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. Analogous R. From Lat. Bret. Carpitam habeat in lecto. biheld without. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. Carpet. carduz.Lat. chatter. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. to gather. cardos. ship. carpat (Stokes). I quaught. carpia. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. Other names of the sea. The tippling sots. gonna. 216. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. a wheelwright. cxciv. 760. Carpyn or talkyn. and Carnem laxare (It.

Fr. cascar. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. Du. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. ignominiously exposed. Ready money. krat. hung up in some place and to be removed. and matar. from It. something that actually occurs. for the security of the defenders.— Fl. Rouchi carpHe. made void. discharge It. Fr. to — — also casse. It. long man's gown with a close body. carroc- carrozza . cut with scissors. Lat. caisse. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. hull of a ship. Case. crush. card. afterwards any written challenge. As defence from shells became more important. turn out of service. kerven. Fr. casualis. Probably. — Cartoose. See Gristle. casso. a chance or accident. bag and baggage of a camp. To Carry. Fl. helmet. annul. the money chest. where Fr. Lat. cascade. empty. from Lat. charrier. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. mord-grube. packing ' cloth. not reaching to the height of the ditch. Lat. kerben. caroach. caisse. a chest. cassere. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. Hence casket. as we . Cash. quash. Casket. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. It. an act of falling. Cart. caro. crown of a hat. Gael. coffer. an augmentative from Lat. to notch. kerpu. Fr. case-maiej Sp. a paper case. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. corresponding to the G. Casual. casa. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. charrette. to hold. Rouchi carone. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle.' Cot. from the sound it makes when Alban. kasseren. It. Case-mate. to crack. See Card. It. Lat. to dash.' Fl. bitten. like all the names of tendon. a merchant's cash or counter. cartella. cascata. Fr. caxa. cartilage. case. casag. casser. the charge of — — Fr. ' Casa-matta. carota. Hence a challenge openly hung up. fortuitous. cassette. AS. See Case. to break. Casuist. charogne. fall It. Rouchi caroche. gristle. also the carriage. a coffer or small case for jewels. Flor. abrogate. to cut or carve . and that apparently from capio. ceorfan. Sp. It. to fall. luggage. one who reasons on cases put. Fr. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. Du. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. kirpti. gristle. Fr. To Cashier. hollow. Lith. augmentatives of carro. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. augm. a fall. casuelj Fr. casacca. carriaggio. casa-maita. cashiered. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. Cot. from casa. cancelled. — Cartridge. Casque. pasteboard. cartone. Fr. G. carretto. a of water. caroche. cassa. Cartoon. blotted out.' — Hdcart. tion from Sp. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. Fr. a car. The Sp. to shear. paper. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. It. casus. carreaggio. to an- — Kil. Case. Carrion. Fr. properly to convey in a car. subject for a picture. quasser. of carro. void cassare. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. cartoccio. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. To duash. To quash an indictment. The carrying of anything. Fl. a car. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . carogna. and the OE. Fr. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. CartOTicli. cia.' Bailey. dim. Sp. slaughter-house. carroccio. a canonry or slaughterhouse. — — nul the proceeding. casaque. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. It. vault hole in a fortified wall. a hut. cartouche. cascare. a long coat. cancel. Cartel. coffin of paper for groceries. of carta. — — . Cassock. to fire on the enemy. capsa (Diez). casitiste. To Carve. Cascade. mata. cassa. from It. mord-keller. discharge. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. Rouchi carter..to annul. break to pieces. OE. Preparatory drawing of a It. to convey in a cart. caisse. — FI. carrosse. Carrot. carretta. Carriage. house. Cot. to bear or carry. to slay. It. It. casco signifies a skull. Fr. AS. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. shell or carcase of a house. Walach. cassus. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. des rideaux A'carp^ie. Cask. a loopscale the wall.

name. of sarabands does Gr. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. dim. stilts. to crack. chaleur. Pic. KarapaKrr]g. To It.Rouchi Scaches. It. To Catch. to look at. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. Lang. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. OFr. The E. . Chase. signifying breed. which has been retained in E. kasi. to make clean or chaste. to end. Isidore — in Diez. the earlier sense of catch. to scourge. drive away. kaJoivad. lance.to drive out. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. the ground . 134 CAST Catacomb. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. puras E. V. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. . castanetazo. and from the castus. race. So also from It. to fall as over a precipice. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. force j Rouchi equerviche. castana. being Fin. Castanets. _G. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. away. or bruise together. KaraXoyog. ' Catchyn away abigo. probably from an imita. a thump. ating. to bring to an crack given by the joints. Fr. dash. in the fire. Fr. B. kissa. ecrevisse. a cat koshki. castello. to dash. Gr. from water Karappaaaiii. shaft of a 1 push. a chesnut . tails. kat. and tomba. . kotas. Thus we have Caste. coming to us through different dialects of French. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. cojz^/a. Fr. to hunt. rack. cat. Fr. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. to torture. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . cast. or comba. katze. klakka. represented by the syllable quash. cash. casulla. like that of It. Lat. Sp. and KviilSog. down. casipola. Pm. Cast. mino. Fr. heat . burst cascare. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. an enumerlist. follow after. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. In the dialect of Picardy. perhaps from which we have E. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. Hal. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. Catalogue. down. was introduced. catch. chasser. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. chat.'— Pr. Cat. a cat . however.out cacciare . sue. . a Cataract. arpi^m. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. the stalk of plants. the castanets for or implement ..— Fl. R. Fr. casule. to close. catar. dashing it out of the window. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. cassa / cry for the same purpose. to crackle. chasser. punch.Lat. koshka. by the loss of with several pitched cords. Brunne. first made ordinary Fr. KaTaarpifm. a vault. ichasses. second chase. cat-o'-nine. while kiss / Pol. — We a cavity. a little house or hut. Fr. accastiare. crush . to break. a garment for performing the mass in. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. fer toTa. 120. In hke manner Rouchi cacher.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. It. castro. handle of an axe. kottr. kotas. . Catastrophe. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. execu. a fortified place. to lash. to cast or beat to tioner . quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. Etym. Fr. or Rouchi cat. speak of dashing a thing down. Pol. kakka. Cot. squash. bot-kotis. to clack. n. castellum. which. 'Vaaaw. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti.. a whip on the other into latch. Fr. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. to turn overturn. Gr. Sp. dashing it to pieces. to is Essentially the Sp. fall. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese.the / or c respectively. Mid. Gael. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. ON. same word with break. The Diet. to drive Cat o' nine tails. Yz. to drive away. under chi caleur. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. kasta. chasuble. puss / for calling them. squash. cacciarc. from the first of Castrate. torture. casupola. kic' kicil are used chasser. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). Castle. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. Hence castaneta. casser. on. is not satisfactory. Roukind. image accasciare. of castrum (castra). &c. It. Lat. cascar. KaTappaKTrjQ. to Fl. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . cacciare fuora. cacciuolo. to hurl See Awgrim. V Lith. Others explain it from Kara. have before seen under Cape and Cabin.

an officer of taxes. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . a whip or Kuttner. Diez. latch. Cot. which all . compare G. kaetse. ketsoore.) . caker. — Kiittner. . latch of. klatscherei. Gael.' ^Jam.j. bicho. or any kind of relishing food tuals. Cates. klatsche and Norm. a whip. to A bailiff. Swiss Lombard G. a whip Rouchi cachoire. . a pill. the elements of a science.V. klatsch. chatter. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. Sp. predicament. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. to snatch (said of dogs). Ptg. Guernsey pilleure. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. smack. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. chenille {canicula. caucht. ArbaUte de courte chasse. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. de Bray. from Gr. OFr. kletse. — explained. E. millecaterpillars. Fr. formerly called cliket. — .s. flap klatsche. — with a whip. . lash of a whip corresponding to the G. the OE. apprehend a person. gattola. to kythe D. kletsen. ictus resonans. Guernsey chafer. door when it is shut. the the same principle he was Fr. glcu. a little dog). Fr. instruction in forms. a. insect. snatched. Du. Grandg. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. as of the latch of a As ! — . * Caterpillar. E. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. catch. Chate peleuse. resound. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. to clap hands. ' Fr. with and without an / after the c. 'Horxa. a carter's Pat. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. GaUa catchiza. bichano (pussy). to chatter with the teeth cake. chase. Cot. ' ' word catch. pedes. Du. e. cat is not apparent. the distance to which the ball is struck. a cornIn the s. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. worm. whip. cache. chasse. devouring mite or weevil. c or ^. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. clatter. chatter . wild-beast. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. verberare kUts. head. claquer. resono ictu lash. gliong. gingle. Rouchi clincailleux. — Catcli-poll. a clap. e. to take. fragor kletsoore. seize. icarrix'Ki^.. a whip. companaige. Fr. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. klinke. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. Tutschek. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. called in Fr. Gr. called dog or Galla catchamza. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort).P. and answer. Wal. to crack GATES cache. KaTtix'so. from shutting with a click. . to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. ecachoire. happe-chair. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. an accusing. catc?u. silkworm. chacepol. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. chassoire. chink. weevils. blow. — B. On Catechism. Sc. a. Kartiyopta (/cari. catch. in order). 135 — Aasen. dainty vic- a form lash. woodlice. Caterer. i. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . In the XV'e. klatschen. clap. G. Kil. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. P. a — gatta. sound. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. Kil. to harangue. Claucht. is said that he got a claucht of it. s. cagnon (a dog). clap with the hand. * Cates. E. has both or of charming by sound.V.' CATCH Fr. to catch strength. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. quincailler. 'Bxn. chachara. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. to the crack. to chat. — tinman. dainties. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. a smack. Metivier. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. snatching.from Bard and ayopsw. Gael.yopl(. a caterpillar Milanese can. to snap. children's name for cat . properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. . to teach by oral instruction. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. Du. catch-flesh. snatching it with a any one.

kocianki. the caul of the liver. kautsije. to burn. puss. and at the rich man's cost By sea. a mare. cauHs. chauderon. A warm comforting drink. and spareth for no perell. Cathedral. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. Ka^afriKOQ. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. dumpf tonen. cautus). cale. Caustic. It. is used in the sense of cat-skin. calotte. kitten kotki. Russ. cale. chaussJe. — Cauterise. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. Fin. despencier. catkin Pol.Lat.^ acheter (Lat. chair. OE. Thus Bav. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. catkin Magy. kopista. Palsgr. Delycates. lamb. net or caul-work. Gael. Mid. catkin mitz. to sound like a blow . — com en achate or buying Chaucer. Cavalier. a pavement. from chaud. puss. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. apt to burn iron. reticella. Palsgr. a road calceata.. • — — See Chattel. a horse . to ac- — Fr. kobuiV. primitive is meaning a shale or off. Fr. achepter. but the acates that are sent him. Fr. shaled or picked Fr..' Elyot in Way. a pulpit. Lat. a horseman. catons. The word — . Catkin. . acater. minon. Kil. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. 4. kobyla. Fr. cautis. . a The peel. It. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. Gr. ' Gr. hazel. chausser. hollow. rete A — Prov. Caution. the stones of a street. and hence a skull-cap. chevalier. kaussijde. fur in general. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. It. chaudiire. Cauldron. kassije. Du. flock. Cattle. 2. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. acaptar. otherwise written kell. Richly she feeds. That he was ay before in his estate. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. whence cathedralis. adcaptare. On the other hand. catkins . — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. Fr. a kettle for heating water. &c. little cap is . caudex .—— — 136 correct. Wyatt in R. to shale or peel. Boethius. koparet. cavaliere. Mid. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. Kavrijp. . Fr. Lat. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. a kind of skull-cap. cabbage-stalk. kocie. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. Cavern. G. w. chatideau. cabbage. from caveo (p. hot. quire. to beware.Lat.' B. Pol. mudet. deyntie meates. Lat. Causeway. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. Cave. a stalk. walnut with the husk on challer. . from delf^gato. Port. Cavity. any Fl. KiwariKog. a branding from koiio. — — cavallo. KaHSpa. to buy. cal^ar. mutz. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. Dryden in R rete. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. Lat. caple. what . the. Jonson in R. Rete. Pr. It. accattare. puss. fur. CATHARTIC sense. from KaSaipio. a horse . calidus. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. Cause. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. . Fr. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. Jaubert. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. having the property of cleansing. CAVE Caul. Cathartic. Du. Gr. Caballus. — . by land. accapitare Rouchi acater. causa. a horse.p. kdtzchen. caballus. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound.willow. macska. Fr. Fr. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. katteken. hot. choufleur {choii. Caudle. a seat. Provider. Diez). kin. cavus. Bessie of Bednall.Y\\Xea. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. klopfend knallen. Chaud. cheval. calqada. cabbage). . calceata. caldo. little cat. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. challe was ther of a temple. Gr. Lat. cat maczoka. flue. kopano. via strata. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. Fr. Kavrfipiov. Lat. KaPaWrii. Cavalry. calceta. Manciple's Tale. make clean. to purge. chaudroii. a paved road. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . to shoe . ce^l. It.^Hal. capull. katte. Sx. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. also to pave . . to shoe. Fr. Cavalcade. a receptacle for small things. green husk of a calon. is Prologue. B.

that.j have come from this source. selar. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. a plank. as if from happen. is applied to a canopy. thel. augm. CAVESON kopera or kowera. VIII. syl. coffer. Ceiling. komista. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. In the same way G. excess. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. B. but hang around at the sides. death. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. Lat. Wore. lambrisser une chambre seeling. ceiling. to argue capto tiously. decessus. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. hollow. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over.' Ordinances and Reg. Lat. Cede. deal. and that from Sp. Fr. caveqon. . &c. kapp-zaum. cielo. column E. hivtmel. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. The It. cease. sus-lambris. wall. or of a bed. A — A false accommodation produced G. Cavil. cesso. ciel de lit. . an aquiline nose. a canopy. succeed.'— Z.' Cot. cavillor. . . heaven. — . thili. door-sill J Sc. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. Cot. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. empty. . Fr. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. wainscot thiljar (in pi. -ceed. a planking or boarding tkilian. . the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa.' Rutland papers. In the N. little house. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. selure. nailes will begin to cling. with their substantives concession. beam. &c. The line of descent from Fr. Soc. koppeli. See -cede. and Gol. -cede. p. — komo tain). . . And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. Cam. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. The sense of roofing. sill. del into English without ' translation gave cele. Lat. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. the inner roof of a room of state. thiling. Boyd in Jam. sky. H. a boarded floor. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. To seele a room. rafter. a severe bridle. of cavezza. board . cabegon. to go forth.' — Gawan . menuiserie. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . 43. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. a hut.' Marriage of James IV. a halter.' del. It. thilja. cabega. to canopy siled.). From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. were met. Lat. cavezzone. pp. -cease. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. to seele or close with boards plancher. lambris. tester of a bed. in Hal. dil. and then to gape. komo. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. . quibble.. E. departure from this life. to panel or wainscot MHG. sybire. departure. Hal.. hollow. in Jam. kommata. Sherwood. Fr. give place. and zaum. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. Sir 137 pit . also a seeling of boards. a log. flooring E. syle. in Jam. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. —Decease. . the deck of a ship at thilja. the testern of a bed. post. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. 5. hollow ice . . dille. to plank or floor with planks. proceed. So from Fin. crooked kopio. a head. &c. — . Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry.' Hall.). a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. p. sill in window-sill. recede. a beam. cessum. step away. a log. Plancher. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. as. ceiling. heaven. curved. the roof of a coach. Hence concede. cellar. cedo. dScis. a fir-plank. thil. . In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. . hung. cyling (W. Cease. ciel is so unbroken. to plank ON. seele. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. jaa. of E . a board. — — — toyour soverane. 32. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. applied to a canopy. thelu. plank. exceed. And seik — Cessation. 7. &c. dayntily diglit. -cess. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. semely on syll. Gawaine & Sir Gol. thil. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. wuoren komo. plank. IV. The importation of Fr. a log. Sp. to cut. yield. bridle. a canopy. canopied. Fr.

cigliare. Lat. -ciper. and put it through the over eyelydde. and met. decide. cerealis. Gr. &c. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. ciglio. to seele or sew up the eyelids . make angry.' Book of St Albans. parted sleep. incense. Gr. Sherwood. with transposition hence (of a day). Ceremony. to be regarded as one celebro. OFr. See Cede. the talk of men. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. receipt. to contend. is the opposite of disora virum. ' . criticism.of the r. To chafe is for wine.). Cij(fe5j. 1. stones to the production of heat. rough from the quarry. censura. cceremonia. -civer {conciver— Roquef. the officer appointed to take such returns . to -sum. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. calefare. cencer. To seel or close the eyes. Chafe.. point. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. sting. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. and so of that other. -i^oivre. judge. census. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. value. Lat. Census Censor. and make them faste und the becke that she se not.— Cellar. quarters for slaves. eyelid. cenio. hollow. an eyelash. In Celebrate. -ceptjun. distinIt. oil. Celebrity. thronged the participle cretus. to twinkle darkness. Assess. from censeo. and thence censer. judge Lat. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. Gr. Lat. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. syll. siller les yeux. to glow. concernor. Ta^oe. to distinguish. to celebrate. also grave opinion. in accordance with the Fr. in comp. assess. Fl. Cess. -cevoir. Lat. his office. — — Cenotapli. — . -cepire. concetto. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. is totally distinct from the foregoing. deceipt. to sepap rate. . Gr. Censure. Accelerate. to bury). then to rub without reference Cement. K^'ivut.ing a room where there is not fire. to think. a shaft horse. Lat. Fr. but was gradually lost in conceit. ciller. Lat. Take the nedyll and threde. abundance. a Cemetery. Centurion. to take. or expression of Ennius. camentum. Coehim. contend. what to set in a chafe. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. crevi. zens according to their property. census. -cipio. a valuation of every man's estate. Censer. Lat. -cess. Cot. a storehouse Chafe. being taken from Fr. The term cilium.. pick out. a hundred centuria. festive. cella. to set on fire. to warm. cretum. guish. oil.' Celebritas. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. Certain. Lat. to prick. Centre. ceremonia. with the eyes. — . swift. Century. deceit. Censor. Fr. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. to rub for the purpose a hut. to attend on object with. chauffer. &c. -CEIVE a shaft. materials It. calefacere. Fr. see. For sess from assess. keep in It.). in comp. to sleep). goad. and thence to conceal. to blindfold. (and thence also) to hoodwink. capturn. — . Cot. Lat. Fr. as in some places burnt. — . S.cern. we have a modified form of (of a place). to rate. candeo. Fr. Fr. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. sacred show. appertain. decebre) . from Saa-rw. confounded ist from It. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. age. a registration of one's self. single or unwedded life. — . -cense. Lat. the point round which a circle is drawn. Prov. a solemnity. much frequented. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. -ceive. Fr. See Celibacy. heaven. to take. Fr. To Incense. centum. the place where the de. irot\oe. Incensum. blind. the hollow the Lat. -cebre ifoncebre. a solemnity. for building. -cern. estimate. -oept. dchauffer. of heating. or any bird's. sift. a hundred of what- — .Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. to concern. sile. /ctj/rsw. eschattffer. Lat. to visit in numbers. Cell. a prick. solemn (of per. riscaldarsi. to chafe. a tomb. Celerity. a numerous con. renown be embodied with. sure. celeber certus. become heated with anger. rubble.j 138 thill. mortar. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. tax. cilibat. Assize. capio. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. Sc. empty. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. encens. to burn incendo. caber. . celer. tax. {cori)cipere. Lat. to course of people. -cepere. as entering largely into the derivative certo. a religious observance. chaufferette. to heat. cillier. to seal a pigeon's eye. Lat.unmarried. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it.— Chafing-dish. and — — — possessions. concerner. conceipt. -ceit. cot. in Marsh. It. judge. KsvTpov. thence belonging to or connected with corn. — A . to separate. family. It. to incense. Cereal. — . observe.

— — — — — — . with a:n arched roof. De Ir4. fern-chafer. So from dominio. calumnia. — — ' — — — A . kauchen. clamare. much blowing. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. Fl. Fr. Lat. ceafer. thick and short. also to prattle. place See Cheek. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. kiamta. refuse barley . keffen. on. bargain. signal by drum or P. in a cana. cathedra.. chafeter. charge with. sagrindse. refuse. kuhata. limare. B. calx. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. much more Genoese sagrind. cadera. care. a vault or arched roof. that leneth e per I'autra. Gr. To buy and sell. any insect of the beetle kind. to Latin calumniare. contestation. Du. leviter crepo Then. &c. to buzz. and signifies to consume with anger. breathe hard. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. Fr. a rustling noise. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. rustling motion challenge. Hal. chaps Chamber. kiaftr. to pant. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. rustling corn. to file. far lima-lima. from of the G. from Swiss kafeln. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. Pr. songe. ing a hard case to their wings. Chalice. P. Fr. Prov. to ner It. Chain. a goba rustling . Lat. vis. rustle Challenge. chaise. — — — . catena. to caw chawer. to fret inwardtronfo. to move the jaws. KoBiSpa. a pulpit Cot. ing rapidly repeated cries. From to go to law. (ca'e'ra) to chair. and as this was the beginning of man. Gr. to babble. 35. chaire.' Rayn. matter by combat. kuhista. G. fa sagramen de calompnia. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio.nium. cadena. havOFr. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. Halma. Bouffard. to puff and blow. Pers. to call. hiss. Fr. baras of ants. jaw. — — — . cam. calonja. calice. Fr. kedja. to chatter or talk lightly. calix. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. of. shaIt. Cot. taubes korn oder hafer. Lat. puffed or ruffled with ly. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. kahuja. grief. chaine. tattle cheep. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. Fr. have a mind to parley. Probably from According to Diez.— — . Chagrin. Perhaps Pm. or puff with snorting. chicane. cadieira. a prattling woaction. Piedm. false accusation. kdfelen.. as a carriage is a moveable seat. camera. Prov. hght Chalk. E. sborfare. Ayenbite. kdfer. . vel susurro. puff. avena vilior. — . Lat. kahista. . gewolb. khah. a double operation * Chafer. chafing. Lat. now a chair. to institute anforensic action. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. to claim. Cheffern. Chair. Kuttn. Fr. cup. chaulx. a jackdaw. chambre. talkative. Chayire. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. kaff. Lat. muzzle. grief. chatter. from the shark-skin. call in question for an ley). dispute. Bav. In like manto huff. chaene. G. to dispute. chawe. kuhina. 11. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . snort. keuchen. ckapfare. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. Lat. chagrin. Du. cadena gives chain. Prov. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. Camera. Came. chamar. a pulpit. hordeum vel let. Adelung. The jaw chafty. care. snuff. From Port. preise. often puffing. chaffare.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. tattle. chalanger. yap. to bark. to calumpnjamen. chayire. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. Wall. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. . great chafe. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. rally one. p. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. to gnaw. From the To Chaff. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. OFr. fume. In vulgar language. crooked. kahu. to gnaw. ceaf. Due. de Brai. ple^. . Fr. Fr. . as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. kuhuja. calonjar. to action arose. to tattle. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). kever. lime . cauvette. breathe KaOa^oiiat. in a monstrous fume. cathedra. kiqfta. Kaiiapa. sagri. Fr. as. Fin. lime. idle words. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. ^Altieri. a chain. haggle. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this.sure carriage. to a seat. a chough. dongio. to sit. quisquilise offence. green sagrin. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. tronfio. ON. kaff. difficulty . without chap/are makiinde. swelling with anger. Pat. Cot.

To Chamfer. dial. . The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. compound. . giving rise to the as. campus. a warrior. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. Prov.—Tutschek. boys speak of capping verses. to fasten on. to . mesleiare. to fall). champ. hero Sw. Pm. chamble. e. a bundle. fight. Lat. camerlengo. to slope. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. to debate. to Hal. champ parti. to fasten oneself to another . to — — champ. chajnbellan . The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . Sup. sukibti. top of a borehole. to wrestle. to hang. a scufSe. calida et sans aguet. to fasten oneself on to another . broil. a jaw kianisa. chamfrain. fray. cempa. kimpustella. dricka i kapp. cadere. accident. kiammi. Champaign. or player at football. caer. certare. to groove bevel off a right angle.' SherI'altro ' ' . to paw the ground E. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing.—Charfron E. to strive at games . reusement — fight in single combat. to fall. kimbu. surpassing. Du. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. from cheoir. . rare. bundle. . hot. The happening of things Chance. dial. pinch. chanfreindre. a court of justice. an athlete. jocus partitus. champ. kampeln. who stood ad cancellos. a hollow chanfreiner. chance. Gall. The G. Lat. kempen. chain. E. difficulty .Lat. kibti. to excel. dial. move the jaws. to quarrel (comp. Sp. — KiL . Champarty. campear. from Fr. Sp. Meleare. When the to quarrel. chanfrein. Campar. ciamberlano. to hollow out. fighting place. Chancery. to flute as a column. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. kabe. Commonly derived from campus.edley. to smack the lips in eating.' ' Pr. Fr. pedilusor. Lith. excellent. — masterly Sp. chanfrein. cameratus. Hence (with the nasal) w. as in It. received the petitions of the suitors. chdance. from chaud. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. ing. a horse-race. zampettare. To cope or contend with. cazer. to slope out the . chance. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . differs only in the transposition of the letter m. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. Fin. Fr. Fr. s. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). contention kappi. tsammogni. jeu parti. dial. champion Du. calidameya. i. kappd). to be eminent. kimppu (Lap. cahir. ON. contest. combat. gewolbt. fight. schmatzen s.140 CHAMBERLAIN . Get campers a ball To camf . game campio. act of falling. champ. which seems another form of the root. Champion. to happen {ad and cadere. . accidere. chaude mesUe. hamper. zs jeopardy. luctare. slope of a bevelled angle. termediaries between them and the judge. to bevel. Chancel. —Chamfrain. and mesUe. — ^Tusser. bickering. therewithal. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. a feat. Partnership. dispute Hal. kiinp. champ. kabMe. cancelli. escazenza. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . camp. to talk. dial. kabintis. . The word is preserved in E. campus partitus . athlete. is explained by serrarsi. kampeln. kapp. cample). Fr. to tread The sound heavily. Magy. kanip. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm.' melleia. to hold . Carpentier. — Ch-amberlain. hng. See Camp.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. kinipen. G. Fr. at the railings. to to chew champ. to cample. to move the jaws kiamt. Chance-n3. kimpUma. To hollow out in chanPtg. a game at football. to wrestle. contend or argue G. Lat. kempa. as swine. chanfrar. . Chamfron. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. ciambellano. Chancellor. . or less ignorant. and acted as inofficers of . wood. kriimmen gebogen. divided game. keiiipe. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. kablys. ON. a field of battle. M. camp. So in e. campar. The E. Ptg. kampen. E. to chew. head armour. Dief. — Hal. nels. gekrUmmt. a hook . Champ. tsamtsogni. ON. camp. the chafldn. to stick to. kabinti. Prov. kippo. CHANCEL It. prize-fighter. It will. kampa. Lat. Fr.

chapa. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. exchange schimbatoriu. Hal. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. from chandler. ON. —Ordericus Vitalis. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. cambiar. to strike. See Chant. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. a strip of metal plate. exchange. chapeta. not a soul. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. muzzle. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. chapeletas de imbornales. A fellow. Chap. kjaakaa. as chancery . a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . Chaps or chops. the mouth. In like manner Walach. It is also used in the sense of the E. chancellerie. schimbu. — : Lat. schimbd. chaps. Hence It. prune. as corn-chandChandry. to chap at a door. waterconduit. to cut. Fr. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . Du. as to chap hands. clapet. Chandler. the clappers of the scupper holes. to cut up into small pieces. That wide were sentin their spicery. and the modern canal. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. chiappa. . esclapa. kemma. shift. from canna. to plate. gab. chancery. chapelete de una bomba. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. And N. cambium.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. ceaplas. — . esclapo. kapoti. and also to chap or crack. Walach. 140. chapear. Lang. the place where candles ler. extended to other trades. lips of an animal. 2. to creak. to — cut. cantare. wood. to strike with a sharp edge. to truck. Lat. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. Prov. the loose flesh of the cheeks. klepan. Fr. as It. Chip. Sc. to swap. also a clap. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. jaw. like the knocking of hard things together. ^Jam. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. See Chop. to put on fresh clothes. kiceft as well as kjakje. cheek. Sp. Chap. chapilla. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. chanter. throat of an animal. to peck. to apply one flat thing to another. chandelier. Lith. jaw. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. to peck. to coat. To Change. Chape. may be compared with ON.^. Sp. any hollow for conveying water. to sing. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. a jaw. Bret. kvar kjceften. . a chap is a crack or fissure. Hal. cambiare. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. from clap. . E. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. Man of Law's Tale. chop. hack . as those on a trunk. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. Channel. Fr. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. is used in the same sense . Commonly derived from capella. changer. chap. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. are kept. chop. exchange. debeant conjurare. I. hard bodies. the gutter that runs along a street. kiceft. —Chantry. Da. Russ. to strike. Fr. cangiare. Chapel. leather. a dealer in candles then. properly in a hard body. — — —Marculfus in Due. kennel. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. to deal. a small metal plate Port. to break . Chop. . . Cheek. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. to cut off . Probably from chap. the chaps . a small plate of flat metal. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. a pipe. Da. skipta. Chap. flat . to plate. Aasen. to change. to hack. kaupa. as skin chapped hands. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. W. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. a reed. or the cracking of one. Compare chark. to spht a chip. canalis. kappen. chap. AS. to paw like a horse . while the broader vowels a. Hence chantry. Molbech. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. surfaces striking together. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. or the like chapar. cobio. ceaflas. camjar. a money-changer.

to talk . w. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. as a beetle. Chapter. Hence carminare. Lat. cedeleac. OE. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. Mid. affection. cerran. dear(in both senses). cher um cher. ghirlanda seor garland. carmen. a garland of roses. to converse. Fr.Lat. chat. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. See Charlatan. colliers that charred coal. return. prattling quacksalver. Fr. chapelet. It. in To ness Charity. for the same reason rosario. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. carmo. grave or make incised marks on an ob. to turn Gael. gnash. — a car. from capitulum. be- e. which was incantation. turn. Sup. corona. * Charcoal. Charade.charme. creak. 370. charlatan. Inst. A weed among com AS.whirr. a turn cerran. charcoal burners. gaggle . Lat. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. surris seu Lat. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. tegere. Fr. The crash. to of the governing body. .). It. tattler. carus. Charlatan. charlar. capella. Chare. . chatter. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. An enchantment. of chapel. —— . Deutsch. canne. dear. chapitre. bler. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. pohadka. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . And it can hardly be doubted Dief. Justin. keeren. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. Charge. ceap-man. The G. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . caricare. czurksti. a mark made on a thing. to sing or chirp as birds. babbling. carricare. decken. go. . From Norm. Lat. that turned decken . krachzen). to prattle. from cape or cope. to croak as a frog . it is my turn. Du. jabber. a head or division of a book. Lay on. Fr. cluck kirklys. a riddle. used in the sense of magic Fl. schreien. Macduff. charger. kurkelis. Prov. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. .. See Cheap. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. chirriar. from Charade. seems to be derived charade.czirksti. to chirp. Cot. — — — turned to coal. char. from carrus. chara. to turn. a verse. car. To Char. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. to . Sp. to chirp as sparrows. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. charitas. a cricket karkti (schnarren. beloved. chapel. eapitulo. from gadai. capellare. to tattle. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. and in It. cearcian. carregar. charade. a dispute . to creak. the turtle pitre. condo il volgar francese. chirk. occasional turn. cam. Sp. Chaplet. w. twist. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. Swiss. twitter. ject). hadka. es ist mi cheer. a rhyme. as Pol. Chirk. It. from capa. to prattle. AS. a hood. wreath for the head. called kedlock. babdistinction. eyre. cabildo. turn about. Sp. Yx. charge an enemy is to lay on. czurliwoti. Mundart. a riddle. Lith. dim. caritas. cha. properly to place — . Chapman. the nature of a thing. czirbti. And damned be he who first cries Hold. a mark of a mountebank. creak.' Boccaccio in Diez. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. in turns. to chirp. capital. It. a charm. . Fr. to load . (eucharistie. Chark. Ptg. capitolo. AS. to love. 2. as. charer. Charlock. to dove . equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. gadka. a merchant. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. cluck. wood to coal. to charcoal. chatter. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. Bret. ciarlatore. karout. clack. chirlar. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. In that work the verb is written caire. Lang. Gr. Charcoal was ciarlare. Boh. siarad (pronounced — sharad). enough. a The OFr. kirkti. hiss Lith. Character. &c. burning without consuming the substance. kurkti. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. called in Sp. talking. — spell.

To Chasten. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. chip. — Palsgrave. the handle of a razor . — The . to care). chits. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. carmen is presented in AS. incassare. Chasm. careful. nommer. Magy. a flock of those birds. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. Pol. Fl. germinate . chick. — sharp sound of a crack. limpid. make a noise as birds do.— Chatter. — Hal. kastaa. chikat'. used to represent a sharp note. D. — — . the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. noise. Du. To talk. as. to wet. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. a chatter-box. pure. tittle-tattle. ferire. cassa s. pure. fragments. jackdaw . shivers. chary. To chitter or chipper. See Card. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. To chit. to talk. Gr. gallan or ogan. a twig Suffolk chaits. kata-kata. to chirp. To Chase. from xoAn. letters p. chit-chat. B.— Chit. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. to crack. the bird is iiown. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. It. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. as turnip-chaits. castus. chair. charmer. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. So in Gael. Fr. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained.. to gape. the calix of a rose. It. clatter. To chip is then to crack. OE. to crack. chit. chaste. chit in the latter sense Du. cs E. prate. as in the E. also to hatch. carnisj bones kept. carme and Fr. a churchyard or charnel-house. cyrm. chip. warble. gazzettare. The egg is chipped. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. castus. —Chastise. Chamel. a plate of metal. to clap. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. Fr. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. Kil. V. to cut and faggoted. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. prattle. gazzogliare. Pm. the cry of the bat. %aafi.). Diez. — Yorkshire chat. Chat-wood. —Jam. ch). schioppare. knacken. as we speak of olive branches. to make a noise. tenax. Cot. Parallel with E. clean. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. Cot. scraps of for fuel. Fl. In like manner Russ. a branch. ch&tier. speak . shout OE. clean. Kil. to chatter or prattle . — We ornamental work the to signify E. Russ. Pol. Chart. g. noise. is to represent the chamier. to burst open. gazzolare. Chary. sordidus. nome and . warble. It. converse. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. geug. chip. flesh. be wide open. See Cistern. to chirp. a young man . enchasser. Fr. or equivalent forms. whence a charm of goldfinches. to set a jewel. It t. or pop. It. the young shoots . niggardly. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . From carinen was formed It. or a bird out of the egg. chisf. To Chase. little sticks cudere. Lat. Malay. csatora (Magy. czysty. whistle. s. or the cry of a bird or the like. from purus. to separate in morsels. . To work plate as silversmiths do. blackthorn-chats. caro. a crack or a flaw . discourse. gazzerare. . chaste. parcus. CHATS fit 143 to name.). gazeuiller. xi'i-'^vui. talk much . the noise of birds. clack. chick.ppen. — Fr. G. also a youth. —Charter.house. csaterdzni. cearig (from cearian. i. csacsogni. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. fragments or leavings of food. Lat castigare. charm. —Bailey. pure. talk. knatiern. snap. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. karigh. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). Chaste. from pure. karg. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. a yawning. kippen. gadu-gadu. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. Chat. — = Chats. a gap. to baptize. kna. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. An imitative word. clean. chykkyn (Pr. occasionally Forby. eclats.a. a branch and a young female. la chasse d'une rose. or suckers on rough borders. clear. a shrine for a relic. to cry as a chicken . chatter. as purgare Fr. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. to which it bears the same relation as chape. splinters. as from nomen It. gaddc. See Catch. in Jam. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. root of the Lat. to enchase it . clap. a word. to chirp as a bird to cheep. kata. racket . also to germinate or spring forth. Fr. magpie. chat. Hal. crackle. csacsogany. an enchantress.

The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. It. kaupa. with Dief. The gutGoth. citello. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. horse-couper. Pm. truffa. with the exception of land.— Chaps. ku. farm for farm. welcome heartily. jaw. chire. teeth . gagkern. a dealer. chear in the sense of victuals. chaptel. look. in widely separated languages by the Lat. koopen. chop. a tavern-keeper. agreeing upon. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. Lat. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. kek. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. snout. Bohem. Cot. kakkaset.. e. to fetch the breath with difficulty. OFr. to make inarticulate sounds in . Ingulphus. a repulse. bon marche.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr.kakot.of the throat in coughing. Chear. visage. Check. to nauseate (to retch). Cheat. cachinnari. KaviiXog. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse.. to clear the throat . and hence the E. chiere. changing. upon a checked cloth.— Cattle. G.' to exchange to gasp. See Cheek. chavylbone or chawlbone. Faire bonne chire. Pr. — To check an account. a rogue or person who used the canting language. to cough and hence either buying or selling. countenance. ceafl. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. equiva. Slav. favour. stuttering. lower. the face.—Choke. Gr. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . entertainment. Ek dry and hard. and. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. s. the countenance Fr. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. Fr. a canting knave. ceahhetan. Pro v. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. chuckle. See Chess. CHATTELS has ciio. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. to coff—Yisi. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. 'li^'opa jord i jord. stuttering. us. Fl. choule. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap.ing. aspect of a man. kak. whence captale. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. kok. to cluck like a hen.— . 144 the It. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. Sp. from AS. the tongue. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. to buy. Fin.' kezen. to laugh. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. cozener. sense of bargaining. Modern Slang. gagkezen. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. kaupon. cheeks. to act as a rogue. Soc. &c. to — . syllables ^ag-. giggling. . force of the word. keck. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. mandibula. goods. gig. chatel. ceap. lead to OE. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. caupo. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. . It — Brompton in Due. cera. the principal ' colloquial E. a willing look and unwilling heart. kaufen. to . CHEEK zitella. a young boy or girl. from Lat. while it Bret. any cheating. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. Du. society. a dealer in horses. goods. Bav. . It. chapman. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. Fr. to chop and change. et juxta catalla sua. Chattels. Cam. catalliim. in Fr. to stutter gigken. hawkmann. . Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. to buy. sale. entertain kindly. tradesman. Chew. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter.— Chole. OFr. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. prattlingchete. NE. kik. cita. kauf. sum in a loan. cattle.-^. to deal ON. cattle. are represented piti. Sc. laughing. ceaflas. the Confessor. chatal. exAS. . kichen. kakaista. Then. price. — — —Chowl. to coup s. which is the word in ceap. to swap goods . kaupiti. cara. kikottaa. retching. a piece of moveable property. to negotiate. jaws. dchec. Hal. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. giving or taking in exchange. sob E. — We ' . Hence to cheat. thers. which is used in the to stutter. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. capitale. a cheater. to vomit.. the Lat. frown. cattle. Cheek.

to kep. caru. the neck. cufd. In these latter forms we see the transIt. Du. Chevaux de frise. E. The name of creak as shoes. Chef. kikna of dorum coacervatio. cyse. scacco. make an end. jaws. ichec. Hence kikna is identical with OE. food. — — . Lat. the hke. It. kces. to swallow. old bread. dersen . kistej Lat. It would Cheese. acquisition. to prevent the attack of cavalry. Chevisance. accomplishment cayed. kopen. cheek. caws. kdkel. schach. rupted into chess.. e. carnium. frame by which the exertion is made. geafl. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. castaneusj Fr. to gasp. subacidus. Pm. to choke with laughter. Kil. chevron. gill of fish AS. — — . for cheese itself. gous forms are G. caseus. the mouth. X'C&s. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. Fin. cese. schach. See Case. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. throat. by laying up in a covered heap. by laying it in come to an agreement with.their struggle for independence. Lith. An imitative word. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. whence czypulas. chaps. Du. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. Chemistry. a cricket. Cherry. chesten. kjceve. CHE. kikna. E. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. the The use of the word kcesir. kdke. to belch. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. jowl.perly head. chiffe. ceg. Lat.peep in the same sense. . As the board to gasp i. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. See Chess. w.koppen. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. Fr. E. Sp. cisty G. the loose the game of checks. incaseatus. cherir. quoka. Sw. skratt. the throat. Lat.. quok. jaw. — — . subsequently corflesh about the jaws . whence kasa-leipa. gapen. Sc. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. to boken. cams. Chess. . chops. AS. squeak as a mouse. ceac. w. Prov. cegio. to make a noise different word. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase.EP CHEVRON 145 on. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. hasten. cough. ON. kesten. prevail with. w. ost. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. OHG. AS. chasi. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. czypti. things Da. Analo. gullet. achever. Chekenyd or querkenyd. a heap. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. the palate Chequer. cerasus. cabiron. condition of being taken. Hence chesten-nut. Fris. to accomThis they call hdrsk. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. kastanie. cheken. rennet. the final guttural is retained in writing. Sp. nish source. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. kaecke. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. F*-. to kasa. . Fr. Sw. giffle. G. Fr. gabe. as meat and butter. veluti piscium. made rancid koka. To Cheep. jaw . See Alchemy. &c. mouth kek. to heap up such things for the purchoke. dear. jaw. kastr. kjakje. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. chevir. jouffle. kirsche. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. . kapen. Jam. ceaflas. cheeks. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. to hold dear. G. like a young chicken. kasa. to bring to an end. geagl. to year. From them the plish. Fr. kjcebe. treat with affection. Sc. a chicken. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. equal squares of opposite colours. Lith.pose of acidifying them kasadr. Fr. clear the throat. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. jaws Sw. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours.' to w. Da. practice seems to have been communiChevron. cabrio. cireggia. Tutschek. N. as. Cherish.D. Achievement. Pl. to love. subjected to this process with that which the throat . E. (Kil. ca' — .G. Prothroat of an animal . chests in OE.D. mollium congeries.Xo belch. throat. ation. To make a shrill noise Chest. gaghel. xaque. ceaplas. chAtaigne. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. /Ji2^/(W. cheek. to gape gab. takes place in the formation of cheese. king). a rafter . Thus "we are brought din. Cher. . chops. to choke. suffo. then end. kasiiUPr. the mouth or so marked are called chequered.cirieggia. AS. Lat. The Sw. cheek. ceocian. — 10 . cista. cerise j G. kok. rattle in the throat. rafters in heraldry.). to geahl. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. gap.

Fin. Chime. Chief. and from the third E. gills of a fish. E. grelot). kime. jaws . The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. Gattel. pole. pipio. a hen. 'Among these the G. kaau•wen. chicaner. antler. machouere. to titter is Du. Fr. See Chimmer. gosling. Fl. as. G. knit the brow cib-led.— Gattel. Chill. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. or chick. deer's horn. For the see word Doit. has probably the same origin. from the first of which is Lith. the head. De finger killet mi for kalte. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. AS. horn wood.. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. kaw.D. Chimb. kindeken. when the vibrations become very rapid. a young bird. by driblets. captain. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. — Du. czypulas. chicken. Palsgr.. to use the jaws. alter. while didder is to shiver or citteren. to scold. A To Chew. to chirp or peep like a chicken.. kouwe. chimb. chicoter. and not vice versd. . chiler. then as G. a chicken. : — a lump. kilderkin. kippa. Halm. Brezza. E. rafter. to the brim. — . cabar. the young of animals in general. stake. ' . chikat'. klagend tonen. from little to little. ultimate origin of the Mite. — Fin. Fin.-ill. Da. ach. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. . kinderen. Pr. tiukka. pipe. chieftain. CHEW . The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. pululo. to crackle. Lat. zitterti. to pettifog. queror. Chaw. Russ. Pm. kuwe. beam. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. tintelen van koude. chavel. or as E.— Cot. also the horizon. The Pl. Probably from Fr. Du. Tintillo. choule. mouth. kibr. Magy. kimme. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. capo. tremble with cold. cidan. E. kitista. Walach. Pl. in Walach. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. as pointing out the origin of the E. tiukkua. aner. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. chin. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. or qf people talking rapidly. Chick. cabarach. pi. De chic en chic. G. chillness or shivering. chavel. Bret. chef. a finch. pipio. Chitter. from the second Lat. rafter . caferu. hiss as meat on the gridiron. cib. The loss of the syllable it in Du. kimia. branchy. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. w. capu. chill. cabriones. to contest about trifles. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. the same principle I regard On birds. chiquei. lead through the synonymous E. the throat. are formed Du. Fin. kop. caput. to go.^ to resound as a bell. — — Mother Hubbard. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. term is ssaru fu.peep. kopf Du. Imitative of a loud clear sound. kauchen. horns of the house. killen. cild. a quid of tobacco. tyuk. Now gan some courage unto him to take. to raise the rim. chaps. to chew. And hence. keichen. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. It. kauwe. Chigue. W. to twitter. Pm. jaw. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. crepo. cica cica. CHJME the radical form is unusual. k'imm s. into a continuous shriU sound. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. 146 brial. cap. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. head. capete. killen. chillrar. mountain top . strideo. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. kidata. tiuk. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. caprioru. or the broken noise of birds. knarren. a cup cibaw. chol.^ Hal. the Ptg. Sp. a small cask OFr. pip. Child. tremble.. acute. tiukkata. — It. the least imaginable jot. kieken. . knirschen. chawbone. while the Magy. cheek. quivering sound which passes. to contest. Fr. To chitter. kauen. Fl.— . cabar beinne. to gasp for breath (Hal. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. Kil. Payer chiguet A chiguet. a cup. signifying properly shivering. a head. a little bit. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. then cold. a chicken. s. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . to Du. To Chide. creak. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. greloter is to shiver for cold. Swiss kiden. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. kimista^ . a cup. kind. chic. a jaw. rafter . Prov.' my finger tingles with cold. sonorous. Fr. chillar. to smart. the cry of young . Gael. the rim or edge of a vase. twitter. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. cebr. jaw. Pr.D.). the jole. chew or chaw. to chime. a chicken. ]). Du.

G. zirpen. — . zirken. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. keich husten. chin . cisello. the chine. the cheek. in Hal. the jaw. have been used to designate the spine. to prattle czirpti. dial. sparkle. sounding deep. shiver and the chyver of Pr. Fr. killed by Bellerophon. flaw Hal. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. It. as birds the mouth. cheek. Pm. Du. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. eschine. and light. — . Fr. clipping of coin. as a large bell . sound. Chyrme or chur. tschirpen. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. skina. . quivering or shakyng for colde. Chit. do. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. and chim-mer. to creak. ciarlare. to sizel. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. resonance . a fire-place. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. a surkik hosta. kink hoest. gen.. — — — — — . G. to squeak in It. schiena. Chink-cough. stridere. The small entrails of a hog. the jaw. caperd. backBut she withal no worde may soune. cinne. eschiner. See Bright.schricken. then of a fabulous monster part goat. to sound deep or the Gr. . Hindost. and the Du. schrick. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses.). hiss Pm. vincially used in the sense of a crack. klincken. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . Chitterling. Lat.iron. schetteren. to tremble. Prov. sound on beginning to boil. Chimera. genou (pi. tinnire. schetteringe. the chin . The change from the sound ter \s. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. chhint. Chine. simmer. name Then. Sp.to divide or Du. E. . To chink with laughter. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. komista. It. czirszkti. It. to chine. as a bell kommata. from 10 * ' Chia. 147 kimina. Gascoigne in Todd. Sp. Pr. kieck hoest. Sw. to chirre. It. kumina. twinkling light. disCot. a chink or fissure. yivtiov. Chimney. epine. the whooping cough. Fr. Gower in Hal. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. Chat. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. eschin^e (de pore). cinan.sharp. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick.czirbti. a Kuttn. hollow. Primarily a shrill sound. or chyFrigutus. Cot. applied to tremulous motion.Lat. Kil. sonants. schina. komia. a thorn. j^lf. from Lat. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. a hall Mid. to creak. which differ from each other only as Chirk. tsengeni. up and down. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. Magy. chick. in the same crack. hiss chirlar. In the same sense. Diez de. but or cry as a parrot. esquina. The desig. a szemrcU. to chirp . Sp. caminsects. hus. the cheek (jaw) . Chip. and bodily movement in shimm. fissure. See Chap. Chin-coug^h. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body.. Bav. ciseau (for cisel). . gena. spina. sonus the backbone Lat. the mouth (jaws) . to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. chits. to tattle. crepare.to chirp. pare also Walach. bx-eak the back of schena. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. et garrire . chatter . Huloet. part lion. tremulous motion. to chirp. Chink. to sound. cincel. as the/ is preserved tering. Chisel. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . to murmur. To chirp or twitter. plodere. kinne. chirp. clashing of weapons. — . quavering of the voice. chink. Chymerynge. Bret. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. KinneGr. Chintz. a crowing sound in recovering breath. Sp. twitter caminus. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. caminata. to open chirriar. to chink.er. spina. It. E. are In like manner E. esquena. also vibrans. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. to gape. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. A . AS. To Chimmer. Chitter. i. — . Gloss. . a chap. from the geon's lancet. pork) . rustle. fyr. and from a similar sound to boil gently. companied. verynge or dyderinge. a thorn. Ptg. genawi. cleft. to prattle . backe. then to any narrow crack or AS. cisaille. to simmer. cheminde. Fr. bone . lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. to chink with laugh2. all these imitative terms being minata. clangor tinniens kummata. tsongeni. kumista. Du. See Chats.Huloet in Hal. ykvvQ. Fr. squittire. representing connected together. Caminatum. ter. To Chitter. See Chark. as the chink of money. Lith.' Phaer's Virg.

chap hands. 2. G. to choose. Gr. friller. Goth. a ruff. chatter. specially with an application to theatrical performances. chife. a small slice or slip of anything . — Chock-full. Chivalry.yEuffM. ON. to palpitate . all seem slate . Luc. to taste . Gr. chattering.' At last he dwelt . schoch. Schmid. a blow. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. full. kiezen. signify to kiss. cepa. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly.' who shall not taste death. chceur. a twittering. kalbs gekrose. to try. to hack. pieces . a rag. keuren. kor6n. taste. Enn Sigridur sem ' . stone which splits off in shives or shivers. . the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . as green as leeks. coro. to ing is doubtless to taste. Body and Soul. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. To Chop. gdnse gekrose. by which they are Fr. kusid. to break off in small shive. experience valerie. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. then to try. heaped measure. I. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. kustigen. chippe. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. %o\ifa. ruffs. keypa. to taste. Warwickshire coff. as with a blow. x^poc. to prove. G. kiesen. of an angry — — — ' ' — . to turn. wrath. . a ruff or frill. . wkusit' prikushat. chimp. in the same language. then to shiver. to try. to clap up Hal. g'schochet voll. •- Russ. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. Chuck-full. and in this sense the * small pieces. to taste. ent quarter. seallion or unset leek. or original meaning is preserved in G. . The I go to prove them. chives. Fr. a chive. approve. bile. &c. xiv. causir. caperd. Gr. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. cive. a goose's giblets. scheve. by the vibrations of sound or motion. Prov. try. shoot . Chives. to taste. Choleric. a calf's pluck or chaldron . ments of the knightly class. chaup. whence Lat. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. The Sc. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. Cavalry. Lat. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. i. chiffe. gekrose. OHG. word is more likely to be from Lat. — Cholera. kaup. chorus. anger. to exchange horses.vonic languages are Pol. curly . to stop geschoppt voll. to strike hands . G. taste. kruszki. Fr. okusyti. to tempt. and N. a young . full to overflowing.ceosan. from chevalier. are used in the same sense. coup. Yr. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. The manners and senti. to taste. and in kosten. try.. Fr. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp .gust.. civette. of E. Chap. To Choke. Swiss kust. shiver. wein didder for cold. schevel-steen.— B jag E. cke. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. Walach. CHOP kros. kushevati. pluck. crammed Choir. and It. a calf's chaldern of E. gusten. Jam. schiefer. Choice is probably direct from Fr. Swab. whence choleric. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. to shiver. ON. choix. koren.' Verie coinme Cot. ^S. Chives are also a kind of small onion. the inwards of an animal. kiusan. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. and Vf. kiusan. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. cut up into — See Chats. kieser. arkiusan. it is probable that the root kus. to chap at a door .ffrill. Choice. lead us on to Lat. called cMtters in the N. haslets. disposition. to chap. kushati. kbhren.freze. choppe. to try . the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. chock full. from kraus. a knight. gustare. prove. to experience. — See Cheek. also calPs. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. fine threads of flowers. a company of singers or dancers. —Chorus. propagated. Boh. to wrinkle.D. a heap. to try. krussyi.V)^x. the ridges prove. chawdron. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. &c. to ^cleave . an onion. * To Choose. to Compare also Pol. . — — — . . In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. a wine taster. chibble. As kushnuti. cape. to taste. a scale or fragment P1. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. developments of the same radical image. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. See try. a fragment. skifa. . fresure. Equivalents in the SlaFr. kausjan. The . the small parts of the roots of plants. ^euw. from %u\i). rare. Serv. 19. select.

choucas. kaufen. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. XpvaaXic. monedula. kaulhaupt (club-head. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. plump. syllables chat. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. Chrysalis. a small fish with a large head. peace. kobe. chapineria. That Face. kaej Lith. . doubtless from some connection with xp^^og.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . capitanus. in Chaucer. A fish with a thick snout and head. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup.povucd.—Chuokstone. chack. xop5>}. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. What do you think of me. and we actually find champman for chapman.X. To Chop logick. an offence against the fitness of times. a stump.. bearand aits. cow-couper. a bullhead. Du.' They are forebuyers of quheit. Marin. e. dial. Fr. yiSA. &c. koppe. Sp. Fr. cavena. a thick piece. chouquette. Chuck. klopper. cangiare. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. xpi'^lia. ON. kolbe (club). thick-set. quappe. The Turk was here As one should say. — Quabbe. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. to strike in the hand. In the Alchemist. Cot. caphatenus. civetta. applied to an owl in that language. high clog. Chough. of which such strings are made. gull. See Chaff. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. merchant. Chord. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. a trafficker in souls. capita.sohola. as Du. a lump or piece chump. cob. OE. 49. Nominale in Nat. that will thank chiaus — you richly. — Dief. Gr. dealing.\^s. kowej Sax. from kloppen. ley in Giiford.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. ceo. Fr. xftovoq. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. the teeth to chatter . Lat. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap.). Picard. chouette. whence the Fr. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. Gr. Chopino. whence e. If I discover. in i6io. a messenger or envoy. sent before him a Chiaus. as in Fr. overset. noble Doctor. capitone. thumb Fl. Chub. time ra . To coup. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. connected with G. Fr. kubb. gull.(. Kil. From the Turkish Chiaus. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. chevane. Chronicle.• — . A jackdaw. Borgoens happen. kauwe. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. to knock. e. to speak thieves' slang. prattle . gobio capitatus. I bring you the Cloughs. chronicles. . chevin. to turn over. kubbr. which was written 27. short piece kubbug. Wall. kaw. — . —Shakespeare. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. we find the following passage Dap. one who buys and sells horses or cows. G. — Chrisom. Jam. kowe. chub. chatter . Fr. chop. ' ' What's that? Dap. to clack. E. klompe.. P. To Chouse. a The What dhy ^. cresmeau. See Change. clogs. — — — . capito. AS. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. to overturn. cheviniau. whence — E. equivalent to the E. E. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. Anachronism. dial. chrisme. 4. caker. Ant. by the Robert Shirley. the same word with the It. traffic. or miller's kaycke . E. Gr. Gr. chuet.— Landnamabok. Confounded with the bullhead. to chatter. Peace. Alchemist. chapin. cauvette j Fr. chevane. In Sc. Madam. Sw. chapma?i. claquer. fat.— Chevin. who took in the Turk- clack. gold. i. soul-couper. Come. cambiare. caqueter.). the intestine of an animal. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. the string of a musical instrument originally. chrysalis (Plin. for to defraud. E. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. whence apparently the Sup. clat. cheap. to cant. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. Du. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. -chron-. chroniques.' Jam. cauc. because she would not endure this husband chopping. slipper . p. forms are Chrism.

Ir. to fall. i. log of wood. so as to make the happen . cheek. Cieling. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. a man. the snout of an animal. Wall. countryman. x^^i?. ccedo. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. sive piratiam facere sciant. i. ceffo.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. to strike clatter. have given rise. cendre. . To chuck in the fall from. karl. sindel. Gr. Fris. Lat. C^z^j^ churHsh. chaps. as Fr. The spelling of chider has Chump. to Newsp. a cutting round. dial. surly. ceaflas. cado. ON. Aasen. a man. ashes. kaerle. AS. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . however. Lat. joufflu. sinter. ladre from Lazare. giffle. See Cheek. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. to him a sudden blow. ceorl. we have to chack. to cut decide. a fellow. Jennings. set kerti. * Cinder. kjami. &c. to sparkle. scoria. OFr. Sc. blow on the I io6 in Mur. kerl. a miser. chack or stane-chacker. geaflas. sindra. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . whence ON. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. chuffy. in Sc. calx. a lump. kirna. Gothic nations. to make a rippling noise. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. then the on oh StX iv roXt. klakka.' And cold.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on.— . to separate the kernel of the milk. pith. as a board. kakka. a man. a douse on the tores. an old man. Church. in the face. dust. to fall upon decide. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. chofu. e. calculus. chofe (Grandgagnage). Du. . whence deciduous (of trees). the kernel. to determine incision.— Chu%. as Epkema explains it. cinders used disjunctively. ON. to turn from blossom to fruit. kernjen.' he adds. sindr. pp. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. ceaplas. thence a belt. to To Chuckle. Cob.. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. Churn. whence church. cinctura {cingo. to fall at or on. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. G. &c. to cause the milk to grain.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. gffe. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj.rendered by Kil. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. flower. casum (in comp. cut off. Wall. G. Lat. a rustic . jaws. cinctus. incido.V//a'6'?. comp. Fr. to form grains of butter. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. a husband. -eris. Chuff. from Lat. -cise. ON. See Cheek. Hence -cid-.D. a resounding object. 24. -cide-. male person. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. fat-cheeked. in circumcision. . Du. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). Cleland in Jam. sicera. Du. that the word is an adoption of Fr. Gr. chakil. ChurL husbandman. Sicerawry face ceffata. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. from Lat. cidre. a pebble. spuma metalli. It is certain. KvptaKolg. KaxXij?. to churn. Lat. marrow. swollen or puffed up Cot. with It the Lord's house. to gird. domhnach. Diss. In Sc. See Ceiling. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. a girding on. tindra.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. Cider. to jaw chack or snap. Fr. ciuffo. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. has been impugned which it has really no connection. chops. joffu. lamak. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. . AS. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. or choice part of a thing . as in E. to make a aiKipa. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. residue of burnt coals. . to throw out sparks. -cis-. chife. — — A — ' ' — .with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. — of the two words. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. chack-stone. The derivation from Kvpiasov. . kern. As AS. -cido. The origin ation. Ka-^aiva. -cisuiri). kiorne. a cutting an old chuff.for the residue of stone coal. sintel. Da. e. tie about). or. as water running over rocks or stones. Chunk. Probably from It. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. a pebble . Sw. cheeks Cincture. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. accido. ceffore.^. but by way of explan. — . cinis.

W. ON. or clap-dish. Fr. to chatter . to call by name. civilis. cieo. gutter. klammer. clapping of klacke. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. as in Sp. Fr. cittade. lump. Fr. See Circle. to set in motion by means of the voice. lump . — (Dozy) ing blow. a boss . 'mass. lump. a shoot. smack. lucerna. klubb. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. twig. We . a lump Lat. tinnitus . a kind of pipe. sifr. to toll . a whirlwind. sound.— . fall. as caverna from cavus. Clam. cluster. Du. a city. ern. Gael. belonging to cities or social life . The syllables clap. clat. -cis-. kluV. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. mass . Mack. Dan. Lat. Du. the door was slammed J slamem. a circle. the place of . noise — — a cistern. G. clambar. In Fr. cry. sound of blow. Dan. suck). klump. bunch . hringr. to summon or call on. clack-box. a ring. klambr. Sw. ring. klamp.' sione.to suck. See -cid-. Hal. . Chaste. a block. a rattle . a lemon tree. trunk. circum. KpiKoe. to go. clangor avium . cisterna. noise. scion. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). and Sp. So a light. rattle . The notion of a lump. clot ON. clamp. to make to go. E. klappe. stimulate. to chatter. a mass. and. to cleanse. klepati. Lat. ter. klompe. lump of wood or with the nasal. Lat. Citadel. Bohem. castus). clack. clamare. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. ball kloben. to be empty. Hence Incite. . cifra. circle. clump. sip. a clod Russ. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. around. to call. To Claim. a knob. may cite w. a ball. clasp. Du. claquet de moulin. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. to mention. . Lap. Arab. clapper. . Comp. claquer crash. circum. * Ciplier. to clatter. Circum-. See Crankle. uproar. slam. of citta. circ2tlus. to gnash the teeth. radical identity of the Fr. claquer. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. a reservoir Probably from Lat. area. in the frequentative form. sprig. lump. the tongue. . chijfre. . parallel root is slam. klopati. klqb. Sw. klimp. is traced by Gr. to clap at a theatre. clatCot. a. klekotati. compared with It. to strike. lump. .. a Lat. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. claim. sindri. klacken. or quill to draw waier through Fl. clap. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. cittd. kringr. Lat. clobyn. It. crack. empty Golius. Gr. glam. . citrus. Cite. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. a citizen . clamer. globus. Clamp. It. clack-dish. Cot. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. crack. a'upiav. a lump Du. cittadella. klateren. and E. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. clamp. to appeal. a cleansing place. to cry out. as. to cluck. . cry out . ON. circa. to call. a circle. Gael. lash . Clump. sound- — hands figures. Gr. dim. . a clod. We . klater-busse. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. prattle. Citron. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. wasserkasten (water chest). a judgment cern. chupon. The Gr. ON. a pop-gun. klak. kringla. Fr. Circle. &c. klabb. Lat. for Cion. KipKog. a city. around. sphere gleba. Scion. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . city. Lat. rattle. klacke-busse. Excite. klemte. glamm. log. Sp. clog. E. a block. to knock. glambar. excite. with an initial s instead of c. biw. about. sajira. a ball. ruin. civitas. civis. a loud uksa slamketi. whence cistiti. CION See Tinder. Alt. a split. prattle. a whip. outcry. a hiding-place. creak les dents. a Pol. scion or sucker. chatter . From Arab. a circle. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. to clack. Recite. klap. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. a rattle Fr. cista. . ciste. crack. clap. * Cistern. forms — — — parent plant. clack. claquer. or split with noise. to chatter. klappen. chupon. To Clack. Lat. vociferation. chest. a for water. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . citujn. —Civil. a kind of rattle. It. from chupar. -cite. cito. bunch. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. a place See place hiddern. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. cion. a young and tender plant. domern. cit^. G. to bawl. City. —Circuit. and clash. babble . cion. a cistern. dob. klumbr. clamras. cisterna. accordingly find the roots dab.

G. with cramp-irons. descendants . klappre. klemmen. to clutch or cling oneself up. klopfen. to hook things together. dam. E. chatter. klammern. or klamp-vogel. Du. of the children. — . . chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. OE. hold. and that from celo. E. Dan. compress. dienklebber. dapier. and hence to pinch . to knock. Clan. celo produces Fin. diver. cluster. to hold fast with the . dientes. In like manner Du. dam. where- A — unto they retire themselves. To clap in E. to climb . solid. damor. dang. grimper. . a claw. klavre. Lang. to gingle.. klappen. chief. Clang. to climb. Halma. clapas. G. dam. tingle. massy. Mampe. klamre. Clamp. to climb. . damras. Clap. is a nasalised form of gripper. dank. to clap on. gum. take hold of. kleppe. a heap of stones or other things piled up . klammer. These words To are closely connected with damp. a whip. a noose . AS. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. — — . a hawk. G. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. to starve. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . Hence the Fr. daver. A i. clann. rattle. Russ.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. dapi^. The equivalent of Lat. of which the locative case. clangor. children. beating. Du. a trap. ring as metal. uproar. clajnmy. Gael. and hence moist. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. dren. cramp-iron. klem-vogel. but perhaps not directly from it. beat. Du. klepel. a loud tingle. dambar. clandestine. contraction. kleppen. to glue. nature . crowd . a rattle . to stick conceal. cream Manx doan. to clamp. clamber. E. as the Lat. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. a craCmp. Salainen. clear sound. coagulated cream. &c. Swiss kldbem. clapper of conies. to climb. to knock. G. — Lat. to hold to pinch. cramp. clap. gripe. to climb. clammy brace. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. klibber. glambar. klemmen. resonance klingen. Clamour. substances of a stickydam. dam immediate modifications — . apprehend . sound . klette. to beat. sound. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. klank. to cleave or stick. is used in the sense of secretly. viscous. seize. dandestinus. klimmeii. sound of the trumpet . klettern. klemmen. — Climb. yf. to. accent. tone. klam7n. klepanie. a sound made by a still . tattle. to climb. bandage. clav\f. kleppe. Sw. a burr. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. run to lumps Clandestine. strait. chatter. whence sala. These are imitations of a loud. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. klebern. clink. dial. Dan. tremble . cling. to claw oneself up. clang. klepati. klippe. in a hidSen place. cleave. pressed close or hard together. Bav. a heap of stones.1. bond. privately. scendants. Swiss kletten. klam. strain . klobber-saen. B. for tame conies. viscosity . The E. to daub pinch. to pinch. Clank. klynge. of money Gael. tight. children. to Sw^. hands or claws to grasp. conceal. .p correspond- ' without order. — Cot. To sticky. offspring. tenacious. to stick or glue. kleben. a stone See Claim.' klibba. compression. a sound. klamm. klynge sig op. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. c). The Fr. sticky Hal. Fr. Clapper. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. ancestor. a place underground where rabbits breed. Clink. the in many languages. a stick. klubber. klang. knocking. hook. klappen. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. stick. ney. Du. See Clam. dapier. adopted Lat. G. to patronus. salafa. brawl. to hide. E. grasp. clibby. from the w. closely analogous to that of the fast. to Hal. to clap. dap up. a sound made by a lighter clink. a bird of prey. holdfast. sound. B. sound object . anything hidden. . dia. prison. as the clapping of hands. dem. originally a heap of large stones. dial.' to take coals to Newcastle.er. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. to glue. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. clap. The root which gives rise to klibb. who occuG. to seize. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. narrow. To Clamber. a claw . Lat. dee. buckle klamp. from birdlime. kluppel. Dan. clasp. G. . to cling. also to clog up. G. kloben. club . gliong. to dame. salaan. — with hunger. Dan. pinching. klamme. dink Du. rumour. tinkle. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . Bohem. klampen. klatten. to do anything with a clap.

to clap . Nightingale. ictus resonans. clopa. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat.w or u on the other. as Mod. somewhat clear. pet. Serv . Lat. to rattle . Claret. the cracking of a whip. seizes) . we pass to the E. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. klaskad. a lash. in the sense of a claw. claw (what fastens together. chiarello. klauwe. But clasp or elapse. a ball. So Pol. klaequivalent to clack or clap. cluster. KXeiSi. Russ. — tells us. teren. pellet . a. to end. chiaro clear. from scknallen. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. crying. a key KKtitid. mass. vin claret. klucz. klc^i. chiarino. In the same way is formed the OE. i. klampe. a water made of aquavitse. In E. Class. 269.to cra. fragor . a heap. chiizjj-o. schnalle. a bunch. From claudo. Rayn. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. Wyutoun in Jam. sauna de classes. waU. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. klampvoghel. . Lang. insularum nexus . forms are the Du. Lat. dap. biichse. kleuen. syrtium junctura. from its use in fastening things together. klamme.It. globus. hook. same class with w. clump. Clash. chatter. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. ansa. — Kiittner. kleeven. clausula. also a knell for the dead. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. an on the one hand. klatscha pop-gun. with a reddish tint. to shut. is preserved in Lang. to knock. stop of an organ. ivy. klatsche. compression. hawk. to cleave. Eau clairette. and shrill-sounding trumpet. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. Du. klatschen. —Kil. clairon. vinum helvolum. is used in Sc. Clause. a complete sentence. thence a definite head of an edict or law. Fr. as G. Clatter. straight-mouthed.). a claw. diver. to snap. an ending. From clairet. G. klot. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. It. kletse. nail. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. vin clairet. &c. Du. classis. klijven.Gr. a little hook . to fasten. biichse. klouwe (Kil. Nawith stavis. the primary origin clapa. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. fibula. a. a key origmally a crooked nail. ghespe. kluczka. clatter. cloi. Thus from Lat. the collar-bone. klaterbusse. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. which signifies a ball in E. kiosk bicza. Sp. To clew. rubellum. Lat. from clinging to the tree which supports it. clavus. Du. klase. Du. he of white and red grapes mingled together. The collar-bone. clarinado. a lump. from the resemblance to a key. buckle. globus. and old red rose-water. Gr. to ring in such a manner for the dead.\x\xvn. whence kleuer. Claw. rion. clair. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. noise. a buckle. klauw. Du. subrubidum. clew. Du. clavis. klatschen. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. The form clew. assembly. klaeret. a kind of small. a bird with powerful talons. contraction. locket of a door. clas. claret win e. Clavicle. nawith stanis. clausum. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy.— CLARET clamp. a distribution of things into groups. &c. thwack . puUs. Prov. gaspe. a sphere . glcis. it is called clamming. clairon of a trumpet— It. uproar. Clasp. clamp. cinnamon. a lump . klos. clew or fasten upon a thing. — Clarinet. to animals Sp. Clew. Fr. The b readily passes into gleba. It. Mask ! plask ! thwick. to draw it up into a bunch. Dan. and through v into a. K\a. a club or massy stick. skeria-klasi. . sound of the foregoing description. to clash as arms. Pol. and clavis. Thus from clamp. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse .oi. row aii/iaTos. to fasten together .. Identical with ON. blab. fracas. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. Eya-klasi. E. Fr. flap. Lat. to do anything with a . Owl and that by which cleave to. sphaera. Kil. bawling. klouwe. Commonly made. Cot. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. e. or as G. applied in their harness. a claFr. clarin. a clasp. climp. a nail. a key. a clod. in the sense of a mass or lump. to patter. mass. — Clarion. as it is written by Chaucer. Sw.Z. under three modifications dava. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. chasguear. Analogous Jam.ck a whip. Originally clasis. Klatsch- a pop-gun .

nitidus. Du. tongs. A — A Clement. kloue. klove The Dan. cloven wood. to clinch a nail. klink. danche. klieuen. klafwa. kla:g. a mass. voice. klincke. glindse. a fissure or division See Cleave. klinka. a bunch of When flax). (Cot. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. Sc. B. bend in a stream. dut. opposite senses. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. diquetcr. Thus from G. an object is simply cleft. to fasten E. Probably a modification of the word doitt. . ON. Du. smooth. kleben. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . the latch of a door. Du. Lat. to separate into parts. give a shrill sound Jr. chaps in the skin. a clincher. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. klyft. clay . piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. to fasten. klijveii. sticky. neat. polish . dedgy. and. Clay. klinke. — : A rivet. . conserere antklankjan. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. a noose. klceg. a claw or talon. glent. viz. clear. a lump. holding together. calm. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. clear. gingle. dench. and Celtic glan. to Brilliant. Mar. to stick or adhere . to glitter. Du. to clink or sound. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. gaklankjan. a in that of sphtting. clear. lump. merciful. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. a mass. clean. explained from the klinken. Sw. bogs cous. the To Cleave. Clear. See Clam. a one end. See Clog. clout. glorious. in two ways. kleg. The word may be — . as the Du. kloben. of iron worn on shoes by country people. Clemency. klieben.). a cleft or fissure. klor. . to sound or make a noise . From dob. klinken. kluyte. sleek. cleave. and Dan. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. G. that was a striking proof. that was Torriano. to cleave. klouen. from diquer. The Dan. loam. G. dial. and E. dag. bright. Sw. from the clinking of the latch. kluit. Bav. Kil. klank. pure. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. to be composed. a cleft. This is probably one of the clean. klirren. river. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. pellet. clean. kloben. splendid pohshed. glance . kluftholz. rive. klag. sticky . Clean. pure . Du.— Claggy. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . from nitere. to 2. G. geklonken. kldnkelein. pretty. klouen. dinquet kleeven. a flash. glan. kluft. the two parts of Du. glan. glitnir. or from being divided into two parts. doff. split. a key. provinciaUy termed dout. Du. a fissure. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. E. or of a tree. This word is used in two business is finished off. . The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. AS. To call. viz. as Fr. daggy. Wilbraham. Sw. W. clean. the fork of the body. as ON. From clap. glan. to clench. kloben. a plate. Fr. glbram. gentle. words applicable sight. kleg. klinke. 154 CLAY dutch. to chink. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. neat. The proper meaning of the word is shining. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. ON. mud. Die zaak is zS. i. kleverig. a lump. Halma. clash. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. cliquet. dags. pure. hook. glint. it cleave together. as Lat. radiant. to clinch GB. Sc. is fast and sure. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. shine. klinken. Clinch. as explained under G. glandse. glbr. to stick to. to tear or cleave asunder. dams. kleevig. speech . klinke. E. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. Da. . celebrated . glor-mhor. clink. either by the coherence To Clepe. glatt. a cleft. to fasten. a noise. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. sticky earth. clibby. the original .' was nailed to a rock. 2. klov. Axletree clouts. The word is . together . The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. to dag ox dog. a latch. seem formed dial. E. vissticky . to shine . famous. found in other cases. Dan. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . klinken. glitta. date is AS. Cleft. G. door-latch. deot. G. To Clench. Da. Cleat.Q. gleit. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. polished. clemens. ON. Omklinken. klutsch. . vice. doggy. Gael.— . rivet. klirre. Lat. to shine. rift. clean. a — — . Da.— Clag.

deik. Click represents a thinner sound than clack.). Cot. a clew. KkrifoQ. clever. and hence deik. is NE. babble. with hamarskard. to catch. say. Boh. globus. on. Du. Da. to cry. cleft. chatter. Jam. klippe. it must be observed. slope . clypian. —Vocab. Click. a precipice. dial. . stein- kluppen. call. dob. in the sense of active. would have been derida. clerus. Klover i munden. quick of perception. to wink. name. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. — have the notion of a short quick in E. to bend. derjon. score7i clif. pulsare. We movement catch. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. to tattle. klinge. Chaucer. — — A . the knocker of a door. what so men clappe or crie. agile. to clack. to rattle. icXi/ja?. duik. See AS. a figure mentioned. to stir. duke. . and (with the nasal) — clincher. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. klikker. one of the clergy. rugged ascent. one admitted to the tonsure. prattle. CLERK sound of a blow. 3. Du. CLINCH De . klika. e..r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. -Toe (from KXivm. Claw. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. klouwe. . d See Clan. a ladder. dicher. from Gael glac. a lump. as a click with the tongue. See Clamber. that is a clever feUow. cliquer. lively. 3. a claw or clutch. dial. a child's or clack . cleft of a hill. rock. Sp. chat. ized . chatter. expeditious. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. clep. klaffen. as Lat. the clergy. region not observe it. dichet. gleg. abrupta rupes . a ball of twine. a cleft in a rock . Rouchi cliche. a mill-clack . rapidus from rapio. glomus. to tattle. neither as having lordship in the. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. klever. claw or talon to dek or deik. deik. derigo. cave . Lat. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. dough. derecia. clack. and hence climate. klikklakken. corresponding to the Sc. Lat. precipices. The Sc. precipice. G. a tumbril. deudi. dutch). a latch. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . to catch. Fr. Climate. scar. cleopian. skard. clever. to teU tales. highest is attained. a lot. /cXi'fia. sonare. klev. klok klep- crepitare. But the Dan. to snatch. Norm. a hook. deuch. diver. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. . exactly Gr. a lazar's clicket or clapper. Dunbar in Jam. cleft in a rock.dergie! Wiclif in R. from clifian. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. See Clench. klinke. crack. to confess . to seize. &c. kloof. syn. cautes. to talk as a parrot. click. a baU of yarn. to prate. diofian. Gr. rock. declivity. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. clap. deuck.' ii. cliff. Somner. dever. diquette. to cleave. verge). Climb. klif. the clergy clericus. has also deik. cleugh. Clergy. seize (Hal. ginally from dob (extant in W. Clever. which is used in Scotch and N. as from derido. kleppe. catching. Det er en Mover kerl. clatter. a trigger. derigon. dook (identical with E. dexterous. hamraklif. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. dergi. dink. Clam. cleke. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. had a form. sink. dial. kleppen. a latch . a hold. or an object character- Clerical. light-fingered. clyf. a sphere. Hence Lat. click it. which in Mid. klaiv. click. a cliff. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. a hump. OE. pen. Now the OE. the dick of a latch or a trigger. In I Peter v. chatter. call. corresponding to Fr. G. crepare. The origin is the Gr. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. rupes . klippe. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. speak. Clerk. to move. cliof. kliket. above the pole. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . nimble. click. has kl'dver. cliquet. de ripa. cligner. Lat. ready of speech. clif- stanas. in rhetoric. kliv. on. ravine. IS5 Du. AS. as Sc.) Brai. a latch. crackle. temperature.— Clicket. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. Commonly derived from deliver. dek. an inclination. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. clima. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). a clicket or clapper. frap- per rudement une personne. littus. Bav. Client. Sw. cart that tilts over. clif. klinket. whence Fr. snatch.Lat. Sc. in precisely the same sense as the E. a clerk . Clew. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. to sound an alarm to clap. Du. Cliff. climate.— Clue. quick in motion. Climax. Happen. or Sc.

Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. The E. compress . klippen.ginglej Fr. pallium. to strike. Esthon. To Cling. noise. like cling. to clap or clack. clips. Serv. pinch. kol- The word . acclivis. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. disposed to a thing. to knock.. . Lat. outcry. to . hlinian. hill . to cling to a thing. G. kldpp. Swiss klungele. Du. and a similar syllable without the /. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. a separate portion. schnippen. rima. — clot. . Lat. pinch. also to form a compact mass. difficulty . fetter. a beU. kima. from klepati. to crowd or squeeze chingy. clino. gUong. To Clip. klungeln. a lump. dial. Gr. ring clag. klippa. . Du. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. knippen. klippa. as to snip in the same sense from snap. Sw.. G. klok. to snap tongs. -cliv-. . as we now say three or four o'clock. to wither. as G. Du. tuft. ON. incline. clutch. klincke. met. -CLINE make pinch. Da. klunker. knot klynge. shears. klicke.— KSS. &c. to wither. to beat. 156 -cline. speaks of a ' clung bat. Gael. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. kluppe. 2. klippe. gang. a tinman. related to clock. to snip. kluben. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. to clip. klinken. to lean.D. N orman clincailler. to sound sharp. to make a loud noise. a clog or fetter for a beast . Bohem. OHG. a ball of thread . Flem. Du. to pinch klupe. a hood. a lump G. to cluster.— Clot. ten. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. to snap or fillip schnippen. G. at first probably on a wooden board. toga muliebris. nip. knippe. The notion of a loose moveable substance. parva ruptura. hluk. difficulty. to slope or bend . to clink auf. Clink.' for a dry stick. clangere. dag. globulus' (Gl. kleppe. a rising ground. . a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. Bohem. glocke. E. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. ON. Fr. to AS.' From Pl. klik. S w. klocka. a cluster. G. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. clivus. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. klingen. See Cowl. a woman's mantle . Pl. and so' to contract. Cliofue. kukla. clique.D. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. to snap kneipen. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. clato make a noise. declivis. Swiss klokken. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. also to wink . quincailler. hluccti. to ring. in Schmeller) klunk. Clock. as thick or curdled liquids. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. to form one mass with. Sw. kolki-laud. glungelin. G. I. four of the bell. straits. To stick to. klinka. * Clod. Decline. a snare. klungelin. to beat on the board. — a mantle. To cut with shears. klo^gen. Ang. klaka. recline. klocke. slant. Fr. clingan. dial. clinker. clog. toga. to bend downwards . cloak. a lump of butter. G. klocke. kXiVu. kliks. . klipa. a bell. klippur. . Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. hlinen. clock is a variation of clack. klepalo. hooded . but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. a faction. to resound. Sussex peasant AS. incline. clinke. by bits. to lean backwards. . Sw. whence E. Kil. klynge. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. dial. iissura. bow. verklungeln. klak. See Clang. cochl. a bell. a clock. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. to shrink up. kolbe to E. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. especially of something soft or clammy. Hal. and 'E. cloche. Bi klik uti klak.. sloping downwards . to clunge. sticky. klupen.'— Shaks. Cloak. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . to pinch. E.und zuk-lippen. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. knippchen. Sw. club). klunge. ' . whence the hour of the day was designated as three. Walach. to crowd together klynge sig ved. brett-glocke. Een kliks bolter. -atum. sloping upwards procUvis. to shrink up. Ir. ON. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. claw. sloping forwards.. chcng. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. 'Till famine cling thee. dial. . * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. Sw. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. g. or bagging clothes. w.

Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. . and Du. clog or overshoe. in forms like Du. -clus-. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. blot. wabbling from Du. klos-bane. Gr. da- . be found rattle. . der like whey or blode whan it is colde. or E. a field inclosed clos. analogous plan to clod or club. compared with clump. terminate. cloth.— Clothe. A . clot. kloster. fat. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. a monastery. to bedaub. Du.D. to slop or spill liquids. whence klack. 3. from Du. E. a clod. Dan. bloutre. figer. in accordance with Pl. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. a trowelful of mortar. watery. klakk. truncus. lumps of butter. klotzschuh. je amoncele. slops slodderen. lopperig. thick spoon . lump of something soft . to claggock. Pm. pattens G. lump of mud on the clothes . MHG. Fr. an imputation. clorre. . without. clatk. klot. aspersion. Hence inclose. a Christmas log. kloten. of a body of any kind. claggy. schlettern. Russ. I clodde. m&se noch stain. . to rattle. neither spot nor hang loose. kladde. lopin. Lat.D. laggyn. splash. . schlattern.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. finish . kl'dnken. bespotted with mire E. loppered (of milk). to dabble. Pr. pludre. lobberen. a lump from Du. . to cling locks. loose mud. and Gael. schlotter. wide bagging clothes. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. I doda clod. I clodde. It. Closhe. log. dial. chiuso. klac. In the same way Dan. loblolly. Klak also. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. Yule-clog. to wabble. daustrum. . G. Fr. to rattle or shake to and fro. of something clammy or heavy. clos. to sup up liquid food. to play at bowls. shut up. A — — A Thus from Bav. in comp. a clog. shut up. lobberen. thick sour milk. Bav. tuditare. in accordance with It. slop. kleck. mire. shaky. geschlotter (as E. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. beklakken. Close. a log. zoccoli. schlott. tJokok. . motte. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. To Clog. loose trowsers. clotted locks Dan. to shut up. forbidden by 17 Ed. slab. meat from Du. like G. klateren.'^ Palsgr. schlottern. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. and E. kloden. to shut in. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. . to flap as loose clothes. slobberen. Fr. or drablyn with separate existence. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. kloteren. clotted milk klotte. enOE. Klottermelck. a blot. spot of dirt. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. klokotat. boil. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. claudo. clammy loam. doitre. IV. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. laggery. kleck or lack. Lat. mud. dirt. G. lag. claque. klotz. motzen. to dash like heavy rain. to close against one. clausum. a bal!. . gelatinous. lump of butter. is a blot on one's character. clos. -clusum. close. separate part. to shut. be&c. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. Clog. dirt. klunkern. Idppern. . clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. slob. plod. to a. bemired. AS. a spot. from claudo. bowl . lobbig. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. a log. clausum. klottern. foreclose. dab. a skittle-ground klos- sen. a dirty wench claggy. with Fr. then liquid or loose substance. dunch). The game called ninepins. klakken. fors.1a. spatter. Mat. clogs for the feet klakk. . a block. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. g. to dabble. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. we pass to Schlatter. Fr. • lump. a portion of something soft and adhesive. zocco. mud klcEg. E. lunch. to bubble.). we pass to E. is connected with pludder. loppe. -close. to bodies.. slobbe. a babbler. TZoxapov. slobber. inclose. ! . The origin of clod and clot is to . and thus seem endowed . hanging loose and full.dial.rge lump. paddle. miry laggerit. tramp in wet or mire. to paddle in the wet. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. . to shut. chiudere. congeler.' end. -cludo. dag. kloteispaen. Swiss schlott. daggerey. or loppern. or Sc. the radical sylla. to lobberig. His heart was franlc without a flaw. paludosus. klag. closed. clogs. lob. curdled. klod. slops). Pl. paddle or dabble in the wet. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). unctuous. Sc.. He was a man without a dag. to flounder in the wet. dangle. Du. . a clod Swab. slabberen. to rattle. Pr. to spill liquids. Cloister. a blot. . I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. loose. rattle. klos. from Fr.

The significations of a clod or lump.). Rouchi dapoter. ON. Du. Gael. a log. dial. indispalte knoblauch. from W. . a thick mass. warm. w.Fris. kUid. AS. lunch). of ordnance is said to be cloyed. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. a clown. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. klumba. clyd. G.). . 2. klcBdi. kloete. More in R. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod.). clunch. Cld. klove. Cloud. a clod. a blabber. klaven. kluppe. a ball. a lump. to a lump. probably from daboter. to beFr. piece Cot. a breach. a bunch. Met. klotz. zolla. klonte.D. de Champ. duthaich. of nagel.158 . to tramp in the kluyve. Gael. to curdle. Sp. cloud Delfortrie. strike. . Du. little nails. E. eine to slop. eene ODu. a clod or clot. wisp. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. nelke (dim.bar.D. klubb. rustic. a ball. Pl. as Fr. lump. a clot or keeps one warm. to cleave. the air. (kruyd =. In the same way E. dabosser. and of a rustic unpolished person. To Cluck. puddle. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. nourish . a ball. make warm. clotted milk or cream. del mattond. a clove of garlick. cobble. mire.D. from OFr. a bunch. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. log. dial. . coarse. Clumpered in balls of clouds. unpolished. when something has got into the touch-hole. — . From dog. cobio. mary sense is a blow. a clubfoot klabb. lie clyd. of thumping clumsy action. G. I. a bousche. but confounded with cailler. sheltered up warm. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. Das volk hat sich in splitten. clod. ball of thread Russ. motte. from kloven.). it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. clumhar. lump. klu77ip. blockish. lump. a fissure. dial. Du. Kiittner.' Sanders. zolla dell' . G. cluster. clot. a sky Cot. a. lump of earth aria. a curdled sky. . spice) G. a lump. of sloppy materials. clothes ment. Du. dabaire. Move. a sticky. dash (Cot. a ball of twine . to splash.clod. matte. een klaven kruflook. So Fr. choke or stop up. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. The radical sense seems to be an unE. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. G. w. a nail. klumpfot. shel- kloen. warm place . boucher. Sw. cludaim. Ir. clods. Dan. bunch. and clay. dut. clydion. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. cludadh. clothe. esdaboter (Roquef. E. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. lumps of curd. It. and clout d eudaich. sheltered . milk run to lumps. hebes (Kil. a patch. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. the terms expresssplit. klotzig. klubbe. clot . a boss. warm. kluV. tuft. block. a . dump. klobbersaen. a log. loggish. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . klotsen. from Du. Club. klubba. To Cloy. clot. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. a nail) Fr. and closely do conspire. dirt. CLOUD an awkward clod . a bobbin. warm clothes {dillad. chiodo di girofano. ON. Du. clod is used in both senses . to strike. klubb. Sw. dillad bumkin. clou de girofle. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). davus. mass. naegel. clavo di especias. clothes). knob. with lout. klqb. botsen. caillebottes. sticky. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. tered . clammy earth. AS. to strike . dob. to lump mend clumsily. Clover. klebek. Then applied to a lump of mate. E. aglio. to stop. A division of a root of garlick. cob. clobyn. a garthas. — — — . N. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. of a lump of earth and that figure. and tapp. Imitative of the note of a society. a bunch. dys. knob. botch. kl'dnne. stock. are also used in the sense of a stopper. klieven. to cherish. nagelein. . chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI.ft. Du. klump. A kind of spice resembling Du. are often connected. Properly that which covers and Du. group of people Sw. dote. Fr. a cover or coverture . a knot of people. Mabousfrom Lat. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . in the same sense. ser. formed lump or thick mass. also homo obtusus. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. clog. to cover Bret. to cleave or the splashing of water. kldverj P1. Clump. mud (Pat. clump. clump of a clout on the head. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. clue. daggy. klever. cluth mhor. kloven. diboter. klunds. Clown. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. CLUCK rustic. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. The priClout. clunch. and -the word Clove. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. to cloy. from cates the application of the root dab to Du.

plad or plod. klunt. unfashioned. —More. dumpse. unhandy. Cath. -cludo. wooden shoes. a ball . — Cot. conclude. klemmen. from laver. and klotteren. klamp. ' . Du. Lat. a lump. as from seken. beklommen. Du. -elude. Clump. COAL dumpish. log. klampa. Cheshire. coccolare.D. are the nasalised forms of klotte. a couch.' Vegecius in Way. paste. in v. a claw. of Du. or from Sw. klonte. It. an instrument for nasal form e. ball as snow. awkward. Clutch. limp. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. properly to do anything Fr. Pl. OE. But clunchy. ill-made . clointer. kohle. klos. a nasalised form of club. Fr. a lump. unhandy. to tramp or tread heavily. with a quick. Hence cleik. klunsen. unwieldy Hal. might be reached from clump. whence koetse. Champ. G. algidus.mene tied. to squeeze. klods. from ON. klikonosy. to collect in lumps. Muster. Compare Swiss klupe. klompen. The Fr. benumbed with cold. klamen. E. conclusion. A group. or aclommyde. crooked inwards . Isaiah. * Clumsy. a ball.— — . klonte. dial. Ray. as Fr. glousser. a clod or lump.' Comfort ye dumsid. E. klummklummshandt. MHG. as clumper. lump of soft mate. close. having the Pl. ' Clumper. hondis. verkommelen. Fr.forklomme (Outzen). cleche. Com. From the notion of sticking together. In the same way Du. ON. calling her chickens. Clutter. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. claw. clutch. pladdern. coucher became in unhandy. the word is more probably connected with OE. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. to rinse. klocken. The sense of awkward. hand to cleuk.' Wycliff. koetsDa. dystere. a litter. eviratus. differing only in the absence of the duik. n. Coach. MHG. clutch. beklummen. See -elude. —To Clumsyd. cliboter. a block. 130.pare P1. ' Uorte (for clogs. strum on an instrument. enervatus. dek. ball of snow on horse's foot . a clot klissen. klobber in klobbersaen. bunch. to syllable click. dek. Hence snatching. Hesse. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. and koetse. -olus-. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes.e. wagen. klette. -close. to lie. clausum. Coal. havi.'— animal. may recline. — Hence include. a bunch. with E. exclude. klumpern. to wash. dial. * Clump. a clod or The noclot. duke. xXvariip. hooknosed. -clusum. viscous material. klump. 159 E. to tramp. Variation of clatter. clotted cream. dumpers. esclaboter. fingers (familiar). a lump or compact mass. a noise. G. Lat. obstructum. klont. klcise. to curdle. .Ancr. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. Du. thick and clumsy. Cluster. -CLUDE hen Du. and klonteren. Graff in Klamjan. rial. ether comelia P. claudo. cleuk. G. cluntClyster. clopiner. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. doquear. Ang. clumsy. to to snatch. — sen. . tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. tight — — . Hindust. Sp. and make ye strong feeble knees. idle. dussomed (Wilbrabam). clump. Fris. smart motion. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. Boh. of garlick. Fr.D. — . clabosser. cluster. kol. also a cluster. See reclusion. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. to shut. from klupen. glocire. Analogous forms with a tongs. kluntfrom KKvKdi. pinched. Beklummen van kelde. klikaty. to stick together . Du. er. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. Pm. ment. klumpig. G. a clod clunter. gelidus. klontet. claws. heavily. verklomen. in comp. klomje.. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. through the senses of lumpish. klomen. Sw. to gingle. finish. -clus-. &c. hands stiff with cold. klummerhdndt. to wash. carriage in which you klodset. Du. koetsen. Gr. splash. koetsie. clook. dial. klemma.D. lavesen. clip or pinch. ' Thou clontsest for cold. koetblockish. eviratus. Sw. a clod or lump. to tramp. to curdle. a pinching time. eene beklum. a coach. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . — ' — — tonista. Riwle. seize. to curdle. to benumb with cold. to klotz. klimpern. wooden sole. cleik.P. klisse.E. Lincolns. . kichlemmit. dumps. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. a clove Sw. dial. . klister. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. Teulazy.' Benecke. awkward. acomelydfor could Pr. inclusive.D. to paddle or dabble. OHG. Sc.D. lay hold of. to pinch. to grip. Pl.

To cokes or coax one then is to make a w. Du. a spider (/r)^=grub. staggering or halting.inflated with air or liquid.—Atkinson. to stammer. of poison. of E. sweets and the other of poisons. a rib. a kitchen. while the sense of dwelling may be a figure from lighting up the domestic hearth. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. Dan. quele. or cobble. of cochina. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. — — . or upper . properly to daub. inflammation. to strike. s. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. kylla. from some fancied resemblance. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. as shown in dob and cob. also a coast. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. a knock. to stutter. atter-kop. v. hakkelen. spinne-ivebbe. kop. from a root signifying Traces of such a deto glow or burn. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. to wheedle or gull vermin). to be inflamed . — — — E. Coast. an egg. a thumper. glowing embers. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. The wood-louse is still called sow in parts of England . glow. and imperfect or unskilful action. kolna.).. dial.' Nares. cochinilla. cluster. a darling. Fin. . a tuft. gull. imbecille. as in arr. to form an union with another coalitus. Cobbles in the N. a sow. to knock. to bungle Sc. koppe. . acomelyd or aclommyd. a spider. koljarn. to beCoax. The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. pustule. cofasse. to kindle jvAla. niais. in Du.' — Thus from (Hal. grown together. kop-ar. — Cobbler. ignem. ordinary as in the expression of course. caleo. viz. in Essex Jow*2c^. a firesteel Lat. are often connected. tuft. pockbecility and liability to imposition. an old idiot. to . When the . walk clumsily. Lat. is one of thump. and E. gull. to pdt with We may cite Fr. according to the ordinary run of events. OE. a bunch. boil. klabba. e. The Fris. large coals. and jval. Coalition. dial. w. to burn. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering. and fig. nursery lang. H^cart. haggle. Pm. k'dlla. then to work unskilfully . any kind of coat. a crea. a bungler. woman is said to be very ordinary.. to hobble . only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. — Pr. * To Cobble.). from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . the one of thump. meaning that she is plain and coarse. itself is Nescock . rivation are found in Sw. . kuppa. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. klabbsmed. to Lett. to worship. universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place. coste. . and hobble. long standing. The dirt. verklomen. Coat. cokes or fool of him. may be A found in Sw. cob is a dumpy horse. The OE. to glow . Coalesce. koppen-gespin. to stutter. cobcoals. throw a blow. probably left his home.). probably from the Fr. pryf-coppyn. quilet. give the full meaning of the word. dial. E. top cobio. to bungle .(pi. and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. In the E. The primary sense is doubtless koelA. side . frock. ridi. dial. cotta. . may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. one Pr. says Varro. Coarse. dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . a great falsehood. niais. the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes. of E. a pock mark. pock. s.. cob. united. small pox (pocks) . numb.' And colo. to peck as a hen cobyn. to grow together. Fr. a cobweb. A plausible origin. unfledged bird. habble. dim. cokes was a simpleton. coalesce