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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


persons of different tongues at the present day. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. name of the cow. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. is given to a cow or calf. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. and where we are seeking. and mully or mully cow is the . children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). the closer we shall approach to the .NURSERY IMITATIONS. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. muK) and mae (rfie. with an initial m or I. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. when neither name for the object to be designated. come Moolls. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. or Mollein. mind of the of the animal. the baaing of the sheep. to the syllables which are significant to the child. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. in language of the present day. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. but nothing she herself knows the animals. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. or. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. by whom the be understood. in other words. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. the present day. and. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. Molli. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. when we is represent to our children of the cow. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. The syllables moo (mu. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb.

A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. for everything fit to eat. . which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. had nim. Finally an n was placed before it. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. Heinicke. he called to to drink. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. p. and which we might express thus. repulsive to eat. as well as the mind of the utterer. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. by the natural humming sound.). Gradually. hm. partly from sounds which the child caught. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. &c.' In ordinary speech mump. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes.' he says. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. schipp. to For instance. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. became more perfect. and nim came to signify everything edible. I had watched the growth of this word. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. family. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. his nurse adopting the word with him. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. analogous to Magyar mammogni. First. We have. then. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. when hungry. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. in children's language. 72). and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. to work over with the mouth. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. . here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. for things. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. On one occasion he said^e nim.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. A member of my own new sfop. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. for bad. mumm. and some were very clear and distinct. nineteen years old. nim. to eat. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. Gr.. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. fiafifi&v (Hesych. He would now say good.

mumpfeln. ' Motherwell. (in chil- dren's language). p. or word-making. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. to mump. mumble. to take. to eat mampfen. to be pleamind . jumla. Vei (W. at hiamske i sig.' — Lersch. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. i8o. A negro proOr. palatable. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. nobis vix permittitur. the Scotch poet. memmexen. nam. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. to eat. lita. 1 86). and thence to be tasteful. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. clangorqae tubarum. food (Tylor. 130-1. yamming. Soosoo (W. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . Swedish dialect gamsa.' says Quintilian. we can call them so. . oves lalare. crab nam buckra man. voracious. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. and the fizzing (and Series. dial. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt.ONOMATOPCEIA. mujnpa. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. Wolof nahenahe. as to . fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes.minis. and some of them . Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen).' And Diomedes. i. aptantes adfectibus vocem. to smack in eat. mumpfen. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. greedy . nvrnma. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. agreeing with Ein. to move the lips in continued chewing. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. Gothic niman. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). stolen. and the crab — p. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. snatched (Whitby Gl.). while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. to chew laboriously. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . Africa) nimi. delicacies. j ing . Primitive Culture. aves tinnire. to fill the mouth. South Jutland hiamsk. tidbits nama . words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. taken up hastily on the sly. Nimm'd up. iii. eating. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. on. make djamdjam). it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. jamsa (yamsa). namnam. to taste . sweet (Koelle). ut tinnitus aeris. nyam nyam. Galla djam djeda. to Sw. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. savory. buckra man's language the white man. Africa) nimnim. as well as the Sw. ' id est. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa.' says the author of Modern Slang. jammla.

snarling. barking. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. hooting of owls. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. gobbling of a turkey-cock. chirping of sparrows or crickets. do not speak of a bowwow. howling. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. not of a moo of Lect. yelping. might be used as the designation of it. but of a dog. 89) with less hesitation.' he says. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem.' And elsevs^here (p. cackling or gaggling of geese. not of a baa. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. 'I doubt. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. ^6^. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. baaing or maeing of lambs. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. that there is When Man. Indeed.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. We . who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. sparrow and chirping. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. whether it deserves the name of language. between dog and harking. might be used. bellowing of bulls. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. grunting or squealing of hogs. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs.' — We speak of a cow. Yet we ing. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. dove and cooing. lowing of oxen. or thoughts of our hearer. bleating of sheep. twittering of swallows. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. cooing or crooing of doves. when circumstances required. or. purring or mewing of cats. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. und growling. snarling of dogs. yelping. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. chattering of pies or monkeys. neighing or whinnying of horses. for the purpose of bringing the animal. bumping of bitterns. croaking of frogs or ravens. p.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. intended in the instance to represent the cry. before the in other words. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. anything connected with it. a lamb.

Aoo-Aoo. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. and the sound of that direction. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. having a general predicative power.). Hungary. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. kauwe. In Basque. a a crier (p. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. Kdrava. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. Georgian quaki. Picard cau. layitavya . ist ed. according to Durga).. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. a bird that is be driven away. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). Barabra koka. and means a shouter. 349. and Bavaria respectively. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. 380. ghak. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. gackem.' common sense. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place.IMITATIVE NAMES. fi-om apakd- i. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. or quawk. a crow (Pictet). crow. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. coccolare. Origines Indo-Europeennes). this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. caller. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. crow. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. He to is therefore derives kdka. it announces (Salaberry). kdka. We imitate the sound with a modulated. Malay gdgak. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. Sometimes the hoarse i . In Lat. Sauscr. in g. a daw. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. Manchu The kaha. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. lion. sound). e. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. a crow. 4th ed. kuho.). and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. 'Kdka. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. Arabic kdk. is kuM) for the cuckoo.' kd). and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. Columbia kahkah. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. whose sound (Pictet. in is Gr. kae. caw kuhii-rava (rava. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. KOKKvi. Bav. birds. and gaggele or gagkelein. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name.

kirren. reduplicate form. Dutch kievit. to crow. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. the name of an animal will gen- . tbrtora. Du. the name for a crow.Gr. French dishuit. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. ghughu. kraukti. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. turtle) as the Lat. as well as of Sanscr. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. German luhu. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. kraeyen. Sp. The consonants p. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. a crow . p. kruk. great variety of oKokv^uv. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. tortbla. Pers. girre. xi. Albacuculi a dove. Arabic tdtwit. to cry loudly. and sometimes both together. a crow lish Lith. libufs. kukko. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. by the verbs gurren or girren. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. koeren. another.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . German and Eng- krahen. coccovaec. krauklys. giving turtur (and thence It. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. teewhoop. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. uhu. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. 219. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. tur. and e. Walachian coucouveike. Scotch peeweip. hibou. Lettish kiekuts. "Welsh hwan from hwa.. cock. Fr. t. German kielitz. name. to howl or Lat. lilits. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. kraeye. Magy. a crow. Du. k. Yoruba koklo. name of its is the bird. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. coqueri- Languedoc. korren. to hoot. lulo. lUyrian kukurekati. krahe. to croak. wood-pigeon. are represented. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove .. gufo. Da. tbrtola. synonymous forms of similar structure). kukhuta. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. in the North of England. kurre. to croak. 6. The crowing of cot in Fr. while crouk. tor. Hindi. gugu. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. Malay kukuk. yell. Mod. So we have Polish krukac. tuquheit. Ibo akoka. Zulu kuku. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. and e. or Gr. Heb. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. coucouva. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. kuku. either in the same or in related dialects.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. Swedish kowipa. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. Esthonian kikkas. to crow. It.

sirkka. from schrick. to chirp . The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. which they make in their flight very . (Jieuschrecke) . to sound. bee. PofijivXwg. there are infinite varieties. humming. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. i. sound.or bumble-bee. in allusion to its music. a drone. Gaelic dranndan. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). Arabic tantanat. ' — Pictet . and yelping cry. grylhis. flight its sting considered as a horn. common. as . the humble. dhran. skryle. North of England. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. chirk. thunder. whirr). words imitative of humming . Lith. — Catafogo. to rustle. German drohne. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing.' — i. Australian bumberoo. grille. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. skril with n. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. with or Fr. shrill. Fin. and he kong-ko-rong. Speaking of a cricket he says. buzzing. a fly (Tylor) . schrickel. swirplys with 6. resound. pip-pi-ta. schrecke. Lithuanian tranas. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. loud rumour. din. schwirren. a beetle druna. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. droning is . a sharp sound as of a 6.vf3.' Amazons. to be compared with Sanscr. to shrill sound sharp. cricket is from crick. and probably indicates that g. zirken. of England it is to the b 2 .' —Tennyson. gives rise to chwymores. 337. The Arabic sarsor. representing a short sharp sound. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. growling. skirl. g. In the N. buzzing. a small as hawk is . Lat. ' Sanscr. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. schirke. knetta. German dronen. Naturalist on the tocano. the drone or non-working bee . to chirp J may be compared with . from the humming. 'The natives call it tanand. give a faint sound. to grumble. resounding of musical instruments. We may cite Gr. Danish gnaddre. glass cracking (Schmeller). ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. German hummel. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. oE. hollow noise. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . a hornet. g. Northern Farmer. bambhara. Corean sirsor. Sanscr. to creak Bret. grillen. ta-na-nd. succeeding each other — with noise. ajo. Danish dron. The Welsh chwyrnu. kong-kong. The name of the cricket indeed. a bee. and not from E. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. bamba. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. horniss and from the buzzing The. e. The drone peal. Albanian tsentsir. to hum. or a gnat fly. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano.IMITATIVE NAMES. g. Sc. little intermission. booming.

OFr. to sound. bae. are (with a subsidiary k). bubati. forms a. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. or moo. The Galla lilbil. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. or bau-l-i. bue. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. to shout. w. bukati. ox. Thus from miau. to bow- own bawl. in same way. p. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. as that of the cow by boo. as the Illyr. to mew. fivKaofiai. Lat. to beat hard. Lat. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. to low. bullus and e. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. mae. mugler. to bellow like a bull. Zulu lulula. that the imitative syllable are Lith. be-l-er. verbal form given to the say. Gael. to . bugle. in a imitation of a ringing sound. buculus. w. amuse. On the same principle. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. Galla boa. bolt. and thence Lat. or formed Lat. btibleti. Fr. k or g. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. loge. has bilbilgoda. Piedmontese fi bau. make to it laugh. Manx booa. boo. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. bo. or with on.XX called booing. to the uses goda. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. to or bark. lulauti (to hoo-loo). mugire. and from to ring. (iove. Fr. Hottentot bou (Dapper). make poo. bucula. verb is evidently identical with our shout. to from bau. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. From the same lioao). to ba-L-are. and in Hottentot baa was the . say. bovis. mamoo-heeheek. a Geiger. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. agreeing exactly with Lith. bull. to weep. Lat. a buffalo. a drum . With these analogies. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. the animal. It. bugler. shoot . Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). bos. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. 167. to make. biibnas. miau-l-er. to make. bae. The Piedm. Da. bu. a bull. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. muJiati. to shout. representmake bow. Norse bu. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. or a z to the imitative syllable. — ^Tylor. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. and djeda. Illyr. maukati. to make a loud deep sound. to bump as a bittern Illyr. a cow. to low . the Fr. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. a heifer. From baa. bwla. cattle. baula. to boohoo. bubenti. to low or bellow. is inadmissible. a bullock. whence baula. His analysis leads cow. Cult. bullock. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. grumble as distant thunder . from the imitative moo instead of boo. to make a noise. representing the mew of a cat. bauli.

a dog. sound. the designations of a dog the term cur. Gr. hunt (gen. a sheep or ewe. to bleat . meil. Hence Breton hoc ha. G. and Circassian maylley. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. mekegni. kurre. nire. . rumbling. Welsh and Breton). Illyr. Africa laa. signifying a snarling. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. ' In driving. from knurre. and thence groin. cite as by grunt. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. grunny. grumbhng. guttural tone. grugno. Illyr. — . hund. as lou of an ox. corresponding to ohg. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc.). houch. 6. the snout of a pig. he would hardly. name of a sheep. menAda (ndda. a pig. and with the subsidiary k or g. a. a sheep (Lowe). grogner. and of (maelon). mecati. to rumble. with the root ypaipm. does not produce a e. Fr. Idgge (Rietz). naskia. grumpf. from hundama. meugler. purr). grumble. kurren. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. Gr. leg-et-ni. smack and naski. It is probable also that e. to themselves. It. Magy. .NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. leknuti. to howl. to growl. undoubtedly imitative. may with to snarl. Illyr. as the proper name of a tame sheep. grumble. grunt. cry). a grunt. /xijeao/iat. curmurring. in Wolof bae. lecco. a goat firixal^ta. /xj/caScj. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. and snorke. a sheep or a goat. knurfisk. hound. hundi). In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. groin. Fr. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. in v. lekavica. . a sheep. by which the shingle gives rise to It. Da. And it is true there between hog and grunt. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. hadg- Magy. Gr. Gael. to grunt. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). meigeal. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. ^. a sow. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. to grunt. Kurren und murren. a goat. a pig Fin. meketati. oe. and hoc'h. growl. for the voice of the ox). From the imitative mae. a (Hesych. meckern. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. and grumphie. may be identical with Esthon. although the imitation embodied in Lat. a sow. Moreover. hunon. name. (iriKov of forms like Sw. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. grunlike a pig in eating. this obstinate race. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. it and e. lek-eg-ni. name of the animal itself. With gen. Manx meilee. Among dog. / The same Gr. goats.' Moor's Suffolk words. or in any ! way ! persuading. we have Sanscr. sus-sus. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. lambs. a goat. karra. a wolf. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. sheep or goat. to bleat. a hog. mutter.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. The g. to bleat. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. hwch.

coquelicot. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. the cry to stop or back a horse. (Craven Gloss. Thus we are led to the Fr. p. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. a little am- bling horse. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. coquette. turn a horse to the is In Finland. like artificial flowers. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil).. animal. hoppe. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. hottihuh.root. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. without a — we root. when he found peculiarity. If onomatopoeias can . and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. of the character in question. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. a horse. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. and it is behind that wall that language really begins.). as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. such as cuckoo. So Sanscr.). In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. from the cry animal. . the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. There are of course some names. to the left. humma. hiine. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. hobin. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. to go backwards.. a mare.' 2nd Series. p. to whine.' ticular bird. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. 91. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. . houpy in Craven. But words of this kind are. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. e. as in Yorkshire highly right. M). g. ^6<. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. hobben. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. hobby. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen).' — ist Series. cockade. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. Sc. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. Esthonian hoibo.

ance or habits of the animal. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. creeper. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. to neigh. Sw. moan. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. woodpecker. Fr. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. hresh. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. . form corresponding hresh. command of language was attained. animals or certain kinds of sound. fehtati. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. nounced with a guttural). swift. Sp. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. giggle. signified It. Irieschen. lapwing. wiehern. wrenska. than to the sounds represented. Du. horse. hresh. redpole. hross. rinchar. Pl. groan. to Sanscr. little speak for themselves. diver. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. cough. but whether there kind between them and other words. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . whitename in in- throat. xxiii ginal object. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. hennir. titter. runniken. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. g. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. wagtail. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. e.D. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. frenschen. ginniken. Sanscr. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. goatsucker. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. hikkd. wrena. as sigh. Bohem. Lettish sweegt. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. hukkup.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. sol. nitrire.

root kshu. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. banke. for the creaking of a wheel. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. banga. an attempt would be made to by the voice. for that of breaking. bangas. plitsch-platsch. oren : Klapp. Da. for the for the sound of . klatsch. to ham. haitshu. a kind of drum. thunder (Tylor) . . hang. aritischane. are familiar in ' to every one. DingBang. 1865. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. Vei gbangba. strippstrapp-stroll. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . ding. a large bell. snore. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. for the sound of a fall. for the sound of a blow. clap ! A smack Puff. wheeze. It is represented in e. the dashing of the sea . knarr. on the chops is represented also by pratx. bang. hoo. snort. to beat. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound.' 'Haw. hoo ping ping. for blows with a rod. bang ' ! trenches. Zulu bongo. or the w. haw. tlirob. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. pit-a-pat. mer. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. beat. &c. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. or tliat is accomit. fitsche-falsche. a more expressive than the e. dong Read. atchian.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. for in such sound of blows. to throw violently down. snukkup). tisio (tisho). — Sanders. &c. for the sound of milking. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. pump. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. heart tick-tack. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . knack. went the cannon. Of a like forma- drum . debhes-lungotais (deifies. to sneeze. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. scream. shriek. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. to hammer . the God of thunder . the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted.' So imac. heaven).' it both sides went. to knock. in a nail Let. —Brem.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. Australian bungbung ween.' ! ! ! ! — dong. beat of a clock child .' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. to drive on. ting-ting. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. Wtb. lumm. atchini. ping came the bullets about their ears. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. for a small one. Mei gbengben. White Lies. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo.

is of expression. young bird. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. pigione. piou. a whelp. the voice of chickens (Cot. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. Lat.) a chick. a (young) pigeon. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. to cry pi. calls S. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. —Lyndsay. as k. a fife or musical pipe. a or cheep. e. pigolare. to cheep like a bird or a young It. to peep It. He Yet asks. Magyar pip.sc. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. piou. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. peep. chickens (Tylor). and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. used as a call to . young child . Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. pippione. or the uneducated different consonants are man. as the simplest implement for proFr. as in other subjects of study. which he added to intensify the expression. Mantuan pipiare. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. a chicken or gosling. pule. — . pu. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. ducing the sound. pipio. not- . but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. Gr. . to cry like imrli^u). laugh. pipio.' instead. cry. pipegni. It seems to him that the teeth t. far pipi. to squeak. or a piailler. piauler. pipe. and whimper. and so forth. cry of young birds . pigiolare. The pi. De Brosses. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. Fr. pipilo. and their relations. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. G. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. is pfeife. had been used laugh ? two. Florio. pipe. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. peep. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. child. a fowler's bird call is lost. pipare. bleat. mobility excavation and hollow ^. has been un- employed to designate fixity. pi. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. Lat. In cases such as these. to designate cavity and hollow. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. piccione. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. part of the What consciousness has the child. doubtless. pipelni. of a word will appear supposed to represent.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. scream.

by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. preserved by Kilian. kniks. sound).. garren. thunder oil . tintino.Gr. . Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . to ring pipio. to rattle. to gargle . gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . cluck. to grumble. the clucking of a j hen . girren. cricli. a short sharp sound. borrelen. to grumble). Pefuxela. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. coo. a prolonged sharp sound. or kaka-faka. knuks. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. chack. sound of dry breaking. to jar. to crackle like in boiling . kuruk. and lugh. lachachen. to pant bejii- zela. Hindoo tomtom. the side of g. rumble. to hawhaw or laugh loud. in German. a sharp short one. ioriogliare (to make borbor). lachen. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. or springing back. loud laughter. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. rumble. as representing the sound made when something breaks. bubble. vaake gorgor) . when it force than biscuit. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. to growl. karkarana. pi . is very common. some small vowel or consonantal sound. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. i. rumble (Fl. grumble. a. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley).) Mod. to gorgogHare rattle. kniks. Indian chack-chack. of a loud strong sound. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. to clack. tontonare. kirkirdnd. knurren. Hindustani karak is rendered. knaks. to bubble. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. Poppopvi^to. . of something fine and thin. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. along with tinnio. as the click of a latch or a trigger. tonare. {to It. crash. to be compared with Sc. to thunder.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. creak. Manchu kaka-kiki. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). to creak knirren. murmur (by . where the variation. a drum W. Zulu raraza. murren.. crack. Pacific aka-aka. laqfF. make wood a clinking noise. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. gurren. to cluck. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. to cry pi. turtur. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . a closed or obscure sound. u. to laugh. It. to pant violently (Colenso). signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. to grate the teeth . like the noise of a glass breaking . to fizz like fat in frying. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. along with Du. &c. to gurgle. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. be cate to go on laughing loud . Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click.

in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. or of bells ringing. tup. bulbiil. of keys or tinkling of bells. to ring or jingle. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. Manchu kaka. 368). agrees with g. jingle. rvir (in tvittio. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. especially one who beats. to be compared with g. word. thump. for chut-chiit-er. . croaking of frogs. clango. fumtu. clank. as of Tamil muromurmur. cry. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. is Manchu tang-tang. koXiw. jangle. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. klirren. for the clinking Lat. and bilhila. or to Du. at an accelerated note. borrelen. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. Sanscr. Newman). Scotch sough or sooch. Turk. 1871. and the imitative nature of tivgle. to the purling of a brook. 192). The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. to say chut. kl'mg-kling. coughing or clearing the throat. . The whispering of the wind I. to giggle. tumwata. wail. drops of i. E. a smith. spring of water in the a bell. tubh. is based on the same imitation as the e. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. Maori pata. noise. quarren. caca and Finnish adkkd. a boy's whistle. disturbance (F.and e. tumult. to knock. indicating the origin of Gr. uproar. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). awater* ' The Mme P.' Member for Paris. as Fr.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. and e. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. correspond to e. Calt. call. Prim. rifiirayov. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. to strike. Fr. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. sound). chut. Tiie Galla gigiteka. compared with Gr. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. chuchoter. and Gr. to beat. bad. rain (Tylor. simmer. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. brings us to Fr. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. kiling-kalang. the gingling of glasses. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. e. the sound of a stringed instrument. shout. clash of arms. Magyar csamm-ogni. box on the ear imitation of the . and her heart went thump. while cacd / used in e. The syllables lil-bil. ding-dong.* the heart. halaidlac'h. corresponding in e. the tingling Ming-Hang. KaKog. identical with g. a nightingale. chinking of coin. a workman. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. to whisper. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . are applied to the is excrements of children. sound. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. for the ringing of illustrate bells. csam-csogni. and Gr. or the bubbling up of to a spring. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. hala-hald-faMa (falda. muro and e. djeda (to say tub). and the same may be said of Zulu kala. for the sound of privy whispering. a nightingale. bent her head. a drum . Galla tuma. bubble up. make djamdjam). for a tTviror). champ. clink.

thump. rattle. while e. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. or v^hether jectional. 'pat. The use of g. by rubadub. to dance. mutter. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. bang. creak. tymmesll. and Fr. splash. din. gargle. without the intervention of orthodox roots. tap. chink. a applied as well to the force of the bang. So in Fr. whizz. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. answering to g. It. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. dabble. brumberum. crunch. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. lash. jingle. and Grimm. smash. rataplan or rantanplan. tomber. whine. guggle. disturbance. clatter. tingle. ' Der puff. Fr. parapatapan. bubble. patter. and the French pouf. thwack. blow. thump. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. dash. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. rap. rumble. murmur.' — Nohden. clash. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . gurgle. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. w. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. sputter. thump. Nevertheless. for (Sanders). The beating of drum is represented in e. clap. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. boom. ring. chatter. at a door tarapatan. hum. tumbian (to beat the ground). and soufflet. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. to is blow. flap. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. to fall. squall. craunch. clang. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. splutter. plump. tinkle. douse. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. puff. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. pop. clink. squeak. flop. the Germans puff. hiss. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. fizz. report of a gun. smack. in e. souse. the sound of a blow or shock souffler.. clank. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. twang. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. whack. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. tum-ultus. snap. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. whirr. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. clack.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. it is fallj AS. crash. swash. we have buffet or cuff. blubber. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. But although and also found in Lat. squeal. slash. Humboldt. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. paddle. according to the strictest phonetic rules. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. crack.

because they are spontaneous. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . an imitation of a sigh . p. or stubble is meaner name.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother.'. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . and thus they become signs of despair. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. 94. without a thought of symbolising to them. little who has time to want of her nurseling. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. wringing the hands. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. the inteij. stractions. by the nature of the cry. and found in the building of be burnt up. If. knows them.' . in the case of the animal or of the infant. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. every little pain. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. of horror. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. hay. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. and uttering plaintive sounds. grief. in the rushing waters. Grimm or Bopp. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. xxix on the contrary. the interj. is Thus ah!. or any unsatisfied want. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. formerly cited. At the first beginning of life. Crying. ugh . then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. but if we must not complain on the beach. are made known by an instinctive cry. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. the kind of action that is desired of them. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. Henceforth rational beings may produce them.' If chaos. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. that he has taken the step in rational speech. or of any if wood. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort.

' p. to solve the I shall call first. 32. may become traditional. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. they are involuntary interjections. 344. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. p. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. One short interjec- tion may fact.. the lowing of a cow.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. ^6g And to the same effect 371. shrieking. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. sneezing. If I wish to make a person of an . There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. groaning. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. coughing. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. or which is of me as suffering pain. which are frequently so toned down cance. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. and the eye. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. them to exercise it.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. be more powerful. And again. Language begins where interjections end. p. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. of all the mouth. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. more eloquent than a long speech. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. and some of them the composition of words. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. should be remem- . have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. as who them spontaneous utterances.' — ist Series. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. more to the point. He says. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. he cites from Home Tooke. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. interjections.

and more or less limited . hahottaa. speaking. in Magy. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. hohottaa. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. and thus. Tooke in truth. demolishing here. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. Koxafw. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. then speech begins. some kind of language might have been formed. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. when I arp humming and hawing. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. Gr. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . for example. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. Lat. but the less am at a loss what to say. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. and others from interjections. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. kahkahah. interjections. it them. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. in Fin. Kayxa^u). is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. bered. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. he says. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. hahota. cachinno. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. I am not hearer. loud laughter.

for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. Though. The following account is given by Kruse. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. and go where we now say stand. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. words receiving the meanings they now bear. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. It as has ing their most striking features. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. and not. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. a Picture-language. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. dumb is the language of signs. What strikes him . but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. a deaf-mute himself. like peewit and cuckoo. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. makes them stand and walk upon the table. of the world. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. And so in the case of language. But here nature soon conies to his help. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. if taken as a whole. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. ideas by a rude outline-gesture.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. of the nature of this great movement. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. the critical question should be.' he says. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. . "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs.

such objects. many when or but these.' In the Institutions. walkest. it means little. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. letter To hold the two fingers apart. and we have roast goose. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. thou. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. or To pull and flap with the arms. that air. and gestures.GESTURE most. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. can do better and more easily abstract terms. the sorecalling them to his memory. and with his thought. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. particular sense in properly so called. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. to name. for child. as it now opens out. or the verb to be. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. walker. The same sign stands and the act itself. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. And is. xxxiii him between one thing and another. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. it seems. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. nay. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. becomes roast meat. for walk. among themselves. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. most striking outline of an object. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. for the agent. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. he. and And thus he makes himself a language. for single objects. such as than the educated man. that. and it is flesh or meat. the whole secret. his action. called Gesture-language. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. and fully serves to j . signs are taught for yet. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. but if I depress it instead.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. that signifies great . The of sign for left hand. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. like a V. the lan- guage cultivates itself. and to taste. thought is already broken. and forms further and further. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. what more. push it towards the person addressed for thou. walked. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. he.

Do not bang the it is a verb.' dener's knife. or something of the kind. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. depend entirely upon the use. When a verb. it called an interjection. or a passive scene of existence. according to the circumstances of the case. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. a number of alternatives are suggested. as in die it is a noun. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. in other instances sentence. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. substantive or adjective. qualifies the against the wall. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. would be simply beginning of speech. You beaten .xxxiv asking. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. the ture of white term pink is and red. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. He gave door a bang. whether by additions or otherwise. when I say. I say. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. as But when it is meant door. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. Who is has beaten you ? would be. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. The same word . putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. a colour red. or a quality. and thus performs the part of an adjective. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. and so is an adverb. . might be the knife. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. and the as. the garden. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. in fact. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. to indicate the action of a certain person. When I say. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. or an act. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. or action. putting it into his pocket. as when Bang ! went the gun.

that is. inquiry. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. verb nor noun has yet been developed. 255. and to be great. Jii ta. wherehy. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. some outward display of the affection. as cung. which is an old y ting (use stick). or with elements expressing relations of time. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. commencement of speech. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. wonder. Thus tafu signifies a great man.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb.. as kuo cung. contempt. or nei. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. a noun. wherewith. Latin. . as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. and may be used language. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. in the sense of great. with a stick. whereto. inside. but often self-evident. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. wherefore. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. in the is indicated by the syllable y. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. a groan. the man is great. middle. or some relation between it and another object. coalesces with the personal pronouns. that admits itself in of audible representation. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection.^ — Miiller I. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. grie^ horror. pain. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. greatness. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. a sigh of oppression and . or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. &c. whereof. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs.

grief. wehthun. vaj. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. guaj- or cry out pitifully. to cry n. 6. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . to sound yapyap. ing action I. ohi. wehen (Schmeller). miau-l-is. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. ach. e. ohg. on. ace. wai. waiidt. wai-l. ochain. It. to chirp. to bewail oneself. has more kopfweh. wai. headache. ! ! Goth. Illyr. tirr-djeda. djamdjam goda (goda. w. Illyrian vaj. n. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. It. gwae. grief. to ache. ah. the pangs of childbirth. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. och. w. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. oi. to wail. in Gr. misfortune. ochan. guai. a groan or lamentation vir. are ol-ire. ach. e. cece. A widespread It. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. die wehen. to gargle. Let. It. oh. . but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. vce. vei-a. is w. e. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. ai. and to bark . weh schreien. to cry at. woe. j. to do woe. Gr. ui. to ache. first person. ache. or r. g. as. Thus from springs otjucifw. Bret. Gr. suffering.-l-are. In this way from the root guai. ochan. oh. miau-n-is. lament. to cause pain. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. o'i. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. as.'). oval. pain. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. representing Illyr. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. g. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. probably a deeper groan. axofiai. mew. gwae. to rriourn. to make). jao. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. to make bow-wow. pain. Gael. to lament. form. ah. mostly a ! %. Gr. w^wa. at the close of the radical syllable. 6. la. Lat. to wail or cry alas . ocAJ. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. gwe-l-a. ach. miau-l-er. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. seen in Gr. Fr. och. The form corresponding to Lat. woe. Lat. lau-l-e. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. to weep. al. . has to cry laa the Piedmontese. lament from oimi. grief] affliction. dchzen. on. pain. however. representing a cry of pain. och. to yell formed e. Such are g. to weep. hei. found in g. to groan. oimare.ez. aiai^to. wd. wAwa. guajo. achen. weinen. . ahi. jaoh. to lament. &. weh. . It.. vce. howl. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. to hurt Let. I oi[iot. and cacak djeda (to say crack. guaj-ire. Jar lau-lau. to . xxxvi grief. misery. to injure. is Ay di me I Gr. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. . to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). plete is the coalescence of the interjection me.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. child. we may translate this by there (it is). as. Diet. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. ToSe (or in Attic E. and so on. the nursery da-da. In the expression Da. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. der da-ige.' then points to his wife. Sie. • The child. When we pointing. his trowsers' pocket. is-te). The Fr.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. 'nay. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. or that it is. but the truth is. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. nurseries. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. that is it. when 1859. implying the direction of its good will towards them. that gratifies me. and may be rendered. da. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. give me that cheese. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. or wants to name something. says da-da-da. give. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. But. case. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent.' all is is — their consent. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). I add) . I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. Phil. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. to here . the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. indeed. as to express. Thank you. well as Goth. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. this here. according to Menage.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. or give me it. Dr Lottner observes. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. for instance. thata (ta-ta). more emphatically roSj)j that. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. . and by a variety of expressions besides.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. is we I believe. da. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. as it Dieser da (as Lat. saying : there the ad- Trans. Please. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. Bav. a specified were by pointing him out.' this.' person. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. a word of many applications in g. when he wants something. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. that. or carry me thither. ' sees an object. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. Sanders (Germ.

The da is dodem. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. . have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. to walk. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. p. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. stutter. reality. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. the original is that which he places first.' • liv ANALOGY. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. speech. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. moving. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. sinking. to chatter. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. and shapes it into an . thinking. pay. beat. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. or metaphor. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. takes it — as When the soul. then instinctively interest. its desire. sounds. dadee. make dadada). to beat. Thus Gr. to tion to another. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. and one in particular must. tattle. tasting. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr.^ its ' utters : a cry.' says Lottner interior. to say to oneself. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. standing. of which any one may. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. strike. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. to knock. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. meanings. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. or dalliance. to move step by step. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. which thus exertion. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. childish toying. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series.' says Muller. in every mode of expressing the idea. — Cot.

signified a clear sound. to be wise. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. search . a ringing . to glisten Dan. to shine. pracht. to . in popular language. think. to shriek with laughter . also wise. to shine. chime). make a loud noise. bilbil). In the same way the Goth. wilistd. to glitter. taste. savour. wise. spraka. to tinkle. to flash. judicious. . beam. brilliancy. It is The word bright had a similar In as. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . scTiateren. and schmecker. (parallel bilbila. kimistd. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. to quiver. Lith. is used in the origin. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. &c. in the domain of movement. outcry. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. to glitter e. So firom Lat. The 6. snudra. suspect Bav. to glitter. — 1. to ring as a glass willata. Heo Du. as kilind. snotor. to crackle. snuff the sniiten. Bavarian bracht. a with kimmaltaa. splendour. smell. noise. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. rattle. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. air. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. for example. knistre. tintelen. snot. to 5 ghtter. same imitative root with Sw. which in ohg. to sparkle. splendour. smell. Du. In the case of sparkle. to snilF. tinkling. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. and thence e. properly a clap or explosion. we have and the and beorht. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. firom the Gael. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. wilahtaa. as. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. scheteren. a rustling sound Gr. Finnish. a dis- cernment. gnittre. Again. and. discreet. sound. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. the equivalent of g. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. then to sparkle. kiimottaa. to sniff. 1654. from the . wamara. prudent. esclat). beorhtian. fiapfiaipw. on. unlella. sense of brightness. may be it explained . iclat (in Old Fr. may be quoted gUt. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. to ring. snutrs. extended to the exercise of the understanding. . and figuratively. magnificence. while sapere itself. schmecken. man of nice taste. to sniff out. schiteren. bilbilgoda (to make . Fr. knittre. to have Sapiens. tumult.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. to glitter. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. to sound clear In Galla. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. sapere (which signifies the nose. bright. to smack or taste. a brilliant light kilid. clang. sprageti. to resound. to crackle gnistre. ghsten.

The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. . rend. KoWiiSije. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. wool. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. inside. sharp. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. the clank (stridorem) of chains. in of his works. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. Acre. smooth. crux. rough. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. within. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. Kpovtiv. 6\tadaveii'. the neighing of horses. shatter. accordance with the way in which by touch. or . rough. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. extremely loose. fitting the letters to the sense. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. soft.' he says. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). Kep^arl'ieiv. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. mel. is felt Lana. kvTOQ. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. the cross. discusses the tone of a picture. eo ut res vol. itself letters are felt as sofl. And observing that n kept the voice within. then in rpd/xoe. ipuKuv. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. rough both ways. whirl. he says. Tpa)(yg. strike. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. oily. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. v. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. break. of dressing loud. he framed the words ivSov. which The Stoics. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. Much of the same has been often quoted. tremour. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. the bleating of sheep. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. pleasure soft to the ear . It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. rough to the ear. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. 1. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. and vepres. power of the letter-sounds. pvfi^Civ. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. \nrap6e. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. gluey. The BpavEiv. to slide. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. flow and flux. briars. roughness. as soft by the ear. in truth. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. &c. we hear of screaming colours.

corresponding to the ineor. shog. the case of the voice. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. and in the utterance of a high or or low. cular effort Again. jog. ii. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. p. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. jag. for exis ample. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. k. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. a rough and sudden . If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. or checks as they are called by Muller. to jogj sac-cade. dag. rug. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. jih. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. to signify varieties of movement. as when. 'and consequently form. stag (in stagger. joli. tug. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. p. sag-oter. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. 138). in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. to reel abruptly from side to side). in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. stab. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. A greater felt. t. dig. g. shag. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. d.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. jig. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. Fr. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. degree of roughness sound. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs.

a small bodily object. sound barely audible. to move rapidly to and fro. rough horse. The production of sound. to touch. g. to winkj micati is Lat. used interjectionally to represent a .. zigzag. so to Italian toccare. Hence Lat. a good piece of road . Bolognese tocc. in cases like the foregoing. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. Mucken. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. mot. micare. kik. then. schockeln. to On the same principle j we have g. Dutch kicken. and It. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. (mitsati). and e. is lanese toch. zack. to utter a slight kick. chiquet. to mark it with a touch of the pen . tack. a little bit. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . The analogy then carried a step further. chic. Then.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. sound Fr. then. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. Thus we have B. e. an infant . much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. mie. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. motion.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. kuk. also to stir. however. a piece or bit of anything. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. a . that we never can be sure. figuratively. a cracker. Ene olde suksuk. to glitter. and analogous movements. to mutter. a jog. to tickle. to beat or play on a musical instrument. tock. as Italian tocco. &c. to strike It. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . Welsh cicio. chique. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. is made to signify movement. tecche-tocche. properly a small lump'of . to pulses being knock. like English tick. foot. S-panish miga. To tick a thing off. as tot. tech-tech. The syllable suk is jerk. Accordingly the g. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. to take a thing on tick. for the sound of knocking at a door. it produces Dutch micken. movement. The train of . Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. mik. a quid of tobacco. Sukkeln. The Mipen or pencil. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. to say a word . Brescian toch. to stir. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. or check. an old worthless horse or carriage. to have it ticked or marked on the score . a stroke with a French toucher. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. cica. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. toch-toch. Fr. to ring a bell. Fr. chicoter. passing to the signification of motion. Illyrian migati. to incite by light touches. a crum. mica. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. It. schuckeln. is so frequent a consequence of movement. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. lead to Spanish tocar. not to utter a syllable. a playiug-marble.

. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. mut. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. that iku. seesaw. a little titty. a morsel. jot. lix Sp. 199). To jot. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. and toddle like a child titter. to tremble. a certain conception. fragments It. as in e. zitella. corresponding to the personal pronouns. this. tozzo. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. motte. This kind. tot. gnu. a sparrow). we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. to jot down or note with a fro. a. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. ri that. a whisper. mot. you. Then.- a jot or little It. a morsel girl . In a similar the relations of place. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. . or the like its It. a small lump or pat. is shown in murmur. a e. taut. to e. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. not to utter a syllable. for the beating of a clock. to jog. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . But the same is language has re Javan. titmouse (Du. mossche. ticktack. Malagasy to.) . and he. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. . to movement of the pen . to touch. further off. Pm. e. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. a light quick blow. citto. a tot . ika. tottle. and mite. chico. totle. tittle. often entirely arbitrary. subdued manner. neither moit nor an atom. small titlark. . that. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. i. tot. a bit. titilh. n. mutter. here. a girl. . of movement in totter. lump of earth. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. tit. gni. mote. a bit. anything . 48) cites from the African Tumale. The following table from Tylor (Prim.n. there '(at a short distance). iki. tot. (Halliwell) Da. titter. motta. tit. this . sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. bunch or flock of wool. tot. for the three personal pronouns. and out there. Fr. a small horse. mutter j dust. So. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. . little. 0. Cult.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. here (close hand). little j to that of a small bodily object. move slightly to . not because the pendulum makes a different left. a small kind of lark. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. to whisper (Pr. to dot. and a small lump of something. the least visible insect. small of kind. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . Halliwell. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. clay . a lad citta. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. I. syllable mot. anything small flax. a small bird. Du. zitio. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. we have e. or o toi. . e. eo. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). at where the order is inverted. . not an atom . the same organ touched with the man. the vowel sound. and dot. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. fait. to make a slight mark. tiny. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. gno. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. there (further of!) ao. a small quantity. there. or the converse. to touch lightly with a pen.

araM. that. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. Dhimas isho. child. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. usho. /mya. . . bi. ulri. . child. mother. there. . there. . thou . which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. that. mas cheche. that. olo. there. ukko. . is Here. ojOo. probably initial of distinction that the k. femina ama. man erne. this . this . there.. It Carib lala. this . ita. this fi.. Botocudo ati.e^. Chilian tva. mother. there. here j ka. Mutsun ne.) pronunciation of i or e. an old woman chacha. me probable that • Vei also little. here . ^. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand.. thou. It seems to (fen. that. father k . loo). /e«. km. small (Pott. to. there. Abchasian aSn. Magyar ez. j Canarese ivanu. minution further. respectively. this . that. here . . Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. there. that.. Then. and origin. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. father. thou ni. mother. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). he. uta. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. here feraa. Lat.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. is father. no constant rule is observed. /wo. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. little.) nna. Ossetic am. here this . ofj. 6. ndi. here 5 Yoruba na. Tamul i. as Mr Tylor remarks. akha. that (intermediate) j wana. w. nne. . that. ta to ka. for the male. this ole. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. as the act of pointing was ta. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. Tarahumara ibe. tiiio. as in Italian Fin. that. that. an old . Guarani nde. ni. Sahaptin (America) kina. ne. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. ni. Japan ko. Mm. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. this <t. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. I . here j abe. and a for the female. Fernandian az. Zulu ajoa. Gr. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. you. young one. that in the distance. he. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. qu. biii. (tt). Carib ne.

i Sw. to begin to appear .' making the voice as small as possible. keeh. murmur. — Douglas Virgil. the pip or pippin. knob. A little weeny thing. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. to teet. or even. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. a step. or chink. trap. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. barking of a dog. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. to make its way through the bursting envelope. a little yellow beard. at pippe frem is to spring forth. Top. sound of bells . by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. trappa.' — Merrv Wives. for a succession of light blows low-wow. for the . repetition It. din-din. analogous to winy-piny. as ding-dong. pepin. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. trSpigner. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. From cases like the foregoing. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. trippen. nil. and in the Pacific dialects. the nursery few j Sc. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. looking through between obstacles. a child. the simplest mode by the g. Thus we have Wolof sopa. wenig. whence Fr. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. the idea is called. little. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. to tread. The Sw. fretful. A little wee face with little. nipple. just beginning to appear. . lift 8. And perhaps the E. &c.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. the principle of reduplication. of smaller things. trippelen. for instance. to feet. in old e. is to express simple continuance of action. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. little To sup up. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. stairs.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. Da. to peep through. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. titta. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. tion. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. has tittafrem.) . nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. The sound trapp . Fr. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. to peep. as j money. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. wean. Clank represents the sound of something large. 401. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. nab. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. don-don. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. trappen. dance (Kil. to leap. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common.

Malay ayun. serves to show and in this way. tach-et-er. &c. very bad. puka- puka. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. And generally. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. 97). but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. mawhiti. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. be used as far an echo to hard sounds.' expression is — ^Tylor. to call frequently from Fr. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. child . to rock. cliqu-et-is. (to use a to speak. properly speaking. amusement. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. or rdtchi. hardness. bad . the lungs. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. Mandingo ding. to or rub. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. rack. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. . and the words express a continued sound of rack. click. Again. could readily be conceived. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. i. ayunayunan. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). loloa. lololoa. a spot. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. little child (p. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. or in Fr. random . repetition or continsignify long. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. Thus in the Pacific loa. rapidity and strength. Cult. to skip. calling. or imitative syllables. the agent in panting . expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. to treat with contempt. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . clash of weapons. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. or el. smallness. very long (Pott. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. Susa di. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. mpolu is uttered. to vi^alk about for flax. So from clamo. kenda. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. child . ratsi-ratsi. didi. Thus in E. to pant. puka. keep spots. in familiar use with ourselves. kamha-gamla. to love. kendagenda. clamito. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. the and clique. to cover e. er. a clattering noise. very great. to talk at to walk. ding-ding. a grasshopper. racket. or a little tee--ny thing. to say pooh It is ! to. the comparative degrees of greatness. tache. instead of being actually repeated.Ixii REPETITION. from Maori muka. is language. or very very great. to to call. The same principle of 196. mawhitiwhiti. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. . a cradle.. rack click. 99). That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. if very young. sopasopa. and Fr. are echoed by the rudimentary et. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim.

fickle. compared with g. wankeln. by the side of wanken. to make gug. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. is In e. to crackle. to wail woe . The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . miauler and beler correspond to E. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . the lungs (the puffers of the body). bubble. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. to move to and fro.Jicol. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. it. to hand-le. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. from puka. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. g. itself. rynel. crack. which. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. he who rubs.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. in Fr. or by association. and in as. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. to bark like a dog. bub. a from ayun. to rock. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. shuffle. to rock or wag. joggle. wagas ging. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . to puff. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. the knie-en to E. rubber. draggle. to make a succession of grabs . to hand. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. or in e. to make a succession of shoves. or Maori puka-puka. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. mew and baa . or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. as to handle. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. wankel. The Fr. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. wancol. smack. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. waggle. wavering. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. or fi bau. as mAS. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. syllable clat . to continue dragging. dabble. such asjlap. In cases like these. without the intervention of the frequentative element. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. guggle. to make bau-bau. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. in some applications. miauler andpiauler. Ihre remarks under gncella. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. dab. or omitted. The contrivance with any particular noise. others. jogging. kneel. Jickfacken. Piedmontese bau-l-S. a succession of cracks to rattle. where all direct connection with sound is lost. are to cry mew and pew .

Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. although it is not difficult. known in Italian. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. which. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. the breach. at was more familiarly known. Polish. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. or in aptness to combine with other elements. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. deceit. to cry ugh at. no sort of difference either in outward appearance.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. Dupe comes to us from the French. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. and comparatively few easily deceived. by a hard body breaking. or how generally. A gull or a dupe same sense. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. moreover. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. Breton. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. to the separation between the broken parts. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. on a moment's reflection. will continue to be felt in daily speech. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. or in mode of use. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. it is obviously a mere chance how long. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. There is. which is the origin of the word. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning.

and the word is used in a secondary sense. language is . The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. life. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. however. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. Hitl^erto. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. nor any limited of ideas. founded in manifest blunder. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. . We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. is. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor.

signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. circle perpetrates a new slang term. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. unintelligible to other hordes. 330. guages in South America. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. evique. hearing. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. Welsh. If English. I think it very probable. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. out. French. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. therefore. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). of material things. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. and 'Russian. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. episcopus. compared with the duration of man. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. in the course of many years' isolation. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. and vescovo. i. Naturalist on the Amazons. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. change.

and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. 8.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. is MN. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. i. 7. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. . Cijlt. ao8). as shown in the subjoined illustration. which are idenr Figures 5. it will leave figures 3 and 4. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . 9. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. 6. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. the actual it which would to represent. and . The combination of the symbols I and 2. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. or whatever the proportion may be. Nor is there one of the letters. to be taken (Prim. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. A key must unlock more doors than this. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. ancient Greek M . ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs.

We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. his fellows." the use of a change of vowel in as. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. had its origin in imitation of sound. what comes to the same thing. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. leading him to utterances. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. and the only safe beneficent Creator. in the shape either of direct inspiration.' should be discovered. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. or. known to us as yet. which either by direct resemblance of sound. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . for instance. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea.

or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. as elephants. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . that he started from the lowest grade. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. the conduct of Ixix life. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . and when we look back as far as history will reach. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. by animal without a trace name of Man. or not.COMPLETION OF MAN. or else. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. and sooner or later. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. or beavers. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. race were speaking men or not. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. of using imitative conduct . there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . and rose towards a higher state of being. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. or of their own reflected thoughts . and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. for instance. in the course of generations. until the progeny. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint.

Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Dutch. Bav. Supplement to Dueange. Fin.. Douglas' Virgil. ^Ifr. Diet.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Diet. AS. Finnish. Teutonico-Lat. 1654. Supplement to Bret. Cimbr. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Brem.Nieder. Sup. . Castr. Baile/sEngl. Cot. Bigl. Gothischen 1851. Bremisch. Due.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Carpentier. at the end of Somner's Diet. Dueange. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Dief. Esthonian. Da.-Eng. Dueange. Cotgrave. Diefeiibach. de la langue Cat. Anglo-Saxon. 1850.V. Provincial dialect. Romano - Cas- traise. Catalan. Fr. 1857. 1766. Gr. Carp. Bohemian or Czech. 1768. Diefenbaeh. English. B. dial. Infimse Latini- D. Bavarian. or Dan. Biglotton seu Diet. Diet. E. Elfric's Fl. Couzinid. Esth. Wtb. Dief. Grammar Boh. 1737. Dn. Danish. dialect of the Sette Commune. Cimbrisch.



tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . cruccio deyrie. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. Blob plowied r. buque 118 brodiquin r. r. puHti r. ^i?^i2! r. word allagerr. plowied budowaer. kilistaa bugiie r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. cti. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. haverie crtOT r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. katowai perairrantr. r. (/ijtf r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr.5 ERRATA.percurrunt kimista^x. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r.nokkutama willekem. r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. willekom Blab r. sveritet Asknace r. baltresca nokkutomax. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r.>.. yjnaifia r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. alUger ahaverie r. Askance woud r. woman r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r.


A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. into the Romance ftrseg . plesyt him. but now )bsolete). An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. implying a completion of J. Passing tongues. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. orders. Immediately from Fr. literally. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . as. ur. downwards. ibandonner. to sauff the king or spill. to arise. and — Chaucer. ab. rule. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. "rom a height. among. out of. this word beand Spanish. o/j of or . Lat. abs. Hence on-bceftan.t G. an edict or proclamation. his. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. to hold . . state of sleep . said. whatever he be.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. onis aback. as. off. alike. power : Than Wallace thing. Thou spelds of mychty iction. In Lat. K . from. Thus ip N3S. AS. erwachen. dominion. sion of 'an abandoned character. a washing off to abstain. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. on. To abuse is to use iway. and secondarily in that of command. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. ifter. of-dune. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. Abandon. ar. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. The word Ban is common orders. away. on-lic. iway from. Parson's Tale. abaft. be-ceftan. vs. A. compounds. announcement. Dent posture. particular 1 . er. OHG. us. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. bandon in French. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day.he Goth. ir. Ab-. have entire dominion over. until the event jlace . on. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. command. to awake. a/tan. from a is to wake to abide. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. in a manner other than it should be ablution. Again. dominion. to subdue. AS. Abaft. away from. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. in. a. —Bruce. the er. behind. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. Abs-. on-bsec . Jvery man shewid baft. 843. in the same sense. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. 244. baftan.

or admiration. Abbess. confound. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. uncontroUedly. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. with or without a final sh. On the other in use as well as hand. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. It. abbatia. and it that that it — . and sets them all agape. I was abawid for merveille. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. by Wall. 1520. to make lower. faire tomber.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille.Prov. to light upon. ant. to gape. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. weaken. More correctly written abbat. impetuously. Hart in Jamieson. in the active form. abbattre. To Abate. of the Fr.down. astony.— R. Beat. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly.On princes. person. law term abatement. and that from Syrian abba. Originally. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. merely the terminations ons. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. ne more vermeille. abate.fournir. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. betrash. of wonder.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. to overthrow. abbas. esba. Custom. lish to abaisse orabaish. to bate something of the price abbatersi. iv. to abaw or astonish. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. baba. Cotgr. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. effect of shame. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. ais. Hence Lat. d. adverbial expressions at abandon. as ravish. esbahissais. — Neccham.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. vol. and grooms besmeared with gold. astonish. overthrow. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. of fear. R. may be explained. A. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. to take possession of an estate. his eyen shene. from ravir. thing abbatere le vela. R. to excite admiration. abandonly. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. 1 1 8. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. bandon.— — . — — . from Lat. to ruin. at his own the lips. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. an abbey. son bandon. to diminish the force of any. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. depress. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. c. Baba ! Mod. impulse. drink.' the surrender of a ' K. father. to put to con. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. Abbot. terminedly. Abbey. to strike Froiss.esbawi. to strike sail . to happen. to astonish. and the verb was written in Eng. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. See Abide. 364s. so common in the found in the OFr. abaundunem-ent. castle. or society of abbots or monks. Castrais. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. to beat furnish. R. esbahissant.polir. Hence the OE. his mouth.) . burny was formerly burnish . down. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. baer. to The . burny. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. . Wall. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. Fr. Milton. . as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. See . abbatere. beer. In or. esbahir. et prirent terre. Bate. polish. other. bawi. And he thereof was all abashed. shame. de. abbatere dal prezzo. abbatis. to hit. where custom (Grandg. to meet with abbatersi in una terra.

and Prov. abeyance. baier. bhr. . from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. waiting. the verb of abeyance. or absorption watching. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. badare. expectfamily. or do we AS. forms with the d effaced are OFr. compared with (Bosworth). Fabl. and E. — II. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. listen. speaking of the Holy places. to In great amaze. to deanimer. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. othres abidan' The effacement expect. signifies the direction of tend. expectation. abidan. verbeijen Sw. white. were called Brothers. to ance. bocca badata. gola badada. In We . Corant sens lui.— Chaucer. The white poplar. bida.to wait. Pol. to mind. trick abetar. suspense. aspirer. to wait. badar. we sceolon ON. beijen. From abahier. look for another. desirer (Roquef. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. ' ' . Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. Guernsey beth. — . exciter. to open bader. Prov. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. beidan. is idenwait. E. bide of the d endure. Corresponding to keep in suspense. while the monks under his control ing. usbeisnei. to remain or endure. abetter. abeter.) abayer. tempting. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. bouche b^ante. and alluring to his own destruction.was formerly used in the sense of look. to gape . deceiving. to stay. a bay or opening in the coast. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. baier compared with It. beijen. abet. to desire. incite . with open mouth . bada. baer. — signifies to suspend action. to tarry. take care. bida. on the one hand. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. abayer. inciting. to be intent upon. to It.' is in AS. in Dan. also to OFr. house.. bouche bdante. OFr. wait.— Roquef. K. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. John. endurArt thou he that should come. Gloss. Du. beguiling on the other. The verb atwaiting. in Fr. aspire to. (Vocab. 366. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. Thus G. tity of E. See Abide. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. take notice. Cat. Quant voit le serpent. inciter. badare. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. abaier. . songer. listening. to attend on . to abide . expectation. bana. regarder. have seen abide. and in E. to open the mouth. bidan. ceive. 1 • . to desire earnestly. abSiance. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. to look. or in Fr. tarrying . bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. ne wist what way to chuse. tical with It. abbadare. watch. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. delay. deceit. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. gridare. badigliare. Cat. Norm. To Abet. Gloss. lingering. attendre avec en^pressement. Thus we have It. desire. delay. —Raynouard. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). Goth. to wait. abiiance. bie compared with Dan. bialodrze-w. Norm. . . abet. bder.Fr. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. to expect. to suffer death in Du. beguile. Abie. warten. a right in suspense . abie. to expect gabeidan. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. bie. wait To Abide. Q. ne chastised them. de Berri) Prov. pense. to wait. with badia. to stay. de Champ. open the mouth. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. syllable ba. endurance. covet. b^er. beter.— ^richer. beijden. Ducange. guardare. — ABELE Epiphanius. F. tenere a bada. Boethius. to yawn. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. to attend to. qui iaaille. suffer b. to hook. . Abele. beidan. says. intent observation. which is certainly related to It. us. to be intent upon. delay. forbearance. to deceive. which the mind to an object. ^couter avec dtonnement. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. badare. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . abie. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. literally white tree. baier. attendre See Bait. m Abeyance. Ni engigner ni abiter. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. from Halo. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news.

Innan bords. abeye. being disabled in the highest degree. al- be found so some will dear abide it. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. the Pardoner In the original. though sometimes confounded with it. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. and the simple buy. In this to erase or annul. at hand). to draw fowls. Wickliff in Richardson. the Fr. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. Boucher. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. and death for handsel pay. abilej Prov. bord. beidan. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. L. powerful. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. The —Boucher. to redeem. abolir. have-like. use. durance in both applications. atling hem to her proper offices. strong. willing to schewe his wrathe. purpose. to perish. was often used in the same sense. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. F. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. Lat. Mids. suffer the Jul. 2. power. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. ! ! Cotgr. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. adapted . hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. N. AS. abilh. the Sir Tristrem. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. the side of a ship. —Bacon in R. Fr. Dr. within the walls of a ship. as habiller du chanvre. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. For on board. abie. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. God — dear. ON. at kasta fyri bord. aboleo. . to have . The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. sufficient. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. must suffer for it. forbid for mother's children should abye. to . when compared with Aboard.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. habilis is closely preserved. in for any special purpose. properly abuy. — e. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. P. abigg. from Lat. on board . Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. i. without special reference to the notion of retribution. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war .ynes. Merch. a board. &c. Spenser. him with che. consequences of anything . R. Prol. from AS. de la volatile. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. fit. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. bidan. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. fault being simply clothing. while in later examples As I . or bie. O If tion. Abie. to dress hemp. abidge. abycgan. abie to Goth. — P. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. P. Q. — Able.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. habile. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. 2nd Tale. as E. within the ship. to pay the purchasemoney. Chaucer. Tr. expert. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. abicgan. R.^and to make his power knowne. to pay the penalty. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. Fr. to wear away. convenient. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. It. Milton. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. If it badare. Cassar. able. She shall abie that trespass dere. is the verb abie. and Cr. abide. habilis (from habeo. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. God. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. bide.

to feed. abufan. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. abredan.) . ol.— Abbreviate. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow.. butan. to awake. seems aras. progeny.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. common in Chaucer and Abominable. levis to the Romance languages. to rear. AS. and to do something to avert abbreviate. which passed into English under Abominate. Thence to regard greugetat. Sc. Lat. s —Casdmon. the OSw. giving birth to. to grow together. brood. abrdger. To Abound.. to bring up. gravity. OSw. break out. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. as AS. — ' — — preceding verb. to produce. around on the out. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. to let sleep. agreujar. The primitive idea seems that of beget. from .' Ymb hancred utan. disastrous portent in some passing oc. to snatch. full ofte his words for to Fr. nurse Lat. is not from G. to break off. alan. and also to abridge. Goth. draw out. Above.foda signifies to beget. al is growth. Gael alaich. ABOMINABLE adolesco. abbrechen.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. Thonne Abroach. Abundant. abbrechen. of any kind .plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. to feed. OE. Du. but from Lat.ymbutan. his contemporaries. alere capillos. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. to nourish. Abray. . bufan. abracan. hard. Of these synonymous adolescere. boven. agredge. to main. parent. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. about cockcrow. to fatten. vital PI. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. below. to and of giving birth to a litter of young.aboon. Quod abominor. explains soboles Lat. whence the Fr. gravis. abutan. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. motion. as the duty of nourdisposition. So in Lat. leading immediately to Fr. Severe the threatened evil. to turn. alan. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. nurse. outward. is a ively. heavy. ufan.the older form. OE. Virg. by the to bring up. for ligeth butan. AS. to aggravate. to beget or give birth to children. and bidden him abregge. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). ala. the hair grow. on high. AS. Kiittner. en. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. or young forth. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. as withotityn and without. Prov. oil. pedigree from brevis. greu. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. Melibaeus. the idea of breaking about . shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. and also. awaking. or cut short. nourish. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. alUger. See To Bray. Tale. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. a portent). olet become worthless through gam De manji af. snatch In English we speak of away. adolere. See -und-. the vital spark. and in-d-oles. abominor (from ab and omen. — . In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. way Sw. The radical idea is to feed the flame. life. For on broach. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. currence. coalesco. af-oolden.1. becomes leu in Prov. breaking out in language. to grow up. that greatly agredge their sin. literally. abrcBgdan. abbreviare. af-oleii. natural ed direct from the latter language. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. Fr. while the sense of beget.ger. Finnish stock. above. kindling. while the verb alleThe root el. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. to cut short. which may God avert. to start.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. without. the identity of which with ting. titan. To abray or abraid. D. . ala is made to signify to rear. to progress. be-ufan. to AS. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. onbutan. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. sec seftre — Chaucer. and alere flammain.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. to rear. side. d. In the same brevis . from Fr. the man dwindles away. Then. Abrdger itself. to light a fire the Abraid.' Parson's rence. abowen. be-utan. the form a&^^.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. set aside. before. what Roman civilisation. from in and cudere. So Lat. apatiar. Hence the applica.. amboltj Du. one having wealth. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. rich. plenteously with red. Pezron fiUist. choke. separate. before. panar. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. one. To ape. Gr. stem. as the Italians. or in a ridiculous dress. Mannequin. from an.is to be given. of. Antick. Apartment. as from as. aside. Anxious. Aphorism. to strike. whence Prov. were andouiller the second. andouillers. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. to have. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. ReApe. strangle. Lat. antefn. gabeigs. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt.D. Fr. . In like manner. as posticus. Lat. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. anapoz. Fr. younger child. anxius. to support. antifena. from. To go antiquely. and devils. i. Gr. — — — . ab. a few. or antique single chamber. apertum. —Spencer. from.— . the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. like a jack-pudding. from the imitative habits of monkeys. should be received.—Aperture. Lat. swaged. burnished. three antike pillers. eigs. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. Lat. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. a gift. a puppet or an anti^hona. panis. Hall's Chron. all of gold. work. from Stephanus. Anvil. in Shakespear. : . the anticks — behind. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. incus. something ler in R. from ante. part. from eigan. one at the least. Fr. ambeld. E. Apart. to nourish. Any. As the browcalled antiques. Antler. a termination equivalent to Goth. bread. to display pario. to strain. to go in strange disguises. from ango. a preventative . the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. and ig. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. from avTiipoiuia). wealth. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. to sound in answer. AS. to open. which by anvild. but the expresent day. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. Apartment. G. and claret wine. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. to strike G. Thus from gabe. Otfried. Antique. Aperient. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. anxi. were chiefly of the former class. press. AS. Percutere. a definite .made out. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. on. as we call it. cenig. white. anfilts Pl. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. surimitation of the ancient models. vex. post. avri^ava. separate purpose. aperio. Gr. inAgain from the same author cudis. Ilvtwotov. a small quantity. left as the . anticus. whence anthem. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. Prov. transferred to the grotesque characters. to bring forth. Antidote. villan Gloss. verberas. some one. af. apanage. trouble. fauns. d<popi(xnbs.th centuries the recognised models of antic. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite.legacy of given against. finally applied to a whether grotesca. See Cover. d. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. Ful- Apanage. AS. to imitate gestures. such as savages. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. from an and — - . a block to hammer on. Jorioc.

Cotgr. apprentis. known. to make a thing Apparel. away. appartenir. value apprdder. They werin his approvirs privily. To praise. i. become dizzy . order. a learner. word was specially applied to clothing. An old appalled wight. diminutive pariculus.probare. apropid. Apotliecary. to understand. Apple. aptly. set a price on. appaiser. manner. 23 .t. to send to.pareil. pertain or belong to. poind. to set a price on. APRICOT off. The PI. peler. to Lat. to learn. rise to \t. d-n-o. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. : — — speak 'Lz. poind. plight. apparecchiare. dress. in Chaucer. appareo. equal. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. in data. Parson's Tale. to accord. to — — . and metaphorically to take the meaning. Fr. Hence appoind. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. 11. . — dirondtfiu. cepl. approcher. Apprehend.parejo. N. Appareil. Gr. To cause to pall (see Pall). aparelhar. appris.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. from aTroorlXXu. D. purpose. prover. apin R. Apostle. one is in. and also as appraise. ap. — Appurtenance. of. to store or put Appal. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. to learn. when the . or the like. apprehendere. Pliny. ciously than nede is. agree. near. jabloko. one for his defence. praise. Ir. mine. Fr. H. to disable oftat. to call for judgment. diroTrXriaatii. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. to dress in this fashion. despatch on some service. ON. Nouv. ^wss. ar. Fr. apal. array. Gr. diroBrjKr}. to rate. apprise. in commendation. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. to deter- to strike. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. iwKjToKri. or E. Fabian in R.parecchio. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. that it outfit. an epistle or letter.—Apprentice. opportunity. after his mind . fit- — ness. Walach. preparation. Cotgr. to strike down. kind of action.propius). 5w. allow. Fr. Gr. Fr. landmark. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. the good. to approach.prix.— . one sent out. to fit. peace. make a composition between parties. to finish a controversy. good. corresp. piteux poind. to assign or grant over unto. to lose one's senses. S^. to approve. from paix. To Appraise. apar. Hence It. Formerly apricock. whether through age or sudden teiTor. Fr. Prov. prohts. ai. to which it is often referred. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. a price. habilUr. consent unto. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. Mod. find Then like Fr. like. to be open to view. laven is used both as E. to deaden. whence the e. From Gr. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. . to catch hold of. Fr. from. to take away or lose the vital powers. apropchar. En peach. approver. . to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. oVooroXof. The Fr. avail. obolys. apprendre. esteem. Cent Nouv. To Appear. a'^opi'Jw. lAfiaam. off. and appoinder (to find fitting. approcdare. to mark to define a bound. apal. Prov. Gr. in good season prendre son d. Approach. Lat. —Diez. From Lat. were formed appropiare ejar. And whanne sum men Lat. quoth the frere. 'LaX. proper time came. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. to seize. I prise ware. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. pretium. in fact. And among other of his famous deeds. Fr. appellare. AS. — Apprise. to send off. and in the sense of condition. to — . a crime. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. Apoplexy. one the MLat. From Lat. irpaiKOKiaov. like. OFr. pragigua or prixcoda. Sp. — Approve. APO sentence opoQ. pronounce good. A — . e. Yr. Palsgr. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. —^Apparent. to suit. — prehendere. pronounce fitting). 'L-zX. to announce. prope (comp. Yr. It. They were considered To Appoint. Epistle. horror. w. a thing for one's purpose. Cotgr. prize. agreeing with "LtA. taking. trim. decree. par. appareiller. seiden of the stones. probare. to come near. xv. Lith. (cited by Diez from a late author). For their acquaintance was not come of new . to call. case. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. properly to join like to like. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. to commend. Appease. Apo- good time. to deem good.his giving evidence against his principal. habiliments. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. Friar's Tale.

or eft. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. a pleasure-ground. arwelo. or barm-cloth. to plough. a cloth. conjectura conjec^ra. arbitror arwaaja. From OFr. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. symbol. pracoqua was not an adapt. P. the spelland umpire. From OE. conjicio. a lot. — . a lot. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. Lat. aro. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. and a protection of the clothes. properly the arwella. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. rofe and all. P. Flower and Leaf. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. arpa. Thus we have natiger and auger. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. sortium ductor. Hall. shortdr. ap. Pr. and taken away before dessert. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. Arbour. C. divining rod. 31. water Which that benchid was. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. be That it inne groweth.. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. words derived from arpa. . a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. Marsh. Naprun. sorcerer. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. Alban. a lot. ahva. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. A. delon. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. It may be doubted. a river. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. and with turfis new Goth. found in Fin. arbiter. however. 2. {mies ^=ia3. short. however. garden. Now one of the points — — — .' —About. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. Roquefort. and sortilegus ation. Now we find in Fin. Maan initial . Aquatic. and the one who gives oracles. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. aptus. account for either of these significations.shrubs {arbor). quod he. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. She made. scr. — napkin is Naperon. arwaus. doubtless is the origin of E. nected. Prol. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. to preserve it from stains. tion under trial. and thence fit. The loss or addition of n very common.o. Freshly turnid Arable. most conspicuous situation in the garden . As is a pretty parlour. Albanian. Gr. . aestimo. proper. auguror. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte.meaning at Shrewsbury. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . aha. wata. OE. as ihe diminutive. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. herbere. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. 331. This path Aqueous. nawl and awl. arbitrium. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. aqua. naperon. . Pm.] in the N. hariolus arpelen. ughe. is taken in is a soothsayer.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence.) E. Lat. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. fastened close. Arbitrate. J. sestimatio arbitraria. arbiter in re censendS. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. suitable. man. aa. . Lat. OHG. con. It is certain that the apricot oracle. opinio. a soothsayer. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. as an eye-witness. derived. of of divination arpa-mies. ear.sors. to decide by lot. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. Beryn. intensitive of nape. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. grande nappe. la nappe.

it is posculine inflection en of the PI. archangel.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. shoulder Boh. raineno. ardIn G. . to burn . bad. fabricate). Lat. erg. man. ardor. Perhaps erz-wticherer. D. to rule.' Lex. patus). mischievous. arm. TiKToiv. which is derived from it. ill-tempered. Alisaunder. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. sly. ardeo. gwyro to bend. malicious. It. . G. as in E. Arson. The . gwyrek. a chief builder. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). Fr. Area. earm. Ardent. a bare plot of ground. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. From the verb armare. argvitugr. curved line. earh. Du. Arcadia in R. an extent of flat surface. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. Uo^a^. branch. as the arch of a bridge. i. arcA in e. stuff. arwe.' Paul Warnefrid. an arch boy. sly. which has been referred to W. bravest. Arid. 2. et vulgari verbo. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. From apxeiov was formed Lat. . Applied in modern E. Ardour. is essentially the same word.4 rir/. A construct. Fr. vescovo.aioj. G. ers-betriiger. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. Dan. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. armee. from nixa. * ArchjAiTaxit. signifies chief or principal. lofty. difficult to reach. to demonstrate. bad of its kind. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. high. un malin enfant. W. a court yard. rame. apxh. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. first. a. troublesome. ardre. receptacle where the public acts were kept. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. arg. shoulder. AS. weapon may be simply an application of annus. it signifies roguish. ars. earg. to be in comp. contemptible. argr.. aj-f. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. apxtipfve. burning heat. un petit rusd. make clear or prove. an arch-deceiver . an arrant rogue. an arrant usurer. taxed with cowardice. arm. Arduous. timid. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. arga. to be on fire. . a burning or setting on fire. — Wtb. arma. whence the body of the nobles collectively. arduus. . Lat. ^Argument. government. the terminaGael. armata. Aristocracy. vocaveris. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. arrig.. arsum. wretched OE. a bow. There can be no doubt that E. ramo (pi. ramend). morally bad. in Due. kpxi- beginning. — Architect.— Army. Arch in composition. arcus. armada. by Russ. the best. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. adjective.In E. erz-bischof. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. Sp. Du. and must be identified with Dan. wanton. faint-hearted. a noble. apx^iv. from areo. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. to Arch. and not with apx. the a brute. arson. And thou as arwe coward. Gr. Gr. exercise lordship). and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. ruling by the nobles. arguo. curved. Arm.' the Gr. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. a rule (princiruler. while the Fr. weapon. ein arger knabe. een erg kind. aridus. Sax. det arrigste snavs. Langobard. bad. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. 3340. are formed the participial nouns. to arm. Fr. apxtlov. Gr. arm'ee. Arcliives. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. the most arrant trash. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . Lat. Cot. a branch. erz in G. arrant Arms. Lat. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. especially shoulder-joint. ancient. fainthearted. sluggish. ON. to dry. apxri. and our army. Lat. ' — Argue. Lat. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. area. and Kpurka. the court of a magistrate. Brem. Lat. Lat. forearm . Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. mischievous. Gr. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris.is the natural weapon of offence. worker. a threshing-floor. arch-bishop. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

taich. a separate portion. balva-vesei. Venet. calamity. balge. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. ache. cka. bolker. ballare. balle. to speak an un. ball. To Bale out water. whether of wood or stone. a skin. bjdlki. Fr. to ail. misery Du. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. Sw. Da. a clod of earth water. pallukka. bal-daed. package of goods. vacillare. 3. to ache. i. and evil in general. to wave. balk. The primary sense seems as in G. balla (with the augm. trouble. gen. a water-skin dim. Fr. Dan. . a balk of foul weather. N. pallo. Fr. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. to avoid it. . * Balk. E.ing. baalien. It. ballotta. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. — A — — . balk. Balloon. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. Sw. Mid. stage or scaffold. See Gall. A balk. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. Ugutio in Due. mass. bold.). to paddle in water . Hence. Sp. Ball. F. It. balare. as we say. a continued noise of waves gently beating . a partition. Grief. We have then separate dial. boll. a division of the old laws. uveirs bolk. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. hooting. hue et illuc inclinare. Rouchi ban. to partition off . being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . a together in the form of a ball. balka. balken. to dance. . to grieve . beaten road. vcdra bdlkr. balloon. palcare. balka hopar. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. balken. from the more general notion of moving up and down. a pill. pallikka. heap up. to on Holmedon's plain. says Ray. a ballot). ill. Ball. similar connection is seen in Sp. balle. roof. Baulke of land. to plough for a boundary between lands. weak liquor. a pestilence. Sw. to Not sparing wight. a washing-tub. a globe. a scene acted in dancmg. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. It. balkr. Q. a.Lat. bolyatchka. pilula. Perhaps on. wickedtorment ON. with the perhaps from balg. balja. probably Lat. a pail. a beam. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. bolawy. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. bealwes. Ballata. ballo. It. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. a dance. palloilla. on. the breadth from side to side . that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. a ball balla. bola. Goth. pallo. other while. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. wickedness ness . To baulke the Sir H. Du. destruction. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. to dance. ballone. Sw. e. (Hesych. OFr. a clump . ballet. In like manner Fr. balle.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . bol. bdlkr. malefacGower in R. balveins. ballare. AS. to stir. the beam of a ship. I. may exhibit the original development of the signification. blister. . w. from bacquet. Ballot. a bubble. separaison. maan pallikka. Wotton. bal. chapurrar. bollr. ballan. G. to roll.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. tum. to see-saw. ing. bol. OHG. a ball or pack. grieve . pila. are applied to a From the same analogy. as in a barn or cow-house. Du. bolyaf. . to by beams. ban. ne leaving any balke. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. shouting. 2. TtaKKa a pail or tub . to bale out. Bowl. torment. boleii. It. ON.—Ballad. Da. Sw. ball. a ball. sorrow. to signify washy drink. maleficium. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). palla. balle. Pol. globule. Sw. baler. a great ball. ball. on. balk. Boll. a dance. dial. ballar). plague. balka bunge. OSw. a boil. Hence Dan. . a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. a clapping or flapping of wings. afbalka. a ball.— Ballet. lealo.' speak gibberish champurrar. baloier. the object of his expectation. to be ill. bielke. to cause another to miss pustule. the ballet of the theatres. a wooden partition . pain. Gael. sick. a ballad.Fr. a But making way for death at large to walke. to plank. bala. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. a ball. Fin. on the shore. a beam. . Bret. ballare. to move. bal.of men . to be balker. bacgtteter. on. Bohem. Bale. at giore en balk. G. dial. balk. a ball. Gr. ball. bbllr bulla J. sickness. floor. ' is a piece or confused talking. bal. to shake or jog. Sw. Russ. baalie. dial. dial. to rock. to pack Da. and the dim. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. Sw.

).Lat. Said to be from balaustia. The Sp. It. objects to the foregoing derivation.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word.' And Kil. Dan. bam. baUa. lastra. It is explained back by Adelung. bamboccio. called Bait. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. or movement of one who walks. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. Lest. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. urtica. analogous to what is seen in It. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. to walk. for a load or goods (Roquef. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. small railing. denounce. bertesca. i860. In OSw. mare Balticun. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. a young babe. by met. &c. lastre. Cotgr. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. and Mid. railing around altars. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. also with flatteries and . comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. ballustres. paid for the right of carriage.that the going vessels. for want of other freight. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. is in Sweden and Norway. deceiver. curse. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. galleries. lastagium signified not only ballast. lestage. the act of walking. enchanter. command. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. balustrade barandilla. But Fr. — — oltriga. baume. ballast. Fr. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given.000 tons. of balusters. Report Pennsylv. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. a rod. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. bumbazed. ranked on the outside of cloisters. forbid. last. Balm. it is forced to take in stones or sand. If bambocciolare were child of one. To proclaim. because. bambolo. back of the ship. fonts. a fragrant gum. . lest. ^Arbuthnot in R. baltresac. little round and short pillars. an Old dotard or imbambolare. barandado. inutilis sarcina. age. Sc. Bamour. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. 43 — Cot. 1. To Ban. Bret. a duty on goods last. Venet. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. more frequently than outward-bound. deceive. bambocciolo. from bara or vara. To make fun of a person. like Fr. but loadage. To Bam. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. a false tale or jeer. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. from Lat. To Bamboozle.. explains ballast. Balsam. puzzled. Balluster. Du. Sp. . make fun of a person. in the first place. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. A — — . a battlement . When a ship discharges. the flower of the pomegranate. more serious objection is . baU. to enchant. The Baltic sea. ballustre) is a corruption. R. Gr. astonished. a small balustrade. to preserve equilibrium. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. bag-las. terraces. Bret. Baltic. a useless load. balconies. ^a\Ba\iov. Fr. barauste. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. baranda. Mr Marsh whether the a load. This is the backload. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. or ballast of a ship. dial. the backload. sorcerer. inutile onus. Ballast. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. &c. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. 1854. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. a nettle. Lat. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. bamein. seems the original form of the word. bag-lest. Sept. To deceive. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. as he says. It. endormir par des contes. balsamum.

Car. Mag. he assembled his host. to form parties. bound. border.is further developed. bindan. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. to take one to task. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). — R. bundun. power.^ bandy. Baud. admolendinum. See Abandon. 26. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. It. to bring corn to be fahne. Sp. parti. Sp. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. ligue Taboada). in hostem convocare. region. Bandear. —R. fahne. those who side together (bande. In a special sense the term company itself. . R- He Translated by Chaucer. eiiseigne. ba?idare. bann. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. &c. flag. bannire in exercitum. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. and in E. In Fr. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. Goth. bandera ground at his mill. . That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. permission. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. v. to side or to bandy (Florio). banda the colour or material. passing on from proclamation to command. banns pany of footmen serve. summoning to serve So in Swiss. G. tener da alcuno. banda. — To partito d'alcuno. bannire exercitum. and thence to any proclamation. etc. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. the ensign or banner. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. It. It seems this signification has arisen. Thus the word is also used in both senses. bando. to . to reprove. 'A son bandon. bannum or bandum. Diss.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. sostener Torriano. ex. 813. then the signification w. margin. at his own discretion. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. a company. bande. theodscipe ut abannan. 15. Leg. Goth. bande. D. faction. It.. A. — excommunication bann-lysa. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. 2. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. Commun^ment son bandon. bandon somewhat party.—John Villani in Due. Sw. biddal. is That with which anything AS. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. whether by way of injunction or for- command. Fr. R. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. in Fr. also the band or of marriage. to publish) banna. Assises de Jerusalem. curse. There is some doubt how Fr. bande. Cot. band. to follow a faction. to ctide. side. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. hoc est vexillo. 19. i. bandi. and It. to ban. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. change to the feminine gender in banda. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. acquired the sense of proclamation. Band. authority. The to . Se il — Romance languages.Lat. band. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. 1. from at the Lord's courts. E. a coast. Bandus. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. OE. &c.e. Spebifid. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . he bannede his ferde. Capitul. banda. Wyntoun. From the verb to banda. Les saiges avait et les fols d. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. Fr. to unite with a band. bandon was used in the same sense. To Bandy. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. we constantly find the expression. side. populum. to excommunicate {lysa. banner marked the place of assembly. Ripuar. says Muratori.

to make a stir banke. a sand-bank. Goth. the same verb the It. forbear this outrage. bank of Dan. to proclaim. Mercutio. Brewer. Bandy. eminence. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. See Banish. See Balluster. Fr. Bantze. Tibalt. AS. murderer. whence the mod. a rising bank. canis vinculis assuetus. and hence. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. bane. to knock. The word is in E. the back. in the sense of place of business. to work in wood. Dan. bakke. bandear. se joindre. bank. eminence. in the same way that E. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. a table. E. bankruptcy. and therefore tied up. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. large dog kept for a guatd. follow a party. Draw. banc G. ON. a long raised seat. destruction . bent as a bow. Diaconus in Due. Fr. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . s'associer. Bank. . at canis peciiarius. a blow. &c. band-dog. in R. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. See Band. panca. Banister. ruptus. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. — — whence E. Fl. bana-sott. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. With many a stiff thwack. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. beating. From Mid. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. —^Vocab. to slay. banke. But natheless wife at I bank. death-blow . to bend a. bank of river. Sw. . a wound OHG. bench. and poise Their lighter wings. Bane. It. Bankrupt. Banner. stir. bench. de- party. Bandy legs are crooked legs. The ridge of a hill is AS. Africa. When a man fails Lat. Du. death-wound. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. of bandying words. . to cabal. Hudibras. to foment factions. Your stool. bander tin arc. N. a bench. bang. — Kil. Banditti.z. banditti acquired the like signification. Roquefort. hricg. ON. se reunir. for shame. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. Mid. beat. outlam came to signify a robber. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. 45 — — Bandit. bank. the slope of a hill. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. and bakki. banca his creditors. It. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. Bang. Lat. shoal. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. to beat. g. counter. bana. death-sickness. bana-sdr. has bang-bang. tumult bangas. distinguishes bekkr. the former Fr. dorsum was applied to ject. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. a bankrupt merchant. was formed the OFr. put under the ban of the law. Lingua. bank of a river. benk. back of a knife. bance. many a bang. banish. bow. banqueroute.HG. bannire. &c. broken. 2. Fr. to knock. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. To Bandy. roupt. a bench. AS. pastoralis. a counter. The child cries bang! fire. banco. clouds. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. Diez. language of W. It is in this sense nounce. — Fr. banka. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. to hammer in a nail. bana. . in the sense of a pirate. a bank. band-hond. — Paulus drive in a nail. A Shipman's Tale.^ knock. home — Bandog. as of an explosion or a blow. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. to join in league with others against Cotgn. seat . Ripuar. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. bandi. that the word is used by Romeo. It. The ing. desk. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. to publicly order one out of the realm. Milton in R. Benchi. a i. bander. bander. among rotta. b'ang. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. and OFr. bandire. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). disturbance banga. Benvoglio. standard. a bench. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant.: . hammering. banc. Bacon in R. ON. bana. banca fallita. banja. de sable. — . From a desk . so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. from banc. . a de Vaud. rap hatike et som The Susu.

E. Hence Fr. —Cot. Sw. Hence ner. It. to dip. Fr. men. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. bandiera. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. sbarra. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. branches of a tree {gwezen. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking.8ap6^o)voe. would rupted from Fr. Duo. 2. wrapped. from reifa. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. Barbe. Gr. inur. or of this bantering. To Banter. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. senh. either in the Gr. from the same source. 3. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u.cruel. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. It. to beckon . banne. privileged to raise Barbarous. in Gr. chan. OHG. benda. senheira. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. jSa'pjSapoc. a beam or long pole of wood. Fr. Fr. inferior to a baron. of banco. barbed or trapped as a great horse. ^oTrriKio. barbarus. Barb. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. Banquet. knight Bardd. nestling. token. Banneret. a bench or table . The barb of an arrow is the sign . to wrap. indeed. out of a wound. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. jSdirTO). Barb. a bearded or Cot. Celtic bar. merki. barrou-gwez. arineXov. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. the word came to signify rude. It may be thing. senhal. summit. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. OHG.. A It. To mock or jeer one. Lat. rarii. ban- Baptise. a bantling. &c. remarked. probably corSymbol. BARBAROUS reiflingr. to bend. a which the barrister addresses the court. such as the Roman Eagle. Bret. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. In a similar manner are formed yearling. bar. by a repetition of the syllable bar. branch. &c. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. ing term appears in other languages. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. banner.46 BANNERET . ON. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. iandvo. banneret was a higher class of knights. barde. then fell among the foot. of a sign in general. which is surely in barbed arrow. barrer. banniire. — We A . a ban. Barbar. banchetto. and even of calling it banter. of wind. speaking of battle. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. and it was accord. According to Diez the It. Fr. brushwood. Gael. sparro. . an animal a year old. rod of any rigid substance. to having that signification. banneret.aTa Kul nest. Gr. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. barreau. bannereti. The origin is in all probability Goth. E. says. dim. barba. barre. senhal. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. Flesche barbeUe. banda hendi. a barrier or stoppage. top. and from ensign or banner Prov. and he would seem to derive Goth. heri-pau. signuin.— Swift in R. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. as they call it. bandva. banda. uncivilised. period vexillarii. sign. hence a repast. milites bannarii. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. ON. Leduchat. and the work is done. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. barra. that the noise of voices Bantling. Lat.hinder. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. to wash. barbe. Fr. ingly very generally known by a name branches. himself in Pontus. The spar. G. and with an initial s. i. a war-beacon or war-signal. a. Bap. Lat. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. Thus Ovid. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. sparre. a sign. barriire. barrack. The original import of their own banner in the field. manu anto make signs nuere.. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet.the analogous syllable viur. OFr.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. then branches. a tree). Fr. It. E.

baares geld. Mod. barz. barbarkama. Bare. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. borbotar. Sp. small pack-saddle. Sp. . the quilted with. as well as thwcEtta. Barbican. jargon. to chafbargain. brim. barbel. Diez. and in Flanders to vociferate. boil. Bret. albarda'ah. Port. a long saddle for an ass or mule. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. scouthouse. barboter. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. albardilla. to It. barefooted Sanscr. guaszare. a pack-saddle. baragouin. bardes. A7 to the and warlike. Exposed to view. Russ. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. Fr. barbulla. Gr. — . axilla. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . borbulhar. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. speak confusedly. barbeau. coping. skirt.— — Pm. the beard. berries. is lb. border of a garden bed. Fr. uproar. — . Bargain. /3£pjSepi^w. i. in poetic language Bard for poet. and flanks. the edge of a shield hval-barct. Etym. Lith. guazzolare. murmur . Cotgr. bdsiis. haggle. Cotgr. borboglio. barda. barbacane. Barder. barda. fortia —Strabo. border. Hall in R. bhasad. used 2. barguigner. Arab. mutter.) to wrangle. barbelin.) . and Sc. Barde. Applied in E. Pr. to rumble. Lex. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. a shingle or small board. barbaris. bar. to grunt. tattle. a jetty or outnook in a building. skola. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. in Fr. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. to stammer. — — Hence. berj G. borborinha. and the word was used in OE. It. name Fr. /3opj3opwJu. to prattle. ready money. Bardeau. to wash.— Fl. gibberish. a bardelle. the nakedness of a woman. Fr. to barbe or trap horses. But Sp. to gurgle. and foolishly. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. tree. OFr. stutter. Festus in Diet. saddle-cloth. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. bdsas. lb. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. also to wallow like a seething pot. barbeter. w. The Pers. open. a tumultuous assembly. skirmish. . Barbel. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. or more properly (says fer. A shrub bearing acid Diet. Bard. Cot. Barberry. skialldar-bard. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. to make an outcry .— BARBEL merit of water. uncovered. Hatt-bard. albarda. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. Lucan. twcEtta. waschen. barbier. muttering. to bubble or spring up. twattle. to bubble or boil. upper chamber. barbeum. a rumbling. An outwork for the defence of a gate. quarrel . The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. as well as the modern twaddle. Mod. to stammer. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. the flap of a hat. Thus the on. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai.' Cot. formerly used in the sense of tattle. — Cot. grumble (Lowndes. g. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. in the sense of fight. powdered all over. barS. It. bardd. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. ala. Fl. to plash or dabble. bare baskojis. also to bind or tie across. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. such as houses are covered Bardelle. baar. to mumble or mutter words. Gr. — — — men. Sp. barbugliare. Port. unqualified. brabble in the making of a bargain. Hindost. bdla-khaneh. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. which was of talking. borbollar. on. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. to boil or bubble up . G. Fr. dial. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. Barber. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. back. barbar. horse armour covering the front. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. Etym. bds.

ON.' bardagi. Gl. bern. the fore or after end of a boat . baarm. berm hoys. beer. the rack or manger. Bemiques. Lith. wine. So also ON. meta foeni. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. beorcan. barajar. as baces-ern. Baron. bern. barley. bosom. Romance barsie. put to confusion.. spectacles. also a boat . baron)^ Fr. The older form in e. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. chaffer. OSw. dispute . Port. baaring. barja. baratta. baragouin. a cap . Provj bar (ace. Leg. Kil. the A — Ihre. Sp. hladi. a boat. to cheat. 2. . ON. dispute. brenig. a place. hlaSa. bcern. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. disorder. baralhar. lap. W. The Goth. charlock.) lihtes-ern. Du. Manx bayrn. berm. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. and the word. It. barn. to all the barca. prominent part of a thing. See Barm. then the bows pectus navis. Camus. bere. bard).Barum vel feminam. strife. . a load. a lantern. commonly explained from bere. in Nat. —Bark. a stack. also to exchange. baerm. but the woman for the man. houbartij fsnile. am. i. a. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. bark . edge. bread. hay-loft. Sp. altercation. Barbour in Jam. barizeins indicates a noun baris. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. — de Berri. bread-corn. — Zeuss. contest. varen. and may therefore be an Eastern word. border. See formed Yeast. . one who stirs up strife. baron. ON. and is probably a true bartig. Gael. as in the case of Lat. barnis. Originally man. the or prow of a ship. Ibid.^Voc^. limpets . and ern. and hence probably (by a metaphor. confusion. a beak. barafunda. barmr. dregs of oil. barlys. at barka. to scold. dispute. a barn. struggle. Garlick. (Ihre. was barlic. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. baralha. dispute . Ripuar.. Dan. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. and 1. a heap . OFr. quarrel Port. Uzen. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. Dan. baaren. Barn. 2. we pass to the vert) barguigner. Bark. from an imita- Barley. to skin over barkandi. barnacles. barley. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. Port. Tarn baronem quam feminam. Swab. It. barge. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. AS. limpet. dispute barattare. Du. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. to strive. The origin may be throat. Isidore in Rayn. berma. as well as Scandinavian tongues. a baking place or oven. ThS man was not created for the woman. strife. mhg. bargain. barretor. v. Cornub. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. astringent. trouble. bamagh. baimeach. dial. barafustar. barn. to chop. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. kani. — Barnacle. limpets. bcerme. skutr. . Of these meanings the second is probably the original. To Bark. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. husband. — battle. is simply the Bret. barahunda. quant a perdu sa barja. ON. E. barms. Rayn. Prov. skuta. barii. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. hemlock. AS. baarn. Sw. as. w. Acervus. On the other hand. berm. Bret. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. ber (ace. tumult. strife. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. From Fr. Bailey. bosom . entangle. barone. Leg. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. So ON. Antiq. name being given to spectacles. bernac. louzou. contest. barlich. and llysiaw. baratta. berem. fray. barn. a heap. beornt. the G. plants). to wrangle. as. herbs. Vocab. barlys {bara. prasepe . barki. a lap. then honoured man. barley. As Goth. Alam. borkr. giving rise to It. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. quarrel. to shufSe. Spectacles. in the Brim. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . a receptacle for barley or corn. * Barnacles. adj. to rout. Sp. the slimy substance brewing of beer. tion of the sound. squabble. aheap. OFr. baniffa. Barge. corn-shed.

AS. strife. a word is always used in the plural number. a. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. whence Barrow. boar. qui have not much light on the pre. vir. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. todtenbahre. Formed from Fr. or simply bahre. nobles. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. baronuU. See Barter. barrack. bearg . (Schmeller). and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. habeant. OFr. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. — — 15th Cent. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. fallow. a. Bargus or moreland.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. in Nat. fear. branches. G. — A . A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. the braw. This word introduced into Fr.. barrier. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention.. Fr. brushwood. vel pretiosos burellos. an obstruction. sterilis. the two names. uncultivated. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. a castrated hog . a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. Bret.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. semen non accipiens landiEL. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. berewe. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. Goth. to carry. from cavallo. staves. especially those killed in battle.parchanttuech. calico. shed. See Bar. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. Barren. barrila. bredhan. man. E. It should be observed that. man and wife. barri. Russ. a hiU. seem to be radically the same with Lat. bahre. It. iver. barague. and in several instances. Bamnculus a baronet. a kind of coarse camlet. MHG. as. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. then traffick4 Barrow. bouracan. G. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. fortification. borov'. Baron andfemme. beorh. dispute. berwen. baroncelli. heap.' that Barrier. Nominale of the from braeckland. gravis et authenticus vir. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. breinej Du. An ing. Joshua vii. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. in the first instance. Barrack. S. implement for carryAS. Barricade. became bidre. baronculi. to * Barragan. and not from Fr. On chet — We — — their resemblance. over him. barraca. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. Bern.' Op. tomb. 1. litter. were sometimes confounded. perhaps through Prov. from beran. w. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. whenever Barrow-hog. like bargain. Sp. sepulchre. a hut or booth. also termed bannerets. The feudal tenants next Fr. beorg. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. mound. beorgan. bark&n. from a tree to which a man is hanged. barBombicinus. garment still used in Morocco. squabble.root signifying confused noise. bier. OE.— Gibbon. a bier. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. StiU he shows conclusively. by early examples. Fr. It. alongside of barrow. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. a man. Sp. cover. baraignej Picard. Antiq. signifying. barrique. barile. to shelter. vair. change of goods seems. ibid. hut. baronetti. It was not until the time of James I. cise formation of the word. Gael. Bohem. baragan. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. 26. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. Gael.have been named from the haggling and gant. It. which would barragdn. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. Sp. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. 2. rolls of Parliament. composed of dry branches ofer. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. baracca. D. Barratry. barril. bara. AS. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. a barrow. barchent. Barrister. barrique. — Kil. facture. gwr. A. bara. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. braeck. ^Barrator. barre. booth. bera. The Sp. ^Vocab. a barrel. a horse. a bar. Barrel. as cavalcade.

Barbara de pictis veni patch. barter. exchange. imbastire. Bastard. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . husk bast van koren. he. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . come near. cog. the manorhousfe itself. a deceiver. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. Gr. Sp. bast. to cheat. to deceive. It. as It. MS. at basta og binda. bestan. more noble in blood than notable in learning. but born in baste. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. Pl. Sylvester's Dubartas. Basket. It. but he dreth presently. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). preparatory stitching. Apparently of Celtic origin. bast-maatte. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. according from Gael. — Bassoon. Fr. bastear. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. Fris. AS. A fabulous serpent. But according And Dan. low part of the Hickes in Rich. MHG. binding. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. 516. Al is dai. of the same sense. Sw. from bere. a bastard. scale in music. MHG. — in Rich. Fr. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. /«r<fSp. would be. besst. bassin. PaaiKhms. Barton. bark. bareter.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. a king. baste. bass-matting. Dan. or wic. to bind. piiiguis. ' He was begetin o bast. It. baraand especially teria. ' Bosworth. Isidore. which sets up its hood when angry. ibid. beguile. n' is n' is bacino. BassuS. netting. Sw. OFr. See Bath. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. to stitch . Fr. to truck. lust. fhe outhouses and yards. him. To Baste. It is mentioned as . Bass. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. stitch. also the demesne lands of a manor. God it wot. basso. The original meaning. dwelling. bestcn. basta. beretun. — hanging. on a. a halter. The like property hath the iasilisk. mean . to baste piece of cloth. Basilisk. F. baratar. humilis. commonly A joined with the word binda. the — — to kill those that look upon it. hoops of a cask. beortun. Dan. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. fornication. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass.D. low. baste. descended of an honorable lineage. Bast. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. There is not one that. berewic. ohg. . the thin skin Dan.' Gl. found in Turkish . . to long — a British word by Martial. flat. Lend me your hands. peel. cheating. G. corn-farm. baratear. thick. a basket masg. embastir. aiKcig. basg. besst-u-b£nd&t. baraet (from Fr. bds. w. a tying. To Bask. discourse Nay. to bargain. a court-yard. unrighteous gain. chasa ogli a bastard. or running away with the ship. It. imbastire. barter. basso. Kil. Du.looketh upon his eyes. lift me above Parnassus. leviter consuere. bas. bran. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. which covers the grain Ger. inclosure. See Brattice. said Base. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. Lap. over-reaching. by imbezzling their goods Bailey.' Papias. . chasa. Newman. HaUiweU. pressed down. from /3aR. Sicamb. to Diez. then cheating. to baste. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. basta. ^Is de bast. basgod. fornication. baste. rope for — . baos. i. low. and Bret. a ipgli So Turk. HoUinshed. to bind. lattice-work.). OFr. Bass. baxoj w. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. exchange. It. court-yard. mavult dicere Roma suam. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. ing for profit. a ftiesh. Swed. oe. mock not. shallow. To stitch. Sp. tierer. Bassus. bast-reb. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. to bind hand and foot. Bartizan. to cheat. It. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. a bass rope. pdrdt. bdtir. plaiting of splinters basged. as the diadem of the basilisk. Halliwell. fits de bas. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. the a wide open vessel. Sp. also to Cotgr. curtus. fraud. bast. HaU in HaUiwell. partieren.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. Du. Arthur and Merlini. barley. low note. crassus. back. bast. and tun. foist in bargaining. submovet omne Lucan. truck. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son).

Lat. Sw. R. translation to a bat. to rub. or implement for 4 * A . Perhaps baska.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. p. to pack a saddle i.— . to build. disposer. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. a packsaddle. staff. guerra bastir. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. vledermus. provisions. bastir. blakka. bastilde. to flap. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. packsaddle. 'iJipistreUo. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. and Cot. quelqu'un son roulet. Mid. . a bastion. For the loss of the / in back. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. blaka. Sw. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. a pad. a things prepared for future use. in the use of the E. the original has corneille. bastia. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. badger. Bastinado. a stick. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. to whip. a blow cloth for dinner. beysta. passage Imbasto. is explained by Cot. 2. a bird which. To baste one's hide . blatta. a sconce. a barSp. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. a with a stick. bak. to cudgel.stick. and Arabs. military term of a bat-horse).fortress or castle furnished with towers. Dan. e. vespertilio. from Fr. natt-blakka. comp. blakra. a. basta. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. the bat . iinbastire. blatta. stryka. devise. put it together. — — — . ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. Prov. whence ledrblaka. Cot. has bastine. Fr. BAT neither. ment. pre. — Bakke. Pm. . bladier. That yche blak y dar wel telle. frotter. set up. like the owl and the bat. I. cudgelling. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak .baste or knock soundly. to Due. to give him a sound bastingi 3. bastear. Sw. victuals. raise. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. bakie-bird . Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. to belabour. bastille. Dan. frame. dial. erect. back. to beat. liiake. boste. also to cudgel. bastonFr. batta lucifuga. To beat or bang soundly. to thrash . contrive. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. niammal. All from bastir. to drub. ON. and ditches bastion. but this is hardly satisfactory. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. night-bat. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. beating. to set on foot a war Bastion. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . bdion. aftonbakke. explains Sp.-^ Chaucer. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. baston. to rub gently. to build. bat. baston. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. a pad or packsaddle. contriving. bastonada. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. blacta. 11864. compared with blakka. to teach one before.. Cot. set up. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. flyinge best. 164). bast. Supp. 2. the night-jar or goat-sticker. 2. bastione. blows. business (Altieri). Antiq. the clapper of a bell. Sp. in the Romance languages. settiilg up. Fr. club. basto. Sp. Derived by Diez from iasi. to devise or begin. basa. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. worth (Nat. stryk. To donjon. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. which in the E. nade.— Bailey. Rayn. to lay the Sp. bastimento. the winged . vespertilio. bastir. ari instruineht for beating. Pr. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. E. Florio. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. — — Fl. the E. blakta. * Bat. iastir. as weU as besteau. also the ricado. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. Fr. It. It. to spread bread and butter. which to rest the load. Dieiif. bastida. Fr.stitching in general. R. to quilt or stitch wool into it. Sc. bastonnir. For the origin of baston see Baste. Sw. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive.'CaB. to beat. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. a blockhouse. bastine. dial. to stroke. It.

Gael. Bret. fashes basking in the sun squadron. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. and as a verb. From bat in the sense of rod . to flutter with the wings. battions. basa. to beat se battre. — To . made of — A made by one Batcii. Pm. . a from ON. adapted for defence. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. to fight. To Batten. . howis. bludgeon. also a sun badfish. to toast bread. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. and milk beaten up together. a blow. a great seems related to baden as Fr. from battre. more. To Bate. Flem. to fell. allay . to foment. It. Fr. as E. The bat with which a brot bdhen. term in falconry . In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. batir. cudgel. a main battle. batacazo. in the case of a wall. Fr. baz. batte sig. wet linen in washing. G. a blow with a light instrument. hot. beat down. or make debate. bdt. w. bataille. Sw. Jeddris and covering. bdhen. or break down. dial.Hence in the augmentative form It. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. Batten. whence the sun burns . Battery. G. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. of bread is so much baked zX one time. battre. battle was used beath wood. — — — ' — . is in falling. gebdck. to beath wood Battledoor. buask made like a fortress. Barbour in Jam. Pr. to foment with hot applica. e. in the sun. trahtr to It. 2. Bailey. to beat. dial. as wood-en. to become fat. Battery. In OE. baka. Pr. a washing beetle. Fr. — Cot. dial. gebdcke. Chaucer. Sw. batna. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. heat. dispute. I bathe in water viz. made of bats. pak. and with staffslyng. to beat. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. an arrangement for giving blows. bat-en. bet. baquetazo. to warm oneself. I. the heat of the It. to thrive. Slav. bdda. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. debat. busk. is a simple adoption of Fr. tagUone. Du. bada.— . Strife. Fr. squadron. beat. to beat. perhaps first used adjectivally. A batch as wood. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt.Bathe. certain bend. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. A Bath. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. solen baddar. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. Batyn. abattre. quhar he suld assaill. Battalion. on. bake. ON. Eggs. lessen. on the fire. a beating. to get better. Florio. from on. Holz bdhen. Batter. to feed. to warm. to betake oneself. to for fighting. a band of armed men arranged basa. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. tradire. as E. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. the root of e. signifying to give repeated blows. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. bastille. to fire or in the sun. batterie. to bathe oneself. solbase. abate. Ayenst the sunne. gabatnan. Bate. to be profited. to cudgel. a stick. battre. battre las ailes. to refresh oneself in language. batador. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . Sp. to become convalescent. E.— To Bask. Goth. a Baiffi. by projections or in any licoure. See Better. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. battaglia. PLD. to foment. Battlement. To thrive. remit. I baske. Battle. as signifying warm baths. to beak. sich bakern. Fr. In some parts of England it is striking. and about an inch thick.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. . beat. Plkkis. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. a battle. Hal. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. battere. Baka sik vid elld. battere. to warm oneself at the fire. or a dry stick. From OFr. Hence pro.' Palsgr. was formed bastilU. a battalion. badda. a stirrer-up of strife. also. to dial. quell. baden. then to warm by the application of hot water. better. Bat. Mgy. oneself at the A into faggots. G. water whether warm or cold. altercation. bat. Jurgor. It. to heat . Sp. baeddu. a staff. badask. makebate. Pm. for biia sik. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. fortress or castle. Fr. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . bdda vidjor. badda. strife. to bathe. betten. flour. dial. to heat.

— for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. represented by the syllable miau. was simply a field gold. to make the noise Baudrick. to play the babby. guigaw. to void the bowels. A name of the badger. Ball-seirc. Cot. 2. OFr. whimwham. Hal. Sc. Cotgr. rotten. a plot of Chaucer. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. Swiss Rom. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. faisceau. mew. E. —R. a horse marked with a procession. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. javelle. From ! an interjection of disgust. W. fagot. filth. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. baue. scarf.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. ground. to cry. disgusting. dung. horse. whence the E. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. Fr. baula. ish baubles. dacchino. librillo. an object. ON. fields. the face. to bark . and Sp.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. and authorities in note. Formed from baw. divided between black and white. Ball. bausan. baudrdj OHG. baubare. R. or the animal so marked. bauU. Piedm. spotted. Baldrick. dirt. 8. Cloth of gold. bouaila.— P. ballach. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. exactly corresponds Fr. E. expressive of disgust. baban. or sheaf of Bridel. collar. vacillo. propugnaculum. — Pm. tab. obstrepere.' ' Pegma. to vociferate. It is all bawdy. bau. ball. to trifle away ment. from Baldacca. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. lewd . dente. baudrat. baugant. bobine. Lat. bablyn or waveryn. It. pegma. the white of his leg or foot. bow-wow. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. Fr. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. bad. bauch. Pm. Jam. baw. spot. E. instead oi s.guage). Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. E. to me-wl. trifles. because made of cloth of white. b \% bouala..' The origin of the word is tab or bob. c. tille. In like manner Grisons filthy. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. sword-belt. or Cot. balbob. Fl. The It. an embattled wall. to bark. a lump. cluster. P. Batylment of a wall.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. Pr. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. Gael. From Bret. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. a tassel. dirty. filth. a tassel or hanging bunch . toys. also the canopy carried part of his body. a white mark Bawdy. a lump or cluster babhaid. Bawson. The word may perhaps be sticks. i. a dog). Filthy. s. — — ' Lydgate. OFr. Descript. from Fr. Zalli. balGael. and to-tore also. miauler. as Fr. to talk Lacombe. to 53 manure the To baw. having a white streak down Bagdad. s. a spot. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. or toys. form with an initial seen in Fr. on the face of animals. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. whence pouacre. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. nastiness. P. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . Bagdad. fooleries or fond To Bawl. babiole. an — — — A — g — — — . BAWSON Swiss. babsmall toy to play withal. Fr. bow (as in our nursery Diez. to low or bellow as corn. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. P. excrement. speckled. Baw — . is Bagdad stuff. Bavin. balderich. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. sorry. a zan. the Swiss baben.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. It. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. bal. Beaus^ent. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle.. An analogous noisily. a belt. ! Bauble. also more Bawdekin. brush faggot. a gavel. child. trifle. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. to the same origin. Irel. Prov. zano. a horse with white legs. dial. pie- . is used for a sented by bau. baffe. It. bobbin or cluster of thread. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). bal. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. Cot. in OE. fe bau. babbole. Pr.

alive. corrupted into Bow-window. waiting . Cot. trahir. 1. See At Bay. by the term rendre les abpis. from an imitation of the sound. S. baca. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. to keep one waiting. laurel of the ancients. baca.— Stalder. Swiss beie. BE Probably conRuss. tradire to Fr. like a pie. beo. —Bay-windo'W. bioth. baionette. to mark. Catalan hadia. See Bald. especially beans. |8i'os. to gape. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. baer. bayo. or at bay. bate. to betray. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. Fr. life. ist. Holland's Pliny in R. It. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. Abide. Bay. when. or window ' (in Fortification). to be Bohem. the world Gr.' — — 54 bald. Gael. Lat. Bay. Q. BauSfi)/. 25. Sp. a mark. desiring. baher. as gazing. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. Fr. Q. baier. a hole. baja. or berries. Arts. To Bay. F. and zndly. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. that from ba. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. —F. . in order to keep the enemy in check. beothach. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. The — Fr. a beast. . bay. stood watching him stoop. It. to stand watching one. husk. gate. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. bayen-stein. baiare. beonj Gael. bajo. to open as a blossom. bdcr. From the former verb is the It. berries. at his last gasp. bilyega. * To Be. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. Fr. house . to keep at a bay. Bay-tree. Lat. . siege of Bayonne in 1665. or recess in an apartment in modern times. —Diez. bijel. bagaid. baie. Piedm. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr./^ bau. Serv. &. dehiscere . idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. a berry. put to his last shifts. the step is the same as from It. he turns and faces his pursuers. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. aux dehniers abois. baga. baye. bde. barn of two bays.c. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. bilyejiti. window . large window in a handsome . expresr sion tenere a bada. ing-floor. BAY marked with bjly. bay. Such Antaeus seemed to me. w. to open. . badius. badarse. badia to Sp. to amuse stare a bada.—Journal Soc. buidhe- The ruadh. — A At Bay. It. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. Drayton in R. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. open the mouth. Sp. badarc. OSp. weary of running. berry. A stag is said to stand at bay. living Ir. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. window-sill. white. the cod or husk of beans or the like. buidhe. Fr. a dagger. Fr. 1859. Sp. It. Earth — By Nature made to till. and the To bark as a dog. Feb. bahia. yellow . Vielp. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. to iiitent nected PoL white. abbabayer. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. Gr. as if to signify a window of curved outline. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. Prov. to on anything. batibari. is perhaps not directly from Lat. baccello. It. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. See Bawl. life.' Bailey. AS. from badar. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. the laurel-bay. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. living thing . bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. The word bay. bahia. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. bacca. arose two forms of the verb. a cluster of bacon. &c. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. A hollow in the 'line of coast. It has been shown under Abie. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. a'uno. grapes or nuts. bai. so called from its bearing bays. From Cat. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. Fr. hddhe-dhonn. dividere. watching intently. — Schmid.. bialo. and keeps them in check for a while. which however. Swab. &c. Bayonet. the cod of peas. stare. baya. Gael. or to have been first used at the Cot. overture.. Mod. to split.

and Lat. A two-year old nephew of mine p. G. To Bear. the part overflowed by the tide. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. Gael. bokan. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. beans. OSax. bairan. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. like most nautical terms. post. beck. a tree. bean. Bret. support. as. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. The origin seems preserved in E. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. vii. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. — Bellenden in Jam. Fr. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. A Esthon. See To Bid. Hackluyt in R. Gael. a presage. Gr. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. Netherlands or North Germany. prodigy bauhnjan. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. beacen. bek.. It forms a. salve his hurts. a sign. to produce young. as. however. bauhan. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. . to bellow. rising ground. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. a curtsey. Bret. to wait. bdkna. l^ax. pig. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. Bean. as well as f& or fav. AS. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. bydel. beugler. ffci. according to of Sanscr. bidan. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. to wait-. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. bedm. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. to carry.' Hall's Chron. bakkje. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. bM. Bear. fd or faVf beans. N. tale of prayers or doxologies. ON.fui. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. Du. Pardoner's Tale. bohne. It. Moreover the name. G. Goth. be. Sw. — bedeau. Lat. beic. fromthe danger. E. Slavon. or beic.from AS. Trans. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. ffaen. — to bow or nod . was introduced from England sea. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. It is BEAR SI court. atUndre. bar. a single bean. faba. Boom. bob. bakke. pierced for hanging on a string. into France. on. a single bean. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. or any action done with a pointed thing. becco. into a snjall river. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. baum. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. bead. to beckon. AS. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. a tree. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living.fuis5e. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. signifying individuality. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. W. to nod the head. gebed. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. bagms.fer-re j Gr. bee. signifying a point. Goth.' Suetonius in Diez. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. —F. — : Beam. stock. He says. bidello. an attendant. or breathing. Miss Gurney in Philolog. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. 54. g. beic.to have a French origin. nokkima. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. Chapters on Lang. * Beagle. badmr. Beak. not applied to the yelping of dogs. -phxr. bank. Catalan becar. which is. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. Beacon. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. a nod OHG. The wild beast. faba is Kvavoq. Be. a prayer.ad. The immediate shore of the Menage. a hill. baun. fero. Q wait upon him. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. vol. Fr. Beadle. or however. backe. The nutu significare. Beckon. bearti. . «va\ioQ. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. to nod . a beak. Beach. beacnian. fora-bauhan. Thus the final en. Farrar. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. bohnej ON. boom. Beck. would say.' adheres to the root. . W. ohg. ON. It. Gael.

happening as it ought. an notion of being convenient. to arrive at. or river. The OFr. R. decorous. and on. brook . bach. to appertain. See Beacon. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. Chaucer. receive. to be fulfilled. comely. babrad. it is probable that here also the to become. fiber. whence baveux. baurthei. taste. becuman. ON. formerly a happen. bestiaj Gael. fitly .to clothe to slobber. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. as the babble of the child. limplice. Lith. to be incumbent upon him. to hem. Beck. to attain to the lot of any one. bedr. ON. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. to happen. limpian.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. E. while from Shep. seemly. fallinn. to happen. bart. bello.getiman. Lat. Bosworth. Secondarily applied to a hat. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. e. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. bearing. blast. Prov. bobrowai. perhaps a living thing. proper . The moveable part of a helmet. As rivus. pretty. bava. a lip. Boeth. bave i. G. agreeable. i. beauts. dize or dtzen. Thcem. baba. See Bank. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. when up. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. place to lie down. bequem. Beauty. 1. Lat. a bank. bur. to live. dushmak.of being very angry. from baver. . to wade through the water like a beaver. brada. battere. to assume a certain form or Turk. I do thee pray. to happen. decent. Lat.fit. if sound of a sharp blow. In like manner condition. nothing to thy name make.' every way suited to a prince. Beat. bard. Bo. to dabble . gabaurths. bekkr. bett. OSw. to be a part of his to. den. Diez. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. bavec.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. befit. border. as. Beck. the ece thurhwuniath. to happen. byw. the beard. AS. AS. To load with ornament. bebrus. o. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. connected with ripa. to fall in with our bavard. chin. and also in that of birth. the latter are derived It. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. venient. See becymth anfeald yvel. bel. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. Fr. beo. Lat. suitable. get J ' He got very angry. barba. to G. proper. produce. biber. and Fr. behkr.we call the arrangement becoming. Now the Beast. Fr. or a feeling to be gratified. E. Russ. suitable. Thus OY. becuman. E.AS. to the brook itself. Fr. a brook. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. to those goods which endure for ever. to the good hapHalbard. Do no To It fallith favour. from the same in the sense of bear2. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. pens unmixed evU. or special purpose. our taste. handsome. Fr. ON. He becom on sceathan. gebank. birth. to bear children. Perhaps from Pol. It. to carry. badi. to please. name applied originally to the bank then proper . R. to fall. bcek. bekommen. g. burdr is used in the sense of a car. gelimplic. and to acquire. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. from beau. nod or sign. On the same principle. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. rying. fit. obtain. G. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. convenient. to get. W. ON. Beckon. barf. gefallen. talkative. bring forth. con. fitanimal. G. biivre. living. See Bat. That thou mayest attain Goth. now confined To Become. riviire. The fitting or suitable. Goth. riviera. e. boroda. which. brook. bib or slobbering cloth. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. a. Prick of Conscience. agreeable. dress with unbecoming richness .' are equivalent expressions. — A — A — . to come to or upon. — . judgment. to shore. 2. ting. baviire.S6 fero. pleasing. G. limpan. Fr. timan. a bank. to fall mode of being.' ' He became very angry. tidig. tidy. but now a river only. Beaver. i. Cal. byrcti. bobr. iida. to sleep on. G. beatanj It. slobber. to happen. edge. duty. covered the face. befall. godum with ON. bellus. Dan. bave. Bedizen. Sp.— Kiittner. It. because made of the fur of the beaver. ziemen. opportune. The quadruped. Slav.

from blood. Grimm.— B. Bav. a agulatum in the original Latin. from risan. beta. duplicated form of the root. beetle also signified the impiti. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. used for boull. Dan. g. a pillow case. Horn. Ant. beost. tree. also the bite or sting of a bees. a wasp. For that was law of lend. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. . stakes. kiissen-biere. as. cugino. bove. desert. buk. and in driving piles. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. door. Bedouia. vaar. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. knock. wedges.(paddi. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. fall. an Beetle. water. Gael. a cup or implement for AS. cousin. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. . to knock. The meanpainting. a wandering Prov. bet.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. cited by Diez.'— GL ^Ifr. . in Nat.. doubtless. to twist poorma. Lat. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. to parget or rough-cast . taglio. /SXirov. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. Bee. E. to coagulate. briest. bletumj Gr. Fr. to change . bukva. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. . a stinging bieUe. drink. an inhabitant of the desert. boeuf. sang vermeilh betatz. as the milk of a that purpose in London. badigeonner. beer. In a passage of an Old Fr. AS. G. pital of St Mary. translation beOj. bovis. mars betada. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. Pl. pettiriso. and lebermer in G. to fall. &c. pude-vaar.BEDLAM a distaff with flax.possible. a clapper. beach. red curdled Arab . . It. prisons Venet. a horse-fly . D. cozen. biiren. whence familiar. to curdle or lopper. a drink potus. qui de lecto surgere non potest . bette or blettej Lat. curded or beesty. a cover.ing of the word is curdled. clog for a dog b'oteln. beyki. to poordma. to turn. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. sela que environna la terra. waarin. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. beach-each. Bernese. 1. Fr. But possibly bedizen 2. a bed-tick.' So Gr. piwo. blow or thrust. to rough- cast. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. briesch-milch. bedde-redirj ohg. 'La Gl. bedskiissen-bUren.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. Bed-ridden. Cot. beest. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. The first milk after a dizen. bedawi. AS. Cot. de Fierabras in Diez. as in It. Let. to flatten In OE. may be from K. to colour with lime-wash. bytl. Fr. G. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. the biter. a malsense of drink. a bee. to become Beech. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. on. GaeL bior. byst. bos. the loppered sea.^ drink. Fr. an ox. the meat of spinach. I put the flax upon it to spin. a paviour's beetle batail. Esthon. poculum. bossen. The honey-producing insect. Fr. ^. cogionare. paralyticus. It. ProBeer. thick. bitel. erroneously modified in form. a pillow-case. extant in Bohem. calleBedlam. beutel. case. Confined to bed.' the last word corresponds to cofly . to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida.D. the ox. 1. biene. comb. AS. buka. buche. Rom.— JI14. biest-milch. cushion-cover . It.cz//aj. also bienst. which also 2. I dysyn a dystaffe.). a mallet. Fr. bitela. bably named from the destructive quali| T. from the hos. Originally.ON. Beef. from leberen. boytle. to drink. batAfter mete in sale. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. imperative pi. Gr. ir'm. kivih. a wasp. from Lat. fagus. P1. Slav. drink. garden-herb. a pad or cushion). KXlvoTTiT^e. trees in a forest . betel. by the analogy of bedaivb. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. prigione. to beat bossel. turn (a garment). thick. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. 57 — Palsgr. * Beestings. The beer al for te shenche bate. 1 to drink. I A pillow-beer. in Schmeller. bbtel.D. turn. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. E. of beatmg. i. 1156. PI. to and ale. from jtst-. a Properly a cover that biiren. ' MordiThe Lat. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. speach. Beet._t from the root pi. Arab. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. by-flugaj G. G. ris. madhouse. Pett. cow has calved. Bethlehem. crespir. whose face is clotty. Beetle. may be shpped on and off. bibere is a re. Lat. . Fin. woman that is newly delivered.

To produce children is to acquire. ip AS. P.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. but in the same language from poc. beitel. a beggar. 'Dz. Goth. image is cleft out of the trunk. 'ex quo. Nov. it is both to acquire and to beget. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. seizing. Cold-begone. tale. anfangen. a scrip. bag {baigean. on the bag. at geta talad. So from Gael. a beggar . a — wedge. onginnan. Du. to cleve. &c. Du. the fundamental notion of attaining to. Si'Xa/coc. appears improbable at first. P. ken.n. although it ' the future. In Luc vi. air a . 142. P. on further examination. yivwajcw. a wedge for cleaving wood. word. but probably erroneously.' A. beitel. steinbosil. chap. a scrip euXaiciJoi. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. a beggar-boy. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. literally.' for ye shall lament and weep. or Of a pure poor man. a stone-cutter's chisel. giving in Gr. beriolare. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. Mettre quelq'un a la besace.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. 1867. Beghardus. to begin. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. It. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox.quently used in OE. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. Skinner's derivation from bag. to take. to be acquire.' about undern he got down. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. whence the E. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. 2. duginnan. P. Florio. yiyvo/uat. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. ' Begone. covered with gold D. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. gan. ' ' . capere. kind. ysgrepan. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word.pose. ' . — Stillingfleet. beissel. begging. is com. 25. ysgrepanu. affected. Lollards. ykvog. ken.bag full of the G. to reduce him to beggary. to be born. When Q. in D. to arise. yivofiai. To Beg. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. ytyvwfT'Kw. of Gr. aginnan. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. Creed. a bag. P. Lith. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. 58 BEG BEGONE G. signifying to conceive. on the tramp. yivtrri. Mod. bertola. baigeir. lapidicinus. taking up. fangen and Lat. genus. To Begin. from whete G. Deutsch. P. and Lat. Fr. Du. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. ornamented phoc. beginning. referred gan this Erie alight. Into the are D. krapszas. one after that other. From w. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. viii. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. chisel. to go a begging. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. P. not began to alight. P. V. incipere.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. gigno. 1430. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. begger. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. y/yvo/iat. It will . Mundart. to bear young. can. su with gold. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . origin. V. Vocab. above quoted to get beaten ON. beutel. gen. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. 168. to be able. Gr. a wallet. as alighting is a momentary operation. woe-begone. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. The tother seand the dint cum. AS. Barbour. sel. also called Bigots. be^nnan. to know. 'Aboutin undern monly. a bag . the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . by the help of wedges and beetles an N. to get children . Political Songs.— . cans. Of brede full ycrammed.3. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. P. is formed pocair. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. two betels —a grete oke. & go a begging. V. a chisel. OHG. oppressed with woe. iv. to beg.D. Schm. beis- plement driven by blows. touched with emotion — . He did alight. a little bag). at a time when all his alms were given in kind. 40. hags. vir mendi. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. pose-pilte. &c. Ancren Riwle. — yivsaiQ. P. Bruce. a bag or poke. in E. in Lat. can. to begaan.

to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. to regard. solicitum esse. nittaa. han- — js Kil. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. us-hafjan. to heave. zu etwas gehalten haitan. take heed of. or purpose. AS. to R. adjust. But. to be be named. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. To look steadily upon. heita. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. bound. hafwa. garder. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. Robert in Warton. a follower. the distance of anything. vow. AS. injunccommand. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. promise or a command. hafwa. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. And so from hania. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. hcefwa in seed. beholden to him. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. AS. Plautus. G.for throwing it. to gehouden. hevja. to lead. according as the * To Behove. holding is originally derived from that of looking. hofwa. ward. to feed. to bring forwards.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. Sw. by the compound observare. is also found in the sense of looking. to be fit. observe.— . and the E. to command. To place are most naturally ex. behces. obliged. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. —Hest. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. heave. OE. to hit the mark. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. to vow. to command. seeing to. hantyri. name of the head is used to express what hbva. on. or the hence advantage. what he wishes another to do . when the verb will hoof. Kiittn. beperson addressed. to be well pleased out. use. is supported by many analogies. AS.the figure of throwing at a mark. gehaben. to follow. to carry corn into the barn . Command. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. K. premi curi alicujus rei. behefe. It. and their senses intermingle. — Behest. heeten willekem. habere. as in the case of E. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. behind.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. to behave. to carry. to keep. to the equivalent of Du. to raise. R. G. exhort. ifl fact. to carry. keeping. to have. to promise. take yourself off. The Lat. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. Goth. what is so required. to look. Aan iemand bid one welcome. is on the top of or opposite to. guardare. to vow.' Richardson. se porter) to fare well or ill. zijn. betragen. the equivalent of E. G. fixed upon any object). have the sense of calling or naming. healdan. laborare. to meet. G. to lift. promise . to call. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. portarsi. to hold. to cast or throw. hafwa ram. habban. to lift. to fit. commonly expressed. gecall. At the back of The re. N. to tend. The It. to be obliged to one. taking notice or care of (Gloss. tail. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . The seyn. gehat. hovast. to be named. to bers of the body. ufhaban. AS. to look upon it as true . hces. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. advantage. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. heeten. or necessary. Thus in Finnish the heave. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . keeping. 17. behoof. to halten. right. hatan.). to be suitable or becoming . behete. behat. behold. to hold. hcef tig bort. tion. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. To Behave. to be obliged to do a thing. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. promise. Paladino. behatan. Sw. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. furtherance. hafjan. hafwa bort. To be expedient. to keep. G. behaviour. hove. vow. Sw.to vow. G. to call. the two verbs seem radically the same. to take away. to turn one out . servare. hevja. the name adapt. To Behold. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. to name. gehalten seyn. to carry. and (as Fr. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. to keen or hold. gehouden. invoke. from tragen. at the tail of. ge' hatan.

Pl. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. — . P1. true. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. reach. beleggen. to to make A Templorum campana boant. orloven. are innate . if a narration. to put a high price or value on. fringe. To Belch. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. galaubjan. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. and bergan. in nautical language. to sound loudly . glauben. to believe. range. to resound. bervrit. to be required for a certain purpose. bulken. reputation.. b'ola. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. allow. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. . to believe. Goth. portion.D. certain rate. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. to bolk.D. turris. to express approval. mark ON. To praise is essentially Xo prise. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. bercvrit. bellow. OHG. and Du. esteemed . erlauben.D. galaubs. ungalaub kas. to believe. Du. to give leave. Du. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. beau sire and bel dame. consent. to cry out bell. is an easy progress. berfroi.alyfan. were civil terms of address. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. . Pl. Sw. to praise. to lay the cable round the bits.Lat. to befit. bolken. appearing in Mid. Q. laven. to a loud noise. or high estimation. properly belonging to the church tower. and E. to protect. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . Det er ofwer er hofwa. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. to belay. laven. Another application of the same word is in Pl. filu-galaubs. to bellow. tain a certain end. or house. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. bounds. loven. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. satisfaction. Fair sir and Fair lady. overspread. bealcan. bialla. Then. verloben. to sanction an arrangement. are other modifications of the same imitative root. loben. a tower. To Belay. ornament. boare. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. The word be- Belfry. AS. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. if a promise. to promise or engage. is used in the sense of approving. to permit. then. a watch tower. Hence to simple approbation. to make it fast. — Diicange. beset. —F. and. bell. Du. beffroit. From AS. battefredum. fitness. honoured. resonare. precious. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. ON. on. giving leave or permission. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. a vessel made for dishonour. lov. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. a. lyfan. See Gain. locus securitatis Schilter. aim. ON. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. then. bellan. Northamptonshire. belja. to give leave. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. for purposes of low estimation . to praise. G. leave . border. AS. It. and E. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . beffroi. from mhG. loven. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . permitting or giving leave. stand. Bell. to give leave Dan. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. bealcettanj OE. garnish. laubjan. lofa. esteeming good and valid. to lay be- around. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. Fr. praising. to hit hafi. on. to estimate them at a To believe. In the middle voice hofwas. to promise. gelyfan. bertefredum. bylja. or a sconce. permission. . an implement for making a loud noise. ley/a. under the forms belfredum. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. met. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. to roar. promising. belief . OFr. a little shed. is (Sternberg). legsel. praise. promiser. moderation. Fr. we have Goth. to der swaren lave. measure. to boke. to fix a price upon one's wares. with the consent of the heirs. hesfa. frid. 6o BELAY BELL loven. bettifredo. to praise. leaf geleafa. peal. distance to which a piece will carry. — mankind. To Believe.Lat. Du.D. In Mid. to extol the worth of anything. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. pro3.. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. cela est audessus de votre portde. a tower for defence .. behove.

leather sack. ^To Beray. binssen. Lat.Fr. from Arab. loubdn djawt. or fyle with myre. bimpsen. from another modification of the word for bubble. dirt. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. a border. wallet. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. In E. to touch. rushes. pino3. is a kindred form. Was das belanget. See Bind. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . pertinere. skin. a spring. Beneath. Javanese perfume. to exert force. Bav. to touch one. because bcelg. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. . fens et hie liraus. a water-bubble builge. means seeds of plants. from which is also bulbus. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. I marre a thyng. balg. welt of a shoe gwald.' — Hie fimus. I say). are stripped off whole blase-balg. belliJ Lat. Lat. an inflated Lat. Benign. to belong. — See Numb.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. Sw. ball. bendaj as. cod or husk of pulse. . benejicium. To Bend. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. Benediction. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. from benedictio. a good deed. bellows. gelangen. Lat. disposed to oblige. has assumed a plural form. bell.' The term had been previously planation.polch. Lat. belch. blister balgan-snamha. a bellows . vulgarly the belly. to come to the crown belangen. hence with ashes. on. to make bilbil. pertinere. to attain belangen. incense of Java. bilbila. . blast-bcelg. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. a blow. to hold to one. to bless. G. . binsen. Benzoin. Gum benjamin.videtur. a benefit. to become one's property . a accusative. OUG. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. bolg. belt. From OFr. . benignus (opposed to malignus). J'emboue. a round or bubble-shaped root. To belong is thus to reach up to. — root consisting of concentric skins. bellows. . bolch. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. a bellows. See Bank. poX^ri. bolg. benjoin. w. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. bcelg. — Ducange. I araye. Eenison. becwathan. Dozy. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. as concerning that. bilbil-goda. bless. bag. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. pouch. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). vulva. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. Benignant. Bench. Fr. benehusk. se bander. to do good to one . to attain to. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. . bendan. bellows. the word. to bend a bow . Ptg. est matris in lucem editus. G. Benefice. Du. benir. belly. belly. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. welt of a shoe. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. pervenire. bimaissen. to say. G. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. generous. To Benum. skin. bienfait. To Bequeath. or sometimes louban. by itself. belgr. gwaldas. langen. the womb. or simply djawt. The ing-skin. the skin of those animals that factor. See Nether. to arrive at. balg. or a It is times the to signify services. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. Quoth. Fr. was in Mid. Belt. benedictio {bene^ and dico. Benedico. benefacere. See I . ' . wallet Benefit. ON. To Belong'. pod. a leather bag. benjoim. benaigon. to use words of good omen. one who does good. Benefactor. kind. rise against external force . to ring. a speaking well of one. — ray. to hallow. to concern. G. taken absolutely. OFr. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. Bret. I soyle it or araye it.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. ON. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. bandoir. as. balteus . to reach. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. Lat.. well. hem. Kil. bene/actum. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. is The word balg. to stretch it on a frame. Gael. attinere. needs no ex.' Palsgr. benedicere. fyle To dirty. a blessing. attinere. ' I beraye. Gael. bander un arc. border.— Belly. to concern. to. Bent." — — . ray. from cwcsthan. attingere. bags or bellows. beneison. a kindness. Fr. volva. Lat.pinuz.

Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. because used for making besoms. To help. arwe. profit. bat. beseech. E. . vol. BETE dirty'. Besom. R. 3. lay out. The origin is AS. sweepings. and also to entreat. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. besen. supporting on the one side Lat. solicit. bdt. Devon. Hfence backing. sets fire to. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON.bhaksh. to make better. bota. to word is shelter. boeten. a horse collar. from AS. better. position. put forth. — Biglotton. baete. botesward. * Berth. earh. Du. ^•n. making better. advantage. it seems hard to separate as. person to lie in. think more probable. baete. Fr. bur-we. Sw. roju. in the sense ctf beria. besmas. AS. seems twigs or rods. dung . betan. lewth. Goth. Du. mud. to To Bereave. to defend. hva mannan. reparation. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. to the place boarded off in a. to supply a want. compared with bargham. Esthon. stow. Bestead. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. Zeitschr. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. To bete his Jam. basya. Du. scopse spartis. amendment. to thrust. to put on the saddle. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. p. besein. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. might have been . an incendiary. roju. basjaj Du. On the other hand. Fr. ^akka. to mend. betan. roe. to on the other Goth. to seek. a place . vi. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. put. It is the restore fyr betan. or to bestead one. dirt. ariierf to 113. Rob. Beit. See Better. The dry. BEREAVE Wall. reparation. — amendment. besnij Pl. as. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. but in practice. besje^ Sanscr. bal oppbota. Sw. besIn sen.D. boeten. houseless. from grow. ropahtaa. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . to fall with roisto. Berry. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. as. — bota. — Chaucer. noise.— Hal. a fire. place. OE. to to deprive of. preferably. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. G. boeten. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. of ffeed a fire. and on which the wager is laid. what does it boot. make better . R. to fire a funeral pile of .—^fake. to amend. jnore. Beet. the origin of which is to be found in ON. repair. het vuur The serise of Boeten. AS. barthless. boteith Goth. as Du. earg.fish the other hand. as conversely a besom is called broom. Fin. to kindle the fire. * To Bete. The proper meaning of the bale. Tha het he micel fyr betan. Beere. encouraging. So too Yorkshire arf. to be-place.— VixHsm. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. E. buttafuoco.ot-i. Best. Ihre. bdt. barth may be for barf.iooA. To Gl.t. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. the guardian . berry. to make it. When men of mekeness him baet. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. rubbish. To seek something from a person. dust rojahtaa. AS. fearful. improve.X. brem-bessen. supply. peto. dirt . protect . sheltered from the wind. beorgan. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. same word with the provincial barth. So roto rattle down. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. dial. From abet. or the space kept clear betan. Kil. reafian. is to perform a serviceable office to him. to light the fire . advantage. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. bet. fyrbotare. bacca. burrow. See Reave. fall with sound. bereafian. to strip. G. Tusser. as bouter selle. p. boutefeu. ship for a make amend. a berry. bouter. To Beseech. and Du. to stand one in good stead. stede. to give a place to. To Bestow. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. to exercise on a definite object. Du. berwham. barfham. — . as in growth. rods. So Lat. or.• 62 Antiq. berwe. one who shelter. buttare. Grose. eld up- On is to be placed A — . what does it better a man. the side bhakshya. bestow. to entreat. as. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. to cast. to thrust. stealth from steal. as. from It. To Bet. an incendiary. small eatable fruit. broom twigs. . I from lew. but it is specially applied mister.irova.

In like manner from twain is fothied between. Fr. thy speech bewrayeth thee. and thence twegen. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. ON. R. betweohs. G. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. 88. his mouth. amiddes. Tinia eigi at lata eit. OE. best. /alia. Ober D. gezimet eines dinges. awry. betweoh. are commonly to one's lot. In like manner folissais. fate. beverage. Ik tame mi dat nig. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. to Hence It. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. G. It. said he. which may be compared as to form with amid. to happen. bibere. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. as trahissons. bevere. to deliver tip. Golding's Ovid in R. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. ruogia. it bewrays itself. not to have the heart to give up a thing. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. trahissais. advance. or with again. to fall Some call it a bevel. Lat. treachery. gesiemen. deem suitable. better. as one would have it fall. betweox. Sahissais. Between. polish. twain. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. regen. better. betriigen. -to appoint. dispose (whence schicksal. to drink . bet. from invadere. batista. ON. E. in the middle of twain. roja. E. whence beveraggio Fr.— . baet. — See To Bete. Car son umbre si le trahit. tradere. an instrument opening like a a thing. by two. is used for the — R. From the former of these are AS. evidence of life. taemen. I approve of beveau. Det sig sjelft. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. Fr. a traitor. a bevy. larks. i. Fris. gatiman. . deign. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. his eyen sheen. in the middle of two. Pl. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. of pheasants. zimet. fallinn. progress. as from obdir. to Teem. tweoh. AS. Mich self a good glass of wine. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. Chaucer. The inflections of Fr. by a final sh. G. BETEfiM translated. some attention. Friar's Prol. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. spritigs from schicken. bevde. Buveau. from Lat. It. bet. beva. to happen. kein leben mehrin no signs . to discover. Bevy.' Dialogue on Witches. fitting. &c. make manifest. roebucks. Cot. moveable and compass branches. On the same principle ON. obdissais. is treason. trahir. find it good: Goth. from. To Bewray. suitable. betray. Hence last G. bat.D. dir. betwuxt. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. To Beteem. Fl. Slant. what does It is forward him. To boot in coursing (i. e. betera. betst. E. sloped off. proficere. betaemen. Fr. order. traitre. — that schickiich. amidst. in the same way Lat. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. as envahir. tima. A — drink. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. wrogia. a drinking . two. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. against. Percy Soc. x. Bav. Fr. to deliver up in breach of trust. for measuring angles. Pl. Best. better. ziemen. suitable. r'ojer dig. tima. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. a brood. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. are there Regt R. springs from ON. Dit tungomal rendered in E. R. Goth. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. To Betray. to fall. afford. *Ah. tradire. trahison. obeish. taemen. Now the stirring of an object. become. R. Thus from dbahir. lot). G. more. riigen. to accuse. vrohjan. of quails. In the water anon was seen His nose. trakir. to make forwards. be fitting or suitable. betwuh. to stir. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. — of the authorities. beuvrage. has — In a like sense tanie>i. — Betwixt. e. pair of compasses. to deceive. Sw. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du.D. e. as tlock. bouter davantaige. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. zemen. To vouchsafe. The as. to cheat. bedriegen. abash j from polir. the being pushed to the frbnt. Du. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. find in one's heart. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. wreia. Dii. i. from Fr. traditor. a different form of twa. From It. Goth. batizo. Better. betest. AS. verbs in ir with a double ss.

To drink hard. Bezoar. ber-laita (for bes-laita). the basil Sc. to tipple. to tipple. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. tailU en biseau. to purl. roggle. (according to the Fr. to stir. makes ble. sliding. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). le fait sauter aux yeux babbi.two. Biseau. To Bezzle. dial. To Bibble. Cat. E. dial. Hal- — do something aslant. bibaculus. edge of a plate of looking-glass. to glide or slip as upon. or in and out. Sardin. Oh when shall I bizzle. a Galilean. sik beregen. in him. Pl. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. wrangle. expelling or preserving against. aslope. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. Prov. to move. sbrisciare. in two ways for duis. stock still. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). The It. oblique. metaphor). ice .' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. bark of which paper was first made. The train of thought is then. Sard. sbiasciai. Du.a. foul weather. pddzahr. bending. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. Cat. and zahr. Bibelsworth in Nat. sbiscio. Lat. a slabbering-bib. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. bihais.to drink much. sbias. When the edge of a joiner's trickle.s bellum for duellum. Fr. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. to stir up . though such a change of form would be very unusual. bickel. reveal. Sp. a bezle. Diet. It is especially applied in Sc. love first begins to life signs of him. Mantuan. sbrissare. Bisect. babbi. beregen. Hal. its clothes. shows the P1. pible. rogt un bogt sik nig. Jamieson. biberen. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. as an eel or a snake. b&zahr. — crooked. — Bi-. Pers. Dan. or by any rapid motion. to stir. . notice. convicts thee of being drink. In Arab. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. specially in a bottle. Ci^.as in Biped. Piedm. biascio. aslope sbisciare. bickai. bickel-sieenken. a bibber. Bice. bescompte. Fr. It. inferiority. bickeler. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. baverole. . by throwing of stones. to slaver . An excellent Basil. to cut in two. biax. baviere. rogge. to slaver or drivel. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. —Bickering'. Lat. To bicker in NE. bestemps. lips. liwell. or kwijl-slab. from pdd-. of the sliced off. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. To Bib. . OE. sloped. bible. wrogen. like guzzle. biberon. to it evident to sense. Fris. has a singular stone-picker. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. To Bicker. one who drinks in excess. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. biaiser.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. to shake. winding or crawling in and out. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. him. the word became bddizahr. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. per\'erted belief. crooked. asure-bice (Early E. the papyrus. is explained to clatter. Piedm. slippery. misFr. besanca. to Jam. To skirmish. to creep or crawl sideling. bisdare. 172. used in precisely stone . twice. it becomes (Jz-. sbiescio. to make tongue Du. Fr. Ant. to sip. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. An inferior blue. wraggeln. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. —Dozy. biascia. to dispute. Yes. which good bibbeler. bickelen. Misc. . Probably. Fr. bebble. /3i/3Xof a book originally. babbefore the eyes. biais. sbrisso. a fragment bieco. to well up with Cot. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan.D. Bib. bezling or skueing. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes.{ioin dua. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . Fr. bis. It. sbiesso. presence. to be a paring.' bibble. bibo. bavon. whence Du. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. it were the mouth. to a fight with stones. 78). Bible. sbriscio. Uprogen. discover. whey count . In comp. bias-wise. to stir. to give signs of life. Gr. beslei. two- footed. Bias.D. slanting . . barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. bisel. bes-azur. sbieco. kwijlen. biberer.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. to the stirring of their conscience. I Wallon. kwijl-bab. kwijllap. See Wriggle. bring under ' Thy accuse. Bezel. a sloping edge. he is Wtb. evident. poison. petit-lait.or from obliquus. sbiagio. Schiitze. a stone-hewer . in Fr. Fr. snout.

pressing on one's notice. to solicit. byggia. Hence Sc. bolga. build. faurbjudan. swoln. bolgna). explaining the Sc. Bickelen. abidan. twice. byggan. bolginn. and yajiBui. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. or. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. Kil. bidel. offerre. and the Sw. a swelling. in the sense of ask for. — prepare. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. belly. From Gr.' Pope in R. BID of stone. Bight or Bought. bulge. bog. to offer it to public notice. called the tertiary order. ON. bidill. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. the belly of a ship. to inflate E. bit- bidja. of More ' in Richardson. . bend of a shore or of a rope." buque with E. to move quickly. Big-swol- . related to big or bug. bedun. to bend. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. bidjan. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. repair. porrigere. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. to ask. Analogous expressions are G. gebodenj G. A bjudan in anabjudan. are also used in the sense of asking for. G. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. consisting both of men and women. bead. verbieten. The loss of the / gives Dan. 2. bulky. buga. anleta. The ON. qucero. ' Bug as a Lord. balg. bis and in comp. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. and consequently ordering or reGoth. has leta. It must be observed that the word bidja. may plausibly be derived from Goth. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. inhabit. ON. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. ON. The ON. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. 1. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. a chip. — To Bid. P. With respect to logical pedigree. and Gael. which is stiU. be bug. to forbid . (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. belly. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. beadle. to build. to belly. the meaning of bid. bat . to presimpler pare. Jam. Bigot. iiQ. to have one called before him.t. Du. to curve. bugt.uddered len heart. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. ten. gebeden j G. The 'La. biegen. a flexure. Bigamy. bieden. to pray one to dinner. The original Swollen. boa. an entire skin. to bulge. G. The . beidast. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. to dwell. BIGOT beidan. swelling. To Big. forwards. as tears from the eyes. to arrange. proud. praebere. Two verbs are here confounded. to offer. to look for. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. to start out. ON. to build G. R.peto. to cultivate. to inhabit. ewes. athird class. to offer one the wish of a good day. W. bend. from bidan. Palsgrave in Halliwell. bygga. pray. bilge or bulge. England for swollen. biddan.. as G. bced. bugan. OSw. bug. to forbid . bag. to ask. AS. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. cultivate. by seek and beseech.Leta). to look for. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. AS. praestare. beodan. To Bid ' Big . or third order of penitence. bauen to cultivate. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. bieten. A pose to one to come to dinner. Big. from belgia. bow. Wallace in Jam. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. bulk. to bid one good day. as. bigan. einen vor Gericht bieten. G. bath. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn.' Addison. or bad. swaggering. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. quiring something to be done. to abide or wait on. To bid the banns. from seek. Einem einen guten tag bieten. . to swell. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. to build. spelling seems to used in the N. to marry. who. to bicker. bua. bi-. becoming in Lat. to pro- command. inhabit Du. rising up. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. besides the professedmonks and nuns. bulge. OSw. bouwen. AS. form. Compare also Sp. bidan. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. to E. bo. bugne (answering to ON. — — — Halliwell. to bend. bidan. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. a suitor.

a blockhead. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. A. says. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep.' Us petits frires bis or bisets.' translated by Muratori. signifying bagmen or beggars.D.a. with reference to A. both men and women. honesti plebeii amictus. a dunce.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. vol. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. as well as bizocco. Bizocco. bighellone. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. and also unlearned common men. begutta. From bigio. coarse woollen cloth. which must not be confounded with begardo. &c.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. the nobles to Rienzi. Bighiotti). A. A. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. 1499. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. face VIII. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. beghart. 1243. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. Beguttce. bigotta.' Matthew Paris. all apparently derived from Ital. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S.— BIGOT bigardo. dark-coloured cloth. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. 560. Hence the OE. S. perch^ i Terziari di S. was formed bigello. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati.D. G.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. 15 18. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. and Q. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. corruption would easily creep in. to adopt a similar course of life. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. vocati Fraticelli.' Chart. natural grey or sheep's russet. Flor.' They were however by no means confined to Italy.D. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. and hence the variations bigutta. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . D. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. grey. bigio.' says an Venet. the other form Per te Tribune. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. ac labores manuum detestantes. Augustini dotarint. They wore a similar dress. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose.. alii Apostolici. In the same way Fr. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. ix. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. aliqui Begardi. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. In a similar manner from bigello. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti.' says one of of bigio. clownish. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. sed maxim^ in muliebri. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. Francisci communiter appellabant. alii de paupere viti. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. xx. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. biso. Bighini.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. homespun cloth. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. rustical. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. grey.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio.— Ducange. absque votorum religionis emissione. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. author quoted in N.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. probably from biso. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. bighiotto. beghino. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. Bizoccki. borel.

bolghe. to be angry (i. blue . Bilge. Piedmontese bigot. bille. and a billard. from the dark colour. p. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. belghen. at sea Billet. bwyell. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. In English the meaning has received a further development. however. gleischner (Frisch). that of swell. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. symbolum. a name given to a. Aurelles. used in legal proceedings. horn of an animal. an axe . beghart. Fr. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . to peck.' in Richardson. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. Ludwig. An instrument for hewing. bile. 3. to strike. I. biilge. . topor. bla-berry. Sw. inscriptum. a of the sea. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. a shackle. Langued. dziobad. e. Billet. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. buail. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. Bilbo. blaa. billard or billart. Bigin. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. Prov.' bilio. The Du. an ingot of gold or silver. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). — bigardia. ^Billiard. an adze . a false pretender to honesty or holiness. of boja. Bill. Bojce. bil. b'olja. Gael. from OSw. Roquef. a floating log to mark the place of some. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. Billette. bullet. bulghe. G. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. and in Lat. 2. Sp. a hatchet. a seal. Bille. Dan. in the same sense. — Cot. BILBERRY nated. Tartuffe. bulla. Deutsch. genus vincu- Bilboes. Du. to job. boja. billet is the diminutive of this. ferrese quam ligneae. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. a hypocrite. now A Bilboa blade. AS. whortle-berries. procella Kil. beil. A slang term for a sword. a man who rests on a stick in walking. Fr. bui. buoy [i. billard also signified at billyards. a sword. 'tumidi fluctus. bigot. person of religion leading a loose life. dissimulation . the swelling G. a devotee. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. from Mid. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. To Bilk. irons or set in a kind of stocks.' mariners. The origin of the term is probably from bole. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. a stick to tighten the cord of a package.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. the o changing to an i to express diminution. a seal. AS. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. a beak. Billow. top. boeye. Lat. seems to be rather the unda. bigardo. 5 * . as a bill of indictment. buie. Bohem. fetters. as craneberry. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. . Fr. an axe. weapon . an axe. deceit. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. Kil. an axe. bigotto. In the same way are related Pol. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. bill in parliament. Lat. billet. bizocco. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. The proper meaning bylgia. boia. bill. So in Gr. to strike. bulgja. blamand. See Bull. OFr. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . plog-bill. a short note. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. Kil. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. a bigot or hypocrite. To defraud one of expected sinking. Mundart.. billot. Sw. gan. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. Gascoigne in R. axe. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. belgan. to pick a millstone. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. Bilberry. and dziobas. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. Thus we find in It. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. of E. bigot. abelthe fetter itself. tepati. A lorum tam in — Diez. . clog to a fetter. bisoch. Bill. might be taken to express a hypocrite. in the sense of a writing. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar.— — — . Johansen. loi. Du. a negro. w. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. obsolete. names bill-berries. e. dziob. crowberry. Du. false pretender to reUgious feeling. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. the trunk of a tree. an ingot. fluctus maris. See Bulk. Sw. — — ' . Dan. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. 2. on. bull-berries. NFris. to swell with rage). bila. the beak of a bird. the bill of a bird. AS. is properly a sealed instrument. bill of exchange.

bindan. Bittacle or Binnacle. V. AS. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. Fr. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. to bring Biscuit. — Surrey in R. Lat. to wreathe. isfiw. a female stag. ON. Bine. Lith. a corn. The proper meaning is a heap. qui nisi propius Blind. e. truss. binda nat. beize. to bind together. bundt. Bin. a habit- Binnacle. to bind at . a house. — See Bittacle. AS. wine. a weight of 48 pounds. fowl. to cook). Bizened. or petze. to hang. from pondus. v. an overseer. — — . to knot nets for fish. . to be derived from Ibfiaq. AS. evesgue. Lat. from Gr. nodus. bund. forth. bitill. beitan. G. Bailey. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. Bisom. AS. pippione. a gallinaceous bird. viz. To Bite. bindan. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. ON. &c. i. also a stone weight. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together.. evigue. in Swabia. the young of birds . brid. bunki. vescovo. a bitch. Habitacle. . bjork. Goth. Fr. In like manner from knot. while bind-wood.68 BIN Bio-. It. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. betsel. episcopus. to fasten it together. bij sien. bundle. hith. BITTACLE /Siof. Dan. bigne. G. binge. terial. Bind. biscotto. expressed by Sw. . and of Fr. a heap. We — A Birth. copus. 'tumens sequor. When compared with Fr. admota non Bit. AS. a little dog. biccej ON. E. bita. EpisETTiTOOTToe./«idere. a brood or hatch of young. to build. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. bij sienigh. lusciosus et myops. a bear. twice cooked. bund. . beran. biscuit. i. Sw. Fr. bitacora. by the verb knit or net. to net. poule. H. Du. The term ON. ge- from AS. is rendered in ON. Birch. to bulge. from \t3\. bin-wood. sc. a truss. G. Bisson. piccione. habitacle. AS. doubtless a stone. biclie. where the compass stands. earnes brid. bundle. Thus I suppose the Gr. a heap. Fr. j). bord. a bunch. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. bundun. than vice versi. Bisen. Bird.. to twine. and especially to a small poor horse. a female dog hindinn. or ben-wood.' and the like. Lap. a weight. Then added division in a granary. overlooker. to swell. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. from Lat. which is expressed in E. . or bin. Bindweed. See Breed. beisseii. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. a hind or female stag. brut. piiiti. . Sanscr. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. Lat. bunga. pinnu. a bitch applied also to other animals. life. to form a knotted structure. I would derive the verb to knit. IV. Lith. a bump or knob. To — — —D. bircej Sw. Fr. an eagle's young G. propius videre bij sicndc. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. burt. Bing. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. Lat.. bunch. berkas (z=:Fr. — properly near-sighted. a pig petz. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. or baked. the young of an animal. bhurja. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. Bitch. are commonplaces. It. beitsl. — Kil. bundt. See To Bear. properly a young pigeon. a knob. to bear. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. band. Sp. to plait. pin-ti. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. The bitol. pittjo. Gr. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. beorth. videt. pinnii. a bitch. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. pundas. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. poultry. hiindiiin. bikkia. G. is in Scotland applied to ivy. See Belly. pullus. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. bunt. Sw. Goth. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. evegue. by binda. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn.

buft". garrulous. to To blabber blabber with the lips. plabartaich.D. a fluttering noise. discoloured . pale yellow. biacca. leohte . blepLith. Pepper is bitter and bites hard.€i. night guard. blank. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. beitr. a large coarse lip . black. G. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. as in that of pale and white on the other.' by Haldorsen. In a similar manner Gael. maculS. blesmer. yellowish. To or he can speake. babbe. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. Lydgate. his blacan light. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. baitrs. Wit hung her mourn. blake. blob. obscurus. . Fr. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. as of water gently beating the shore. stutterer. v. on. AS. Sw. Applied in Hin ON. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. to watch. To Blab the anchor. to chops. Pl. x. bleich. blanc. bird of the heron tribe. In Legrand's Fr. 'fuscus. thoughtlessly . The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. dusky. NE. 't huisje. gulblakk. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . out the tongue. blac-hleor ides. to let out whai should have been concealed. — Hollyband. faded. bleg. ON. small guard-house. baboyer. Je N. biti. is placed. blubber-lipped. Fr. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. Hist. Se bleek. corrupted in Fr. first. the palebleff. Sp. Percy Soc. bittore. Hald. Bleak. Bav. viz. a childe dothe gasouille. blabaran. /ealo-/or. a beam in a house or ship. Black. blebberis. quick. chatter babbler . bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. blunt we say it will not bite. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. unintelligible talk plabair. in contempt. blobach. apparently from its biting the tongue. to bivouac. Ai-mstrong. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. a stammerer. butorj OE. round which the cable is made fast. Again. bitones. to loll it out. a continued soft sound. bihovac. a large lip. . ON. a flapping. ^aj'/^r. Fieldfare. Deutsch. blab. Mantuan babbi. a babbler. I blaber. Du. bitter. faded. Bohem. pins of the capstern. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter.. iroxafealo. "uivac.plab is used to . a shelter for the steersman. shine. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. plappem. babbling. fallow fawn-coloured. bitts of Bitts. . ^chops.. a* mast . beiwache. 't kompas huis.' by Gudmund. to babble. The Gz. from whence we have adopted the. as of wings . light-coloured. bittour. So Fr. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). bitor. 332. Sp. is apprehension of danger. mouth.). It. ON. blabhdach. whiteness (candor sine It. confusedly. quoted by Ihre. — Collins in Hal. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. yellow . white. Fr. Why presumest And laam's asse. The bitas. Mund. bites. blob. Gael. to wax pale or bleaked. gabble.. Hal. blakk. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. to babble. or water beating gently on the beach . as of a body falling into water. dark. synonymous with baber-lip. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. to speak Dan. whitish. Sp. blabbern. beuni. Cot. Nagt huis. blob. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. shining. ' plabraich. to talk much. an edge is sharpest sword.— Blabber-lip. Sp. an additional watch. A a rail. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. on the one side. Fr. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. ' Biovac. pale. blabbre. Cotgr. 156. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. pale yellow . bitr. ON. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. things —Palsgr. Bittern. pale. whitish. Gael. Mag. brunblakk. Alex. Goth. pale brown . In like manner E. term. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. as is seen in sputter and splutter. —Neumann. AS. bleikr. indistinctly. a tati. Blabber-lip. cut. — cheeked maid. even humour seemed and beuin. fallow . Bivouac. to the sharpness of a weapon. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. mona mid Dan. white. G. pale. white lead. blakki. mouth.' G. from wachen.' It would thus acle.

reproach. moere. whitish. to bleak in the sun. smother. D. bladre. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. foolish talk. Dan. a blanket a bed. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. bladeren. blanc. with all other loose idle masterless men. To blank. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. &c. pallido. and wandering men and women. linkboys.. Hist. plat. leafy. boys. G. slush. polished. blanchet. Besides the examples of this connection given above. and E. Blank. Dan. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. rogues and wanderers. Blank "verse. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. cited in N. coat. Perhaps from blegen. Bav. Sw. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. blatter. vagrants. to bubble. Eadmer. The radical bubble. piatto. blame. — rura. livido . his meat burnt. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. bladder. as. as. a. Fr. Blame. to disappoint.— Kil. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. to dabble in water. . most complete example of leafy structure. —We Bladder. a pustule . leaf. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. Blain. biasimare. Dan. to To bellow. blegne. to Hence Ital. . and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. Torriano. which we . is identical with Flanders borlen. — . To Blare. bladder .—Blatter. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. Bacon in R. Fr. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. blactra. irXariQ. variable than the signification of words designating colour. to purl. in R. blank. imbrunire. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. from candere. G. mire. blister. tree. —^Webster. revile. or of an oar G. to vocifer- — Cot. pluddre. leaves. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. 7. speak impiously. The present forms then should be classed with blether. Sc. plat. blein. — — — to jabber. bladder. blena. blether. PI. sheet of paper. pass over. G. p. the ON. mud. as scullions. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. Sir. and G.. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. skola and thwatta. blanchet. a leaf. a bladder or pustule. to make or become white blanc. a boil. gabble. white. and thence to babble.— ^o thehotsun. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. or as E. a bubble. chatter. candidus. name originally given Blackguard. See Blubber. Fr. Blanket. Sw. I am degraded from a cook. Now. contracted from bladeren. to —Blaspheme. waschen. blegen. blanqne. broad. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. and others engaged in dirty work. the leaf of a tree. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. leaf of a. But perhaps a more Gr. Du. shining. a buible. . white. defame. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. and he shall be sure to have O. e. vagabonds. to blow. bladder. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. also tanned by the sun. blanchir. Du. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. 1854. blatt. Du.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. or blafich. Fr. and Q. pXaatpiiiiHv. to blanch. Cot. pladdern. blahen. the origin of . blasphemare. or a mass of bubbles. a bubble. Blancli. — Sw. Play in Nares. biastner. on. It. blad. blaere. to shine. blister. Wott. blatter. Jan. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. dripping-pans. blister. also white woollen cloth . chatter. blather. Gr. borrelen. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. to omit. bladdra. mud.—Blatant. black. bladra. to glow. as blader. smore. also jabber. dial. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. flap of a Du. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. blinken. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. madder. plate. pimple. mus-blackt. Du. 86. a white or unwritten ticket. as Lat. a blank ticket. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. to glitter. board. 5/^a/^ of colour. branches . commonly called the Black-guard. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. roar. Reliqu. probably ate. blad. tattle. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. to shine. Blade. blather. whitish. and the agitation of liquids. blaeren. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. Lat. Du. blister. on.

commendation blason funebre. pale. Du. See Blare. Du. light-coli. Fr. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. Troilus and Cressida. — ^Jam. baladrar. the matter incendiary . to cut off prematurely. gloriosus. a voice Jr. i. blossi. bldsse. besides blesse. G. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. blaterare. to blaze Sp. oron-blasare. proclaim the virtues of. redness .— .' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. is used in the sense of manifestatio. a flame . an conium. g. among other . Du. ing of arms. ON. braise. Du. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. to publish the praises. a lamp blasere.' to fastum .' painted or figured . Blatant. in that of praise. ill-speaMng their proper colours . brasa. AS. blase. ON. is from AS. blysa. a loud noise. blason. The other derivation. it is manifest. brasa. to blow.whence the Fr. has also blencke. quus. blaser vid. ventosus. blcEsan. coloured prints. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. Cot. OE. is the imme. to spread news. a shield. bleis. Blanches illuminies. blaze. noisy blor. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. Cot. a funeral oration . a blast. to set on fire. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. beast. and to make him word blaze. Prov.). Golden Book in R. blaeteren. loud . Blast. . declaratio. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. blcest. Du. each of boaster. — — ' : bless. The AS. to proclaim. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. Dan. thraso. a flame. blis. stultd loqui. in the same way as we 2. A blaze is so intimately Then. blezo. blesse. If armour. Dan. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. somewhat different train of thought. a coat of arms. an empty and two theories are proposed. a shout. boasting. to extol. biter. friend Cornelius. bliEsan. as a verb. oured. and. blesse. Sw. blass. I. to de. to blow. bles. also praeblczse. like the in English. might And sain. Lye. fire. kept up. to blow . blateroon. AS. 2. blase. As Kilian. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. clamorous. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. used. magnilo. a MS. splendour. or to the sound which it produces. whence Blazonry. Kil. Du. a torch.sound a trumpet. blcEsan. Gael. To blast. G. A strong flame. Fr. blasoen. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. to bellow. might spring from the same origin by a . . — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. blys. much plausibility. live coal . to trumpet forth. blorach. embraser. First from the E. proflare tues. and which. blason. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. Fr. senses. — ' — stroy. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. indeed. the noisy. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. how. Gudmund. blatero. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . magniloquus. But now. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. laudes (Kil. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. a torch . With inversion of the liquid. of an animal. abroad. or blazening. blazen. blast. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. A gust of wind. ther it was erst not knowe. blasonner. by stripping off a portion of the bark. To blow AS. blus. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. also only pains and excellent endurance. blose. a shining spot. a whisperer. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. blasa. Sw. blcesett. — Elazen. The origin of this exSp. blaodh. She roade at peace through his heraldry. . baladron. Sc. on whose behalf the herald appeared. 'op een trompet blaazen. blaesen. blaodhrach. visui patet.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. blcese. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. bawling. e. Blaze. to publish. a flame. shield or surcoat. also blazon or the blazSpenser. abroad. To Blaze.

A Blab. from the than schal I go. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. Bejaune. tumanid. goda nainn. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. splamii!. blot. blema. Palsgr. pier vor den augen eyes. inflamed eyes. to make him feel blank. a blot or smear blanking one. 419. blench came to be used for a trick. a spot. N. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. wan. blemissemeiit. to spot. confound him. Pol. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. Fr. And now are these but mansbond (i. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. Richardson. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. I chaunge colour. a been distinct. boggle at something. like one that has long P1. blister. a blotch plerr. — — R. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. livor. to cast a mist before the eyes. bldmi. geplerr. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. ^Xiixaoftai. the formal equivalent of English wink. Sir J. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. is Blench. sugillatio. ' — — eye. Bleb. a red watery eye. (faith or creaunce) Be war. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. As AS. 242. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. spla7nU sie. See Black. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. or blemish. to humbug. what blenched him therwith.' to deceive one. novice. . pale Du. drop of water. guenchir. blarren. pimple . a disgrace. So in Sw. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. flack. Bleed. blot. to start away from. . from on. Gr. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. darkness of vices. ^Blencher. Bailey. c. blcecan. ' He blarrede or roar. Manuel de Pecch&.'he cried till the tears ran down. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. Blancher. exposed. a spot. A stain in a man's reputation. Blear-eyed j having sore i. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. wanness. the livid colour of a bruise. to bleat as sheep. to spot . To totally different from the foregoing. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. to stain one's honour or reputation. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. to cry or weep. ' .' God in his wordes. blesmir. AS. From the OFr. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. a stain. B. Sw. Mac. bleakness. while the agent ac- From . . to bleach. spSt. souiller. To salir. dead-coloured Cotgr. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. pale . livid. p. to soil. in the expression reputation. plama. Ancren Riwle. on. to disgrace one's name. or to low as oxen. blink. G. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. Schmel. wheal. blur before their eyes. not only pale but livid or dark of hue.v. Blemisli. as of dust or mist .filerren. whitish. start vor den augen. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. Blear. Bleak. To Bleat. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. bleikr. . An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. Gower in R. tutnan is a cloud. blakna. 115. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. to become livid. BLENCH obfusco. to wink the eye. to blare been weeping. which are blurred with the have shewed you. light-coloured. to wink at it. to blear one's eye. or blemysshen — blaken. ' — — ' : — — . sinen langen tranen. a fault.D. tacher.P. a spot. a boil. The term blear. bloken. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. See Blood. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. blesmissure.' the devil makes a vain back. — blink the question is to shrink from it. color plumbeus bldma. . a blemish in one's 2. And By a similar metaphor Pol.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. a spot. avoid looking it in the face. paleness. See Black. and thence to a bruise.

lightning sweet blago. 375. To Blend. lightning. G. to glitter . bluiter. a wink With the bletsian. giving (Fr. From the action of the hand making Sw. a blessing. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. in potters' language. Thence apblinds. well blagaya. although in the in the next article. to dabble in water. tless —Gamm. blincken. blind. the G. plotzen. The term then self or others. Russ. blendian. joy. . graceful. glimpse. a flash. ^Jam. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted.corn. to shine. joy. to dilute too much . as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. to be blind. Nares. plonsen. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. ' Pl. Du. a look. bludder. to rejoice. mix from blekken. to dazzle . blende. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid.nasal. as taschen. lightning. joy . glance. blicken. Sw. but by no means therefore a pre. blotzen. Paradises blidnissu. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . De Sonne ' verblekken. weaklaveny. blidu. glad. glitter. moment. blazeny. . . — . happily. a. blessed. blich-fiur. to consecrate . Sc.Q. to blithsian. riches . and joys of Paradise bliden. Swab. . — Goth. lovely Bohem. to act like a — . glitter. also to wink. Needle. a gleam. blatida. Blink. tire. to glitter ful . to dash wine with water. to — make it thick and muddy. AS. Wtb. tative source of the word is wholly lost. AS. blend.blunda. blogi.wink . whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. . seems the simple netel. blicken. — A A — . a dead nettle. A . to bless . blicksem. csecubrandish. to rejoice. bleg. gladness. Du. a. to mix. as a blind entry. blac. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. To blunder water. as a vatn i vin. joyful. a wink. to shine. blahoslaviti to twinkle. blinzeln. OHG. to fall into water with a sudden noise. pale. blaziti. To Bless. blinzler. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. to shut the eyes G. wink. riches blajennii blicksem. money. shine. blithe. livid. burn up. to shine. Blazena Bea. AS. I hold thee a grote thee. as in the case of blaze. to make a rumbling noise. make these hands 3.blinze. dazzle . vious one in the order of formation. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. a glance Swiss blenden. lighten. gives blinzen. blissian. to make happy. F. AS.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. blindr. G. to pro. blinzdugig. blanssen. to shut the eyes. to lighten. trix. blink.. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. . as in Du. Blight. cascultare. blick. a blick-ooghen. Swiss (obsolete). Blind. (=bene dicere). . blitzen. blitz. with or without the nasal. happy . blind- ON. blago. pockets. doors. Owl and Nightingale. III. . pearance of the blighted . blund. Bliss. Tany. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. . bliss look . good. blide. Dan. to flash. the Slavonic languages. the sign of the cross while blessing one.not sting thiiren.blinkard . blinde fenster. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. sung. happy . or nettle which does form. OHG. . to twinkle. happy . mixing in general. Biglotton. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. Du.blinken. to churn. —Brera. to glance. The sound of k before an s. to bless. blag. be glad flash. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. blent. . is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. glitter. window-blind. sertion of the nasal. the verb to bless is some. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. Du. blahos. an entry which leads to nothing .' To — blunge clay. to plunge. — when he — Bailey. to merry. blet. readily passes into a /. wink of sleep . liquid filth to bluther. a nounce happy.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. Pol. false windows. flash of light . blithe blis. j). Du. is I shall Gurt. Kiittner. thou knave. to stir or puddle. well blahy blick and blink. blink-eyed. The inblissful. fortunately. to bluiter. Deprived of sight. to bluiter up with water. to glitter. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. . Sc. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. blindselen. a glance.D. goods. G.eyed. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. blessed. G. sweet. ON. blican. Serv.

a blot or spot. mass. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. Hence. W. The blow E. blister. blouca and Fr. to breathe hard. gentle OHG. or bleb. strawclod. speaking rapidly any . It may be formed Blithe. and inarticulately. like clot. Cotgr. blot. viscid. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. to cure by smoke. blithe. frequentative. expressed by cognate roots. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. blindman's-buff. orbicular. in Nares. also to set See Bless. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. to soak. ^vaaa. bubble and blubber. To Bloat. in gusts. blotfisk. Bav. while Lat. Kil. or the like. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. A solid blouquette blisters. to to puff and be noisy. blcesma. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. fish blind person. in the sense of a soft tint. bluyster. N. as a blab of ink. blindsehn. blesme. soft. blaud. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. a little blisg. bluster. stone. bloated. blot. pustula. And so from squatter. G. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. and easily changes its place. a dirty blister. the unhewn bole of a tree. Lat. busten. to bubble. cooking. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. to swell. . as blinzeln. light yellow. in the lump or mass of wood. taken altogether. Goth. to blow.—Bloater. to desire the male. a ram. — . The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. blot. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. buclde. and bouclette. blister blasan. soft.. as in E. is also used in the sense of swelling . Gael. pods. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. any lump or mass of things. it is must be observed. weak. Sc. blautr. must be classed with forms like Gr. in bulk. lagga i blot. Ibid. a blister . Blond. To a smoking or drying by the fire. Boyd in Jam. blijde. blab. a bubble. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. Dan. plub. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. or blinde-kiih. to block up the way. a lumpish head plubach. Svt. to blow. blond. joyful. soak in water cured fish. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. The roots /. to steep. swell. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. Egillson. blobber. inde humiditate tumidus. from blcsr. bloc. Hence E. sloppy dirt. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. mild. Bleb. Blob. blide. husks. Du.— Hal. Block. an unformed mass. The stem or trunk of a tree. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. ON. Jonson. formed spot. G. To Blissom. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. blaustem. . pimple. soaked. bloc. . like manner the coloured. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. to blissom. In Fin. Langued. Mod. Dan. Fr. buckle. blidr. a bubble.— Bailey. kostua. blod. to close it with a solid mass.—Bloated. a blister. See Blot. ^Jam. Sw. a block or log en bloc. as if soaked in water. a bubble. For this. A under this name was imported into England. pusula. . blubber. shells. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. soft. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. to blow. mild. Blister. a small lump of anything thick. bausen. biota. Blob. puff. a drop of water. — Sw. senting the dashing of water. Du. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. and F. — Blob. a . blad. B. —Bailey. pausten. bleiths. Thus we have blab and babble. boucler. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. ON. whence blast. — — — — — From blabber. or the mark which it makes. separate portion. B. having an unsound swollen look.plisg. blobbes or droppes of water. or is inserted or omitted. Fr. and pisg. a See Blot. blote. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything.pusta. Of sheep. a blain. fiustula. to dash liquid. repre- pusula. merciful ON. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. is formed squad. signifying in the first instance to soak. blinzel-maus. Gael. kostia. I believe. must be referred to AS. Sw. round.

Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. blond. blois. gleam. bloemen. bloetnsel. Blossom. to squat or lie close. mud. lump flower. blawels. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. a flower. to dabble in water. glasi. glister . splashing full. to blaze . blue. Ir. bleustern. soft or flat. pale tint. leme. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. lump of anything soft to blad. Erploten. Blow. Blot. Du. splendour . a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. blosem. blooth. blondheid. or the sound of it . bloutre. blatte. kuh-plader.— . . to scribble. livid marks. blomstr. fair in en blat vand. It should be of filth blak-blatte. blotter. fall to overflowing. to dabble in water . Schilter. blue. pale. lustre. a beater. —Barbour. blotting-paper. bliihen. bit by bit. Stalder. blus. a. bliise. a Halm a. pale biavo. ])erly Du. . See Blow. blaeuwen. in v. brilliancy. Russ. to slap. Pl. — Cot. bldmi. parallel form with ON. coloured (Diaz. spots in the sun. a The form platschefz. Du. straw. to strike with something soft or flat. blotte. plottra. ^Bleed. 2. plattata. the bright to blot paper morsels. blaeuw. Blad. bliithe. ' — . plants which prepares the seed. blistaf. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. D. blond en blaauw slaan. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. E. to sparkle. a spot or blot. Fris. blowen. OFr. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. Jios. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). on. a black eye Du. to blaze. Sc. couleur livide. AS.platter. dial. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. a cow-dung. kobladde. bldts. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. to grow pale). Plots. . Prov. Sw. platz-regen. to blush . a deli. plotterwis. — Stalder . blou. blosma. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . to slap. blosen. proto shine with bright colours . great leaf of cabbage. to dirty. It. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. Schmid. bloedsd. blysa. wan. gammon. a Usaae. ON. to be red with blot. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. platt-voll. probably connected with Pol. E. — Blotch-paper. . bloto. glossi. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. Florio). E. blue. from G. (of cattle) to dung. Blood. S-wiss pladern. shine . The bright-coloured part to portion of land. gloss. bloi. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. livid . Fris. blase. cow-dung. Ein platsch milch. to dash down Du. to blot the land was in a leme. white blatte. plet. G. a blow. E.^ Kil. Dan. blust. Lat. blat. E. a drop of water or colour. as the skin or hair. j^ blottir. to dash down. blostma. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. blosa. a torch blusse. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. to strike with such these objects exhibit.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. dial. flower. blodelsa and blawelsa. Harmar in R. bloed. AS. biado (of which the evidence plattern. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. to be red. en blau ach. whence plader. blut. Sc. bloi. . sbiadare. Sw. Dan. bleistern. a Schmid. to exists in biadetto. colour of the cheeks. Schwenck. blady. skam. clod. Fr. blad. spot pletter i solen. to spot or blot. pladdern. PI. a lump. of a blow with something lios. . Hatch. a flower. a blot or spot. The G. bletister. redness. yellow. gfyssa. to glow. Wendish blodo. yellowish It's G. fall down . Dan. lidmr. Sw. Du. dirty spot on the cheek. Bloom. blond is used in blatt. ^lys.' the rain is driving and blue . glus. G. glose. — — . Blotcli. Wflz<^«. to shine . bluish. blaeuwe ooghe. ON. ON. a pelting shower). a water ploutsche. a nature.D. platz-voll. a blaze. platsch-voll. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. to glisten . — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. a flower. . pladern. to From . bloeme. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. E. bfys. — gush.properly to scatter liquid . the bright colour of the cheeks . to flame. light. blose. to squander. a gush of milk . platschern.blauschlagen. blue. blauwel. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. plot of land is a spot or small rage. bloi. . from the bright colour which 7'vci. blue . to patter. See Blow. to strike . to splash. Du.

. plusig. blubbern. blady. to exhibit bright colours. —SchmelIt. and thence. and the forms mentioned under Swab.— . to blow.D. fied vowel. v. bruised Prov.' — Palsgr. blubbern. in rapid or indistinct utterance. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. meurtrissure Roquefort. grug. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. to Plodern. Du. — . G.Jlasa. to flap like loose clothes. bliuwan. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. in E. The radical sense is shown in Gael. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. florere. tache. bloeden. chatter. to bruise Roquef. especially with respect to the hair. Gael. Langued. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. bliithe. — Bluther. Chaucer. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. to gush. dirty. blebber. — To Blubber. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. a flower. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. to fade. gliihen. to breathe G. a blast. bloi. Raynouard. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. It. OHG. flower w. vi^ound. into flower. Bret. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. glaodh and blaodh. Her sweet bloderit face. to hard. . /idXavoc. little apparent resemblance. ^Jam. fem. bldt.D. where the word may be compared bliggman. pale . to shine with bright From colours. ' BLUE or guggling. heath. Deutsch. flower OHG. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. bloes. blao.to blossom. |8A)'. to blow. AS. Sik upplustem. to bubble up.xo'»'. to glow. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. to beat. 92. a blow. 1292. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON.' Hamburgh Archives. coup. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. a. Pludern. blue. may cite for example G. blezir. blodern. Deutsch. bluh. . fqded. . bloom. to show flower. or gr. Kil. bloeyen. Mund. -ii. These are — Bludder. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. OHG. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. wan. Gr. to make blue. And. is confined to the — . glas. Pl. plodern. blubonciti. to breathe bouteiUis. to gabble. grey. disordered in head-dress. Jla-re. d in Sc. to spot. sponds with Sw. boil. withered. bl. pludern. toused. plubraich. blduen. green. foam. like manner Lat. blau. to beat with a mallet. glansj Ir. glede. marking some application from that bladder. 2. blois. Tumbled. — — Mundart. a gurgling . bloemen. a fat. to fade. bledniai. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. piusen. pale. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. blust. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. and closely allied with Du. bliihen. The interchange of an initial gl. OFr. to guggle. a paddling in wate r. Blue. gloeden. a continued noise of agitated water. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. y\r)yi»v. sense. plubartaich.nify bubble. bluod. G. boasting. glow. is very frequent. It is howbliuwen. to blow. to'disorder.. E.D. w. The primary sense is to shine. G. corre. Danneil. blass. Lat.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. E. to glow. G. Wtb. blow. sound like water. pale OFr. gloeyen. ler. fiubbem. to blurt out. glowing coal . blava. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. a Blossom. We . gUd. bruk. to puff up. Prov. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. blue . disordered. wan. blahen. 1. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. Bav. a herb Gr. the red fluid of the body . Blowzy. Notwithstanding the We . 51. closely difference in of blabber. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. Blowze. — To blubber. to fade. A. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . bluther. pale. blawan. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. MHG. . cheeks bedabbled with tears.D. To Blow. — . Chaucer. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. P1. plubair. B. Du. blodyn. to make bubbles in drinking. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). Pl. The aUied forms. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. blodelsa. puff. blazi. red-faced bloted wench. bludder. blau. blaw j biavo. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. In agitation of water. gliihen. to flourish. glas. jabber. blut. plustrig. to inflate. blazir. br. to with Bohem. blosen. . grow pale. To Blow. bliihen. a bruise.

blunder. to agitation of liquids. falb. And blunders on and staggers every pace. See Blurt. which is rendered by Florio. blanssen. Sw. puddle. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. to become pale or livid. disturb. to work To blunder out a fronto. Then with the nasal. pale straw-coloured. plomp. Lat. in water dobbelen. abrupt. Bohem. bleu et blanc. pale) is provincially used in the. E. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. blahir. Hal. . — Pr. polterer. Pm. polter-hans. blac. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . and then generally idle talk. OFr. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. rustic. Altieri. plo-wy. G. Bluff. pale yellow. superficie plani. Romance bluiter. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. Pol. We Blunder. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. Roquefort. used for the work of an unskilful performer. to dabble in the mud. flav-us. Blunt. Dryden in R. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. buller-bas. a boisterous violent man. liebefactor. The Du. blake (identical with AS. tutte le semente ancora in erba. without image or superscription. tradire to Fr. to fade). asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. in the same way as from It'. mix It. Blavoyer. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. G. discoloured {plowiee. Pl. ploffen. buller-bak. bullern. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. The word is here synonymous with amplus. To blunder is then. corn. sbiavare. fallow. and biavo (Diez). to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. and sbiadare. blue. je perturbe. It is remarkable however that the E. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. bUich. an ill-done job. from an imitation of the sound. to blunge clay. originally growing up turf and water. as well as biado.. Hence a Slcelton in R. sloppy drink. blunderhead. a blunderbuss. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . Ditton in R. blandum. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. to lose colour. to confound. . to puddle. A bluff manner. Blaffart. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. blond. Blunderer or blunt worker. Palsgr. blunt.' trouble. dial. Analogous forms are Du. Supp. corn. segetes virentes. G. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. to plump into the water. his business with much noise. herauspoltem or sloping shore. earth and water mixed together. bulmanner. a shore abruptly rising. bluish. bawling. Du. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. and Du. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. planus. to blunder water. in plur. sense of yeUow.— . trahir. from the Lat. a fore. I blonder. to become pale or wan. like Du. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. - reddish yellow.in mud or water. mistake. The Du. a flounder. blunder. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. Flor. contrasted with the dle. poltern. Bodge. Dief. to dabble Biglotton E. yellow. yellowish red. speech. 't — —Hal. — — — . biavo. herbe. blue. — .D. verdoyer. find accordingly It. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. all representing the — . a plain coin herausplatzeu. or an abrupt manner. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. having a bluff forehead. blavus. blaf.make a noise.• BLUFF biado. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. From G. Du. Bladum. Halma. to fall suddenly on the ground. glundra. blave is moreover. applied to green as well as blue. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. Kil. blue. Hence we pass to Prov. verdure. bloi. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair.//aay. It then signifies something done at once. something. non rotunda. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. flodderen (Weiland). one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. biada. from the brilliant green of the young E. Dan. Biada. devenir vert blavoie. and bustle . Kil. and metaphorically. like the Celtic glas. to mix it up with water. has donder-bus. confusion. See Blunt. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. blutter. jaune. as well as sbiadafe. G. pale. fawn-coloured. pludder. biava. is. to become pale. Roquefort. Kiittner. glundr.

Molof something wet. from the loud report a fire-arm. It is from this notion of suddenness. The syllables blot. is The word dull. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. it will be well to point out a sense. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. bloss. stupid fellow. blunsch. — — pidus. obtusus. to bring it suddenly out. blott. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. naked. identical with E. unceremonious manner. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. ineffectual reason. plump. unpolished. homo stolidus. G. Du. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. a bluntie. blockish. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. insensible. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages.—D. blat. plump J to plump out with it. Swab. fooUsh. bald. a blot. without preparation. A modification of the same root. heavy. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. plumbeus. Dan. Sir T. to blurt. A light blue colour. Plump mit etwas umgehen. seems to be derived.to fall into the water. Won by degrees. good plump person. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. and in the same sense. Halma. —D. More in Richardson. Sc. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. nature. Dan. rudely. . Chaucer. bleak. Stalder. Probably radically hlekit. heavy. bluntschen. and the like. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. Plump. rude. blunt. awkwardly. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. plump. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. blunt. viz. or blab out a thing Kiittner . blunder. and.pludse. raw. bare. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. naked. mit etwas heraus-platzen. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. inaKil. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. blout. ang. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. a simpleton. V. used in both senses. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . rough. as in E. exactly corresponding to the G. a portion To inquire for slaves. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. Then cometh indevotion. clownish. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. blunt. pressions. dull.plompen. Sc. with or without the nasal. the absence of sharpness. biotto. G. Sw. void. thick. Now the Swiss bluntsch. sheepish. —D. biosso. platzen. platz-regen. it will be observed. blatte. Blunt. to plump down. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. and hath swiche languor in his soul. Blaitie-bum. pale. It. F. plotz. to make a noise of such a Stalder. through which a man is so blont. forestis. Woddis. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. Bluntet. blue. obtusus. Pol. to blunt a thing out. in Richardson. plump. figuratively. to plump into the water. unfledged Sw. plutz T)\i. inactive Swiss bluntschi. of a knife which not cut. naked. that the sense of bare. viz. azure. or heraus plumpen. silly. Kiittner. Kiittner. absence of preparation. plotsen. heavy. clumsy. unwrought. nis. dial. — blunt. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. Plontp. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. .— — — . massive. and an unintelligent. like a thing thrown down with a noise. plains The large bech. without Maolaich. without horns. The blait body. plump. It will be seen that the G. hebes. blait. wan. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. bus. dull. pointless. V. awkward. blutten. maol. duU. Ford in R. to make foliage. a thick and will person. blait. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. plonsen. V. Q. naked. blotta sanningen. bare or blunt. as Sw. bare. down. to handle a thing bluntly. that it not easy to discover the connection. united in Gael. poor Sc. as cow-dung. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. blunt. is thrown. without the nasal. — Kil. Bare and blunt. fling down . edgeless. but of something soft thrown on the ground.

To move quickly up and down.D. blaere. to roar. borrar. a tassel. Schmeller. to blubber. Sverris Saga. Hal. skin. ever-swin. Bot zeggen. as splurt to splutter. . flat. blirt of greeting. whence bob. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. Fl. to blush. to snuff. Wallace. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. blaste?i. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. blosken. bleuster. splurt and spirt. bludder. To blow in puffs. Boa. Fl. to glow . to threaten. bord. to dirty. Fr. a smear. E. BLUR Boar. to rumble. to smear. beacon fire. will fly up. G. bord. 156. beer. cheeks glow. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. a board or plank. edge. 1. bdta. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. to disfigure with E. stellio. cluster. It. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. a small lump. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. to breke. blurra. blose. dull. aper. to blurt out.the syllable bot. table. or bog also thread. burra. strong. Du. gabble Sw. to make a noise in boiling. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. properly noisy. blaffen and baffen. my dear. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. violent. lindwurm. the Brem. Wtb. swagger. and E. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. Board. Pl. to crying. common. rude. a tassel. then applied to indistinct vision . bhis. 'Ba. Halma. to blur. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. a Jam. a flurt with one's fingers. Du. . Boost is used for the boast. margin. bluter. stupid. boistous. to blaze. berd. V. — — . pustern. blot. blarra. and the latch . G. bobine. acre. to blow. As the as. crack made by bursting open. or backwards and forwards. cocodrUlus. e. margin. to give a crack. P. Supp. i. Du. a dangling object. and when applied to vaunting language. to jabber. a border.pusten. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. Explained by Jam. bit. baban. to talk quick and indistinctly .—Bobbin. — To Bob. both used in the sense of boasting. or blurt with one's mouth. Boa. botte. and swimmeth very well. of the word seems . bur. fringe. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. To Blurt. to spurt out. G. Wright's ed. Kil. to bark. sudden. to puff. bobbin. a short thick body. hot. a blot. margin. Swiss blodern. discoloured spot on the 'Ba.y. . along the town preparations were made up on the houses. a torch blusse. 274. Gael. gabble. The elision of the d is very to chatter. AS. to make a noise with the mouth. to make mouths. and boisterous. bateau. to puff. blot. pluddre. Bluster.' — Red Riding-hood. w. Du. to bounce. blubber. 29. pof. plump. OE. boord. bot-voet. bludder. imitated by has also In like . bdtr. Pull the bobbin. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. a. to puff.— . to blore. Fr. coarse. Blush. rude. it implies that it is empty sound. A large snake. . eber.v. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. a grows to a great bigness. to endeavour to terrify. boccheggiare. is formed Du. whence bordvidr. Hal. blasen and See Burr.plerr. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. blunt. pludern. a baU of thread the mud. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. table. bluther. See Blossom. It. boot. — — — * Boast. bar. — a blaze. Slur. 9396. blusse i ansigtet. a mistiness. Bav. puffen. large. to guggle. like the parapets (viggyrdil. to be out of temper. edge. dial. pausten. voce intonare. bord. puddle. mire. bladdra. to brag grande loqui. and Du. The to radical meaning D. eafor. as in Du. primarily signify loud noise. Du. blast. — From mouth. ader. To tinct. a bladder . on. To splirt. the sound of a blow poffen. Comp. Related to blutter. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. bliise. c. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. be a crack or loud sound. batello. a blow . boa. blodern. AS. geplerr. a burst of tears. Lat. planks raised up outside the roofs. . blur. Du. BOB 79 — To Blur. To brag and to crack. to dangle. Dan. brett. — ' Dief. border. Du. bakke bleustern. a club foot . AS. board. blotch and botch. pfludern. an ear of corn. to say bluntly. It. bausen. to chatter. violent G. See Boisterous. an end or stump. to sound like water boiling. a blotch. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. this root are formed Sc. Sc. &c. Sc. a mist before the eyes plerren. bdd. lacerta. E. blaustem.plodem. short pieces of any filthy mud. bora. ground. outward edge. to dabble. baiag. blader. to render indisbhir. bustuous. dial. an edge. Gael. ON. literally edge-wood. De Boat. chicchere. bot. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. planks or boards.

butt. woman's stays. See To Botch.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. gagei. bodian. bogle. is identical with Fr. belly. a prickle. stuttering. swelling. bodilo. bodhag. to bodge. to stir. daubed or dabbled with blood. . quagmire). Gael. to commit a blunder. To Bode. precept. bottig. corpses pot. needle. bodat. move. bogadaich. corset from corps. barriga. shaking . Bret. nodding. Gael. of which the E. to bob. Bohem. bodak. unsteady. . AS. bogach. an awl. ON. . to dabble or paddle. mud. the boss of a buckler. meaning the round part of his body. And waves. Ptg. fickle . bob. bog. . calf of the leg. thrust with something pointed. . It introduced from Ireland. . unsteady. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. potahha. bod. corpset. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. a sting . thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. a . — H. to prick. rounded. bodene.gmh:t. moving backwards and forwards. . To mock. a cask. a dagger. unsteady nature of a soft substance. from fitting close to the body. quakmg. To make bad work. gebod. moist mire. To portend good or bad. formerly bodies. a body. and the word is well explained by Bailey. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. bolr. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. See Bid. So BOB To Bob. to fail. French bouter. gog. Ir. as a horn. the thick part of anything. The signification of the root bot. bog. to fail. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . body and G. wavering. Thy i. to roll. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. nave of a wheel. to push with the horns. barrique. bo tich. palleg. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. gogach. by the syllable patsch. . bot. Schmel. a prick. expression hogglin an bogglin. the body. bodetz. Banff. 43. goggle. bogadh. Miracle-plays. We . Wall. the trunk of the animal body. or bag. ^Jam. — as well as the body of an animal. a quagsoft. badyti. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. Reliq Antiq. VI. biodeachan. a spur. dies. Crist. bayonet . gago. the belly. to blurt a thing out. stutter gogmire. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. to waver. to scruple. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. Bog. anything protuberant. where bogs form Gael. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. anything soft. Russ. bodi. to butt.' Bogglie. and E. boftich. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. to make a mow at. To Bodge. to stammer. Body. the stem of a tree . bogan. exhibit another modification of the root. round. gag. Shakespear has badged with blood. Supp. to be unsteady tich. Now unskilful action is conmire. arise E. bod. The Sp. a round body both. whence Fr. shake. Gl.rabodi. then from the yielding. stitch. '£. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. Lap.hollow. speak of the barrel of a horse. biodag. a bog or morass. cask bottich. bodies. to thrust. bodig. to smack.a (i\ia. In like manner E. 3. point. . patsche. BOGGLE trunk and G. gagoula. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. Gael. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. potig. toss. to deliver a message. message boda. * To Boggle. stumpy. to start start and back as from a bugbear. a puddle. gog in gog-mire. bodnu.! . — Grandg. W. busti. AS.\\i\c\iset. or stem of a tree. bagges. potacha. baboyer. bodi. With With this we charged again We bodged again. potacha. to be uncertain what to do. the body of a shift gaguejar. an announcement. a cask.' A — Sherwood's Diet. a ghost . Ptg. as signifying anything spherical or round. pall. strike with the horns. Commonly explained as if from Sc. as in stammering or staggering. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. bole. to stick. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. whence paUchen. bottich are derivatives. boll. agitate. See Baber-lipped. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R.. so large a feature in the country. or a pair of bodies. Cot. to make. e. a command. Lith. corset. is a lump. — 2. body of a shirt bol. a messenger . bothog. waving. bog (equivalent to E. bayonet. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. Bodkin. Bodice.

the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . to stammer. The round stem of a tree. Bole. pusten. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . Da. properly represent belly. tartalear. bollen (Kil. huge. Mund. merry. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. This iv. ballr. noise. (of Mons) b^guer. Du. ^Vocab. a bump. ohg. intrepid. bolzen. G. stud. the body . repagulum. a bubble. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. bullire. animal as distinguished from the limbs. or the like. bag or bog are derived Piedm. to be prominent. to puff. pall. bulla. bald. ON. Daring. . a cushion. also a blister. bolzBold. tartajear. as baltha. 1430 in Deutsch. bol. styffe or rude . in the sense of handsome . used. a swelling in ice. courageous. the. Du. to the belly as the or dislike. perpendicular. bagaji. boll. Boll. bog. up of bubbles. bula. prince. bulla. boutpijl. whence bulla. pimple ON. The term applies in — — impressed . ON. notes. w. capiing into a cavity. G. a bakazikni. tomentum. Fr. to hesitate from doubt. as. . See Bulk. biiilen.— — . furfures. a head . puilen. stramenta. the lir. i. chatter. insolent baude. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another.' Mrs Baker. Love. see Boast. A. to tattle. It. Pr. swelling. pustule. pillow. Kil. sels of flax. blow. G. bold. globular bod)'. trunk of a tree . a bubble. strong. Kit. stutSw. boly. boss. haughty. polc'h. V. Lat.. poppy (Bailey). the body of a man or of ter. then violent. bal.palleg. bog. a quaking mire. which are not used for a similar purpose. to give a hoUow sound. Test. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. G. boggle. to be at a loss a shirt. bSlstr. Gael. ON. the husk of nuts. Cot. Sp. Wall. confident. — 6 . to stagger. Magy. hollow. bealder. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. Boil. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. wag. from Du. OG. bolt upright. bol. glass phial. . In the same way Sc. Bret. roydeur. bouil. to stammer. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. bochken (titubare. bout. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech.Du. capitellum. cheerful. tartle. strong. dint in a metal vessel. hero. courageous. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). is probably a modification of boll. Lat. tulum. and then applied to other husks. free. To Bolter. 374.rounded part of the body. excellent. bola. * Boisterous. Fr. bout is explained by Kil.w. Boystous. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. strong. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. rough. bald. puile. cows the people from speaking.). bolle. ^Boistous. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. ON. as those of nuts. 45. bhster. Pm. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat.D. treated under Bowl. Du. bald. may be identified with It. fiausten. hakogni.— D. Fr. bulr. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. bok. in speaking. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. scruple. Bustuous. bul. from the branches. E. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. baud. Westerwald bollern. bolster. OHG. coarse. Du. boil . buller. gluma. to waver or hesitate. boystousnesse. bold. bol. bolla. Goth. b^gayer. belc'hj. Lap. impetuosity. but that Bolt. E. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. buile. Swab. Chaucer seems Dan. Stalder. folliculus grani. as. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. Me doth awate. gerade signifies straight to the mark. swelling. chaff of corn siliqua. The bob. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. bolleken. a bubble. Sc. to boil. stameln vel bochken. balldr. bolr. as E. and manace for to de. bolt. to stumble. — — which the cushion is stuffed. brave. the gurgling sound of water rush. by which it is moved to and fro. caput scapulse. bola. 304). bolster. tar. beule. * Bolster. proud. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. flax-boU. a fastening for a door. warlike. . balder. round the first instance to the materials with . to swell. quick. shake. bul. Properly noisy. he will speak out. — ' — tagliare. bold. a boil or swelling Du. Sw. To Boil. Chaucer. bolstar. obex. bolc'h.

abolter. then to knock. zen. one after the other. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. brattle. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. On this account Mid. as snow balling on a horse's foot. Mid. cruddle. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. bultig. The ment and the operation. as a rabbit from its baritel. kloteren. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. burclct. Prov. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. Here the radical image is the violent O. jolting. . . Pr. with E. rugged. protuberance. a clod.nature of the operation. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. ler. a crashing or racketing noise. the sense of right on end. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. Fr. pull. tuft. to bolter. bluter. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. a rattle.Lat. we pass to Du. a clod cloth. a small portion. as of a trumpet. holier poller. crash. representing a rat. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. je bulte. In the next place. curdle.. a bolter or implement for bolting. taratantarum. grasbulten. budeln daz mele . MHG. Du. . knob. to bolt flour burato.as the essential element signifying the talum. Pl. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. hammer. bortelen. staff which sounds tar. Pl. buletare. barutela.agitation of the meal in the bolter. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. to shake. crod. agitari (Kil.thump or blow. a round glass ending — bultig. barutare. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. tantara.— . taraabout.). poll. to spring forth E. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. to come rattling downstairs. die treppe pressed. have Lat. fied bot. a bunch. to knock.noise {brattle of thunner. a sod (Schiitze). ex•wagen. taratarrum. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. hammer. 2.D. The ulti.clack. — — — . clattering other of a series of projections or emi. beliitea. a . Bav. to form lumps. we have Du. : ' — — . to significance of the term was overlooked. And as the agitation of cream in . achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. a clap of thunnences. Lat. to bolt meal barutel. buretter{CQ\. mole-hill. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. uneven. . we der Brocket). swelling. and the Thus from So. tling or crashing noise. from G. tar. G. to clack. blotttre. . So also we pass from Lat. on the one hand. P1. racket gepolter. and to crash. to make a knocking. or ill. vessel with narrow opening. Bulte-pook or bulstar. or the like. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. Pm. to talk pulzen. lumpy. hulter de bulter. a bolter Prov. Dauphiny a sudden movement. to become lumpy. loud and fast. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. bulk. bulstrig. buletel. rugged. bolzen. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. btilt. the wheels groaned. bulio. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. bolt. to bolt meal barutel. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. / is transposed in Fr. baruta. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. poltern. bolting to that of form.) E. Hence. small heap. we see that the one consists of a words. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . to start out.D. to E. gebolder. boss.by forms like G. OFr. Wtb. .through a cloth of loose texture. also to curdle. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface.On the same principle. hole. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. as above explained. in S'W plotter. Sw. bullern. I boulte meale in a boulter. zare. beluter. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. Lang. OFr. .D. Supp. bulla.). cro. a clump of turf. crotlar. projections.. pattern. Dan.i5a//^«. uneven. bolzauget) Sp. It. Brem. buUire. bolt head is a retort. hulch. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. clump. Du. or a racer from the course. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. bolt-foot.fe/2?. to coagulate. croler. by the representation of a racketing sound. projecting eyes pul. to start with palpitate. Schiitze. . Champagne burtcau. a club-foot. ' — — ! ! : — . barutela. as Fr. pultare. bultred. to agitate. Sanders. poltern. ' Holler poller / bulter.protuberance. buideln. a millpoltzet augen. hump. tumultuari. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. bulk or quantity .u. a rattling carriage. OFr. sestuare. bolzaugen. Hence Palsgr.D. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter.

is supported by the analogy of G. bambacium. 155. butteln. bone of the . bambagino. baun. When ture. bombarda. bombdra. from teu. or trunk word in W. bolting-cloth. From builen. however. a word of which we have traces in several English names. — AS. from boom. As cotton was used for padding clothes. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. burato. bommen. coarse. term is appropriated in G. the Fr. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. ^o/j. biire. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. bwmbwr. silk-worm. bwmbwry mar. to boult meal. to resound. It. cotton. agreement. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. bulter from It. banitola (Fl. In legal language. Bomb. Kil. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. bonds. In E. bombase. Fr. we speak of a gun to resound. sijde. i. cotton stuff. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. bongam. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. bauniwolle. buidelen. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce .). a string. Du. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. buttel trueb (of liquids). band.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. and also the leg. and called in Mid. Fl. stuff. It. Bibelesworth in Nat. beuteln. tree. . Fr. thick from shaking. sericum arboreum. bonfras. a ligature. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. to shake. to shake down fruit from a tree. d. — bombast came guage. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. thick. the contracted form of Du. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. Butterglas. Mid. Du. . ties. bombice. band. Moreover. lana lignea. G. a beacon. Gascoi^e in R. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff.bast. a churn for butter. Dan. bombasine. barate. G. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. buidelen.Su?. OE. borel. the shank the shoulder-bone. bureau. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. Castrais barato. silk. brust-bein. . which has given rise to so many false etymologies. and in fact we find the and Du. HoUybandin R.) . raw silk. bein. and that from Fr. breast-bone. a baker.Lat. to thump W. bindan. sije. butteln. basin. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. 83 Gr. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. as Banbury. to shake (as to shake the head. sye. a stock. rimbombare. — having a stem or stalk. gunpowder. bombast.D. a —Bombasine. e. It. to thunder. to ring bells. derivation. G. builen. . — Bombard. a hollow sound. bunden. tiffany. Bone. It. Near 6 * . the leg. the silk-worm. &c. as in . stump. bombasin. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. to bolt meal. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. a thundering noise bomre. bopin. and Du. Need you any ink and bonibase. boulenger. Du. produced the Pl. bon. iuttern. a bone in general. PoUitriduare. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. The material called by this name. crook-shanked bondew. ODu. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. bombe. bras. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. to beat a drum. Antiq. tie. bond. achsel bein. bombicina. . bureau. an implement of binding. . also thick-shanked. to cast to and fro. bambagioj whence It. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. a drum bombammen. beuteln. thick-legged. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. beil'n. It. booming over the water. has repeatedly varied. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. again. tie. must be explained Fr. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. It. gossipium. bonog. Bonfire. to which the leg. E. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations.^Altieri. . a boulter of meal. a stem or base. bomba. been. whence bomme. Dan. baum-bast. the murmuring of the sea. assuming the of leg : special signification W. bande. band pi. and Bond. and Mod. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . Schm. q. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. to bind G. bommer. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. Banstead.

tigh. . bds. botte. ganian. high. a head-dress. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. a bag of skin or leather. bdn. From bo. feu de behourdis. busu. boubi^. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. boten-shoen. buch-stab. ON. Wall. Boom. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. master of the house. nachbar. from badare.Boos. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . Sp. Hufwud-bonad. babb^o. Du. Boot. wondering signifies not only straw. the cultivator. the scriptures bokareis. are formed Fr. countryman.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. whence ban-ffagl. petition. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. a scribe G. where a cross (or a gun. to gape. letter. To Boot. Schm. dress. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. Booby. build. . the stubble of beans. writing bokos. build. Kil. a lofty blaze. badaud. bonad. Bootless. — Bailey. lofty. boubair. comes bondi. bua.n. Fr. N. to cultivate. boa. Gael. Mrs Baker. gehyred. gaby. the possessor of the farm. . clown. ON. to yawn. — . botte. Pr. boer. by itself for head-dress.. a simpleton. and Ban in w. in w. pig-sty. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. short boots. Basa. The i. bommen. petition. booby. blockhead. although in the OG. inhabit. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. bonnet. G. bua. one who dwells nigh. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. to strew with straw. OW. bosih. reparation. But bosg. the alphabet. . G. to set in order. pole. bose. Mrs Baker explains bun. head-dress wai^g. and thence Rouchi baia. tall. in Phil. E. as a lying-place for cattle. — — . Hal. also called Brecknock Beacons. Swab. gawney. litter. Fr. Bonnefyre. to aid. ty Gael. bossen. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. prayer. bauen. a stall. a dry stalk. . beam. as the Brecknockshire Banns. See Bown. babin. a lying-place for dogs or swine. simpleton. Prov. Du. chaff. without ad- . to gape. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. often cut for burning and lighting fires. a tree. bobo ! interj. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. desire. b^er. from beida (E. is Du. a letter Russ. been. stabulum. a letter . to ask. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. Ox. bosig. a. to litter bosu. beiSne.^ —P. a hollow skin. a. or Vanns. set in order. Du. netis stall. a vessel for holding liquids. which one gaping and staring about. a silly fellow. of wonder On the same principle Sp. bauer. b&ber. and Gael. b'ukvdry. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. AS. at everything. — From the participle present. 13. bowwen. A favour. See Bomb. boo. . relief from sorrow. literally cow-house. biikui. Bun. and fig. See Butt. the name of the letter b. boia. Binau Brychyniog. but stall. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. to dress. It. bonaid. 232. Perhaps. from gape. botta. quest. babau. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. — To boot. In nautical language. succour Bailey. dolt. boandi. buandi. house. to cultivate. ben. prayer. . AS. Trans. by arbitours sholde bote the P. Boor. boutig. * Boose. bolt. till. foolish. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. bote. \ais-band. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. bos. p. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. Palsgr. A peasant. Kil. to prepare. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. the mouth. hu?idbusa. . boom. ON. betere thing werse. The origin of the word is probably the W. the first consonant of the alphabet. baier. dial. Jr. Hal. Thin ben Luke i. signifying beech. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. Book. remnants of hay or straw. fool. and from AS. gaping hoyden — Cot. Boot of bale. dial. OSlav.—Bootless. remedy of evil. Bonnet. A stall for cattle. inhabit. Boon. ass. bene. Gl. . The latter is the original AS. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. from Du. Busk. Goth. till. boutig. G. wall hangings. E. bid). Pm. help. bd. bAkva. a bonfire. Thus from the syllable ba. tapestry. . should contribute something to make the bargain equal. however. a good turn or re- meaning. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. Fr. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. bobo. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. Fr. — e. Build. The character of folly is i860. swinbusa. bas. dog-kennel. dress. pero. bota. It is commonly explained as identical with It. w. ON. bonad.

and parrets. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. urboro. hut. Booth. comminuted by either kind of action. to The Sw. a bladder. Fl. boete. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. And so in ON.. beute. drillen. to build. Sp. to bete the properly to mend the fire. bothag. pi.—Burin. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. See Bower. bauda. barn. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. Bete. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). and E. are parret. ON. aid. The Fin. a border. are derived from G. furd. Pol. to to . bdt. borracha. . a. margin. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. bud. to bite. limbus. It. to profit Goth. OHG. chisel. bdra. puras. BoracMo. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. butin is explained by Flor. lappalare. to repair. to surge. See To We speak in E. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. purra. puru. Kil. a borer. puru. a tusk. boards. both. to hut. bordi. bite. dust. furni. a borer. a hut. It is admitted that Fr. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. a booth or shed. forare. budka. a wave. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. Palsgr. Gael. baara. Gael. Fr. scalpo. G. scsdes-bod. wine-skin. repair. AS. to foam. budowai. mat-bod. In the Fin. a shop. a sharp-pointed tooth. from bord. as afford a satisfactory explanation. . a chisel. rof. But probably the E. to patch. to restore. Burke in R. Esthon. edge.. amendment boeten. boeye. Gael. tent. bower. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. bothan. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. a responding forms . make . Compare Manx birrag. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. . lappolone. terebra sculptoria purastoa. Magy. to quench one's thirst . schare of a man of a prise in warre time. and hence to fine. fire. exchange or divide. hem or gard of a garment. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. on. a great bur. batr. to mend. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. betan fyr. to bore. borracha. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. The cor. Du. admovere titiones. recovery bata. bord. or anything pointed. better.— Return from Parnassus I inR. and thence to eat build. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . . Fin. to boot. Another derivation from Fin. Fin. welt. to pierce. is purin. differs only in termination. in Ihre. a word. or the gradual working a hole in anything. bottino. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. 3. puras. bolino. N. Fr. 266. • — To Bore. of an edge that will not bite. uzboro. Booty.por. a borer . amendment. extremitas Bore. . to .. to expiate boeten den dorst. pointed. bohren.par. ON. &c. a leather bag or bottle for wine. terebro. biorag. a shop budowati. kvit-bara. A phorically a drunkard. yfirbdt. piercer. chewed food for infants. nor E. byte points to the verb byta. pu purro (saha =: saw . gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. sawroot. Bohem. bata. — ON. from borra. OSw. to profit. making good again . a shed. boede. Du. The ON. Fin. p. to build buda. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. bauen. the . borino. BOOTH vantage. It. Lat. . a granary . See Burgeon. cellar. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. to importune. abode. Alexand. to divide. dens mordens vel caninus. cottage. swell bara. To Bore. ora. to swell. a hut or tent. to anything Neither G. cure Sw. . bora. Border. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. which are probably from the same root. limbus. fimbria. . The as G. purro. and meta- Fr. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. sharp. a shelter of branches. in Lap. a cupboard. wave. boeten het vier. butin. ON. to stick unto as a bur. a bothy. reparation. remedy. sculpo 05\xiik. struere ignem. Esthon. burin. to bite. botjan. Mag. bardure. 1. purra. from deila and skipta. . an engraver's chisel. baete. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. cup- awl.

viipyoc. It. cnap. bosh. Hence borhes ealdor. ' pledge.' Vegetius in Diez. bierge. rude. Boreal. Lat. — ' wind burya. a bouncing baby . borel. Hence knot. (Bridel). beorgan. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. Goth. Turk. a. pego. /3oraMK6f. agrees with E. borealis. bom. borough or chief constable. a city . borg. botse. a boss. striking.. in instead of without. knocking. a wen. a giving rise to It. destitute. And that unsittynge is to here degre. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. D. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. empty. poor. brown cloth. coarse cloth made of the Du.mass. or head-borough. baurgs. burh.ribs and the side. borgo. a little blow. Fr. without. to give a hollow bizo. Borowholder. the hollow between the Borsholder. to give bail or answer for an. formerly used in the sense of knocking. Bunch. . by which of or belonging to plants. bump. which now signifies a knob. tempest. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . to strike . cob. hollow. ' — — . nonsense. while Gael. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. Borough. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. Du. See found in Bav. boss. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. was origin of the term is the OFr. undyed wool of brown sheep. hollow bucklers. is used in the sense of bussare. Bosh. connected. bump is used in lump or piece. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. borough-holder. burel. Borrow. clownish. Lang. botch. Altieri. Swiss Rom. Cot. ON. a citizen. borgese. vain. a knob. whence the burg. whether from the fact preserve G. to protect. the N. a boor. to save. boussi. boss of the side. one who sticks to you like a bore. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. that which biirge. gum vocant. boss. or perhaps also To Borrow. poor.' if thou give money on loan.bucklers. when that system was forgotten. to save Sw. burgess. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. AS. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. knob. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. secure. knur. or perhaps it may be See Bury. bussa coarse. from AS. pegou. grey). the sun sets. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. boschen. cormpted. to become is emitted by a hollow body. So Du. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. the ordinary a swelling. AS. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. huschen. Botany. bail biirgen. pitch. as if from the verb to hold. Russ. to strike so as to Bureau. northern. gesylle. bunch. The primi. . in the body struck. — — — A — . botsen. bosseu. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. and thus could not shake off the old burr. empty. to save. a bunch or hump. bundle. . Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. borei. I. Fr. plain rude fellow. unpolished. The other. empty. Hal. busse. a blow. G. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. byrig. primarily signifying coarse sound . Fr. Newbury. loan. It. useCanterbury. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. Bos a surety. Gr. head. bos. the North Wind. (1867). projection. basse.' or system of bail. The origin seems to be the Goth. i. an eminence. borg. less. boss sound. rustic. In like manner It.any round sweUing. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. bossen. the Sc. into borsholder. V. storm. bos. a surety. and borough in the sense of a town. to keep. boss or knob of a buckler . bttssel.' every man be under bail. as we speak of a thumping potato. to pick or cull plants. of bail throughout the country. from their grey clothing. tuft. cnoc. tive idea seems to bring under cover. surety. to take in.' the chief of the ' borh. AS. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. to contain. bussi. to conceal. is probably radically Boss. a citizen. cnag signifies both a clergy. botch. to knock or strike.vr\. bosse. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. Du. &c. knock and a knob . bourgeois. ^o^^flj. butse. E. borh. Jam. or because a blow berga. ^ma. 106. Jam. butsen. blow on a hollow object. a tower. a pushing or striking out. bourg. Sc. a herb. f graauw. bergen. the must have arisen burgensis. beorgan. Bailey. . Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. to protect. plant. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour.

botse. ledge It. Bouteille. abbu. a wisp. botte. boitean. from the dashing of water. I. botm. noise. boute. a patch patschen. to stir and mix together. is also a bubble. batschen. botola. or plague sore . pocciar. Gael. a depth. especially in Gael. fire-bote. Leg. signify a in OE. beggtaj Goth. ubhau. to give a sounding blow. a cobbler. ba. Dan.) . theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. to dash about . the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. e. the science or knowledge of plants. a pit. to botch or patch. Boa two. . The Gr. a bump or swelling. . Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. ON. Again. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. boil. buazen. the other hand. bozza. Judwi. Bochu. bide. Bailey. Canut. — Dief. bottle is provincially used in the same sense.of a ball of thread. by met. bodem. a tinker schuhbiisser. bativa. to simmer. Ancren Riwle. nets. thing soft batsch. buideal. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. AS. It. baiothsj Sanscr. bulder. schuhbosser.— Hal. It. any plain round viol glass bozzo. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. butse. Jtidu. an abyss or bottoniless pit. stock. a maggot. * To Bother. — Bottom. to strike . for a bud. a bubble. Here the radical image seems a bubble. — . hurly-burly. Stalder. stroke. — . Lat. biissen. Fl. — Jidwi. a bunch. Fr. botus. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. pother.D. 212. stock. N. bot. To confuse with noise. botsen. w. bun. ^kvBoQ. bottigUa. Gael. A bottom depth. See Boss. oba. Fr. Fl. repara- — — See To Bete. to make a make a noise. patch. turmoil. . mess. mend. botte. Podge. buts. Danneil. G. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. bozza. BOTCH understood). botel foenn. a bott . stump. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. See To Bodge. See Bound.' to the fiery Csedm. Bouds. On the other hand. the bud of a flower . boccia. disturbance to . to froth as beer . It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. and ajSvamg. mutter. maggots in barley. round lump. botel. podge. A horses. Prov. Hal. gipuozan. Lith. pozzanghera. bile. both. a boil or swelling Halma. From the dim. as a push or windgaU. Both. kessel-biisser. botch. a vessel for holding liquids. to knock. — — . dim. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. Lith. shoes. A — oba-dwaj Lat. pozzo. of botta.foundation. the lowest part. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. a bottle of hay. a bottle. H^cart. Parmesan poccia. Diez. Botcli. is boteau. gling piece of work. a bundle of straw or hay. putra. to bcBta. bundle. ON. It. a humpback. in the sense of mend the fire. Du. AS. burgi vel pontis refectionem. buddeln. bethia. to put on a patch. Bottle. &c. a cesspool pass. a slop. bulderen. pimple. Hal. bottom. mess. to smack. a lump of somebatschen. to podge. . With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. — — A 2. the first rough draught 2. boiteal. what pushes outwards. Pl. tumour.— . — Fl. On — Du. Wedu. . to make better. bdt. bund. abbi. knock. G. empty or hollow. a cask. butwo. abyss. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. ' G. potra. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. i. to from the root bot. bdsser. a plague-boil Kil. • Bott. botn. To Botch. bSn. stem or base. bouteille. a botcher of shoes. &c. bAdtr. buddl.^Dec. poltern. — duj Lett. dabble). cation of which may be preserved in puddle . And so we speak of an eruption. scuohbuzere. whisper. botte. to dip in liquid (to Gael. Bret. OSax. ing out. blister. disturbance. was called a push. blain. to we have OHG. they two. bosser. a. and E. whence the name ol pool to podge. blow.— Swift in R. a cess. a root. bossu. . puddle. Decorde. to stir and mix together . bots. to work without order or know. a slop. E. fundus. Butu. btitse. j3i/9os. ON. a knock. to mend. boss. to fall : with a sound batsch. a pit. dial. corresponding to . boiteag. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. — — belly-worm. a waterfall. however. as Fr. an imperfect and bunbutt end. a bottle. noise. a pock. we two. to rage. . we have Swiss batscken. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. abbution. to mend (kettles. Mudu. Fyre to botme. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. you two. House-bote. gen. bluster.ments of the same root. See Butt. ambo. AS. boden . Du. any round ball or bowl to play withal. abbi-diwij Slavon. Kil. butsen. bunch. ixorapudder. contusion .

its kind. bondir. whence buj7isen. . 136. in the absence of actual e. — — leap. volta. the hollow of a bay. to thundering big one hum. bugan. p. . Sw. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. a bound. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. a turn or time. came home with his face all to-bounced. bend. Ducange. bullra. ni frestelar. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. — — Bight. from AS. — No i ausiratz parlar. Q. iv. signifies a sliort thick mass. To Bound. Brem. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. Dan. winding. bamsen. bonndn. bend. of thread. see Boss. to set bounds..'— Charter of K. he fell so that it sounded. to spring.— F. Mid. Ni gacha cor bondir. See Bunch. debodinare. bonzen. round. a stock. Webster. to fix limits. Bout. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. gulf. dial. butina. The branch of a tree. language a * Boulder. nor horn sound. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. bunda. frequently used in the same sense with bound. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. The W. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. knock it sounds again. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. carpet. a bud. mere. To Boult. nave of a wheel bothel. 2. to make a loud noise. a large stone rounded by the action of water. Du. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. turn. Fr. tnndo. signifying in nautical coil of rope. contusi. to knock. bonna. bounbounejha. See To Bolt. bouton. bay. by Bujns or Buns. AS. bog. a button. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. boss of a buckler. march. a boundary stone (men stone). the smaller ones.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. root (see Bottom). an occasion.— — — - 88 BOUGH . Primarily to strike. Bret. The Bight of Benin. I assure you. boundina. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. to resound. Pm. Bodinare. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. from bugan. bottom. bodina. limit. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. to spring. the larger kind of pebbles. botwm. — strike. geration. . For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . Alpine Re- — gions. jump. Boulderstone. to set out by metes and bounds. Bowlder.>a bout. Fr. So It. a bouncing apple. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . From Sw. ni motz brugir." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. ing. or Bow-pot. to thunder. buUersten. a large pebble. bun. suorum recognoverunt agrorum.D. in contrast to klappersten. a boss. an de dor bunsen. till The dat et bunsede. Coxcomb. E. as a nosegay.— Cot. and F. a blow. from volgere. bunsen. boujtce. Probably from the Celtic root bon. as a bout of fair or foul weather. the verb bondir in OFr. the bay of Benin. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. bons. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. Nor a centinel whistle. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. jungen. Bound. Halma. to turn. as that of E. to hum. bugt. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. a blister. like bobbin. pothel. Bough-pot. baby. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. Pr. a round body both.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. A Langued. Bough. Wtb. boriie.' B.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. Bunche. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. Bonny. to bow. bumper. Bought. and Prov. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body.— Boundary. has hot. Raynouard. thumping. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. boh. bone. dial. bolder. strapping. — Take care my house be handsome. 3. mcn-bomi. To Bounce. pimple Richards bothog. to knock at the door. Fr. And the new stools set out.' round and round in similar circles.

bordo. deceit. bordone. belly out. G. bugan. warbling. like quaff. G. sport. ready. verb bua. to take breath. Du. shoulder-blade. Bourdon. biegen. Swiss bausen. the fixed. buys. ready to pike or spear . hous^ Man in the Moon. in Fr. to banter or laugh at. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. a drone or dor-bee. language of folly or ridicule. drone of a bagpipe. lance. bwa. pared. ing. a humming noise Macleod. a humming noise. kroes. bue. bourdon. to swell. bagna. the Bourdon.. patesten. G. Lat. burreti. sense durd. — probably through this latter signification. to hum. As the Gael. Dan. from spring. to tope W. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. to trick. Dan. a prop. prepared for. game. A water.which see. bound. grumble Sw. bogha. and not in the sense of curvature in general. AS. repartee. a. has also buirleadh. Sc. The foregoing derivation seems. a. brummen. is. Dan. a jibe. Sp. drink deep. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. btiga. spelling the word iox bound. to bow. ^<7r«i?. burn. that ON. to tope. Eown. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. bovne. It is bov. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. fun of one . their time -With "wailful tunes. fresh* water. Bourdon. bogna. Prov. Cot.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. springbiirn. address. A —Cot. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. . buzz. a brook. joke. . And there in mourning spend Sw. a for New York. Spenser in R. crutch. Du. Cot. epaule du vaisseau. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. Gael. buga. bugna. Bow. drunken. set out. bontS. pre. to draw a deep breath. different modification gives ON. bourd. gurgling. trick. explaining Sw. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. when we speak of. . burt. bonitas. analogous to Fr. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. tinton. g. to bow or incline the . mockery. bage. firm. pot. curvature. bourdon. Comp. whether by sound or gesticulation. Bourd.bass of a stringed instrument. bending. the big end of a club. So Sc. also the humming or ON. beygja. . bonus. a from Du. ruption of bonne. whence buysen. schulter-bug. Gael. to tipple. Fr. Fr. a jibe Shaw bururus. Chaucer in R. bunaiteach. on. pausen. to draw a deep breath. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. to indulge in his cups . the shoulder of the vessel. a corToward the garden. purlBav. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . bov. addressed to. to drink deep. Sw. Du. a well. a sing-song. Gael. jest. bausen. good. borne. Sw. i. flagon. to mutter. buigen. bog. beogan. biugan. sausen. Du. burdan. Immediately from Fr. of the ON. purra. souf. Dan. — — — A pare. burdan. It. Burgeon. an arch. limit. bugne. hence musical accompaniment. ridicule buirte. spring. The meaning of bound. way ba7n. bending of a joint knie-bug. taunt. buizen. It is the participle past buinn. to drink deep. Borden. puff out. . a cup kroesen. bogen. to — Hal. Bret. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. bend. Bound. bourde in the same sense. or of an Gael. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. Bounty. cheat. as was for. steady. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. It is remarkable that we find vary. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. buzzing of bees. to bulge. G. pusta. — — . a bow. staff. Sw. to hum as a bee. bug. head Fr. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. bow to shoot with. a — — . Fr. cudgel. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. Gael. Goth. to pre2. Burden. a mill-post. Gael. burd.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. bommen. bogr. When used alone it . to take one in. brausen. a drone of a bagpipe. burlare. the burden of a song. bordon. bending. the ting of a bell. . it is probable that the It. sotich. a pot. bend Sw. saufen. and that probably from a Celtic root. must be referred to the same root. a go to. schenkelbug. identical with E. buyse. are applied to the bow of a ship. to our bous. potio. on the whole. to take deep draughts. bugna. bdgi. brunna. . bog. w.

bouge. bol. In like manner the Pol. a wardrobe . a sleeping-room . the barrel of a gun. belly. bol. . 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. . give in to. a stud. trestle. Du. a ball. Sp. or in e. Cable. * Bowels. See Boil. Sanscr.flask It. pocket. ON. to make crooked . Fr. . Bav. knob From the former modification we have bolla. a knot. swoUei) Lat. spring as water bugya. bubble. bugy. a swelling or rising up. fata-bur. without the and grits. a thing of liquid. Fr. boel. boss. to puff up pullakka. Thus we have Esthon. PLD. a bubble Fin. to swell. bent. ask. Sw. buckel. acsian. kuppelo. to yield to one. Gr. swell. water pulli. bukke. the head. crown of a hat. a box Lat.D. bock. busse. as well as the name of a. Buckle. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. utibur. Bret. Sw. Bowl. ON. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. A Bulk. See Crab. kupu. . representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . a box. koziel.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. and to a coachbox in particular. honse-bur. a boil. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. ^o«/«. a round glass or bolg. bola. ku^o.. bow. budello. a hump on the back rossbollen. to guggle. hollow. guestchamber . tumour. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. gut. bog. buk. convexity.. peated in Magy. round bead. bolle. a bowl. bwra. ^o/a. to bow buck. hill. round glass phial. Dan. purse. buis. bugna. as in E. bur. a iDubble. different position in ODu. is applied to a coach-box. bulne. puffy. bhugna. bolgna. Dan. . painter's easel. or. a bubble bolli. kupukka. . The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. bug. OE. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. belly of a cask. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. the box-tree and articles made of it G. bwr. sausage. . stream forth bugyogni. G. a chamber swefnbur. hollow place Fr. a bundle. polla. cumena-bur. Lat. bog. See MHO. ON. Boll. . The / a bow. . compared with Fr. lump . Hal. . passing on stud. spherical Dan. Sw. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. a bud. with inversion of the round. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. bow. to stoop. dial. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. bulla in aqua. biiske. ttuJic. the skull or brainpan . The word may probably be identical with Fris. in both senses. buga. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. the head. . bulb of an onion bolleyield. to puff up. beutel. the box-tree. signified by forms like Gael. bouzellou. a. . a drop of pullistaa. biisse. It is more probably from the G. boucle. Bret. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. Pol. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. belly. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. a box. a pot. From the other form are G. make obeisance. bogla. a little box . a box. a parlour. . buxus. biichse. . beuz. a ball . bucka. boudin. . boxtree. boor. box. bouellou. a sack. anything globular. intrenchment. Du. hiidel. bosso. . convex. Bower. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. a bubble. bulla. an inclosure. . . bulcken. Bohem. . W. bocka. ken. bowel Box. buckelig gehen. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. biicken. a buck. bulka. at the e. W. bulge. a box. botulus. a ball. buchsbaum. to raise the back boll OHG. kupula. tumour . buigen. boil. a croft by a house. bossola. bowels. bolne. folliculus . pusspan. crooked. A . to buckle G. of a wooden ball to play with and — . shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. in walking appears in a . Du. bhuj. bulk compared with Sw. a bubble. &c. globular. boxtree pusska. Fr. boss. blister. as in AS. to bubble up. bowl . globular body. E. bugyni. mausbollelein. hollow wooden case. (in pass . bugyola. a protuberance. . busskai. AS. iri'iaQ. .a. to bend down. prominence. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. inclinare se (Kil. G. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. . the bogna. the box-tree It. similar shape.). a wine-can .) to incline oneself . then by the loss of the /. head of a cabbage. pullo. heafod bolla. fyn. . bolla. to stoop biickling.cup Du. box in both senses. zich onder jemand under to him. wisp of straw . bugyani. OFr.\s. to bend. ne. . a black pudding. w. bending. budel. bubble. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. bolla. a separate apartment . globe or spherical body. to bulge.). bollen. Hence. a hen-coop . and on swollen. bur. buello. a polla. an outhouse AS. the crop of a bird. AS.

root). mud. wrack. brace on and Du. a box. s. want. Gael. pube. cramp-iron holding things together . To brace is to draw together. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. baske. &c. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. posh. Brack. brec. mud. Brackish. to Swiss batschen. baukscheht." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. a grown youth Cimbr. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. spaniel. boy. braque. bube. brechen ihm. . OE. Prov. foul. Fr. want. . is a rope holding G. brostia. in R. I sal slyng. refuse. to give a blow with the fists. unmarried man . to be wanting. odorinsecus. breuque. Fr. defect. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. the first instancebya physical tie. pupus. Sp.puddle. Du. rakke. bragos. Prov. Heligoneed. Lett. whelp as.nated by dirt. ' — A — — — . by an overflow of sea water. fault . brechen. G. loud smack. and then Pl. moral or physical. See Broker. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . let. ghebreck. — . a boy pupa. OFr. a guard to torf. a bog or pass Fr. A brace probis. flaw. . Kil. . and F. bracke. bruxula. bask. a bubbling dura del mun. babble. to burst. Brach. Brak-goed. in R. a comworld Rayn. It. Rouchi Then as an adj. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. brae. Thus brack. V. bresta.. Kil. mud. a sounding blow. brakke grund. breach. to slap. Hdcart. to smack the hand batschen. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . G. See Brake. AS. Pr. OFr. brae. bitch Du. which has many representatives in the other Europe. Fr. flap. braca. Cot. braco. need. matter. acidus. brek. brasselet. ON. dirty. to stammer. defect. breptati. taneous talking. brae. Ptg. merely in our mode of considering them. breach. brek. to crack. bue. confining. youth. to fall. brae. pus. — . want. to box the ears. bracco. bou^ba. by the same inversion of J and k. boiste. a crack. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. filth . bouibo. thwack. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. as noticed under Box. strike. to stutter. bray. It is B. braco. bracon. brague. suppuration. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. brageuses. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. isolated part of the text. race. to give a gebrechen. armour for the arm. then from break. or bracer Cot. Swab. ratch. . putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . Prov. brack. It. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. BOX To Box.with a noise. variation of babble. bracha. boussole. beagle. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. wnzC/J. or defect. Brack. lalear-eyed Prov. an languages. Sp. to want. On the same principle from the buksteht.. from a root brak. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. bracket. boy bouba. La ville ou y avait Brace. murmur. break. braic. Kil. Sp. brakke Bracelet. — .— D. ON. One girl. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. Water rendered boubo. A — — . and string of his bow. con. briche. . — . a braceOFr. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. To Brabble.. braecke. fuse. bracer. rakki. brago. clay. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. rack. Pm. a girl. Du. Swiss bub. which sigof straining. salsus. dog Sw. land spoilt Kil. The different meanings of the brageux. parallel with OK. To fight with the fists. the arm. compressing. Prov. disturb. Lat. brack. damaged board a ship. braquet. It. his eyes are failing him). From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. dog in general. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. . — . Fr. corruptse. quarrel Bohem. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. bracil. flaw. jabber. brabbelen. rakka. .. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. buah. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. wristband. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. fault. Pl. — — . to is derived brestr. Boy. s.D. defect Du.D. land batsken. 91 the Dan. salo sive aqua marinS.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. A to halt between two derivations. brassard. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. Swiss Rom. ing from a mixture of salt. a pair of braces. Bracelet. priated to the original sense. to give a sounding blow defect. In like manner the It. dog that hunts by scent. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. MHG. Bracket. .

affront. slight modificajoining the two legs. gallant. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk.explosion. Brake. . Brag was then used brisk. . breagh. would be to brace. braszketi. gayly dressed. AS. fine. breghen. was formed brayele. flaunting. an iron for holding Zalli. w. bravacherie. Cot. It. Bret. 92 Cot. To Brail. . brabhdadh. dhbrailler. — Equivalent forms are Gael. brave. Lat. brachittm. braga. . — Chaucer. brails. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. brabhdair. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. To Braid. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. gay.aburst. to make a noise. bra!. braga. make a noise . See Brace. bragging. blusterer. well-dressed. brake is. courageous. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. brayete. Fris. bully . be found. in numerous dialects. and it is very likely that the root brak. breyne. bragaireachd. that will carry no coals. braka. hectoring. Cot. Walloon bress. breach. Haldorsen Gael. strength. splendid. to crack. handsome. braies. idle talk. stately. braske. From sprouted corn. Fr. braver. Faire le brave. the arm. gorgeous. empty pride. noisy ostentation. swagger. bragging of his own valour. braguer. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . braicli. To Brag. to flaunt. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. ^Brave. Turk bazu are used in both senses. spot. se pavaner. crash. . gallant (in apparel) also proud.^ Sp. braga. bushy . 2. braggard also valiant. also tion of this was brayeul. Fr. &c. also insolenter se gerere . The meanings included under — Bragget. The meanings of brake are very numerous. to shout. bravado j Fr. showy bravery. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . Wallachian bratsou. subduing. crack. compressing. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . to boast of his own worth. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. bragd. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. h-avare and Fr. to rattle. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . bullying. a roisterer. Dan. in order to prevent its catching the wind. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. gay. to cord a bale of tie up. Primarily to crack. or from braie itself. the feathers ON. in the sense of the Lat. — From W. to swagger. brag or jet it braguard. Bret. is Cot. Rom. braegenj Du. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . —Spenser in R. called by our braggard. Hecart. an inclosure for cattle . BRAG Piedm. brake in the sense of constraining. Sp. boast. se parer de beaux habits. . vain glory. stout. power. to unbrace or let down the breeches. beautiful.. Bray. goods. breghe. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. brav. fine. Dan. brave. fine. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. Sc. used in the sense of force. bragio. Brake.breeches.Shepherd's Cal. From Fr. Brain. brave. brag. Thus we are brought to the OE. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. finery. about the hawk's fundament. to sprout malt. a carriage for breaking in horses . Thus Bret. se donner trop de licence. ative fellow. brazo. is identical with Gael. expensive. brave. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise.i5nz^. braske. torture . swaggerer. Langued. to brail up a sail. i. . bravache. flaunt in fine clothes . the opposite of which. subigere. smart. vanter une chose. It is certain that the word for arm is.^Vocab. to boast or brag. a noisy talkboasting. — A — . brao. bravo. Cot. binding anything together. to strut. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. brag. Hence E. braka. crash ON. excellent. be noisy . — . or by gaudy dress and show. boasting. cry. vaunting. confining. Brail. braw. to Rouchi brMer. Chaucer.%. also derived Fr. . See Bray. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. to stand upon terms.hy which this idea is con\eyed..—— . A — Hal. The plant y^r«. From brayel. de Vaud. and that from e. proud. riches. as the type of exertion and strength. brave. fine. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. valiant The head are sumptuous. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. drawers. Lith. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). brae.

brego. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. or A A ' . to stiffen against Taboada). have thus Du. gebroge. the original meaning of G. Biglotton. to break or fracture. broil. properly braking or subduing them.bracan. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. de Vaud. murran. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. a spinning-wheel. gilum. as in Du. It. for — Due. e. Swiss Rom. broeck. ing of flax or hemp. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. —Ovid. a swampy Mid. to head must be bit. broilium. as in Sp. watered. t° moisten. thicket. brake. braken. to The ON. braca. thing is brought under control. 3. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. a brace on board a ship. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). brog above mentioned. subigere. brog. as in the case of horse-breaking. nemus. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. brambles. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. brook.' It. gebroge. bushes. Lat. Dan. glebas subigere. brage. brushwood. We — . which originally designated a broken mass of wood. fratto. — — . In ON. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. is formed murd. — Fl. been confounded with the verb break. marsh or swamp. to harrow (Lat. game. is braukti. In like manner Lat. a harrow. bregille. dial. frangere linum. or a wood in a marshy place . to distinct. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. conSo in G. pasture. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. to bend a bow. breuil. P&. It. as well as in the case of the e. to break. G. copse-wood. In the case of the ne. in northern climates. OFr. to bend or direct a cannon. bush. braeken. broyer. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places.D. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. cetur. cover G. tris). Sp. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. farinam in mortario subigere. Gael. to exert force in different ways. Dan. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. a horse's a horse's twitch. brake. to bray in a mortar. quarry from Fin. brambles. casser le \va.— . bregar. bredza. brak is a frame in which strip. word.D. iSpsx". while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. Gr. gebiisch. bush. Brake. might come to signify a swamp. The Fr. low wet land bruch. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. broor bushy place Hal. braquer un canon. . —Bracken. and Lat. marsh. the lever by which the string was drawn up. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. to rub. a fen. tnurdma. brolium. Dan. Prov. el arco. break of such a kind. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. flachs brechen. braecken het vlasch. brage. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. a stream. signifying to sweep. Brake. Fr. murrokko. to knead or mix up in a mortar. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. Pl. and G. breaking in the operation. ^raca. and when once thrown down. To the same bend a bow. referred brake. In the sense of a thicket. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. to fracture. or overthrow of trees by the wind. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. brogille. gebroge. a thicket. to pound. to break. brook. brcekke. murtaa. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. to row. It may be sus- . brog or brake. gebrUche.. to subdue. briser. bregar brake. bruch. brega. Fr. broillet. braka. to brush. Voc. a marsh. 2. gebrUche. where from Esthon. Fr. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . in usus braca. broken fratta. it is not surprising that the word has here. brook. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. riguus. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. any thicket of brakes. briers. Corrfeze bredgea. BRAKE to external force. break flax PLD.

broust. Fr. Broom. brandiiialil. Then by comparison with claws or arms. sedge burkni. Sir Topaz. Piedm. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. brouskoad. bruk. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. from brug. brenn. The naof strain. G. a vine twig Bav. G. a bud. a halter. brok. a burning fragment of wood. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . the thorn apple or stramonium. broembel-CBppel. . . to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . stink . wood composed of twigs. heath. brank. ordure . to bridle. brenda. thorns and Gen. brandr. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . Bret. may be so called in analogy with Bret. brughera. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. brin d. Rouchi bren d'orMe. brin. ear-wax mud. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. Bret. in the same sense. bretnel. bro7n. the bull-finch. . brandmurk. branchia. and E.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. to gripe.). from gaggi. Bav. brog. brushwood. The same form becomes in It. G. A mark made by burning. bushes. Bret. In like hrst. cack. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. bruch. brang. . to brank. as AS. is the draff or excrement of the com. bren. constrain. Thus in Lat. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. sweet broom. a bud It. brancas. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor.. brand. Thornas and bremelas. it glitters — — . iii. virgultum. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. Gael. broom. also a marshy low ground or fen . . a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. As ON. braam. That beareth the red hepe. piecemeal brindelles. Fr. brug. brambles. cabbage sprouts Fl. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. Thus we have w. prufye. Dan. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. G. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. . brwnt. bramble Du. a shoot or twig. w. the branch of a tree. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. from Lat.D. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. a thick bush. heath ON. apiece orbitbrandone. broem. bruskoad. branco. pfriemen. heath. brein. bromboli. and waste growths. So Swiss gaggi. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. berneux. bronbo. Port. bruk. —Ducange. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. piece of anything. burning brennen. compress. pfropf. brenn hesken. gebriiche. a shoot. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. brous. Bret. 1 8. Brand. &c. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. broussaille. nasty. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. a firebrand. Brancare. It. to or iron. heath. It. a shrub from Bret. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. titio. brug). to burn. It will be found that shrubs. Diez. bruk. braeme. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. Fr. — . Russ. or with It. sprouts. a bridle or bit . all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. brank. a shrub . from Servian pnit. brosst. snotty . are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. to -brugen. young buisson fort epais. a rod or twig. See Brush. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. But we find It. w. brass. 2. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. young twig {brom-beisser. sawdust. restrain. i. or ling. bran. branche. — branca. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. brake. a dunghill. and thence a shoot. . also pfriemkraut. ground full of briers. bruch. a roA. a single plant of heath. Pl. a heath. breun. broom. . to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. brenna. from brand. Branch. hallier. heath. gebroge. brugek. Pl." The bmno a • on . bren. AS. heath (Bret. breanan. in the sense oi fern. brejo. Grisons bruch. Bran. clutch. or other plants of a like nature. &c. that is to say. thicket of brambles Cot. bit by bit. from virga. brom. brem. as. Bramble. a bud. excrement. briars. breme j Sw. brarn. brano. . Gael. brandello. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. chaff. a briery plot. brin (as It brano). Fr. a small deri\'ation . pfriem in the sense of an awl. broccoli. Serv.D. bran. dirt . what is cast out as worthless. pected that brake. E. Brank.G. bracken or fern .

weinbrenner. To brase AS. urens. not. Guill. comes from thence. faire fracas. to blaze. conbillet. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. to make sense of a bright red dye. Kil. brazil. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. Sw. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. brasil. firebrand. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. G. apparently very distinct from each other. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. embraser. brasca. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. brastlian. to murmur. flagrans. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. brandiller. bryne. from to vociferate. E. forms brasil. brausen. Diez. hot Fr. to burn. a roaring fire. brangle or brawl in E. ish. a pan of hot coals. make a — . and bruir. to shog. brustle. WaUon. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. as Jamieson explains it. bragale\ wood. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr.. in Marsh. splinter. hoisting to the fall. brazeiro. Fr. to brandle or The It. incendium. The name Brandy. It. the spelling to kindle. as Fr. brush.well. spirit distilled from wine. to Bailey. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. briiler. given to the country. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. brandigh. To brand. a fragment. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks.pan of coals. braise. Fr. N. d'Angl. — . Sw. bruire. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. Formerly brandy-wine. and scold. to make shine with shaking. as again by well as the blade of a sword. crackle. The tre brangillis. to quarrel. Chron. Fr. brennen. It. is bntan. fire-wood. — . du Roi et laine. — ting to confusion. e. to crackle . gebrannter wein. brasa. Ija. brascct. bracea. With top trimbling. to brangle.^Brandle. noise. The corresponding form in Gael. to hurl with great force. Bret. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. and branchis shaiand D. live coals. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. to and fro in the hand. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. distilled wine. to brustle. to dash. Port. put. braise. morsel. to burn. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. the colour than hitherto known. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. bransle. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . ist. brasa. brand. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. Braser. to burn. plained by Florio. to shake. Brase. make an outcry. Fr. was in use Fr. to glisten or flash. brandende wijn. braser. Brasil. brandolare is exbrandish. Lye. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. bragia. brin. brus^. brouir.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. totter. It. Du. to confuse. to French brawl or brangle. to sound of the Fr. brasca. bruzi. then brandr. a round dance. E. set on fire. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. crackle. all. to totter. AS. a brusler. bruan. Thus the bound up again. Manx bransey. So. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. branla. to brandle. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. Hume in brand in ON. braise or hot coals. brane-wood. to bicker 2nd. Bailey. to roar. De Goes. bruciare. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. Fl. G. — . bra?ier. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. bresil. to shake The word brisil. to braze or lute. from used in dyeing cloths. to rustle. Gris. glowing embers . a stick. Jam. bransella. 59. eldibrandr. to shake. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. to solder iron. Fr. n. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. to make display . firewood. shake. became ashes Pied. perplex. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. bum. braza. De Barros considers vinum ardens. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. bracia. so. a To Brandish. Brangle. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. before the discovery of America in the brandir. stake. brandiller. Chron. prasseln. aqua ardens. billet. branler. Milan. or in stick. branler. to distil . V. In the same way the set on fire . the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with.

frequentative of braire. a lump of flesh. It. —-Jam. apron. See Bray. Math. Fr. ship. to solder. Lorraine bravon. deblaterare. a contempt- banner. So also See Brag. as criailler of crier. Hist. It. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. — . a battle-girdle. Cot.— Fl. frame of laths. contignatio. a cloak. borderinge. brdto (ace. breyon d'chaur. luncheon. coassatio. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. a slabbering-bib. bronzacchiare. equivalent to the Du. bartisan. calf of the leg. Fr.96 Roquefort. is The word — uous name for a woman. squall. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. bratach. Gael. bratidone. Pm. Swiss bradle. a lath. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. a rag .propugnaculum. breyon. Certainly a little girl. rag. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. P1. W. A land of dance. Sp. noise. — Deutsch. Florio.— Remade. Brattice. 368. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. braeye. a plank or board. slut. G. as scrawl from scrabble.— Braid. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. Brass. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. Wall. Bartizan. muscular parts of the body. to scold . Cologne broden. to talk at bralle op. from Fr. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . esbraotier. cob. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. ON. flesh of a leg of pork. a lump of flesh. OFr. A. brett. brass. bradon. Brangle. saillies. braser Fargent. especially that used in the working of iron . any piece. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. . roar. to tear piecemeal. 1224. brandillo. braon. boarding being sbranare. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. ^Altieri. calf of the leg. baltresca. bran. berd. or on the top of a wall. Circumeunt cibertesca. a mantle. and bronzo. See Brandish. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. a wooden tower. bronzare. &c. a loud noise. a clout. fraiche. KiL Prov. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. to carbonado. bretesque. bratdn). to copper. Fr. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. brat. Westphal. lat'te. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. at brasa. brat. to Gael. bas morceau de viande brawhng. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. from branler. branle. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. bratid calf of the leg. a rag. bruir.D. braiio. buttock Sc. Brawl. bmhon for brado7i. brat. from Sc. A. boutures. The verb is probably derived from the brase. Sup. pil. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form).D. Du. bretesche. Kil. The muscular part of the body. ni autres choses sur Due. the buttocks.brettysing. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. le repasser un peu sur la braise. brazen. Jam. a. a rag . bralle. pan- — Rayn. Dan. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. strepitus 2. a lump. cloth. braodhlach. as rashers upon quick burning coals. as a brawling brook. to braze. bartising. A dispute or squabble. For the application to a^child compare Bret. Brat. a Lap. a — A from the confused noise. The same correspondence is seen between It. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. a parapet. Fris. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. the calf of the leg. breyon de kinds of . A bretise or bretage is linguarum. Bailey. It . Paris. slibro. to cry. OFr. to shake. a patch of cloth. Betrax of a —^Jam. bras. —^Bronze. bribe de viande. bransle.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. Cot. whether contracted from brabble. then a parapet.' BRASS BRAY et AS. I. bretays). braede. Brawn. Mundart. in the first instance of boards. braoilich. slibro {neita. ferruminare. Pisana in Mur. slakker-bortchen.walle — Pr. brettys. bred. tasce.D. solder. Brave. bronze. discord. Sc. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. or whether it be from Fr. 2. Many gambes. bradlete.' Hal. 1156. a fortification. a contemptuous name for a young child. brces. OHG. braion. breteque. ' A vraale.^ — Sverris Saga. trul. burning coals.— Diez. AS. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. brailler. as lattice. neita girl).

to scold. to snatch. V. abraid. noise . relation is seen between Lat. to bray in a mortar. Gr. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. to have the lineaments of one's ON. Prov. Cot. &c. Then is simply. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. braid. a rent. bragd is also applied nets. cyprinus latus. Breach.g. Swiss bratschig. which has given much trouble to commentators. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. fragor. imitate or resemble one. a wink. brage. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. V. Fin. upbraid. brak. braa. bragd — ON. to N. weave The ON. breuan. bragr. — . braa. Fr. bregda. brame. ^p&xia. The ON. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. 7 . bradar. at a braid. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. brice. braidir. AS. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid.fracas. &c. D. brechen. Ppvxia. father. And with a traid I tumyt me about. augnabragd. yell. a mill. ON. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. plait. I'll live and die a maid. Du. or wound. to braid acquires the sense of bend. roar. fractus j Gr. paxog. to bawl. To Break. . BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. a brack. paste or dough. braea. vapna-brak. 2. to cry out. a . since such are the manners of Frenchmen. Chaucer. bruire. on. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. The Lat. disturbance. Chaucer. and fracasously. brak. the clash of ai-ms Dan. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. iU-favouredly — in Jam. brot. R. to rush. brugier. soft . yell. V. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. a crash. bregar. to the seijauntes.' To Bray. crackle . bratsche.ch. . to roar or bellow. breach. at once. R. roar. starts crackling up. or cry out loudly . to knead. breche.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. broyer. to resemble.ear rog. to resemble. To rub or grind down Sp. brikan. to smack or the eye. to break.^ Fr. rattle. to tear Bret. Fr. to braid the hair. to t. explaining a very obscure application of the E. — — — explained motus loud noise. appearance Hal. and frangere. D. to cry out. resound . On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. broad. braidar. to braid. with or without a final d. and make a hideous noise. Wal. rogi. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. in Jam. Then. to break Fr. E. e. Beryn. to The cup was uncoverid. k. twist. and to signify the fracture itself. to work up in a mortar. to crash. the miller's dog. to break. instantane. is . The same He might don us both a villany.. to rub Fr. bru. . kind. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. crash.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. ing. Q. rangere. bregar. to bray like an ass. i. regi. Lat. the sword was out break. will.y. ser. to start. at braga eftir euium. fish. to rumble. And at a braid he gun it bende. From the or brack in a wall. baiyl. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. to sound very loud and very harshly. brand. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. rustle. &c. to bellow. to break. to roar as the sea. to pretend. W. a breach Cot. OE. G. make a disturbance. mos. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. See Brake. Bailey. Prov. gestus. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. Goth. ybrayid. Dunbar braessem. 145. G. ON. a rag f . bruzir. riAprjyvvfu. the sound — of arms. to roar. to cry Port. to braid. crash. Cat. Bread. as the voice of the ass. Bread. father. Bret. as OE. a brake for hemp or flax. crepo and E. F. as the notion of turning crack. &c. to crash. turn. — koa. braire. D. verb to break. bray. to resemble him.

with It. bresilles. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. malt. &c. dial. brew. So ON. remains of leaves. The Breech (Prov. a crum Du. Swiss Rom. braca. from brace. brimme. — And blood. Russ.vare. brezling. Breath. brison. G^nev. as the G. grillare. brinisa. Swiss AS. to roast. malt. an odour. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. sprouted corn. broden. AS. of straining. of E. brire. bra. griller. rubbish. E. Fr. as by the Sc. brustia. to fry . brache. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. Biglotton. breme. Fr.t. a to lay fly-flap. briste. briosat'. braies. See Brick. Bret. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. Du. i5r(Z^. a twitch for a horse. It. Compare OE. zare. xyligogio castigare. Lat.'— Gl. the dry spines of furze broken off. but more probably the E. point to G. QNtsterviald) pritschen. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. brcekur j It. brut. are related to Prov. to whip. briig. AS. G. a horse's twitch. brezzare. to resound. broiiwen. the breech or buttocks. and other rubbish dibris. Dtyden. coaldust. rubbish. orts. broil.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. bruise. Breeches. Dan. grill. Du. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. Breeze. are in like manner ' . G. a girdle. bandage or truss for a rupture. forms analogous to E. —Briss. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. braca. breinse. instead of being derived from 'La. chillness or shivering. met de bridse slaan. corresponding to G. . braguier. bark Fr. bragues. bryi^ga. PI. Originally probably the word signified steam. brasser. bris de charbon. Fr. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. a cold and windy mist or frost . . brasiare. scent. and brought beneath between the legs.britschen. Prov. brodel. — . braga. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. little bits of wood Berri briser. polenta. . brdtschen. de Vaud. as in the case of twitter. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. subligaculum. Brize. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. to brew. brise. brok. cloven. bris. to fry Then from a Gl. to bind. clout for a child. Du. as. brcEth. a box. briosa. may be from the wurh fesser. brumtnen. to buzz. murmur—Vocab. to brew. Piedm. of trees. Gael.). Prov. Piedm. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. brosame. singing bone. or the blow itself. a cool wind. simmering. — — strument for smacking. brasiuiii. fastening . briiz. applied to shivering./ssus. as commonly explained. burst. Bret. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. brezza. We bragezj on. Breast. Fris. OFr. their stings draw . bratscher. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. to rattle (as hail). bruc. to shiver for cold. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. windy withal. representing the sound of a blow. switch. . E. a cramp-iron for holding things together. from ligare. brist. brisoler. peitschen. Hume in Jam. brimsa. braux. braia J OFr. to smack. sheep's droppings bruss. Gl. To Brew. to bray. /esses. one on the breech so that (klatschet). breeze. an into shiver. break. the soler. brijselen. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. Bruise. .D. broza. to simmer. Gael. breath. body brostia. bre- I'os qui bresole. Hence the Lat. trusts. brusc. a crum. trembling. bretilles. a gadfly. Isidore and Tatian. Breeze. to be misty and cold. bremse. the bust. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. drawers. braich. braucn. Sw. braie. vapour. brisd. britze. siibligar. as. Lat. w. briosa. — Brist. Dev. bris. noise. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. de bridse geveii. from AS. so AS. to crush to break. fitzen. chilly. braciarc. brijsen. binding. — See Broth. brossi!. and E. also to chill and shiver with cold. bridsen. to breech. murmur. fail. braga. Rom. simmer. G. grillen. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. forms. bruzir. — Halma. Swiss brdtsch. brissle. in Schilter. crush. to burst. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. Goth. b}-as. brodem. then to broil. einem de britze geven. brugga. to murmur. braies. to crackle. Gl. brisciare. Briss and buttons. The Teutonic verbs. Du. to feize or feaze. — . properly to crackle. brciz. morsel. a smack.98 borst. to break. breost. bruzun. G. . Breeze. breson. Bracha. bracecs . to hum. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . G.

berwedd. bruk. a wedding priod-fab. to brew. Priodi. fervere. brakes of high-grown ferns. as. piece of burnt clay. guma. Brewis. . The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. briiths. AS. W. consort with. Grisons bruch.rough with brambles and bushes. Gl. pier. Bridal. a beggar. AS. — . Rouchi brife. bro is applied not only to a bridge. broken. braut. fraoch. Brick.pritil . a married man or woman Lat. A bribe is A — — arval. heath. berwi. frayer. remarkable that the Gr. arf-ol. bara briw. beaten way Dan. bruk.It. to pave. brere. one's ovin. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. . and berweddu. briwo. brigata. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. ' — . a quoit of stone. brittil. E. to Isrew. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. barren land priodas.groom. E. peculiar. betonica. Gael. . Brier. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . company. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. to beg one's bread. imprint. It — is Kil. married. sugga. to press in. to meet together. Gael. served (Patois de Bray). buskins. Fr. . now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. Dan. OSw. E. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. priod-ferch. has briguer. Flor. to tlie brico. a lump of bread. Bridal. Sp. jipaaaiii. bribour. Brief. ON. to boil. bricge j G. fragment. AS. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. a lump of bread. birbante. of burial. Bridle. a fragment. brau. fit. brar. bribe de pain. Hdcart. a bride Brig. to boil. to break. from the last 99 of which. bitill. pavement Lith. owned also propriate. to rub. son. twopares Lat. brukkas.gfiugga. — . Goth. bo. So It. birbone. bread. to break to pieces bricalio. conjux. In the G. division of an army. but to a paved road.Fr. bridge. A — A — . a crum. but probably Bricoteau. brA. Du. bruyere. Mid. to press. from bit. bridelj OHG. . pavement brolegge. a cheat. briw. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. jetty. hlafes brice. whence berw. brygga. brood. especially to a letter or command. it is applied to the letter to OE. briicke. brughiera. a briole. daughheath. G^n^v. thick appropriated. The origin of the word is the w. brieden. Ihre. bride. any jot or crum. . The Sw. ment of anything broken. crew. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . or brizo. the newly. Trovarfor bride-ale. and that from It. bro. a Bride. troop. priod. with transposition of the r. Ducange. brique de pain.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. Fr. brigantine. bride. from the Normans. AS. brutg. the equivalent of to the dial. Lang. E. to pave brukkti. So in The Prov. appropriate. brahi. a lump of bread briber. nurus G. a little king's writs. bulicame. ' . a bride. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. It. feast. stone-bridge bnikkoti. AS. . httle bit. which however is undoubtedly from brace. a crum. a heath brughera. broosekens. brocaly. to stamp. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. a bit. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. grug. AS.. a man. broken victuals. Cot. bruskr and buskr. Fl. a heath. feast of espousals. bidsel. in the sense of OSw. brug. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. bretonica. Applied ous words derived from break. to appropriate. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. Diez. from Bret. brigade. Brigade. privus. a brig or priodor. a boiling. bably contracted from brigantine. bygga. Bribe. collect bits of food. two-masted vessel. bricou. buckler J ON.privatus. groom (mab=:son). ter-in-law. lipdZu}. from Bridegroom. as so. brice. Fr. bruarium. is still used in this sense. a rogue. Hence OE. . If the foregoing were not so clear. to prepare. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. OHG. brilt. See Broth. — — — — — — . then the marriage itself. Lat. pavement. Pro(merch=:maid). BRIGADE dead.bergantino. Pol. In the patois of briccia. the marriage si in brigata. malt. It. to boil. ap. malt. graf-ol. Brique. sponsa. broken bread. bruith. a sow. Thom. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. Diefenbach com. bryd-gutna. bryd-eale. Neumann. Due. masted vessel. In E. a bush. . Bridge. the Fr. bro. to circulate. Walach. breve or brevis. brasser. corresponding or letter. a married man guma. a proprietor. w. a rogue . betony brulicame. fastningar-ol. gf2o. a fragment. and ODu. boiling up brocoliere. ibrukkti. funeral. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something.

' torum. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. bracht. — A A . there are many armour. glamm. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. glir.D. Du. strife.' in Due. dine. himself to serve men of merit. brigare. glbram. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. rixa. Bav. splcnornd de brigandine. Goth. brdgen. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. speech. Bright. splendour. that of Fr. and hence be explained glampi. In the same way to strive is. Brigata. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. kilistua. the grew high. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. willata. transparent. See Brake. and diligence. manifest ON. From ON. malandrini. —Capgrave. bregar. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur.shine. briegen. briga.' The passage from the sense of a light. brigare. at a later period. to shine. on his — own account. — Briganbriga. A strepere. to glamr.dorem clarum reflecto. clangour. Gall.clare ^tinniens. brigan. In Fin. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. tinnitus. etincelle. the bench-notes resounded. to make a loud noise. tuilahtaa. — Probably then to strive. labour. inde squammatus. also called briganders. Wilista. to cry 'Schmid OE. The Ir. seems to be to exert force gar el area. sound. — Beowulf. Schmeller.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. to resound. brebrigare. brcEhtin. 1654. in later times a robber or highway-man. The E. clare lucens. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. brigant. noise. splendour. praht.— . AS. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . — brigante. and the E. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . Flor. kii:'a. glitter. Brigand. .glampa. cange has 'Veles. shriek with laughter. to rob. representing a sudden noise. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. is easily understood. It. clarus. show the origin of Lat. — Brigantine. Lat. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. brak. biartr. from hall. clear. clear. a brigantine. clang. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. Due. rover either by sea or land. bairhts. dine. twinkling. a small light pinnace pro. tinnitum clarum movco. and secondly. — Due. combat. Beorktode bene sweg. OHG. So G. It. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. Xa/iTTii). Mid. A. then. moment. It. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. and to associate with them. to glitter. beorht. loo BRIGAND lor. lay was sung. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. bray. to piracy. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. pugna. to shine. with respect either to sound or colour. schateren. XafXTTpoQ. briga. to ring.pracht. bryhtm. secondarily. brawl. tumult. riis ' — Chron. a glittering. 1351. to rove. may play the pirate or thief at sea. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. to cry. 312. — brigante. and ner me hit iherde. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . glamra. and led it away. in the sense of a robber. Heo — song That AS. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. to bend a bow It. The primary meaning of Sp. hell. squamma . and.Lat. Swab. to sound. schiteren. a spark. bragen. to contend with another. They or brigantini. necessary business. Brilliant. tinkle. a pirate. .prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. \oice. a noise. wilella. It. and. bright bearhtm. Adelung. clear. brigandare. outcry. in the first instance. to reservavit. tion. Florio. Owl and beorhtian. to strive for. clear sound. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. Gr. to shift for with care. braid. the gleeman's song. splendens . jurgia.' The sense of strife or combat express. a sound. — — .

furious. or violent action. brastlian. as of meat in broiling . whether of desire or anger. rut. to creak. to fret . earnestly . leonum). identical with passion. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. 1. breme. Streaked. crackle. ardere desiderio. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. barmr. finds the Fr. gresiller. Brindled. to burn. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. It. a rod. that the original meaning of the Sc. Brim. the heat of animals. border. clangor tinniens. bramar. bresoler (Gloss. It. In the same way Sw. the verbs Flor. s. 154. dial. grdzil. the edge. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. Du. and 1. Wtb. bry7ie. brdnnsten. briller. bramar. ous. Closely connected is OE. striped or streaked. spraing. The E. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. greDiet. to long for a thing. to quaver with the voice. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. rugire. brim. to make bilbil). ter. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. brama. a borDu. . Langtoft. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. a long. Prov. grisler. fire. greedily to covet Cot. broiled. griller. to resound. to roar. from brandr. bryn. Brimstone. to crackle. griller d'impatience. bremmen.ioTiviS acutus. The identity of ON. to glitter distance . to shine. Brem. kommata. to shimmer. kimista. to wish or covet. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. brisoler. To Brim. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. a border. voux. rugire (cervorum. to make a crackling noise. ON. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. bar. bremas. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. grisser. Rugere. Thus Lat. Rayn. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris.preni. shine. It. Fr. to utter cries. brezil. brinfire. tience. . excited. broil . the heat of animals. brow of a hill. the sow is brimming.' Elyot in Way. brant. perent. grullo. beam. hence the bosom. The expression is now confined to the sow. to twinkle. brullo. ling noise and a sparkling light. chime). coloured in stripes. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. with an initial br instead of gr. brand-krossottr. to . brandr and Fr. of the eye. Sw. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. — g. surface of the ocean. bramire. kimmaltaa. edge Pol. kiimottaa. brommen. bremmen. margin. cross-barred in colour. G. glit. Subo. In Fr. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. noise made by meat in broiling. E. Sc.). brennistein. Dan. vigorHal. brmdottr. briller. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. sonitum edere bremen. on. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. the lap or bosom. brissle. komottaa. the singing of Sodom — — . fimbria) . to creak. 754.— BRIM . crackle . s. to roar.its vent in cries and roaring. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. post. as is the case also with Pl. lip of a vessel. to parch. FJ. burning. is used of raging. The meaning of the Fr. breziller. gresiller. Fl. briller (related to each other as OFr. ring. to storm. Dief. to crackle. fringe (Lat. A . : ' — bone). appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. breme. fringe . brimmen. whence bilbil-goda (literally. ON. AS. vattubryn. to sound deep or hollow. reecho. pMiller. to glitter. brillare. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. brummen : de soge brummet. an apron. AS. originally the lap folding over the breast. to shine. der. small gravel. brumft. lap. a stick. Said of swine when in heat. which seems identical with rim. — . have then in Fr. to broil.— Brinded. lap of a garment . the eye-brow. breziller. to shake. also to reflect. barm-cloth or barmskin. griller). bramer. os qui bresole. to glitter . as in Langued. burning stone. 1 1 64. — — — . border. . is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). bray as an ass bramire. Sc. Tutschek. brim Magy. brame. border. (poet.) brimi. kajata.D. sparkle. — Rim. Tresiller. frequently interchange. komista. fierce. barm. brame. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. Kil. kimina. to shine. brummen. from bringe. as well as bl and gl. and corresponding to these. to sparkle. glisten. Swiss Rom. sprainged. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. Hence with an initial s. a streak. Lith. rym^. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. the meaning is transL' amour. — — So Fr. parched. ON. brunft. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. Supp.' d'etre marie .

See To Brim. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. a deluge. roar of the sea saltr. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. brich. — — . bronchus. i. brichet. a shoot or sprig. briser. broca. sprouts. to roar. borzen. or the full • . . Fris. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. e.g. Cot. a spit. NE. . to stitch. brocar. briocho. a bud. startling. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. brote. whence may be explained the Sc. Sc. aculeus. sharp. breidr. brim (poet. Alfr. brisciare. G. chest. a peg sbrocco. as. brusco. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. ribrezzoso. Russ. brim. a stitch brocher. the surf. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. saulmeure. brytan. and Sc. Brisket. britar. a morsel. eager. bruched (Fr. Antiq. brust. brot. brin. a cold and windy mist or frost. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. as. Bret. hot-tempered. setting the hair on end. and. Fr. p. fragile. to birstle. a morsel . form bris. brog. is called a birssy day. a brad or tack. breast. Hence ribrezzare. to burn. angry. bros. 222. brddj Goth. ruffling. very salt brimi. and hence. . bristly . Bohem. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. rebursiis. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. an awl. ON.). to spur. Prov. Mid. a crum. b. britar. coli. as a noun. Boh. birstle. prick with Sw. of E. Du. brioshko. to stab Gael. bryde. to break. It. a projecting tooth It. lively. brezza. crabbed. It. to spit. Lat. Brickie. — A . It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. against the grain . Russ. Berri. sprout.'— Vita'abbatum S. as. Fr. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). — bryme. trembling. birssy. bruskett. Fr. the brisket or .). fiscbryne. Brisk. to crack. apt to break. Gr. to break. brickie. brockle. Fr. brcit. to shoot. Gl. setting the hair on end compare It. strong itself. thick — A elastic hair. harsh vin brusque. brijn (Kil. fierce. broc. flames. Fr. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. bryne. as unripe fruits.D. bringe. to broach a business. a stormy brimsea . brocchus. to break. to begin upon it. . Breeze been connected with the Sc. Sw. smart taste. bros. to set up one's birse. Port. to broil. stitch. a belly. Du. Bret. Abroacli. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. Bristle.procio. sour. Commonly explained as from Fr. broccata. a slip or sprig of an herb . to set it a going.Lat. sprocco. emotions which produce it. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. 'V^. quick. Walach. It. The Pl. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. breaking out into growth. Prov. wine of a sharp. brime. to turn up the point of anything. borst. Pectusculum. to shiver for Sold or for fear. craw of a bird. Hal. to goad. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. brissko). spricka. a bit . a bud. a fragment. brindelles de balai. /3pE^m. Brym. bresk. broche. Brooch. — . borstel. britchet. brimme. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. are used in the sense of brittle. Ptg.. is to erect the hair. to thrust. Formerly written brotil. . metaphorically. spur. See Spread. brocher. brittle. birsle. sticking up . a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. to put one in a rage . from break.rcendij'i. Brine. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. rebrousser. ' breast. brisk in taste. — in Due. the twigs of a besom. bringe traced through the brano. to spur. broca. Liquamen vel garum. . Fr. Compare also E. brocco. Zeuss. brim. See Brand. a clasp. like the Broad. fantas'* tical. brezzare. a skewer. bricho (with the diminutives. from brande. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. and forms on. man's throat. brissle. Sp. humorous. ' . cK) the . Brocade. Swiss to stand out . 'In sua to stand up of Corn. briota. braidsj ON. byrst. Dan. the surf. flame. bruckle. Palsgr. to scorch. rude. expression. brusk. grim. bringue. brimhliod. In the N. brocco. Sc. It. briota. a rebours. Prov. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. birs. brodden. has under It. to stick. Then as the effect of shivering. reburrus. breaking of the waves brim sior. broccare. rash. shoot. to bud. a brooch. of astonishment. birse. Salte sand is called brimsand. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. brusque.. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. brittle. a button broche. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. from AS. borzos (struppig). or — . brocciare. Brittle. Da. brandello. suddenly angry.' Nat. a rod or twig.

noisy. parti-coloured. parch. freckled. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. carbonado. It. To roast upon hot coals. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. Sc. brouFr. broccato was used to signify stuff . a point. a badger. brooked. brasbrasciuolare. Florio.. a flake of snow sion. a peg. Hal. a brouhaha. broc. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. a flock or Gael. gold and silver. brucilare. brullare. shuffle. brasuole. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. piebald . fundamental origin. broil. ornamented with a raised pile. tufted ornaments. to knots or loops. Contracted from Fr. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment.. Gael. ciare. stump. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . blusters. bawling. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. spotted. brocart. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. — — . Sp. initial . prod. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. braird. q. Thus brod. parti-coloured. to crackle. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. a mole. breard. . to crackle. R. brocco. a border. to boss. a confused streaked face of the animal. broice. brusler. E. bramowanie. onbryrdan. streaked. brouda. brod. tori shows that. brasiller. brocach. — The proper sense is that of Fr. prasseln. briz. Compare also AS. rinj'. a border ornamented with gold. a brecJi. grislement. confound. brindled. hurly-burlies. margin. Dan. . a fallingThe sense has been out. broglio. brastlian. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. to On the other hand the Sp. briefh. badger . A badger. or roast on the braise. frocadura. embroidering. bordo. with Sc. age was termed a pricket. brusuole. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. speckled. broil. to streaked or speckled in the face. to embroider. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. agree in being the extremity of a thing. to scorch. sting. ToBroider. — . grullo. dar seems derived from borde. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. It. — Fl. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. border ornamented with silk. a brim. Broker. broc. Cot. precisely analogous to the Sc. Icnotty. Fr. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). brerd. the shoot of corn. — brissle. and bord or bred. storms. to crackle. froco. Here to ornament with needle-work. of pointing out their latent defects. broud. or It. to crackle. the line of development has been something different. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. bj'oil. frecSee Brawl. broccuto. Fr. a quarrel. Ihre has guU-bord. to parch or broil. or glowing coals broged. tumult broighleach. to instigate. — Gower in It. to embroider. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. borprick. 103 embroidered. Brocket. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. The Bret. trouble. scorch. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. Sc. thread. atoms . to crackle as a shell in the fire. creak. bordar. broukit. So from Pol. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. birsle. Surrey in R. W. broder. an edge. It of br the Fr. knobby . Fr. From direct imitation of Brock. silkes-borda. noise. embroidery. Ptg. parched. here. a freckle. to burn. or salted fish on coals.— B. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. whence broccare. hart of two years old. or snag. speckled. and AS. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. to darn. to spur. a freckle.tumultuous. brodio. houx. spots. broighlich. to prick. to broil. bmsciare. to stud broccoso. kled breac. b?-od. Compare G.sound. brychau. point to an origin in Bret. motes. trouble. brustle. a To Broil. has grisser. brucach. brasolare. rustle. Grisons brascla. forming to jumble. sparks E. border. Bret. gresiller. The ON. v. from the white. bram. Gael. and w. to burn. bustling. broiled. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. A fried or boiled steaks). B. bruler. a b?-ustolare. AS. a prick. brizen. Cot. brych. brasiller. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance.

hraki. — broeden. brass does to Sp.D. an operation performed over hot coals. and as an adj. filth. sort. with. brokoti.D. brakyne. to sort brakovanie. to sparkle. brod. to copper. brydio. to hatch. It. nounce unsound. brackefi. Sc. Lat. . spittle . rejection Pol. bric-a-brac. brack. . of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. e. stain. to reject. correctarius. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. brechen. vile. Dan. merchandises de rebut G. abbronzanchiare. spittle. inspect. brack-gut. goods damaged by sea-water. raquer. and fishes . cherish. Bronzare. 396. cracker. — Fl. rejected. matter of blame weak place. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. a fault. refuse brakovat. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. et A. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. : ' . Fr. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. and to reject the damaged and unsound. refuse brakowad. brokas. to . Du. to throw blame upon. Teutonic class : Du. Abbronzare. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. but from the primary sense of the It. 38. Per manus et old worthless horse. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. to emit sparks. faulty. burning. glowing coals. To blame mens ware. • . S. tan. Bret. Bronze. refuse. hot. brwd. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. pan metal. On • tliis principle the G. to blame. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. couratier. lack. inspection. bronze. brae. to brew. . brasa. tussis. reject. . brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. Sp. wrack-good. blur. to scorch. find fault with. It may be compared with It. brieden. bronze. to be wanting. racaille. refuse goods. bronzo. fault censure. refuse. fish-spawn broden. brumo. brid. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. a breach or flaw. In those countries the term braker. a brood . racher.— — . a chicken. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. buy and sell by commission. a makeln. progeny of birds. to sort goods . In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. a cough Hal. to nourish. brack-gut (Sanders). Pl. Pl. to be hot. bring eggs and spawn into active life. designation is indkler. trumpery. to spit . — . to roast on the embers. brunds. to braze. Adelung. hot. G. cast Lith. dirty. Jam. In the . Brood. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object.— Breed. If to vomit . abject. fermenting. bridde. braeck goed. bredan. brasa. phlegm. Fl. try . try out. the young of any animal . is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze.D. selection. brokers' goods. This word shows the same relation to It. Pl. an outcast or rejected sheep. brut. the spawn of fishes. embers. damaged. See Wreak. corrector. bracker. Tooke's Catherine. The Langued. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. keep warm. to garble. brod. as.D. mud. slaae vrag paa. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. damaged. insects. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. from makel. whence the modern courtier. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. braken. to pick. analogous to Bohem. briiten. brak. Alb. term was correcfo^ir. — a spark. brot. vrage. bronce. to criticise. to hatch. find fault with. sunburnt. bronze. brands. a broker.— Lib. wraken. refuse wares. in which sense the OHG. criticise (makeln). find fault — — — fuse matter. has exactly the force of G. to hatch G. G. on. Kil. to sit on eggs. hrak. . — point out the faults.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. Grisons brinzla. Russ. to pick and choose. ordure. See Broth. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. dial. sbrinzlar. Du. ODu. w. broiid. embers. To correct an exercise is to Lib. . mediationem quorundam J. ON. OFr. i. Prov. to pro- to reject . broen. in the sense of rejection. make out. The use sunburn. or brascla. warm. embers to brund. wreak. which E. whnake. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. wrak. brak. to — garble. want. vile. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. Pro v. See Brackish. Alb. screatio Junfus . or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. G. refuse Fr. from break. For the same reason the Kiittner. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. raca. an .

brew . broc. awl-plant. a bud. heat. infusion the barley bree. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. eye-brow. or shoot. to scald. brio. sprouts . brstiti. frater. Sp. brow. braun. It is Brother. a river. to boil bruithe. brennen.spross. broth is sometimes used . bruddeln. Bret. Pol. sordes seu strigmata young branch. Gael. who is steaming with sweat. pottage. to use. . brushbrothas) gives the OE. thairj w. sense the Sc. breg. BROOK brook w. bros. G. But the Walach. G.brink. Gael. bryn. brau. ceales briw. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. meal. . w. a derived from the boards..) . Celtic. It. laissent Domunculum. sprocco. a bruth. bank. Du. &c. brdtaj Gael. a little . waves. Pl. brost. a little house or cottage of timber. Gr. bordel. . bree. protecting the eye. to browse. dialects is very different. b7-un. borda. hovel. Kil. low The AS. to sprout. brodo. brukjan. Dan. shoot. signifying twigs. grow into a bush. briihe. brouter.D. brocco. shore. steam from heated bodies. brotar. Russ. Prov. sprot. and Slavonic families. brozia. &c. warmth ch'an. &c. . bruc. Gris. bruceti. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. the bubbling or springing up of water. shoots. shrubs. as rhododendrons. broca. brov.brons. a caldron. t— Cot. bruno. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. Bav. Sc. to browse. Ppim. break out brewet. brushbroccoli.' Due. bntdien. a sprout. brosses. Fr. . bor. — exiit et heath. Serv. broth. cia. eat. broth Brown. or bushes and scrubby growths. sap. breg. Manx broie. has briw. brue . boiled . It. a spring. Bohem. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. to boil. Catalan brossa. broth brothaire. to shoot. A — . brudi. brotar. to burn. thicket. brouches. The AS. bryii. breg. brost. from ripa. brouser. broit. heat explaining the Prov. border. eye-lid. brous. brun. AS. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. Bohem. bros. may be connected with Russ. a hut or cottage It. sprout. strength. the colour of things burnt. sprout. a shore. Fr. brink. rerum decoctarum. . margin. Browse. grow brossa. bordeau. bryn. enjoy Goth. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. Brothel. broieii. broccola. a shrub broust. . borde. to roar. bruich. . Roquef. to border. a source Gael. pour boiling water over. surface of Broth. broi. edge. useful G. broza. bruscosd quam de arabili. was originally used in the innocent sense of . brewis. properly boiling water briihen. to use. . eye-lid. bank. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. brouet. on. sodden. frucius. mettle. edge. Tam de terrS. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. Sanscr. . brawdj Slavon. braces. briu. Lat. brass. . noise. Bret. Du. Wtb. bushes. brucan. fabric consists. broth the ocean Sw. shrub with leafless pointed edging. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. brodem. sproc. brad. — ' . The meaning of the word brook in the low G. eye-brow. brpuster.braubiti. heath. It. broem bark. spuma. broo. Gael. riviere. circuindedit cum familia. shore ." Serv. iVlanx broogh. . to boil. on. and Sc. brus. Bohem. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. brd. broden. frui. Gael. a hill. Sp. Due. pith. and It. forms appear related to the Ir. as small-pox. riviera. Limousin broudi. a hill.D. a confused noise of winds. broeye. a sprig. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. brmi. to use bruks. . presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . plants composed of twigs. &c. bruitheati. Prov. infusion. bruach. brosst. or broken up . to bubble up with noise. vigour. brauwe. Ger. and also border. (for brodem). AS. G. Fr. To digest. w. from Goth. braew. cabbage water. brouic. briar. bruth. Commonly Teutonic. simmer from the murmuring AS. augen-braune. a . eye-brow. hot. to spring . brosses. brst. Here we find throughout the Romance. Mid. brothas. to Pl. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. . OFr. in which brinnan. signifying low wet land (Brem. bud. of plants broust. G. brow of a hill. of which the variety of forms. bruich. brlgh. Fr. broud. . kail brose. brwd. bank. strength Ir. Russ. cabbage soup . to boil. dumetum. eminence . spirit. — . heath. juice of briars. juice of meat. a bud brous-koad. brouskaol. broth. house of ill fame. surDu. wood . browys.— Overyssel Almanack. vigour. to bear patiently. as Fr. brogues. to murmur. chen. OHG. brabruach. rage. perhaps burnt coloilr. The origin is a re. bregh. fur Broom. Fr. bruith. brusmalt. thick bush brousta. face. The softening down of the consonant bud. bank. verge. 105 Brook. breh. G. seethe. pfriemkraut. Cot. 'Lzt. ale . eye-lash . hut. bratrj Lat. juniper. . Brow. eye-brow. — . branches. buds. bruithim. OHG. braussa. bhratrj Zend. See Bramble.

Pr. Cot. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. brosst. also a head-brush. brusc (Diet. appearin Goth. Pr. . also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. bris. of twigs. detergere . Hall in R. brist j Port. Wicliff. Sw. brusca. Piedm. a flax comb. brous. to break. bruit. wool-card. Pr. 201. Gael. Prov. and also Brush. NE. a brush. a — — (Agea) said. borste. a shrub composed of small twigs . brunt. quasi twigs. brustia. modification of the same root which gives the E. and . a brush . orts. bruyere. it schall be al Sw. bris. brusca. G. insultus. brist. — Fr. —Fabyan. or shoot. Fr. Palsgr. To brush then would be to dust. Bav. a bristle. Prov. heath. E. OE. and actually come in collision. and sighid therewithal. broustia. a bristle. brossar. Prov. Fr. dust. Sp. Fr. blow burcar. 134. a brush . Sw. to break to bits . chips. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. Brunt. brust. The Bav. bross. rods. brista) or breaking out . shivers. a mote. broken. and It. broza. Cot. broza. Gael. . while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. bruire. dust. Pm. E. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . break. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. brosst. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. Brunt of a daunger. twig. brustid. rubbish. a brush. Pm. brustia. burt. abroncar. . * Brunt. bris. E. brousso. It. splinters. to cleanse. G. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. coal See Breeze. a noise. bris. ca7-bo>i. to stumble. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. brMt. insilio. The same relation holds good between G. crum bit . shock. brizeto. to break. . rubbish. biirste.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. Bret. sordes. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. Fl. B?-usske. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. p. dust. Pr. . bricalio. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. Port. and in the second place a besoiB. or sodenly comyn' dust. bross. a little brizal. to make a rumbling. wood composed OE. Prov. crush. Text Soc. Bruit. a brush. to break or burst. brossa. brosse. ON. seems named from burst(on. field. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. borste. brusg. bruito. Broach. Piedm. dust. The Lat. — OE. to brush. desbrisar. borste. to strike the foot against an obstacle. britar. wool-card. tuft of grass or hay. a tuft of heath . escousse.). fragments. to crush. 174. bruzir. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre.). brugir. fasx . AS. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. brisd. effort. fescue . the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. borste. bud. brous.— Palsgr. an enmy. as It. In E. It. That in all haste he wouli. irruo. — a bush. On the other hand. Poems. mg Cat. brik. a horse-brush. Lang. a bud or sprout Bret. brisar. Beryn. broust. brushwood. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. briketo. brist. a bud. briser. brossa. shoot brouskoad. Alexander. a bush of hair. biirste. Gael. briiis (in the pi. brusco. remnants of hay or fodder. brico or brizo. It. a brush Swiss bruske. . britar. OFr. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. brosse. Gael. a brush . And that best is. burs. and Piedm. to make brusshes on. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. bruscolo. borst. tremely. brysan. Allit. brus. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. Lang. A. a crum. bruc. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. bruis (sing. See next article. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. bruise exOFr. into a multitude of points. but on whom it schall to brisen him. Diez. Fr. to butt. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. .— — i. a blow. brist. flax-comb brossettes. bruscolo. bruiser. Brush. — those signifying a sprig. brikan. Fr. a rumbling. brusco. bruscia. quisquilise. wool-card. brit. borste. —Chaucer. twig. a brush . brise. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. Castr. bruskr. rubbish. brottcher. bush.). ling or heath for brushes. bushy ground. a briser. K. Bruise.

Diet. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. the upper for coifee. the lower soak in lye. bubbola. of wind. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. boc. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. to bump as a bittern. Sp. bduclien. to soften. Fr. to filter.biiken j Svi. — . mote.wet Lat. .derivation has been much discussed. hump. bublati. was called bucking the linen. not so plentiful a commodity. soft. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. bub. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. to butt or jurr Dan. 1857. bubiti. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. as G. The term bocan is still ap. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. who resorted to the islands beichen.-wtt miekki. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. lye. a ashes. a bubble. to strain. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. bub. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . is 1. a hole. . 17th century. drying of produce.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. a push. moczyd. bifbel. mieknad. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. very generally designated by the same puk. to Gael. Pol. mokry. rap. bukke. does not hold. blast or strike with the forehead. . Fin. to butt. Pref A. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. pokka7na. Gael. bugd. bubBuck. a knock word.to allow a free current of air. boil animals. a. Esthon. soft. and the bunch. BUBBLE bruschetta. See Dupe. Bohem. Cot. lye. was called in Fr. at a door. buck-ashes. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. colada.steep or soak.— . Etym. The word was very generally Buccanier. News. molle. tender. bubauti. to a place used for the mouillir. Fr. and exercised their cruelties prin. to stick. buerj It. buchen. mollire. It.boukaat. . Formerly. ac. bube. to bubble.byka.lessiver. the first wheal. and as a verb. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. soft It. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. to soak. to which in their language they call bou. boucaner. March 28. Magy. The cipally on the Spaniards. different form. .buchen. as a buck rabbit. a bubble . to wet Pol. bucquer. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. because bucare does not in Marsh). . Dan. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. soft . bokni. Fr. designation of a knob. bouk. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. . from which the ing the bleating of a goat. tender. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. Magy.' Palsgr. top. buquer. or mok. or projecTo Buck. to murmur. watery bud. to soften . The male goat. a fescue. Sc. moist. boc. Illust. bucaIndies. the linen at buck. But see Bristle. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. Sp. bugada. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. soft. to soften. bucata. Bret. It. maban and baban. The place of such a 2. to buck. tuft. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. . plied in the W. — . faire la lessive. a. when soap was tion is commonly taken. pukkata. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. to soak foul linen before washing. bubseti. erweichen. hog dressed whole). hump. The natives of Florida. thunder gently . Bret. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. From an imita. 1586. a bubble. to butt. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. w.tare. byge. bouc. Pol. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. from weich. I. it is beuchen. pup. This bubette. wood. w. Bohem. It.D. knock. buck-ashes. open lath-work. a steep for flax. says Laudon. in which the flesh dish. The name. de la Floride. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. to soak. set of pirates in the spread. blister. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. bwch. bucking. — — ' A : ' ' . In G. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. Bubble. also applied Una. caned' Hence those who established them. buborek. a to the male deer. from colar. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. boh. tap . A . luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. and Fr. buquer. bog-aske. and then to other wild tumour Lith. and as in and b so often infor cocoa.

stroke. boss. Dan. knob dwfr yn boglynu. Port. Bret. bogla. a boss. to un bout d'homme. Buck-bean. buachazlle. imbuere. dinted.' And this sacrament bus have dial. NE.) . Fr. w. need. stud. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. Du. . bulka. bougette. the word w ' — .' Schm. to stir. It. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. case of leather . Pol. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. Du. Sw. In the dialect of the Setti Cem.chissima. a little coffer or turgidus. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. call. bouprobably identical with inok. bump.. become bochen. bukke-blad. butzen. bucket Fl. bod. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. to bud or bocla. were To Budge. Dan. Fr. clump. * Bud. butz. boucle. Pied. with a central boss. a boy. — — . ' . trunk of wood covered with leather. The word is a ddyn. knob . Fr. potz. put. a shield. pwt o Fr. from bo.stuff./a. bougette. bunch . bouger. male or botzen. * Bucket. bug. bulga. in the beginning of to pierce holes. Bav. bub. In Lat. pulga. Budget. push forwards.) as to soak.. See Bulk. It.t-le!L{ * Bud. a budget. as in Fr. . bod. a cowherd. is doubtless fallacious. bud butzen. The entire train of thought is bucket. scion. to word. a buckle or protuberance. don't a baby). to poke. Mid. sboge. inboachen. OHG. clasp of a book. convexity. excrescence. boss of a shield. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. boglyn. whom it is still much in use. boucle.pode. of a surface. boccula. Buckler. A buckle or fastening for botch. call bo.. like a bean. brobrocchiere. bucolicus. . boucler. swelling. W. pulga.Lat. Cot. . a small shallow and open tub.stumpy man. * Buckle. G. bucherame. . Russ.r//'. . bolgia. bulla. The Fr. agreeing with Gael. jSouKoXiKog. a ring. child. is to shrivel up. above mentioned. OFr. mani. words is converted into b. dint . Bav. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. boucaran. . bulb. a wallet. wallet. II I'a feru desor I'escu. butzen. bdden. noise . boulj. bollire.n. to graft or bud trees. It termination is lost. bocla. pote. boiling. pwtio. a pail or flowers. Bucolic. to line with fur. turgere buczendig. explaining Fr. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. Mid. to thrust. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. goat's hoof. soft. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. bouk is a pail and with the dim. a dumpy gin. butze. buckel. belonging to the calling of the chen. great pouch. bedde. Prov. a budget. bouton. a curl. rabodS. w. bugnir. Hardly identical with Fr. a shoot. Swab. of bouge. To thrusting part of a long body. call. and the reference to It. to swell. ein. a pustule bout. Lat. stir. blow. a . probably from the notion of bubbling. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. Budge. weichen. protuberance. boucle. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need.' Hal.— . boach. from bugr. bloca. crack. weich. . don't stir from hence. prick in a target. a boss. and of the Lat. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. Bret. fur. — — . set of a plant in bulk. a leathern sack. bul. Sp. bucherare. or male of to boil . having a boss. bouter. of bac. and weichen. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. to butt. no business to do that. bouge.anything short of its kind. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. a short thick man. macero. a tuft. bulais daqui. — . So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. to move. weich. So on. bouclier. knock. to budge. bloca. to boil.may probably be explained by N. seen in Hesse botz. bog and G. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. skins pushit'. boqueranmis. botzen. a fold ceilio. Behoves. no wheel bogeilio. Prov. . bouljein. bunch. to pen cattle. budge. dim. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. motus creber. with let. Bus. a trough). with which it was ornamented. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. Fr. bo. boaLat. a bubble three thyngis. a servant. butzen (Du. . K.' Boccaccio. to boss or swell out G. It. lump. a bump. Hence quel. Prov. bolgetta. ON. a buclder or shield budge. Gael. water message. cattle. built. The knob or projection formN. a stump buckle up. This expression boglire. swelling. loud Cot. hump. from Gr. ' . the radical image seems to be a set plants. bloquier. butt . ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. ble. The dressed fur of lambs. ornamental stud. to 'soak. rump of fowls . bullion. butzen K. a bud. Fr. botzen. bode. A water-plant with leaves and gille. — . thrust. It.poot. gjeit-klauv. also a leather tuft .).goa.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. Fr. the root of the Slavonic words gran. where the G. Wtb. a navel. ' . Fr.

baubau. blurt or puff with one's mouth. confused. stupid.' perfield. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. bufHe. — — — Buffet.— Buflae. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. to blow .—Buffet. a bugbear. Lith.D. Bufetarium. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. bubiti. soufflet. bubaRuss. Fr. scarecrow . &c. as emblematically making light of an object. buffer. Fr. From buff! of terror. senses. bobaow. Lat. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. . Buff. bufogni. bugbear. to strike face to represent the unknown. buffet. bubach. Thus buffet would a tapster. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. A — Bug. while in Sp. made to —Bugbear. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. bufogni. buffet. from souffler. duff^ dull. to blow souffleU. tabernarius. btifetarius. buffare. buffare. puff. to rePl. a puff. bauwi. dausinti. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . mingled with water. Buffeter. pulse . buffle. bwg. It. bumann. buff leather. often covering his E. buffen. dial. botffon. It. also a G. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. bau ! children. or wild ox. a buffle or a bugle. Limousin bobal. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. popo. to signify an indefinite object of terror. as from Lith. The cry made to excite terror is then used. bw! It. yar^aa./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . human. rebuff. le reste emplissant d'eau. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. een duffen toon. smells . to puff. Buffoon. dull sound. ' They rether puffed at him. bubus. site The two — — iii. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. colour. wauwau. — La Crusca. him but Boyd iugges. to frighten . it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. as wine that hath taken wind. wine may The verb in taverns. a cuff or buffet. to puff. Esthon. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. Fr. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . bolgetta. Mid. Sc. buffeteur. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. thus be translated to tap. caupo. Buff. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. a dull BUG From 109 — A . G. Lith. air. the buffe. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. to give benti. bolgia. buffetto. of colours. a In . From bulga. deadened. things in Jam. made by a person. to bellow . leathern bucket. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. and in Fr. a clap. boo. Teet-bo. Gael. —Boggart. buMagy. also the skin or heck of a buffe. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. Cot. It. to excite terror in Macleod. Pl. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. to jest or sport. The children were playing in an oppocomer. to marre often tasting it . Cot. dausa. God's boast seemed feare children. Fr. a budget. buffa. Lat. as Diez remarks. word other cases. a side-board. bugs. buffets. cuff . il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. Pl. buffle-headed. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. tastes. buffet. buivol. bo ! an interj. for this purpose is very widely spread. often blown upon. Buffalo. a hobgoblin. either alone or with various terminations.D. to beat. to give a as of a blow.' La Crusca. breath. The use of the exclamation children. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. sounds. A puff with — Fl. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. Hence the E. bouffer. Fr. or hath been Cot. — Z.D. Fl. a hollow sound. buffalo. Magy. a goblin). mumming. Sc. Swiss baui. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. to blow. A blow. E.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. — Bogle. bukow Ikow. w. bouffer. bw. by metaphor. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. a block-headed noddy. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. Romola. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. bugle. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. It. — thence it has been transferred in E. a skin. W. — retailing buffeter buffetier. from It. 265. to a representation of his voice. boman. a jester. the place whence the wine was drawn.

and signifies also terror as name of an insect. fette. the Devil. Bdronie. Lap. disgust. iv. baco. Hence bugle-horn. given in Chaucer. bugle. : no BUG . and a boggarty ing. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. and in Lat. 3. Russ. . of pipes sewn on. bug dung-beetle. swollen. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. forSc. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. bucula. provincially an insect. an insect. affright. to bellow. scarecrow . Manx boa. Fl. Sp.. a silk-worm. bug-bear. paws the ground . mask ' . bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . any disgusting animal. larva (a bug-bear. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. well as the terrific object. bwgar.loud noise. bug. tumble-bug. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. dial. long. insect. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. bugbear. buba. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. — . a beetle. a. bold. monster. superbire. as an object of dread. Magy. a proud overbearing man pujat'. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. ghost. a bug-bear. Bugle. — — terror. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. vermin. bukati. Chaucer. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. used in the same sense. Mundart. Grisons bau. a misshapen person. xiv. Sw. gad. of bugabo was given. then a horn for drinking. also a bug-bear. bwg and E.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. bok. bogil. as Buffalo. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. * 2. boo. Swiss booggen. and is Deutsch. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. Hal. bukashka. roarHal. is the dim. buggabod). fierce. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. to frighten scarecrow. — — . to creeping things. according to Coles. blustering. Illyr. bugler. 1551. also a baco-baco. language any kind of insect. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. Lett. Swelling.Lat. pujalo. threatening. a boogg. a goblin. — boogg. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. fear. . Bug as a lord. rose-bug. to take fright. quos what produces dread or disgust. (Spurrell). a buffalo. bobal. insect. Parolone. bogk. buculus. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. W. Bible. to take fright. Mid. The final guttural of W. See The name terror). buffle. the buggaboo w. Stalder bog. bogle. terrifying ward. A similar applica. Same as buffle. proud. protuberant. to bellow. It. bug-bear. thus connected with bug. booggen. troll. Magy. Big. bogil bo (e. An ornament of female dress condread. threatening. great or bug words. The name of bug is — . E. 493. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. with more or less modification represents bau. a bug-bear. a rabme.Fr. biignt. saucy. banian boube. also a bug-bear. high. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. tion of the beetle tribe. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. shepe and gootes. Fl. poggl. Deut. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. Bug. bau (Pureiglia. Lesachthal. the word is lin) bbgge. roo. is very common. bugar. earwig bau da grascha. oxen.3uhtii&:. Bogge. w. The w. . bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. It. pugaf. an object of terror. bbgni. Cheval de trombugti. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. the black a maggot.— . pugalo. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. a bugbear for children. and in child's Magy. I. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. worm. Serv. especially to beetles or winged insects. beugler. Grose. coco. bug-bear. il brutto Demonio. bogk. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. i. to roar Aasen. bwgwl. high-sounding words. and bugle. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. b'dgni. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. boa-peep. — — ' . Schmidt. Swiss ing. Lith.. to take bug. 2. . hert. to origin in the expression bugs words. big. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. boeuf sauvage. bauginti. BUGLE Tentennino.

balg. Bav. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. blow. a lump or mass. trunk of the body. Kil. bubble. Mandeville. puff. buk. the belly.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. ' . to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. a round bulky body bwlgan. of an inflated skin. From till. to undo the cargo. belly. body of an animal. Melancholy. and bulbukd. habitaculum. pulkas. bubble. G. or of what is shaped like a bubble. bulk. balco. Bulch. a. m um Placentiae. wallet. mass. . globule bolg-lhuingey. bullka. hull of a ship. the carcase. knob. bubbling up. straight will he 2. The Walach.' Cot. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. bulk or capacity of anything. sedes. the capacity or burden of a ship. lump. Othello.— . pouch builgeadh. knob. the body Du. — Bulb. hold or bilge of a ship. bolgan. . A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. Gr. pimple. a stage or scaffold. belgr. w. thorax buick. swell. or cargo of a ship. bugue. a globe. belly. the contents of the hold. belly. skin of an animal. bolg. He found a country fellow dead drunk. beuck. husk. Pm. swollen. knobby. to bubble up. bulcke. belly Sw. . to swell. to puff up bolginn. to belly out. PoXj3a. Boss^. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. . swollen OE. bed of a river. . projection. bolgna. as water beginning to boil bolg. Pr. Pr. It. bladder. skin bag. or feminine termination gives Bav. vulva. . bulka. bolnyn. domicilium. to swell. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. ' . bulk is a partition of boards. a straw corn-vessel. bulked or bumped out. bulgen. buhe. the potato G.' Palsgr. and N. bolle. formed a farm. OSw. bulle. Lith. to bol. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. bo. the head of an onion. I. were a habitation. a leathern sack or portmanteau. Palco. cultivate. bol. See how this tode bolneth. bolle. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. bag. To Build. has bulbuk. bulki. bulge or bilge. belly van de kerche. snorting on a bulk. balcone. belly Cat. to build. blister. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth.d. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. bolgia. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. to spring. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. swell. to bubble up Pol. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. biilken. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. the position of liquids in the word In English. — — . at riufa bulkann. Hal. bubble {palgan tiisge. Muratori. principal portion. Lat. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. For the latter sense ' — My . Lith. a heap. bole. . to blow. Bolke or hepe. hollow. G. bolso. . a dint in a metal . . and put it home. Bulge. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. bulge or convex part of a cask. boulge. blister Manx bolg. in bulk. . acervus. to break bulk. a water-bubble). bunch or projection. (3oX|8oc. . Sp. leather sack. boss of a buckler. stuffed bag. trunk. bulg. dial. as it was merly written in English to bylle.'— Cot. turgeo bolnyd. the womb. bauen. a bulb Du. boss of shield. The addition of a dim. of E. a protuberance. A — ' — Bulk. chest. tumidus. bulkaf. nave or body of the church van 't schip. it again. pod ON. Jno. balgs. villa. Here stand behind this bulk.pulks. balg.' Festus. MHG. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. bubble.' Anat. bulgen. OSw. crowd. Lat. bug. cumulus. bouk. compare Da. Bourser. lump. to raise a habitation. bwlg. Lett. body. van loock. Bulk. mass. blister. bol. See Bulk. . unevenness Sw. bulne. pocket. belly. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. . anything prominent. bilge. or bear out as a full purse. 1388. ne. The radical sense is shown in Russ. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. Dan. belly. ON. bol. ball. Pm. in vessel. — . to throw out a convexity. a prominence. . body of a ship . — . ON. or. buc. a bubble Gael. bulwis. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). a leather sack or budget Fr. boss. knot in thread. Mister. trunk. Dan. head . bukr. boa. tumeo.' Fl. to gather. byli. — — . G. bauch. In the representation of natural sounds. whence bylja. swell. Gr. jnake bulch. belgja. . bolgetta. — — . ' . boss. bouge. See bollekeii next article. in Sc. bulbus. herd^ swarm pulkd. a. . a bubble. ^ — . bale. on.). inhabit. Hence e. skin flayed whole. With these must probably be classed ON. womb. gebolgen. . bellows builgean. bulbe. bua. as well as is very variable. Ptg. a tuberous or bulbous root . be protuberant. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. a bunch. bulbe.

from baula. many to protuberant objects. a seal. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. &c. blunt. to bubble. Lith. 2. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. Cot. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. boss or stud. a bulox polos. See Billet. Gold or silver uncoined.'— ' Palsgr. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. — — Bull. G. is called a ball. is said to make a loud bellowing noise.. Du. dial. Bullbeggar. And The word bullerbak. as geting. It. leraures nocturni nigri. a hobgoblin. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. The final element tergeist. bulk. dim. eth and frighteth. The male W. and thence terror.D. pollach. It. bwla. bauli. Eullrusli. a bul-begger. bullern. from Fr. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. lumpish. large of its kind.D. of boule. ba. bole or trunk of a tree. any embossed work. to tical with Sw. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb.Fris. bolli. witches. bollos de relieve. A papal rescript. Fr. bullus. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. a blockhead.Gr. balgeting. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. of the ox kind. w. Pl. bubble. Bully.. to seal. w. a little fish nearly all head. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. a wasp. N. brass-headed nail . a bowl. bulla. W. A lace tree. polten. — Fl. bal. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. it is boulet de canon. spirits. in the sense of base metal. from the use of the equivalent terms. Gael. G. hhint. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. the matrix or die . poli-cheannan. boillon. also a parFl. The bullfrog. /SouWivu. a seal. This word is used in several senses. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. bullebak. bietebau. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. coarse. billoti in Fr. bullocks. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. from the noise. a beam or rafter. from the Lat. thick. as the ornanails. bugbear. a bull. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. See Bowl. stud. lumpheaded . Sp. a bull Swiss bullen. stud. pwl. bollon. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. Fr. boss. bellow. a hornet. any great-headed or studded nail. whence bullire. bulloi. Du. as It. it may be observed that a bullet in E. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. bolla. Bret. G. a scare-bug. bulla. however. as a mill-dam or the like.D. G. stupid . bouillon. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. bulderen. 2. bwlas. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. pimple. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. sloes. — A tition in a ship. to emboss . i.' do not go by the dangerous water. child by the represents the hobgoblin. elves. to boil. Bullace. blister. Pm..lle de fusil. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. large. bulle. penbwl. billon. bulke. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. bouillon. a framework of balks. poltern. bwbach. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. whence Mod. Bullet. bollar. stamped money. Du. stamp. a cow. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. round glass phial. b2iggaboo. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . BuUiou. ON. The wild plum. bullos. in N. a hobgoblin. scarecrow. tition of deals instead of a wall. bolli. urchens. on the contrary. also of the tadpole or young frog. from Lat. a tadpole . bellocier. beams or boards. a noisy violent fellow. which may probably be the origin of the name. poll-cheannach. Du. Dan. as in E. bolos Fr. and vellon in Sp. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch.. a stud. 3. a tadpole. signifying roaring. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. is of a class with Pl. embossed work. the seal affixed to the document. Bullfrog. assito. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. but is more probably iden- palchetto. Scot's Deso. . baula. BulUiead. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. Terriculamentum. boulct. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. I. to bellow. bulk of a thing. of Witchcr. biitzibau.

to dun. buene.the ramparts. block-werck. The Stat. propugnaculum. bol-werck. 'lega. To bum. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. polterer. noise. clamour.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. 9 E. ground. hum. scaffold. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. a stage. honunele.' for the purpose of exchange. buller-brook. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. G.' Stat. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. bombilare. Thus ' ble. from boden. III. IV. resonare. a noisy blustering fellow. furious man. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. c. Du. — bombam?nen. vallum. un faux brave. bodem. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. Bully-rock. From the notion of a humming. to terrify by noise and clamour. a boisterous. — Bump. To bum. bastion. blunder-buss. Du. Philip le Bel in Due. Bum-bailiff. a blunderhead.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. perturbare saevis dictis. to . provides. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. violent overbearing person. the soil. 10.d. violent. is bullion — A — buller. argentum and silver. Hence bom and ban. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. is called bumping or bells. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. baluarte.' agger. Hence — . Bum.' ' mettre au billon. John). A. buller-bas. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . 4 Hen. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. buller-jaan (bully. ^i^/«. ierd-boeyme. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. Fris. 1305. G. BULLY with which coins were stamped. agrees with e. Fr. botm.. — Bumto . biihne. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. 14. buller-bas. — Boom. G. For bottom. Fris. IIL st. boulevard. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. To bully is to bluster. Kil. up was termed monnaie de billon.D. &c. ON. 1687). Bully. boene. To Bum. The Sw. beat a — Hal. by corruption boulevart. blunder-buss. Kiittner. and porter au billon. blaterare. a bumble-. bommele. 2. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. ^Bully-rook.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. St.' reals of standard currency.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. 2. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. to drum Lat. to make a droning Du. a. Hal. sound. bolderen. bottom. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. c. Miege in Hal. Etym. c. legaggio di metallo. minari verbulderen. bottn. boisterous fellow. primarily the ramparts of a town. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . It. or a humblebee. droning. a hectoring. a floor. The decried coin. bustle. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. ierd-beame.' Again. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. bulderen. poltem. buller-bak. or work of defence. The cry of the bittern. The 27 Ed. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. bomtnen.D. Du. AS. D.. then in general a rampart. — — plate d'argent. provides. to make a noise . on the other hand. intonare. Kil. debacchari. 2. Sw. Bailey. but now is the central part of the town.

boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. binge. bunkc. stump. Then. explaining E. Bung^. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. to ' . bunke. . Du. throw down with a bang. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. a person employed to dun one for a debt. &c. to thump. tundo. a boss Lith. bunken. He buncheth me and beateth me. lungeous. bmike. bunch— Hal. mto Sp. a tail (Macleod). 114 BUMBOAT Bun. banga. w. — round fruit. Probably for bun-boot. — — Bun. to beat. buns. Pl. bottom.. awkward. while bulch was traced through Gris. pwmpl. bulscha. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. w. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). passes Sw. . Fr. . — — — — ' — knock. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. awkward clown. stump. stem or base. stock. bugnet. See Bunch. or grete knobbe. a Sp. a dried hemp-stalk. —Bunny. pumpurras.-^Fl. bulse. trunk. stalk. Holland and Flanders. Mrs Baker. bull. — Marine Diet.D. bongie. callus. a rabbit. Sc. stubble Manx bun. so the form btmk.^Cot. Bunch. a knob. . Bumpkin. truss E. . strike E. bunki. Sc. bun eich. blain. bannock. boi7ieog. bunan. A Du. lenten loaves. a heap or cluster. Fl. A clumsy. stock. stubble of beans. Probably from bump. an old stump of a horse. Again. . bugnone. bune or boon. as we have seen E. poumpido. bund. Bumboat. applied to young persons.! .P. Gael. round mass of anything. bungersome. pumpa. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. a bump. a lump on the foot bunny. bumtel. Pm. a button. a round mass . bans. bamgetroffen. 1. il me pousse. Daal bu7iseti. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. bunka. should probably be a short tail.).D. He fult dat et bunsede. bun. Bunewand. See Boss. It. ner. Pr. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. Forby. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. bottom. calamus. to . one ever saw the word in that shape. gibbus. botn. as in other cases. any round knob or bunch.pummel. a swelling. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. a bowl P1. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again.. pwmpio. Fr. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. to . hdk passing and E. a hump. bon. foundation w. nor would it concern the public if he did. a hemp-stalk. and related with ON. butt end. a pocket Sw. — stalk . Bunk. bugno. To bam. Pl. clumsy. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. Bun. a heap. Pm. noise. a knob . a bunch Magy. Related on the one side to Pl. bung. Radically identical with Dan. large. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. Bump. Thus e.S. . Bunch. or to the mass by which it is given. . Hence E. a wallet. dial. Moor. a knotty stick) Sw. bun with ON. pompon. . inconsiderately.— Pr. a heap OSw. Li cake. gibber. bunsen. Hal. a into Dan. a knock. Ir. to bang ON. to knock . abrupt manbuns-wise. knuckles. a rabbit. Roding. a bud. H. Suffolk bonnka. a purse . to beat. Dunchyn or bunchyn. Gael. banke. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. cluster. a large . Bums it's hit. hay stubble . S. from bunsen. signifying one who does things in a thumping. bunnion. and signifies consequently a mass. a. a swelling from a blow. a. forms. root. a boil (punkos bot. a bag or sack. are dim. from knock) It. Hal. any round knob or bunch. bolsa. a heap Wall. bunny. . to strike so as to give a dull sound. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. a heap. Hal. dial. lump. clown. knob or heap. to bang down. E. bottom bun feoir. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. E. bugno.— Bunnion. bundle.' Palsgr. a pumpion or gourd. Bumsen. pompette. bunt. bumsen. bump. .' Bun. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. a bunch. bum-boot.D. knochen. the tail of a hare. BUNCH bum-bailiff. especially girls. bunga. Dan.D. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. bonnock. bmidt. pwmp. Hal. bignet. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . Bang sen. E. bonge. seems to unite Gael. to bang. — — de dor bunsen. a dry No . bunga. Lang. bonuach. Manx bonkan. Bony. ! — knocking. OSw. Kyx or bunne. . the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. a boil or blain.' he fell with a bang. also for taking a pilot to a ship. protuberance. . Dan. bulto. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. poumpi. bu<rnone. strapping. the Pr. Pm. . a knob. to swell out E. root. See Bounce. — — Bun.

To bunt. bondel-loos. Bret. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. the middle part of it. klimpem. bummle. bourjon. Sw. It. a bungler. to stop. The Fr. bongun. bourgeon. klempern. fascis. stiimpeln. fetters. Burble. to Somerset is to sift. Johansen. So in Pol. whence in bure. tap. — — . clogs. OFr. to gingle. halm-tapp. bungande. to strum on an instrument. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. Bung of a tonne or Lith. B. bunsen. bourguignote. to push ghebondte. Russ. whence bunting. driving in the bung. a wisp of hay or straw. bommen. a drum . See Bourdon. boucher. buove. bag to catch the wind. Bung. or putting forth of a vine. The word is flags are made. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. Sp. and E. a bunch Burbulas. a bung. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker.punt. bondelj bundell. bang. The Magy. also a piinple in the face. the float of an bundle. bondeau. Sp. bote. Lat. bindini. . to float. A load. bounta. bangla. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. to kick. byrthen. to bear. the young cloth used for sifting flour. to bungle. and bomme. Cot. . — — To Bungle. properly a Burgundian helmet. was formerly pronounced buro. boj. See Borel. bunta. a sort of helmet. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . colligatio. coassatio et Du. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. to hum. bon. tapp (whence tceppa. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. AS. noise. bury. Sp. G. to bud forth. The Italian buio. See Barbarous. p. and now more Bailey. . knock. bangla. bui. bouche. punishments for prisoners. To Bunt. an anchor buoy. to shove. To burgeon. to stnmi on an instrument. a cork. dark. G. anchor or of a net boyar. Biu'geon. bouchon. bang. Prov. Rietz. to cobble. Burden. loosed from bonds. bondon. Bunt. the stopper of a cask). or tuft. with the head. Burly. racket. are from bouscfie. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. Palsgr. Sp. N. to hum. rumble as the bowels. however. buret. bundel. bonde. bolting-cloth. contignatio. would be the earliest float for an anchor. to work at carpentry bangan. Fr. dial. to hum. A bubble. Bunny. bourion. to bolt meal. bonde. the loose open grow big about or gross. bou^e. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards.— . buret. stocks or such OSw. Burganet. or used as a receptacle for papers. ' — work . of a song. byndel. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. OFr. The belly or hollow of a sail. OG. Fr. Bunting. tinkle. Hal. to knock. reddish brown. stilmpern. working in wood (especially with an axe). to push with the head del. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. modem bummle. So Du. ho-tapp. to push. 202. a botch. from beran. . a bunch. dark grey bura. Fl. do a thing bunglingly. Prov. E. bundle. AS. guggle as water. something bound together (Mrs Baker). bongani. to in to stop the hole. Fr. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. clumsy performance. Cat. burion. Fr. bove. Sw. a water bubble made by rain. bimge. Sw. Compare G. russet. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. To do anything awk- wardly. dicimus rufum. Du. knocking. sprig. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. gyves. boya. unskilful working. — . knocking. to knock. to pype. generally known as the material of which bud. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. biirde. the bung of a barrel Lim. buie. — Bureau. Burden. borgonota. that the primitive meaning of shackle . la Borgonota. See Bun. on. boil or bubble up. banghagr. especially in wood. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. ghebundte. on. dial. to resound. B. . * Buoy. to botch. and van t' vat. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. bondir. bundt. to stop. shove . A Dan. burboloti. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing.Fris. to work ineffectually.D. to gingle. boei. a boye. banga. Banff. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. Pl.' Festus in Diez. Bundle. Kil. The stopper for the hole in a boia. racket . Muratori. the noise of drums. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. borboUar. — btiruii. shackles. and the Sw. in is Fr. is originally a wisp or bunch . and Du. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. tinker . bond.

blow. OFr. buirleadh. born.or bubbling up. to fiy. protuberance.Ps. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. brunna.. the J in OFr.' a jibe. OFr. water. broil. brynsten. brinii. as the / in purl. ridicule.. to roar. to sharpen on a whetstone. boura. a bubble. Schm. Burly. Burler.' Cot. flocks. Compare also Piedm. is termed burling. swell up or strout out. to roar 5. to polish helmets. burren. like the wind in trees. in Schm. is an Thus G. G. to sharpen. to roar (as lions. brinna. is connected with brim. to burn. to puff. and the Burin.). roguing beggars. Limousin bourdo. Swiss Rom. fire. must be explained on the same principle from G. explaining Sp. to make a So from Fin. like straw or small .latus rei angulatas talikoincn. Bav. jest of. Swiss Rom. a bud. a blaze. to burgen or wax big. Bret. Sw. ample of polishing metal. to surge. Burgess. compared with G. schleiffen. Burgher. bud or sprout forth. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. the roaring surge of the — — — . condemnentur morti. brim or edge of anything. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. become big and proud. to murmur. from the roaring sound of flame. brandung. bourou. robber. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. purling. brustle. to tell lies. to swell oneself out as birds borras. brinnen or Also ein roar. lorra. brima.j'own. bunch. Todd. See Burgeon. leo Fin. G. From Fr. Sw. like. spring-water bumach. to ridicule. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. borrelen. Supp. to bourda. a jest. — — . taunt. occupying much space. brustolare. to hum. bourd.). sidiary element. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling.— Pr. Hence Bridel. borracka. sea. borni.ireui£r:e. to bud . a gurgling ^. laer. The primary origin of the word. . to burn. ON. 122. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. to effervesce. from bryii. burgen. A — — . embraser. he rustle. brook. sbornoi. toast. barrel. an edge. &c. language of folly or ridicule. crackle wood in burning Hal. Pr. fires up. Walach. brAler. Probably a modifica. to grind on a whetstone. It is probable indeed that Fr. brunnen. ends of thread. Probably. . — Han to bruser op. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis.— . to Gael. Bestiary. Antiq. a whetstone. BURNISH i5«r/. to have acquired the sense of polishing. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. to polish. warbling. the flocks. brausen. In the manu. abourioner. ' rugiens. dial. It. A burl. briis^. brusler being a faulty spelling. a wine skin. In the same way ON. burgi latro. OE. with little iron nippers called burling irons. a well. bururus. borr. repartee . pur (see Burgeon). a margin. to roar. burly. bruzir. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. swelling borr-shuil. tumentum. brunnr. Fr. It. . the word seems Pm. bears. From the same root E. to bouronna. as of suggests. to swell with pride. The Gael. bourglairs. Lang. to polish. burgensis. It. burgeois. big. thence. E. lerre. The in. See under Bore. boiirre. brasa. to swell. Pren7ien. watery. bremmen. bururus. purra. Fr. Dief. tion of the root which gave the OE. pressa puret. — . sicut sound. and OG. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. brun. grancelli. to puff up borr^ . Lang. boure. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. to roar. Burgh. Burn. has also borr. Cot. Nat. Gael. See Berough. Fl. as Diefenbach bud. . So also Sw. Bouffer.bryna. — . to rub. with Dan. Pm. surge or dashing of the sea . Burlesque. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. Burglar. purrata. brimmen. a prominent eye borracka. to set on fire. joking. a bubble to spring as water. OE.. and Dan. a lie. Prov. angular . A legal term from the Lat. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. to To Bum. borujon. N. from Lat. a knob. to ridicule.sharpen. burlare. ^ttsa. i5«r4 biiirte. tahkoa. — — . brunir. a fountain. which has given much trouble to etymologists. to give an edge to. j. Fl. ii6 BURGESS Gael. bruse. burle of cloth. knob. an &c. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike.. explaining the E. Goth. it of the knots. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu.). ends of thread. singe or scorch with fire. Fr. as in cousteau. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. bouril. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. Sp. tahko. 56. to roar. mockery. a bladder. Bav. a jest. Burryn. a spring a robber. burn. ^Notk. — — . a purling hiwe brennen. See Burr. de Vaud. and the Burnish. de Vaud. Castrais bourril. brase.. the er is a dresser of cloth.

any kind of quilting or stuffing. idiom if 4. It. Mid. The root forms brik. preserve. as for the protection of a child's head. brisd. bur. bres- — tan. beurs. Burser. &c. Burr is related to buzz as protect. brist. Dan. Burse. berstan. iii. bourrelet. Brun on bane. borsa. To Burst. Hal. bourse. tomb. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. brittle. and spelling. also ' any such trash as chaff. ptcrren. a port. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. peluca to Fr. birgan. moss.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. a sepulchre. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. brico. bris. burial place. save. Du. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. be more in accordance with AS. Fr. as in Northumberland. buscha. Port. byrstan. to stuff. and. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. bourre. its own protection. leather. whirr and burr. g. as from Sp. Burse. root borr. AS. Compare also OE. Sw. &c. husks. shales. talk fast and indistinctly. byrsa. force. Fr.. byrgels. explained E. Beowulf. of England. brjota. . It. an annular swelling. an exchange. beorgan. barza. byrgan. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. Fr. ON. brizeto. bristeach. . the — — castle or fortress. In a met. impetus. borrow. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. to hide . whence Kil. birr. OHG. to burst. to buzz. hair. 225. ' BURR AS. ber•whirr to whizz. to P'air. keep. some people in pronouncing the letter r. karborre. Shelter. Burr. briso. bergen. a pad. borsa. shelter. to mutter Sw. Fris. from whence we pass through Sp. blurra. the officer who bears the purse. burgisli. borsia. brickie. In OE. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh.' The same word with burgh. Bursar. as it is still pronounced in N. brittle. Sexy. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. also all such stuff as hay. and thence flocks 'of wool. bourrer. Jam. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. dial. brokil and brotil. See Bulge. bolsa to It. but it is more probably a development of It. borre. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. of a body hurled through the air. pipaa. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. chips or anything else Fl. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. cover. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. caer is a — — — ' ' : . perruque. casting bullets. i5(7&a. See Burgeon. to save. preserve. briketo. 2. .Lat. to hide. shearing of cloth.' edge grew weak.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. brest. from AS. verbergen. bourlet. bristen. S w. borra. byrgen. byrigels.' Harris in Todd. I. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . purr. a place of defence. G. G. stuffing. Cot. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. a barn or cupboard. straw. — Translated by Kemble. brast. burre. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. a morsel. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . any rapid whirling biarga. birigean. ' ' — — burren. brit. ultimately resting on the Gael. dial. brista. briser. — Clare. AS. 5150. whirr. Swiss burren. bolgia. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. -burse. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. britar. signifying protrude. swell. break . a purse. To Bury. cwning-gaer. shuffling. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. that birds make their nests with. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. borre. mentioned under Burgeon. prsnuti. fortify. bersten. and met. A rabbit burmotion. burra. -Grisons bulscha. a rabbit burrow. to break. Burrow. Sw. foretell great storms at 3. Hence Fr. ON. bourse. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. This word seems safety. OHG. appears under the Lang.— . Gael. a wallet or scrip. a purse. Du. With a slightly different ghen. borra. brisdeach. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. bris. brown. makes the disbursements of the college. bur. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. a. a harness or collar maker) . to bury . E. Burial. when they spring So in W. brist. from Fr. coo. skin.

in OE. iriCtf -ifoe.Lat. bush. a troop. ' . and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. brake. box wood to bush. Thus Froister .' sheath. ' . a corpse). to dress. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft.— ' ii8 {chreo. to stop. Harold G. rad.' The buskin is said Bret. condere. The primary sense of hair . They busked and malced them boun. -idis. Du. a bunch of twigs. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. bos. a clot of phlegm sart. bairgan. 'at bua sik. OFr. at bua sig. . After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi.Lat. then a tuft Sp.-^Bushel. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. or — Busk. Ptg. Fris. In to Brutaine. to swell. The word frequency with which to busk is used. ch). Thence byrigean. bossida. buskr. a bush. at buast. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. in the For Skirnis . occultare K. that the lend had lorn thorn. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. boistel. wisp. and from the Fr. BUSH hreaw. buysschen. a gun biichse. a box. preserve. Sw. thicket {buski. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. a little box Dan. . to forest of Eyda. from the ON. Sir Tristram. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen.P. ' . gave Lat. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. It. Bush. bramble. bussare. borghen. The bone in a woman's stays.' a box. to enclose in a case or box. bunch. to dress. Le roy Richard mort. to turn. a bunch. Layamon. busse. borcegui. bussellus. busk. oneself. OFr. Mid.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. 2. . . bustellus. abdere. bo7ich (Fr. to direct one's course towards.gur bidst austur um EySascog. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. truasc. See Bust. induere vestes . brodequin tout noir. projection. bulge. basse. lump. 410. signifying to entomb.' The word is explained by — — . the idea of knocking. bulk. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. a wisp. a grove bosch van haer. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. bousche. tuft. Du. buxida. bossen. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. hjul-bosse. sur une litifere. we have Fr. . ' —P. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . a tuft of hair. bundle * Buskin. make ready. Du. bosc. to sepulchre. cluster. is thus accounted for. Brunne. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. to prepare. burial mound. To prepare. bosch (a diminutive ?). which would later have truast. a box for measuring corn. boissa. fiast. aheap of stones. a -tavern bush. boisseau. brodiquin. G. boucher. ieorh. Fr. and not directly (as Du. Bouchet. grapes. to bend one's steps. And her ful sone tuft.) to hide in the ground. boiste. Brunne. Bush. biichse. as synonymous with to inake one boun. verb. R. a tuft guini. a bush. a been written buasc. protect . thicket of thorns . diminutives. a tuft. : — . a tuft. boxta. bouche. The radical idea is seen in Goth. tow. il fut couch6 l^jkema). whence bouchon. defence. the past participle of the same verb bua. dead. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. Malberg. and thence Mid. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. barsc in Heimskringla. bundle. the land. ' . buxula. beorgan. a box. bausen. apparently a secondary verb. knot. buxta. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. whente beorg. a hump. hunch Du. qualster-boscken. bousse. or the like. See Box. besom). bussel. It. to bury. a rampart. . bua. bousIn the other copy ser. for at buasc. and we actually find bushel. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. the Moors and of Morocco. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. Prov. berghen. and he cites wisp bauschen. bush. basse.fiasc. —Busk. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. borseof trees. To Busk. a bundle. bustula. bosta. AS. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. van wijnbesien. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. Sc. roquies. whence at bua sik. mount. barst. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. AS. Gr. to keep. So from Fr. as boun is simply buinn. to bow. Sibriht that I of told. clusprobably Morocco leather. busken.boisteau.

ON. bacio. The proceedings of Parliament. or chest in which the vitals are contained. Box. To Bustle. putschen. bust. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. I. its slowness of flight. — Thus we should have mocherqui. the breast. — hardly be distinct from Fr. a fishing vessel. I. putta. busch. a mouth. inde discurro et operosus sum. a log. a projection. busto. 2. See Boss. stump. a sleeveless truss or doublet. basiuin. So Wes- terwald munds. bisgung. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. a kiss. Sw. plated body or other quilted thing. I go strepo) . Busk. a blow. ' bistardej It. body without arms and legs. Fr. Swiss butschen. mons. the point of a lance. 119 bi{tr. A A busquer (Sigart). to knock . brostia as well as bostia. pussa. log . Du. Bulch. Fris. buc. Fl. to make use of. Comp. . Cot. Fr. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. the long. trunk. tuft. a bust. occupation. btcc. ^A. a boat or small vessel . bu. a stroke of wind. beezig. representing a blow. kiss. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). bisegung. bus and Pol. Lang. the trunk. arbor ramis trunGloss. an affair. Bust. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. of the human body (Grandg.> Also written buskle. bruskras well as buskr. ottarda. avuDiez.' ON. 7o\. buc. tarda. bysgian. buc. and supposes that the common Arab. of a doublet. signifying trunk of a the body. a. I bustle. mouth. morsequi. also a It. bnist. 22. Lat. a great billet Cot. biseg. small. Nained from Proximse iis zia. body of garment. body of a man. 2l box. also a busk. bist. besongne. Hal. a bunch of flowers . Port.bezig. Business. bulk.— . Walach. busq. Bav. and also a sounding blow. biist. On the other hand. mohedairova. to make a splash in the water. Prov. an ostrich. stem.d. mouth. bisg. Cat. B. to bustle. chest. Xerqui. especially of a woman's dress. lump. knock. Sp. utarda. a blow. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. to occupy.pjik. beso. mosequin. trunk. abotarda. kiss. a kiss of reverence. buyse. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. and then with avis again prefixed. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . bussa. bust. austarda. — . forms morseqiiill. bucha. mogangas from gonj. thick end. Prov. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. a kiss. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. a bush. a ship of some size. 1372. To hurry or make a great B. trunk of a tree. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. would explain the G. busch. Bust. The Prov. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. AS. love gestures. a busk. smack. Hence probably au-tarda. forest. lip. 10. busche. Buss. So in Fin. hipista. outarde. statue of the upper part of Fr. The form brust. betarda. body. baiser. says. — — — — It is like the smouldering. Rouchi. — clattering about. windbutsch. business. knock. employment bisgan. borcegui. butz. occupied bezigen.D. Busitiess :c3iVi . otarda. a kiss. or avutarda. stump. body of a woman's dress It. A great sluggish fowl. vessel employed in the herring fishery. box. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. With respect to bust. body. Prov. ship Sp. bussen. Bustard. bus. in Diaz Gris. Busy. 1555. . With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. worn to make the body straight . Pol. trunk of Cot.Lat. brut. sunt quas Hispania aves . a backstock. — — difications of the same word. Fr. Lindenbr. fe^a.). bus. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. busy. and by transposition morchequi. brusc. buta. a large cljest or particular applibox. ' BUSY 2. ON. as in moharra from harbe. kupata. buz. bustla. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. but. ViM. from jnund. A wisp. lip.' Plin. busc. abutarda. buquer. BUSS Dozy from Arab.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. to Swab. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. also a flagon. a Mid. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. bysgje. stir. bukr. outard. Namur — Champagne Fr. or Cherqui. crack . from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. a tree. work. the body without arms busque. snout. a bulk or trunk without a head. Edrtst. Sp. cata — . Gael. Sp. geidha. made stiff. besoigAe. busta. as in ON. sera. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. Fr. lips. body . a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa.

young mais. beta. biitait slaughterer of goats . So in Italian from becco. botija. . Butcher. a baiTel . butan ce. without punishment . original sense of without. bole of a tree. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. bouz. bout. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. Lang. bounds of. a goat (and not besides . from boc.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. bolgia. the servant in charge of the original object. A A . as Pantler. body of a shirt w. able. buta. properly a butan wite. collection of casks. beyond the Piedm. bous. large barrel. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. the jug and in E. without buiten-man. a wooden cask. OFr. equivalent of AS. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . slaughter-house. But It. botilla. belly. Du. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. be out. Wall. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum._ bitten j biiten door. Prov. the mouth). the full expres. a bottle. ways. . botte. The E. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. "PLT) . rotundity of the body. Tooke's dis. an outlaw from bouche. belly. G. beccaro. If that where now we should compiler. tinction between but.in which his brethren are included. the Perhaps besogne — . besides that . It. calf. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. earthen which the debtor has adverted. Fr. bag. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. bocin. the name must have arisen before the within. — we acle for liquors. bouteillier. except.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. Ben-house. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. Butler. Buttery. moreover. in addition. a goat. without law. trunk. gives at least two pounds sterling. But when will you pay it ? the belly. bola. belly. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done.streets.' — — ' .The Sp. and bot. a butcher . I20 la Court BUT du Roi.' there is really a negation to be supplied. Sp. Sp. boquier.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. bountifully. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. the bottles. bitten dai. and with It. viz. from as. the precise correlative of but. Butt. boucher. being wholly unten. to-boot. Where at an earthen jar . ' There is leathern bottle. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. beccaria. those in beccaio.' Thus Chaucer says. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. or what in in charge of the pantry. without the house kept in bottles. a budget. by the mode in which he is treated. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. Whatever is in addition to Butler. As a conjunction but is in every portion.' ' write. a barrel. without. — . Sp. outside that moreover. skin-bag. the body of an animal. Fr. bitlga. sup- meat and drink. of the wine and drink. is well explained by Tooke. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. a butchery. ' Besides all that. bol. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. a small winebag. Here the but implies the existence of an. the principal apartment. bochier. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . my is called the adversative use of but. which the word corresponds to the Fr. bolr. barriga. butan. a cask. the present day we should say. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. the body of a tree or of a man. ont jhi^ton. rumpf. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. Lang. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. but one thing. But In Sc. is put in a class by himself. binnan. hull of a ship. the trunk or body of an animal. boteria. bhcciero. viz. add. we find ben. are. that which would be translated by Fr. wooden receptthing to be done. also a hollow vessel . bisgung.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. bute. AS. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. hollow case. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. a butcher.jamin.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. Fr. then hoUow trunk. bodifie. similar train of thought is seen in ON. and the real origin of the and within . plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. a leathern bag. ox. (children) boc. the store of ten. the belly. calf of the ' say. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. without care. mais. boccino. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril.

The word body itself seems identical with G.thum and not button. the prick in the middle of a target. So in English pimples were fora clod. a heap of merly called pushes.to push. as in G. any short thick thing. a but in the W. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. Buttock. aim whence to make a support to a wall. An erection built up as a Fr. end . or person Schmeller . suddenly . botten. — . a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . botta. both. geboogsaem. Schmell. To Butt. W. a boss. botto. bot blijven staan. humble. to boult flour.' thick from shaking. at. to cast. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. Du.rejected thing. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. Bav. nursling. ment being supposed to resemble butter. poke. Boutant. put. to strike. a cask. a dle . — — — — . Gris. to so close to the Fr. thrust forwards. lams-bout. . Perhaps corrupted Lat. from rejeter. — . to butt. Fr. a stump or club foot. Kil. to be con. potacha. — A . a ribbed glass for dient. a stroke di animal. boil. From the noise of drinkables in a house. Grandg. tout seat or breech. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. Gael.— BUTT leg . Hal. trapu. nourrissons. a boss. rabodd. in the R. Fr. so as to make a sounding blow. what is kept in a blow. a corner horses' hoofs. on. dripping. bottig. stump of a tree Fr. boiUer. short thick thing pimple. butter. Du. a. Halma. pwt. Gr. a buttrice. &c. but. a button. coxa. butte. Fr. a bot. to bow. boter-schijte. then the thigh or leg of an to push . boutis. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. of the present day. is formed the augmentative buttatich. as if from Povg. from stossen. stump. It. boding. to femur. Fr. a flying buttress. Buttress. a barrel. nourrisson. large head. caput scapula bout van f been. gigot. R. butz. a bun. boutoir. a. clumsy . Bav. the edge forwards. Fr. bouton. an ox. to thrust. the thick end. butte. a mound of turf in a field to sup. The Bavarian potig. striking end. Buttrice. Butter-glass. Sp. able that Chaucer. a bolt. AS. having a rotundity . of E. G. From Du. bot. butt. From Grisons biitt. W. bot. buttern. Butter. bodi. leg of lamb. bouter. Lang. a little push . the trunk. bottich. w. A — — — . strike. an etwas anstossen. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. obeto shake backwards and forwards.. butteln. Boutje. the thigh of a goose. to thrust Fr. fle>(ible. Mur-buttant. botwm. i. botte. bocsam. to thrust. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. To strike with the head bags. the store of while bottich. Cot. the Butter-fly. to touch at the end. e. buter. grease that sets by merely standing. Btetter-schmalz. -ez. buttare. To come full butt against a butts. to abut on. povrvpov. boter-vogel. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . obedient.against another which needs support . Kil.. to push earth . a large belly. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. give way. thrust. Hal. boteria. to thrust. to thrust . bouton. pwtiaw. thick. Du. to heap up earth or ihrust. bout. boter-vliege. Schmell. a button. fowl. bud. a buttress Cot. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. buhsom. a hill. bata. &c. clunis. butt. a thrust the thigh-bone. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. Fr. buttals. a leg of mutton.arbre. from notirrir. — A . as rejeton. submit shaking up salad sauce. courtaud. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. the rosebud. bout. and the true derivation boar. pied. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. Du. Du. oir spike with a k coup . Fris. to abut a stone roof. signify a cask or tub. bocgsuin. a button. to blad. butter. hillock . any small projection. by boE. or or shore post. bothog. from the large knobbed head of botto. a wall butor butt on. a blow. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. a tub. a scope. : . buttock of beef is called butr. See Butler. waste ground. Buttel-triib. . bott. but this is probably from Fr. Buttery. Kil. Bout van het schouderIt. are the strips at the edges of the field. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. * Buxom. butyrum. from bouter. a mound. a blow.putan. Fr. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. . from bugan. butt. butt of a person. to throw . Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. butter un. bouter. bodi'. Button. tress. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. botta.

bozzago. p. byar-rettr. buso. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. By-law. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . and would have been lost in E. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. AS. buzzicare. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. Dan. A by. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. also say. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. and it is of good will. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. bohte. as in Da. Mercy hight that mayde. as Fr. bylag. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. farm. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro.. to whisper. Then applied to speaking low.busardj Prov. bi. to pass by. town having separate jurisdiction. as heedless as a cock-chafer. OE. village. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. favourably to a petition. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. Verstegan in R. 116. Du.P. to jan. lb. Pecock Repressor. . bugjan. a town. bij. to stand at his side . Buzzard. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. The sense of buxom. Goth. stall. bar. to wit. — 122 BUY P. favourable. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. bei. . frabttg- To Buzz. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). bycgan. to buzz.in N. Byre. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. Etynj. to purchase for money. 21. Sw.— Diet. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. . lete. byr. and boxome of speche xviii. a borough. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. bylove. to swear with him by . buzac. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. son. big. a buzzard or puttock. A A We — — — days' wonder. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. P. To Buy. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. confusedly. Originally the law of a particular town. a by-path is a side path . abozzago. Cabal.. gracious. bauhta. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. G. from whom it was addressed. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. ON. buteoj Fr. —gracious of speech. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. byar-log. who makes abigg. & Q. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative.— P. A ful benygne buirde. ii. 3. groat in token of his good heart towards him. iii. train of thought which has become obso. tions by one. bi. The ON. \s\xy. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. Sw. depends upon a esteem in falconry. from by. Many good mological explanation. called Cabala or Tradition. 519. leges urbanse ON. cow-house. It. buzarg. blessing me with their of side. AS. jus municipii. bygge. Lat. indistinctly. a beetle. See Abie. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. bees. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. 200. good-humoured one. harty prayers and God speedes. It. to sell. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. a meke thynge with — alle. CABAL Goth.

The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. Ptg. dung. form kactal. Neckam — by the wind. chaable. cadabula. Katr-iT-aKt. and Ptg. or rush basket. vile. cacare . geese. havyar to caviare. a rope. Sp. cadabalum. a car- We convasare. disgusting such an engine was exerted. filth. . Castr. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . properly windfalls. E. cabaii. Fr. cabo. Fr. It. cadabola. (ca/coe. main. wilful). cabulus. from trabocco. a booth or hut. it would seem fundain children's language. It. Cot. nasty. heady. Mid. Du.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. It. . ! — .Lat. Choux cabus. Finn. Lith. cdble. . string. has kabbel. to hurl down. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. Due. Cabbage. or as an interjection of disMod. to strain in such a manner . dirty. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. a head (whence cabochard. Imitative of the cry of hens. It is remarkable that the Esthon. OFr. Very generally used. Brushwood — — B. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. The Sp. band. cabre. Fr. chaable.. and Or. to chatter. a cabbage . an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. Cappa in OSp. cabuccio. surripere. disgust cac. signifying properly a rope's end. Celtic. case. a covering. . accablcr. bad. is probably unconnected. a jacket Fr. cabus. Mid.Lat. gaggi. agge. cadabulum. especially shepherd's frock. the bowels. Cabinet. cabasser. &c. to hurl in Nat. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . OSp. as Diez supposes). — Kil. hut. a tunic. aakkat'a. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. Gaggle. covering. cables. cabbage. manganare. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. Kil. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. cadabulum. to put or pack up in a frail. Coticesserint Swiss aa. a cloak of felt or Cack. an engine for casting stones. a rope or cable. Mid. cabarino. — . overwhelm (Diet. for the origin of which see Carabine. kabane. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. maim. in which sense are explained The the OFr. Du. . to keep or Du. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. — the ON. w. capo. Item habeat vocant.Gr. Common to Lat. prostratio ad terram. a rope. and as we find stones Mid. caable (in legal language). hovel. head. giiare.Lat. cab. caable. caables. the Slavonian. ckaable. Cabin. OFr. manticuKil. cabo. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . traboccare. agge machen (in nurses' language). and a cabal is a conclave of persons. Due. headed. capuccio. aeggi. kabaSsen. capanna. : — from violence without blood. and the Arab. caable. su/Furari. brassica — capitata. caqueter. cabuyskoole. the Prov. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. OFr. cabas. The double a in the OFr. Fr. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. cable . Didot. cacare. Etym. a rope. Tugurium. forms indi. — . chabla. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. round or great headed. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. headed or cabbage lettuce. kabas. disgust. gatsch. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. dirt and the Fr. gaggele. cabacho. name of the projectile engine.' Due. Sp. cabre. whence Lang. a shed. origin is the OFr. dirty. . To Cabbage. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. as an expression of Gr.. or cadable. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. Antiq. to crush. stercus. — Tarbe. kabat. serious injury — In like manner It. laitue cabusse. a frail. Du. kakla. come the Fr. overwhelm. precisely in the sense of the lari E. as it must have stood in French. deponat a store closet.. — Ibid. Lang. gaban. Cablisb. kakaloH. aak! tandi like Fr. —Diet. chadabula. hoard together. vincially used in E. would correspond to cable. caboche. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. cabane.). mdhaigner. lactuca capitata. signifies down. cab lis. The name of the engine.. and Finnish lanLat. a headed cole or cabbage . Fr. Cot. gabardme. akista. calabre. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. From It. Sw. &c. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. E. It.ticula. whence Fr. 'habl. Capstan. Lat. ceach / exclamation of guages. from manganum. To steal or pocket. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. as Turk. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. originally an Gael. agga.

Sp. gabble. on. loss. a caFr. Calendar. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. cavea. kolo. Caldron. kola. calba. Du. the lump and the increase. calentar. Lat. to cage. a loaf of bread. cadenza. roller. Cadence. a lump or large piece. a wretch. —Atkinson. lime whence calcareous. its mother. calamitas. limestone. 124 prattle . a common cart. kolo. boy. Calocli. A — fall. lindrus. kail. hot. Calamary. Fr. . It. N. a calesh. kalfvan hout. kolesnitza. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). Lat. safe. the calf of the leg. To Cajole. kat. when they are said to poor. Cot. Serv. calculo. a counter used in casting accounts. Cadet. the pith or soft part of wood. calcis. kdfich. It. Lat. Lat. An open travelling chariot. collop. calx. a vessel for heating water. Fr. Lat. ratas. an ugly waggon kolaska. Cauldron. * Cade. whence calash. a reed. kolasa. kaad. the younger son of a family said to be from . colibro. a dence. reed-pen. a fever. To Calender. the pi. — — — Dan. cattivo (from Lat. form) calderone. Sw. It. a corpse. from the Chinese catty. Sw. coll. Turk. to gabble. rattaat (wheels). Fr. Russ. disease of sailors from tivus). a car. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. ben- kalf.— Calliper. kaka. lord. calesa. Calcialate. Lat. principal and interest. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. Cage. Lat. Originally from a Slavonic source. dead body. misfortune. loss. It is another form of the E. kuchen. cadaver. coop. kakulla. or prattle. wretched. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. Cake.— Cot. Gascon capdet. In the same way Fin. gavia. a circle. Du. of oxen and similar animals. calidus. cuttle-fish. chaudron. pen Mod. a wheel . pith. Calp is riadh. capCalenture. of the nature of lime to calcine. signifies a waggon. Cajol. to — Fr. Fr. ON. kalb. a calash . gabberen is identical with E. a low note. cabdillo. cage. The Lat. calendarium. kukje. A hooded carriage. one unduly indulged by. KxiKivh^o^. Lat. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. a hollow place. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. Dan. B. from the ink-bag which it contains. calentura. cage. Dan. a mischievous dial. Perhaps from w. kauwe. incolumis. to treat like lime.warmth . chetif. Tea-caddy. Lat. calibre. hence musical rhythm. gabbia. * Calibre. without loss. Cot. The Calf. whence Lat. bad . master. a small stone. hot . reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. pet lamb. javioler. — in a kiln. a waggon . a roller.— . calessa. or colpa na coise. It. From lerie. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. capitetum. calidus. or smooth Hnen cloth. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. G. cykevie. Caddy. to throw themselves into the sea. a cylinder. Flo. caioler. to compute. Calash. It. kdtr. Sp. As Du. and troublesomely attached to. from calculus. It. Mrs B. Gael. Lat. to prate much to little purpose. A . kolyasochka. The young G. En kaka br'od. gabbia. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. marrow. little chief. kaeckelenj Gr. the bore of a cannon. Turk. caldaria. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. Sp. joyous . prate. Calf of the Leg. calendrer. KaKKat. a wheel. calamus. from Gr. kage. a cake or loaf. calf of leg. kalfi. of which. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. koeck. cageoler. from calendcE. wanton.Gr. ' . . an inkstand . Roman reckoning. Pol. cadence. G. Calamity. frisky. ever and anon. a falling. especially of something soft. Arab.uv. See Kiddier. dial. . Due. Sw. a wheel . pi. calibre. Cot. taking it Sp. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. calpa. to . cake. jabber. to sleek hence a den. Fr. . so gabble corresponds with Fr. cadet. Caitiff. frolicsome kaad mund. caliche. just falling. chattering. Calandre. to heat. gaggia. Fr. for green fields. a wheel . Cadge*. Fr. a tea-chest. kolo. kalem. unruly . naXaiidpi. kolyaska. cadere. cha'cmie cadence. chaudiere. is probably delusive. A cuttle-fish. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. desire of land. (in the augm. &c. captive. to cackle . cauldron. Du. Lat. kolesb. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. . babbhng. Cadaverous. Calc-. caldarius. gaggle. Fr. Du.

moist. coluber also. calcaich. — — — — — . tapulta. kil-u-kal. to tread. CALICO Calliper-compasses. calma. CALM to press or stuff.' Winter's Tale. them &c. Bi. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. serpens. Sup. brawny. piece of bigger circuite. coulevrine. quality. So It. E.— . Sir John Smith in Grose. the Fr. coluber. Gr. drive. faint. to call. calk. Indies. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. calma. to proclaim. caliver. Fr. faint. a round of abuse. bombarda Cauma incendium. Mahn derives it from Lat. calibre. cauque. depreciatory term for a woman. Heb. sclopus. Unfledged.meaning of the word. a last. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. hallottaa. kind heat of the sun. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . saucy. try. a soldier who the It. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. to rail or scold . Mid. Ibid. and E. of a column. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. kahcwe. ' rine. skin hardened by labour. abto suppose that E. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. the heat of Now these Du. Dief. To Calk. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. colubrina. to call. Callow. AS. given. word of mouth . a successor. cahna.piicede Lat. cotton cloth. to be of a good or bad quality. to abuse . caluw. overheated. a good calling. calgua. * Callet. kallo. moso. calare.' Chaucer. kol. alta voce ploro. khalif. donderbuchs Sp. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . Kavfia. tittle-tattle.Lat. on. quA librd. which has its memory preserved in Du. klover.from Ka'tm. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. fistula. licht stuk The change from a. calme. can be distinct from ODu. harquebus or handgun. whereas in troth it is not. the hard surface of the ground. Fr. a feathers. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. couleuvre. sestus. to say. To call. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. Due.en~ kinds of firearms. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). Fin. Gael. to prattle. 'A callet of boundless tongue. sound. femme frivole et babillarde. or mould. and heat. It. dragoon. of the bore of a firearm met. sence of wind. and dragon. cauma. hot. calcare. Lat. calicot. Derived by some from Arab.. to callet. culverin. B. caillette. — Fl. the scalp or skull. Among these were the turn. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. hollaing. scold. nautique). oldire from audire. kal. Antiq. form in the kalib. callus. The origin is Gr. an adder. Sc. harden by pressure. people's remarks. the day. or caliever. whence couleuv. glotton. The primitive colubrina bombarda. . by many that the weapon Callous. calo.position is much less common than the geschut. Ptg. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. which is as much as to say. koluvre. chatter. Calico. 125 Prov. ' pert. dragonder. To drive tow or oakham. calca. however. from Calicut in the E. Call. . to hear. to cram. — — — — — . Kil. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. calclover. push violently. trull. * Caliver. calc. Du. Lang. gossiping. heat. kalla. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). a drab.' Whitby Gl. longior. The reference to heat is preserved in. bald. The word was also written cawme in OE. ululo Turk. prattle. scalmato. a. but is only a jda-kallo. u to an I in such a colubrum. the latter of chamber. qAlab. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. Ca. Hard. dial. callum. Diez. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. calat of leude demeaning. Sp. to burn. NE. calleting. form. to calk. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. Fr. Lat. Diet. whehce it was first brought. Caliph. or languishing drought is . chatter kallen.(jaa= ice). colubraria canna. Fr. to affirm. Sp. having a thick skin. kal. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram.' Slange. Mil. To century was Squalibre. diameter of a ball. Kil. Calm. KaXka. According to Jal (Gl. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. and sometimes a handgun. vulgo Coluvrine. Fin. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. kael. i. ram. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. serpentina. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. overscalmaccio. voice. done with heat Alt. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. calibre. water-tight. heat. calor.' But it is hard Du. quiet. Turk. calvus. the Fr.

whence Fr. Sp. also an eatmg sore. at the ends. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. cam^e. across — Bellenden in Jam. crooked-stick. Lat. lie level. It. a' Sc. to jut. the heat. The Grisons cauina. Cameo. nia. cup.— Hackluyt in R. Fr. Lat. field . It. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. samon. higher in the middle than Fr. Turk. w. to avoid enemy in their shirts. clothed in white.conduit-pipe. Canal Channel. Lat. the spersed with white flakes like curd. to warp. Arab. slander. died in 1526. Palsgr. camp. Cambric. canistrum. Camp. calutmiia. chamold man. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. a field Greek monk. chommer. fair. cup. Kakoycpos. or hollow of a flower. salmon. — B. chandelle. the calix. campagna. arch. the type of a hollow pipe. Lat. Cot. Fr. to bend. frank and sincandidatus. Cambray. mg Canister. crooked. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. Mod.' Forme of Cury in Way. a may have acquired that signification from plain. cancer.. cambre. cere : Lat. to bend.—Jam. unwater chamelot ._ kamm. campaign. Fr. catmneo. to break. cAouma. champ. It. a large drinking . candidus. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. Cambrav—Cam. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. Gr. a. water chamlet . Candy. Calver of cane. is Cambering. champagne. camber-nosed. India Islands. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. It. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. KafitjUe. Candid. Fr. Or the word Lat. white. different sections of the like the Chinese. E. It was distinfrom work. good. E. camiscia. Properly calver in the field during a war. when its substance appears inter.— Chandelier. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. cambren.—Candidate. fresh. kanna. Fr. B. would plenier. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. sugar. Calumny. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. camaien. Caloyer. campagne. E. a caught. a dog. monk. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. . Lat. Canker. camisade. paign. A — the Cannibals. ckaouma. icaSoytipoe. from xaXbg. camahutus. It. crooked. sore. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. canalis. the bed of a stream. bis. campus. Cambrel. whence the noun signifying an applicant. the space of false imputation. spot for cattle. cambrer. — Cancel. Campaign. from candere. camiscieia. cancello. campagna. Pers. open and level ground. Lat. Camisade. calj'x. Camel. and yspiuv. Fr. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. a goblet bud. a crab. See Canker. campo. crooked. It. arched. Canine. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. properly good country. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. Lat. lame. arched. From campus was formed Lat. candela. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. having an aquiline nose. In a different application It. co7nbar. had no r in de bric— Cot. hooked.Gr. Sp. camelus. . Canibal. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. brought from Fr. camafeo. the salmondis faillis thair loup. chaitcre. callour. camisa. cambr^. Cann.Lat. Cancer. aged. an eating. ko/utuXoc. is Candle. Bret. Sp.' ' Quhen a lattice. a piece. Fr. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. to bow. An eater of human flesh. ation. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. whence the Fr. Mid. Peter Martyr. toile some of whom. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. aspirant. to glow. campo. a. canna. or Caribs. Fr. campren.— B. Sanson khanda. B. From fluting or furrow in a column . A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. KafivTu. Camlet. callar.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. a basket. canis. Gr. to the force of the wind.who their language. cainahelus. se cameloter. crook. on.—Cambrel. lattice. camelot. Calyx. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. — Lat. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. Ptg. — — — A — — escume de saumon.

from a Canter. cantred. root cap. To his judicial And trowl the tile. a torch. caparazon. cane. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. cantref. gnat. kq. The meserseum and the mesentericum. Du. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. cannabis. that the G. a small boat. signifying cover. language. coarse hempen cloth Fr. Again we have Lat. side. Mod. Wtb. kyndel. clqse. kwvwxIi. capace. schlapp. &c.n. rumme. canon. chantel. the heel. cover kapi. hirnschlapple. Sp. border Dan. cannone. kynnel. cope. cane. is found languages of very different stocks. Capacious. a door . canonicus.^on. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. margo panis diffracta. a division of a country. a drinking glass. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. or cantell of bread. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. It. capax. hamlet. capevole. and hence a gobbet. cantina. canevas. canonici. Diez. Cantle. a ruler. Goldast — in in Schmid. a tube. to sing. a pipe. astrology. kanta. Kil. hood. kand. hemp. a wine-cellar or vault. Canon. KCLvva. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. canto. Canton. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. Sp. Fr. Fr. the part easiest broken off. It. a scull- — here. measure for cloth. cantle then is a corner of a thing. to put upon sacred writers. Cannoii. a Fr. cover . Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. or hold. from cant. To canvas — . a boat. cape. contain. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. It. But it may be different source. haitt. a side. a hundred. a cap. which is not the case. a ship canot. Prov. can. cannevo. Esthon. Canvas. it would have been found in the continental languages. trine. properly a large Prov. a cane. Cant. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. Canoe. Cot.Gr. Mod. a cantle of bread. a corner. capa. B. From Gr. pipe. and met. The — . from canna. say. canvas. from . has kahn. Schwab. a reed. Cape. speech. a straight rod.Gr. chape. regular.— Cot. as a cantle of bread. . able to receive. Gugel. A slow gallop. part. hemp. he discourseth of dissection. Lat. Sp.CANNEL vessel. leiwan kanta. lump. cane. was formed Kavtiiv. to contain. Palsgr. kandt-broodts. a horn of the moon . Coal burning with bright flame. being a yard or thereabouts . cheese. It. quarter. canoa. Jonson. a cover Turk. a rule or standard of excellence. cappe. See Chape. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. territorial hundred. cappe. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. Capable. cainnt. a cloak. region. edge. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. coarse hemp. and the sex- &c. &c. cantone. A . call. cane. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. The word seems to be taken from Gael. quarter . Capari. as. Fin. canteau. If the word had been from cantherius. tain. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. It. kantr. Germanis kdppen. shut. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. a gelding. . . Alamannis. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. Hence Lat. Picard. Gael. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. corner. coat. schlappen. Fr. canton. OFr. canapa. KaTTiram. the heel. chanteau. Swab. canapaccia. Kavt\. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. It. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. . Canopy. and tref. See Capt-.. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. cannu. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. also a measure. W. a reed. quito curtain. To Canonise. cappa. from Dan. It. Of vena cava and of vena porta. covered. Canteen. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. Probably only the augmentative of canto. kapamak. a — A — Cannel Coal. From Lat. capello Italis. Cope. to shut. a cloak kapali. border. kaput. to con- rummer. carcase . the quartile. N. like a torch or candle. cannevaccia. ON. a hunch of bread. the tried list of saints. name. A piece of anything.

belonging to From caput. rissoler. Fr. or represented by the syllable e. as Fr.' — (Supp. to crackle. <I>pi'?oe. A .). arricciarsi. of a tremtdoiis sound. Arab. 75. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . a separate division of a matter. capitalis. Unexpected pleasure. a buck. a head. or. caper j caprio. Fr. the initial mute of forms like Gr. kid. Lat. horror. alcaparra. frisser {frissement d'un trait. a yearning through sudden fear. brezilia. greziller. to tingle {I'os qui bresole.Gr. frissoner. caprice It. It. capriola. to . as Fr. to from capitulum. Torriano. horripilation. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. Hair-like. bristling. heath. for which he cites the Comask nucia. curl. knis.' Cot. CAPRICE twittering. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. and his body bristled We to castrate. gives rise to brezza. Lat. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . It. the singing'bone). brissle. frisson- ner . that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. Cot. to shudder. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. Griller d'im' patience. herissonnement. It. G^' Many words — ' ndv. to parch. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. ribrezzo. capparis. where Burton adds in a note. bristling. they longed extremely to see it. fansuddenly angry. greziller. to twitter as birds. crackling sound Cape. Lat.— 128 CAPE a rustling. ticchio. To treat Capitulate. abridge amKoTroq. to shiver for cold. to broil. The true derivation lies in a different direction.) grezille marid. brisoler. w. It.) d'etre The It. toy. then find the symptoms of shivering. It. shivering. a kid. brisciare. riccio. erica. Lat. a caper in dancing. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. grug. cut off. — — A a hair. gricciare. to broil. gricciare. sault. hair. caprice. ^piKos. bruco. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. It is probable that Gr. a . a capriol. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. frizzle. to ruffle the surface of water. and with an initial gr instead of br. grisser. brisciare. a ch illness. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. ericius. to fry. hedge-hog. aggricciare. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. Capillary. then to be in a state of vibration. . ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. So from Sw. capillus. of a fowl. cover of a saddle. It. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. arricciarsi. grillcr. with joy' Vikram. the principal part of the debt. II bresole (Gl. curling. Fr. Hal. the hair to stand on end. end. as Fr. according to the Hindoos. to shiver. rihrczzoso. a hedge-hog. frort^Lat. cApre. a young kid met. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . also the capriole.standing on end. capro. h^risser. It. algabr. the hair to stand on end. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. capar.impressions on the ear. chattering of the teeth. or Lat. And similarly to yearn. See Chief. s'hdrisser. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. wriggle. A headland. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. — to yearne. and OHG. a chevret. and 7tucc. Genevese bresoler. knis-hujwud . gives rise to Sc. principal.'— Trev. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. caj)o. Hence capitalis the sum lent. Capers. castrated cock. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. to crackle.— Fl. humorous. the head. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. as the means of earning profit. p. castrated. birsle. or other things. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. cappriccio. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. Mod. or goat's leap (done by a horse). I have shivered with love. prickly husk of chestnut. Acad. Fl. curly. upon terms Sp. It. ziki. capriole. chief. roughening of the skin. cut. shrub. a caterpillar. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. Lang. grisser. as in Lat. is either wholly lost. Caprice. capitulare. the head. The same imitation of Capon. capriol or caper in dancing. of a coach. eruca compared with It. to desire earnestly. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. then to shiver or shudder. airoKOTrrw. brug. Fr. a goat. explained by Diez from capra. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. brisciare. hi. compared with Bret. shivering. Caper. Capital. a little head. Sp.

where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. calabrin. karren. capio. OSp. from head. &c. charrier. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. Neumann. It. a sudden fear apprehended. capuccio. Crab. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. commander. Carabine. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. cabra. Carabin. &c. as the dragoons (Du.). oisr. a capuchin. was a kind of horse soldier. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. karra. a reception. one odd. fancy. bock. kerren. also tresFl. Fr. to carry . cams. Cart. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. Capt-. Lat. Cot. capp%tccio. See Caper. Capsule. -ceive. Castr. Fr. cabestrantej Fr. to take baclc. deception. Sp. Carry.. decepte. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. -cept. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. crab s. to creak. i The meaning Car. caprice. concept. — — Capstan. shivering fit (Altieri). Capuchin. Fr. whence capture. perceive. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl.s. crepo. at least.. fantastic. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. caput. karrende waegen. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. box. a head man. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. of the Sp. Fr. Caseneuve in Diet. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. desire. chevre.of these compound verbs. recepte. recevoir. to take to. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. to please. to creak. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). cabestan. Capstern. a hood (dim. Fl. Capriole. a cart. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. It. Fr. trestle. carretta. calabrino. carabin. a windlass. however. to this is It. Fr. It. char. a coffer. carro. and of captus to an e. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. a taking back. capsula. deceit. -cept. as in accipio. Cot. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. In the S. also to carry on a car . where it forms a very large class of compounds. capra. intercept. of capsa. recibir. It. cabreia. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. Kiittner. Nordfoss. and has thus descended unaltered to English. caThe hrestante.or -cib-. an engine for throwing stones. Du. hold. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. chirriar. conceit. recipio. a creaking waggon. 129 — receive. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. cabrestante (whence e. a sudden will. Carbine. concebir. tnoschetta. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. to receive receptio. captive. capitis. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. receptus. captivate. conception. Lat. Derivatives are Fr. and has accordingly been lost in E. to load . a hooded friar. Etym. latterly. charret. conceive. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. In cases. contain. Passing on into E. a she-goat. case. — —Diet. It is a standing crab. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. to take. to accept. captus. concipere. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. capitano. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. It. or the (capo-riccio). recipere. precept. . was originally a missile . strideo. Du. accept. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. a fantastical humour. Sp. karista. G. It. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. the -cevofthe Fr. except. Fr. acceptus. a cloke) capuccino. verbs gives rise to the element . a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end.). caricare. sels. and tropically. It. The It. &c. Lat. Fin. a. also a kind of rack. a sawing-block or trestles. chirrion. Lat. was converted into -ceb. Captain. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. charger. a kind of torture. di cappa. a. Thus the musket. de- price. as in OFr. seize. dim. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. concevoir. krul. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels.

&c. a crane. to comb wool . . fire . a skeleton. carate. Mod. silique. caracal. a snail. cabrita. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. the dead body of any creature. also (as Gr. carabba. a kind of ship. confining.— — — . karra. Derived in the first edition from Mod. designated in the case of G. the carcase of a fowl. Pers. winding. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. a goat. Caraool. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. seed of carob. Card. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. Carcax. An implement for dressing wool. Fr. ON. Gael. and catapulta. car. The Trjg xeXwwac. carcanada. The radical meaning . military engines made for hurling stones. word is only an adoption of the Turk. a thistle. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. to curry horses karsztuwas. poison eiz. winding carach. or framework. Sp. shell. curry-comb. casso. Sp. a thistle. properly a siege machine. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. for a gun. a gem resembling a live coal. p. Carrob. Cat. carta. cdrlag. alia sunt majora. to card wool. skeleton. to turn. card. a coffer. quilato. black dye. decanter.Gr. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. Cot. a firelock. Carat. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. a lock of wool . kard boyd. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. cramp. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . Carboy. It. . an ulcer. bend. It.. a ship.. a quiver. a card or comb . carmiiiarc.. to creak. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . the husk or cod of beans. Cot. Sp. Carbuncle. turn of a horse. copperas. the shell of a torcarcasso. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching.. wool card. AS. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. of the same Caravan. the carob bean. a winding staircase. is the word used in modern Lat. &c. avSpaS. Sp. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. Lat. carduus. caraffe. OHG. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. a collar or chain for the neck.' From the same source are SicU. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. burning coal. carquan. carcanet. the name might naturally Mod. Gael. karri. constraining . a wool card. a ripple for flax. From the battering-ram. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. cabra. mural attack. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. Fr. . See Carpenter. to card wool. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). Ptg. kirat. Venet. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. W. skeleton. a battering-ram). Bohem. carere. . carabe. Comp. caravela. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. the case of the flesh. eit. a prison. Exot. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. quse vocant karabd. Carcase. the . It. chevre by the name of the goat. Gael. «capa'|8i. Fr. It. contract. a dead carcase. Sp. garafa. is the chine. case. Gr. skeleton toise. a machine for casting large darts.Gr. caraffa. eitar. coming to four grains. carcaij. Caravel. It. a quiver . ancient springald. Lat. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. bock and Fr. karszti. of carbo). matter. Gael. KtpaTwv. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. Carbonaceous. Fr.applied to a battering-ram (G. . cardo. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. a twist.z. a he-goat. Gr. kerwan. a case or chest . restraint . boch. ' Vasa vitrea. carch. &c. to ripple flax. carbo. the trunk or chest of the body . Lith. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. carquasse. an engine for hurling stones. krciti. vitriol.charcoal . to hiss (as gee^e). a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. a quiver . tcapKaai. turning. a quiver. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. carquois. in the same way that the Sp. — seems to be something holding together. cabreia. also a small weight. to comb. I. Parmesan cassiron. espi7igarda.. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. carcame. a small weight. the core of fruit . cassa. Arab. cerran. to draw in. carbh. carcasa. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. wine- bottle. carbunculus (dim.

Carlings. charger. . cdrle. Carl. charnel. carena. . or grumbling —Due. caricare. an overloaded representation of anything. to load.. rixosus. w. Chart. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. from carus. Cot. ON. to whirr (schnurren). It. and murhet. — Carfax. the hull of a ship. & Q. camovale. to take Goth. cura may be ror. crowl. W. is to say.— Charter. soUicitus OSax. Cot. in N. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. caru. sorrow. intrasset caro. cearig. cardinis. cearian. W. be anxious. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. gakaran. Fr. p. clown or churl. kribina. moeThe Lat. charag. tuorfurcm (Burguy). Sp. karrig. caMid. Fr. giierlir. road. sgritudo animi. Fr. kumra. essere in carena. to lie on its side. and G. what is felt as grievous. Carenare. whence carricare. love. . principal. as quadrivium from Carnaval. msstus. It. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. ceorl. charie. care. It. 273. a deed. the keel. morosus. Groler. Bret. a man. cardo. graller. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. kurista. Probably the origin of the word is the . to shake. zanken . careless take care of. &c. quadrifurcum from quameet. in Carp. niggardly . ON. like connection may be seen between Fin. karl. kummer. as carminare. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. tenax. carnalis. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. Fr. a turn. Farewell flesh.Lat. carrefourg. to growl. to rumble. OHG. fleshy . to parch. Care. It. scharren. chartre. Carminative. immediately before the long fast of Lent. karista. cargar.. cura intenta. meet at a head. . six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. from carrus. morosus sum. to distress growl. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. to card wool. from caricare. that on wliich the matter hinges. Cargo. a highway. Trin. carena. a hinge. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. carriera. karout. G. parched or carled. caricatura. strideo. the several meanings of the words above Rom. 1S66. Cartel. AS. bottom. Venet. see Garble. the time during which to Rom. Cath. combing them out like the knots in wool. to load. hoed. — — — Caress. also a career on horseback. astutus. Fin. karry. murahtaa. quarreG. Sp. carriire. the load of a ship. . x'»P'"^s)) paper. Charnel. dear. carnal. stridere. in St Jerome. fundamental. piger. stingy. an endearment. and sum. Ptg. to eat flesh. to load. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. Fr. Fin. caresse. carnis. Champ. or street. Bois crolant d'un ladre. carezza. to fry or broil. ignarus. to care unkarja. OFr. a card. and compare Bret. carFrom carrus. Carnage. . to comb flax or hemp. beans. carian. Peas steeped and fried. carch. as peas. AS. E. Fr. From. carnasciale. karantez. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. — — . Lat. Carnal. grolU. the flesh of animals . de Parthenay. 2. kargr. from Lat. to comb wool. from the keel to the water . to scrape . It. and thin. Dan. record. A medical term from line —Boerio. Gael. one of those ac- 9 * . appertaining to the flesh. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. ress. 8. karg. Properly a car-road. is This however Shrove tide. asper. four. It. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. Fl. sorrow. voce strepo stridente. AS. murren. W. solicitous. Carled peas. male person.— CARD karr-kambar. car. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. Mur. Caricature. crawl. cargo. croller. A mod-carag. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. murista. Sept. — — — : Cardinal. affection. to clean the bottom of the ship. Fr. weyes. Card. that Fl. It. compared with Fin. charneux. carminare. Properly. Roquef. Cark. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. caritia. surrata.' Slceat. place for exercise on horseback.Lat. carener. kroU-erbser. . A place where four roads Mid. sensual. grief. care on. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. No ' place there had. Lat. tremble. mutter. A quirito ut infans. . charta (Gr. Coll. charg. act of moaning. carina. carcus. Bret. charnage. — To Careen. carcare. the keel of a vessel. carnavale. to love. regar. to fry. at murmuring. wool cards. Translated in MS. G. Cot. kara. — — Diez. the old theory of humours. Fr. quaver a lazar's clack. For the root of carminare. crosier. winding. to scratch.

and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. quoted by Carpentier. Sp. carpende fast Carol. carpenta.— Neum. chatter. on that. as the Lat. chariot carbad. Pm.' Raleigh. Discov.Why give's some wine then. carpita. Mid. act of drinking a full Eq. whence the form carnasciale.]e bois Carnelevale. ' ' — . as E. a wheelwright. charpie. to dance. or a carouse fully drunk up. Analogous R. carpetrix. Palsgr. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. 2. to rustle. cxciv. The karole of the stones behelde. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. in Due. Lat. a plank. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. Ein we find the signification transferred from . properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. carpetam (a quilt?). skraf. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. Other names of the sea. Carnelevale. used for stuffing mattresses. as carnaval from carnelevamen. 216. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. vel coopertorio carebit. The word seems of Celtic origin. Biheld within. tattle. Teut. Lat. Beggars Bush. Mediol. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. carpere. to reel. 760. cardos. a song accompanying a dance then. in Carp. Properly a round dance. to chatter coroli. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. was formed Mid. litter. Ant.: .'— Stat. in Nat. Carole. carpo. bier. to find fault with. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. chirp. a wheelwright. To pledge them thou refuse. On this. Carpenter. 1 1 30. culcitra. krapati. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. carpia.— Drant in R.' Reg. to dance.D. Pref. Dief. linteamen. querole. gar aus / all out is correct. Pr. Bret. W. a drinking cup. ballare. carpenticre. cited by Marsh. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. as Fr. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. biheld without. Fr. The tippling sots. is erroneous. 94). Here's to you still my captains friend. Shrove Tuesday. In a MS. carpenter only in the latter sense. . The true derivation is : seen in Mid. I drink all out. differing To Carp. 2. i. to pluck. garrulo. Carpet. pluck at. On the other hand bumper to one's health. So gone they forthe. maker of waggons It. krapanj. Nomin. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing.— Patriarchi. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. at midnight which derivation from kroes. — . to gather. I quaught. koroll. and Carnem laxare (It. to talk.' Ordo Eccles. Fr. Gower in Way. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. Lat. All out B. to pull asunder. a car carpentarius. ON.gonnella. or loose as a couch without further preparation. A. The ' ' a chariot. Cot. Mid. and F. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. charpentier. Bohem. carpentum. zimmer. pluck. ship. i. garrire. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz.Lat. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. carduz. Olr. . a carder. Carpitam habeat in lecto.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. CarTo quaff carouse do use. all aus). balade from It. Sup. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. fabulor. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. chatter skra/a. carbh. lint. gonna. Carpyn or talkyn. carnelascid). Templariorum — ' — Due. tymmer. Chanson de carole. zimmerspan.' says Motley (United Neth. The custom. of Guiana. Gael. — — ' ' — — — I — — . qui sacco. Alluz (G. . carpat (Stokes). corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. e. course. Carnevale. sense.Lat. peta. a dance. From Lat. worker in timber Fr. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit.— R.Lat. ! Carouse. In Dominica d'autant. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. yede tham about.

casso. coffer. To quash an indictment. abrogate. tion from Sp. carrosse. caisse. caisse. mord-grube. It. blotted out. to bear or carry. long man's gown with a close body. a chance or accident. to notch. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. quash. cascare. Carriage. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. mata. of carta. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. Fr. not reaching to the height of the ditch. casitiste. casco signifies a skull. Fr. casacca. a long coat. The Sp. also the carriage. coffin of paper for groceries. to fire on the enemy. one who reasons on cases put. Walach. AS. bag and baggage of a camp. ' Casa-matta. It. carogna.' Fl. The carrying of anything. cascata. cassere. a canonry or slaughterhouse. Fr. pasteboard. kasseren. caroach. kirpti. carroccio. carroc- carrozza . luggage. cia. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. — — . ceorfan.— Fl. charrier. — Cartridge. cancel. Fr. casuelj Fr. Du. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. to — — also casse. — FI. It. helmet. ignominiously exposed. from It. fall It. shell or carcase of a house. To duash. to crack. the charge of — — Fr. casaque. kerben. a car. It. Fl. OE. Fr. from Lat. of carro. Rouchi caroche. See Card. It. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. — — nul the proceeding. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. the money chest. cassette.. CartOTicli. See Gristle. Casuist. Preparatory drawing of a It. Case. augm. Fl. where Fr. an act of falling. Lat. an augmentative from Lat. to convey in a cart. Hence a challenge openly hung up. krat. bitten. a paper case. Lat. and the OE. like all the names of tendon. case-maiej Sp. a coffer or small case for jewels. cartouche. charogne. AS. See Case. a fall. casualis. to an- — Kil. To Cashier. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. paper. casa. from casa. to cut or carve . card. Gael. dim. to shear. Fr. Cot. vault hole in a fortified wall. To Carry. Cash. made void. Flor. cartella. break to pieces. hung up in some place and to be removed. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. case. G. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. To Carve. Cassock.' — Hdcart. casa-maita. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. des rideaux A'carp^ie. afterwards any written challenge. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . Cot. from It. Sp. annul. casus. subject for a picture. Rouchi carpHe. cartone. house. Fr. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. Carrot. carriaggio. carretto. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. Fr. It.' Bailey. packing ' cloth. Rouchi carter. Lat. capsa (Diez). something that actually occurs. carota. cartoccio. to fall. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. cut with scissors. Case-mate. Case. to break. crush. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. and that apparently from capio. turn out of service. Sp. a merchant's cash or counter. from the sound it makes when Alban. Carrion. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. As defence from shells became more important. Lith. Cartel. void cassare. cassa. cascar. cassus. charrette. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. Hence casket. Rouchi carone. Casual. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. Du. caisse. Casket. properly to convey in a car. discharge It. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. gristle. crown of a hat. It. empty. casser. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. to hold. corresponding to the G. Fr. slaughter-house. a chest. Fr.to annul. Cask. a of water. It. — Cartoose. hull of a ship. as we .' Cot. quasser. to dash. casag. hollow. kerpu. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. It. kerven. caxa. and matar. for the security of the defenders. caroche. Cartoon. caro. Casque. cartilage. Probably. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. Cascade. gristle. cassa. Fr. Cart. Lat. Ready money. cascade. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. carretta. cancelled. discharge. carreaggio. a hut. a car. a loopscale the wall. augmentatives of carro. mord-keller. to slay. cashiered. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. fortuitous. Fr.

a little house or hut. Fr. Others explain it from Kara. kakka. while kiss / Pol. to cast or beat to tioner . or comba. and tomba. and from the castus. Gr. arpi^m. katze. to fall as over a precipice. cacciare fuora. chasuble. to turn overturn. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. . in the fire. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. Fr. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. cojz^/a. to lash. accastiare. cassa / cry for the same purpose. down. fer toTa. Castle. follow after. to torture. name. Sp. casipola. to crackle. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . castro. kotas. chasser. to close. — We a cavity. Chase. Thus we have Caste. to break. Isidore — in Diez. to Fl. . however. casule. and KviilSog. Lat. klakka. Mid. first made ordinary Fr. tails.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. Fr. 'Vaaaw. rack.— Fl. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. koshka. drive away. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. &c. the stalk of plants. Fr. speak of dashing a thing down. Fr. bot-kotis. image accasciare. to dash. to scourge. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. Lang. ichasses. the ground . a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. cast. catar. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. to is Essentially the Sp.Rouchi Scaches. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. B. n. to hurl See Awgrim.the / or c respectively. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. to look at. It. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. ' Catchyn away abigo. from the first of Castrate. casulla. Pm. KaTaarpifm. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. The E. to hunt. Cat. cacciuolo. race. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. V. It. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. a vault. Etym. dashing it out of the window. a cat . a Cataract. a cat koshki. Lat. to bring to an crack given by the joints. Fr. squash. ecrevisse. kat. squash. a garment for performing the mass in. puss / for calling them. Sp. Pic. kasta. Fr. kottr. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. . . shaft of a 1 push. same word with break. a thump. Yz. It. castana. Pol. to clack. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. ating. a fortified place. Brunne. KaTappaKTrjQ.to drive out. cascar. In the dialect of Picardy. which has been retained in E. Catastrophe. Fr. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. force j Rouchi equerviche. punch. down. perhaps from which we have E. 134 CAST Catacomb. 120.Lat. an enumerlist. kissa. OFr. was introduced. dashing it to pieces. cat-o'-nine. stilts. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. or Rouchi cat.. kasi. Hence castaneta. dim. execu. KarapaKrr]g. Catalogue. which. represented by the syllable quash. probably from an imita. to make clean or chaste. The Diet. Gr. mino. R. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. kic' kicil are used chasser. So also from It. . a whip on the other into latch. or bruise together. away. of castrum (castra). Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. heat . to end. Roukind. V Lith. cash. chat. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. fall. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. dash. sue. the castanets for or implement . handle of an axe. crush . burst cascare. to drive away. from water Karappaaaiii. Fr. kotas. To It. To Catch. chasser. cacciarc. cat. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. Cot. castellum. like that of It. second chase. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. torture. being Fin.. on. puras E. KaraXoyog. lance. a chesnut . of sarabands does Gr. casser. Hal. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . chaleur. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. ON. under chi caleur. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta.out cacciare . is not satisfactory. casupola. Castanets. castello. coming to us through different dialects of French. castanetazo. to crack. catch. the earlier sense of catch. signifying breed. Cast. Gael. by the loss of with several pitched cords. kaJoivad. to drive Cat o' nine tails. _G.'— Pr.

V.' ^Jam. a clap. e. blow. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. klatscherei. happe-chair. chachara. * Cates. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. Guernsey pilleure. gliong. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. cache. . to snap. gingle. quincailler. verberare kUts. catch-flesh. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. — Catcli-poll. Tutschek. called in Fr. to chat. Diez. snatching it with a any one. klatsch. c or ^. has both or of charming by sound. chassoire. weevils. latch. door when it is shut. devouring mite or weevil. a whip. gattola. wild-beast. called dog or Galla catchamza. an officer of taxes. ' Fr. to catch strength. apprehend a person. cat is not apparent. woodlice. Kil.j. chacepol. predicament. to A bailiff. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. instruction in forms. with and without an / after the c. Cates. worm. flap klatsche. latch of. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. to teach by oral instruction. caker. a whip. Gr. compare G. Ptg. kaetse. to the crack. Cot. E. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. . to crack GATES cache. s. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. klatschen. Sp. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science.. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). ketsoore. seize. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. and answer. — tinman. a little dog). catch. E. a smack. E.from Bard and ayopsw. Du. catch. i. from shutting with a click. kletsen. to kythe D. On Catechism. ictus resonans. In the XV'e. Du. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. bichano (pussy). Caterer. chink. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch.s. as of the latch of a As ! — . a carter's Pat. 135 — Aasen. pedes. cagnon (a dog). a whip or Kuttner. GaUa catchiza. claquer. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . kletse. an accusing. glcu. a.yopl(. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. chatter. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. a caterpillar Milanese can. ArbaUte de courte chasse. . millecaterpillars. Cot. children's name for cat . — with a whip. Chate peleuse. Kartiyopta (/cari. to take. clatter. is said that he got a claucht of it.) . to chatter with the teeth cake. Grandg. snatching. Sc. — Kiittner. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . . to snatch (said of dogs). Guernsey chafer. smack. caucht.P. silkworm. de Bray. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. — explained. chasse. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. to harangue. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. — B. from Gr. klinke. chase. sound. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. 'Bxn. * Caterpillar. the OE. Claucht. Wal. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. Kil. dainties. which all . snatched. 'Horxa. Metivier. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. fragor kletsoore. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. chenille {canicula. Swiss Lombard G. e. dainty vic- a form lash. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction.' CATCH Fr. or any kind of relishing food tuals. to clap hands. head. the distance to which the ball is struck. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. — . the the same principle he was Fr. a. a pill. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. Gael. . whip. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie.V. Fr. a whip Rouchi cachoire. formerly called cliket. insect. icarrix'Ki^. Rouchi clincailleux. P. ecachoire. G. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. catc?u. OFr. klatsche and Norm. a — gatta. ' ' word catch. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . Fr. chatter . KaTtix'so. Fr. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. the elements of a science. Du. bicho. resono ictu lash. a cornIn the s. Gael. companaige. in order). clap. clap with the hand. resound.

by land. chaudiire. — Cauterise. Cave. catkin Pol. OE.—— — 136 correct.^Hal. Fr. to purge. accapitare Rouchi acater. the caul of the liver. Richly she feeds. chaudroii. catkins . Port. Fr. a road calceata. B. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. kaussijde.^ acheter (Lat. It.willow. . Gr. primitive is meaning a shale or off. chaussJe. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. a mare. hot. chair. Cattle. to shoe . capull. a kind of skull-cap. a horse . acater. choufleur {choii. net or caul-work. a receptacle for small things. quire. cavaliere. little cap is . the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. caple. katteken. also to pave . Cavern. hollow. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. It. Kil.Lat. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. Delycates. It. dumpf tonen. Cathedral. . The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. Thus Bav. from KaSaipio. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. Kavrijp. calceta. Lat. Jaubert. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. . a horse . calidus. A warm comforting drink. a pavement. rete A — Prov. That he was ay before in his estate. flue. cale.p. despencier. The word — . calceata. Fr. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. green husk of a calon. Ka^afriKOQ. Chaud. a pulpit. puss. — — cavallo. catkin mitz. and at the rich man's cost By sea. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. Diez). Catkin. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. walnut with the husk on challer. via strata. Dryden in R rete. chevalier. cautis. otherwise written kell. Palsgr. w. to ac- — Fr. It. kin. kocie. a The peel. Lat. Sx.Lat. challe was ther of a temple. Lat. from caveo (p. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped.. hazel. 4. cheval. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. Wyatt in R. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. kobyla. koparet. caballus. a stalk. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. whence cathedralis. acaptar. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. and hence a skull-cap. to buy. a kettle for heating water. . Palsgr. ' Gr.Y\\Xea. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. achepter. caldo. calqada. calotte. minon. Fr. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. a horse. KaHSpa. Pr. to burn. kobuiV. kautsije. little cat. but the acates that are sent him. katte. fur in general. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. cauHs. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. KaPaWrii. Lat. Cavalier. Rete. Lat. Kavrfipiov. On the other hand. ce^l. Manciple's Tale. Cavalcade. and spareth for no perell. fur. lamb. Caution. shaled or picked Fr. catons. Caustic.. Pol. Caudle. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. is Prologue.' B. Fin. Mid. kdtzchen.' Elyot in Way. Provider. to shale or peel. Caballus. any Fl. kopano. Gr. G. cabbage. . Fr. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. Jonson in R. Cathartic. Du. Cavalry. • — — See Chattel. puss. from delf^gato. accattare. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. Gr. klopfend knallen. Bessie of Bednall. &c. the. Fr. Cauldron. a horseman. Fr. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . make clean. caudex . to shoe. deyntie meates. causa. chatideau. a seat. CAVE Caul. hot. cabbage-stalk. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. . and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. 2. Gael. kitten kotki. adcaptare. Cause. Du. cautus). mudet. from chaud. Russ. Lat. catkin Magy. Fr. chauderon. CATHARTIC sense. a branding from koiio. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. Cavity. to sound like a blow . Fr. what . kocianki. Mid. mutz. KiwariKog. cabbage). cal^ar. Boethius. puss. It. — . kopista. kassije. cale. a paved road. . chausser. to beware. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. having the property of cleansing. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. Causeway. the stones of a street. reticella. cavus. flock. Fr. macska. cat maczoka. is used in the sense of cat-skin. apt to burn iron.

As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. —Decease. thiling. augm. Hal. is applied to a canopy. sybire. departure from this life. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. Sherwood. Cease. cabega. the deck of a ship at thilja. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. sill in window-sill. in Jam. thili. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. a fir-plank. 5.' — Gawan . kapp-zaum. So from Fin. post. Ceiling. Sp. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. A — A false accommodation produced G. Fr. Cam. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. empty. 7. hollow. The It. Soc. that. to panel or wainscot MHG. departure. del into English without ' translation gave cele. as. . the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. — — — toyour soverane. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. CAVESON kopera or kowera. cavezzone. exceed. Cot. selar. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. a halter. board . and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. thil. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. It. syle. ceiling. Boyd in Jam. applied to a canopy. Fr. Plancher. menuiserie. in Hal. to canopy siled.). . ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . seele. Gawaine & Sir Gol. plank.' Marriage of James IV. selure. coffer. &c. cyling (W. a canopy. sill. Lat. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. cesso. hivtmel. sus-lambris. to plank or floor with planks. . but hang around at the sides. VIII. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. lambris. -cess. 43. wall. jaa. the testern of a bed. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. give place. decessus. . a log. step away. a log. plank. — . with their substantives concession. a severe bridle. to cut. The importation of Fr. p. . an aquiline nose.. ceiling. . were met. Cavil.' Cot. a planking or boarding tkilian. and zaum. Wore. p. a boarded floor. semely on syll. rafter. excess. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. pp. caveqon. succeed. thel. canopied. a head. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. thelu. Hence concede. cabegon. heaven. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. &c. ciel is so unbroken. crooked kopio. Sir 137 pit . the inner roof of a room of state. Fr. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. beam. also a seeling of boards. . deal. . thil. To seele a room. bridle. kommata. in Jam.). column E. wuoren komo. The line of descent from Fr. -cease. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. Cede. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. Lat. a plank. syl. The sense of roofing. or of a bed. to go forth. In the same way G. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. -cede. as if from happen. yield. curved. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. And seik — Cessation. cielo. flooring E. hollow ice . IV. &c. . — komo tain). it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. cedo. nailes will begin to cling.' Rutland papers. cessum. proceed. hung. heaven.' del. of cavezza. a log. See -cede. koppeli. recede. little house. door-sill J Sc. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. a board. Fr. to argue capto tiously. wainscot thiljar (in pi. ciel de lit. and then to gape. dil.' Ordinances and Reg. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. . sky. to plank ON. . a hut. E. cellar. 32. the roof of a coach. dayntily diglit. cease. komo. . &c.'— Z. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. a beam. death. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. komista. tester of a bed. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. -ceed. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. dScis. B. of E . quibble. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day.' Hall. thilja. . Lat. Lat. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. H.j have come from this source. dille. In the N.. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. lambrisser une chambre seeling. a canopy. cavillor. and that from Sp. to seele or close with boards plancher. — . hollow. and Gol.

Lat. calefacere. Centre.). Cereal. See Cede. cilibat. and — — — possessions. Accelerate. a valuation of every man's estate. eyelid. Chafe. encens. and thence to conceal.of the r. Census Censor. thence belonging to or connected with corn. to twinkle darkness. a registration of one's self. festive. to burn incendo. in accordance with the Fr. — . Lat. Prov. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. goad. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. quarters for slaves. It. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. -CEIVE a shaft. appertain. rubble. cillier. concernor. Centurion. a hundred centuria. to glow. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. concerner.— Chafing-dish. judge Lat. sure. to sleep). Lat. — — Cenotapli. Censor. . a tomb. cigliare. Lat. Fr. cceremonia. a Cemetery. crevi. and so of that other. as in some places burnt. judge. much frequented. Fr. Lat. rough from the quarry. Fr. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. /ctj/rsw.' Book of St Albans. the hollow the Lat. Fr. Lat. for building. K^'ivut. the point round which a circle is drawn. -cipio. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. parted sleep. KsvTpov. we have a modified form of (of a place). stones to the production of heat. Fr. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. to attend on object with. decide. Gr. dchauffer. Fl. point. oil. criticism. to rub for the purpose a hut. 1. cella. to seele or sew up the eyelids . called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. but was gradually lost in conceit. capio. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. cot. conceipt. -civer {conciver— Roquef. Assize. cencer. to blindfold. eschattffer. -i^oivre. to take. Lat. keep in It. to distinguish. censura.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. cerealis. value. to rate. — .unmarried. — . Cell. hollow. assess. capturn. celeber certus. to contend. -cepire. Censer. concetto. to bury). Lat. Cot. of heating. To seel or close the eyes. Celerity. is totally distinct from the foregoing. S. Take the nedyll and threde. being taken from Fr. sting. Fr. empty. to set on fire. -cess. Ceremony. age. and put it through the over eyelydde. syll. census. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. Cess. to celebrate. make angry. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. Gr. — A . to incense. to heat. oil. riscaldarsi.. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. judge.' Celebritas. &c. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. a prick. deceipt. deceit. to think. sift. his office. . (and thence also) to hoodwink. solemn (of per. then to rub without reference Cement. {cori)cipere. a numerous con. contend. &c. To Incense. -oept. -ceit. Certain. Gr. single or unwedded life. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. Cot. -cevoir. sile. confounded ist from It. Fr. -cern. renown be embodied with. candeo. heaven. — . ' . Sherwood. Lat. a shaft horse. — . volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. zens according to their property. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. also grave opinion. Lat. to concern. Sc. Censure. to be regarded as one celebro. Lat. ciller. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. a religious observance. is the opposite of disora virum. or expression of Ennius. distinIt. chauffer. siller les yeux. thronged the participle cretus. In Celebrate. with transposition hence (of a day). To chafe is for wine. a storehouse Chafe. receipt. Lat. materials It. tax. Coehim. chaufferette. Cij(fe5j. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. to take. the officer appointed to take such returns . OFr. tax. to prick. -ceptjun. the place where the de. a solemnity. and thence censer. to sepap rate.. sacred show. pick out. cenio. to course of people. Incensum. to seal a pigeon's eye. -ceive. a hundred of what- — . become heated with anger. as entering largely into the derivative certo. or any bird's. and met.j 138 thill. with the eyes. Century. in Marsh. -ciper. to separate. cretum. to warm. camentum. swift. -cense. family. an eyelash. to chafe. Gr. mortar. to -sum. calefare. to visit in numbers. irot\oe. Fr. a solemnity. Ta^oe. — .). decebre) . KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi.ing a room where there is not fire. in comp. see.— Cellar. guish. Lat. incense. census. estimate. blind. See Celibacy. It. For sess from assess. observe.cern. ciglio. from censeo. ceremonia. Celebrity. abundance. caber. celer. in comp. -cebre ifoncebre. centum. Assess. The term cilium. the talk of men. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. what to set in a chafe. -cepere. from Saa-rw.

or puff with snorting. 11. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. lime . calonjar. to chatter or talk lightly. hordeum vel let. in a monstrous fume. chaire. chaise. to babble. from the shark-skin.sure carriage. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. P. from Swiss kafeln. puff. to gnaw. cadera. chawe. grief. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. de Brai. Chair. to puff and blow. 35. cathedra. In like manto huff. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. Gr. chaffare. calonja. difficulty . talkative. a rustling noise. In vulgar language. calice. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. far lima-lima. to tattle. thick and short. of. bargain. muzzle. often puffing. a vault or arched roof.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. ceafer. calumnia. — — — . consisting chiefly of husks limestone. jaw. charge with.nium. snuff. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. Fr. . a double operation * Chafer. kahu. and as this was the beginning of man. . tronfio. KoBiSpa. kedja. much more Genoese sagrind. much blowing. lime. matter by combat. To buy and sell. avena vilior. chaine. Camera. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. false accusation. kuhista. Fr. dongio. to Latin calumniare. rustling motion challenge. khah. Due. to caw chawer. haggle. cadena gives chain. a goba rustling . rally one. cauvette. ple^. ing a hard case to their wings. kdfelen. kuhina. ^Altieri. great chafe. chicane. Pr. Adelung. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. on. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. leviter crepo Then. a chain. yap. fa sagramen de calompnia. From to go to law. &c. to fret inwardtronfo. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . puffed or ruffled with ly. .. any insect of the beetle kind. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. — — — . kahuja. chatter. Cheffern. Gr. E. place See Cheek. quisquilise offence. kuhata. to ner It. camera. call in question for an ley). Fr. keffen. kaff. Came. idle words. Lat. to dispute. that leneth e per I'autra. to buzz. and signifies to consume with anger. to institute anforensic action. limare. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. to file. Lat. G. sagrindse. — — ' — — — A . hiss. have a mind to parley. Chayire. Prov. B. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. kiqfta. sborfare. Du. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. kahista. Fr. Kuttn. ceaf. rustle Challenge. cup. calix. to bark. swelling with anger. p. kauchen. From the To Chaff. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. tattle cheep. Lat. gewolb. fume. care. sagri. grief. Fr. Lat. Cot. breathe KaOa^oiiat. chagrin. Bouffard. shaIt. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. Piedm. Chalice. Wall. Perhaps Pm. De Ir4. chalanger. kaff. refuse barley . vel susurro. clamare. chamar. Bav. preise. Fr. to calumpnjamen. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. crooked. Pat. kiamta. tattle. Lat. with a:n arched roof. chaps Chamber.' Rayn. songe. to a seat. taubes korn oder hafer. Halma. ing rapidly repeated cries. as a carriage is a moveable seat. a pulpit Cot. chaene. catena.— — . Lat. — . to claim. vis. The jaw chafty. . Ayenbite. also to prattle. ckapfare. OFr. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. kiaftr. a prattling woaction. refuse. cadena. to call. Fr. hght Chalk. cathedra. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. breathe hard. contestation. (ca'e'ra) to chair. Fl. chayire. Prov. chambre. care.. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. kuhuja. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. in a cana. kever. Fin. Cot. Fr. Chain. a pulpit. Chagrin. snort. a jackdaw. . Prov. Hal. ON. without chap/are makiinde. to sit. now a chair. So from dominio. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). fern-chafer. kdfer. Probably from According to Diez. Fr. rustling corn. to action arose. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. — — — — — — . to gnaw. Kaiiapa. to pant. chafing. chafeter. calx. keuchen. cam. as. havOFr. green sagrin. a chough. From Port. Fr. to move the jaws. Du. signal by drum or P. Pers. Lat. cadieira. chaulx. from of the G. dispute. G. baras of ants. As the loss of a ^ in breathe.

Lat. —Chamfrain. Partnership. bundle.—Charfron E. Get campers a ball To camf . termediaries between them and the judge. to slope. hng. Fr. . camerlengo. kriimmen gebogen. top of a borehole. Chance-n3. at the railings. M. chanfrein. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. accident. ON. Chamfron. to fasten oneself on to another . The E. dial. campear. . to . To them naturally fell the office of keep- . Lat. Ptg. reusement — fight in single combat. zampettare. kiammi. surpassing. — Ch-amberlain. from chaud. CHANCEL It. head armour. camp. contest. champion Du. dispute Hal. to talk. The word is preserved in E. champ. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. to happen {ad and cadere. difficulty . kempa. rare. chamfrain. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. Champarty. cancelli. an athlete. champ parti. To cope or contend with. to slope out the . it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. Sp. kempen. The G. campus partitus . contention kappi. campar. champ. Du. kimpustella. broil. Lat. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. To Chamfer. chance. a warrior. prize-fighter. Campar. giving rise to the as. to wrestle. e. a feat. bickering. fray. to chew. excellent. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard.—Tutschek. to hang. fight. to hollow out. kimbu. — KiL . cameratus. contend or argue G. act of falling.' SherI'altro ' ' . move the jaws. to move the jaws kiamt. ing. to be eminent. therewithal. chanfrar. escazenza. kablys. . and mesUe. to fall. kampeln. from Fr. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). differs only in the transposition of the letter m. a hollow chanfreiner. cadere. a horse-race. jeu parti. to fall). dial. luctare. to wrestle. . a bundle. to fasten oneself to another . the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. camp. chaude mesUe. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. Fr. kampa. and acted as inofficers of . fighting place. Fr. kabMe. cazer. kinipen. mesleiare.' melleia. kimppu (Lap. Lith. hot. to Hal. as swine. keiiipe. to stick to. kapp. compound. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . to to chew champ. pedilusor. kabintis. See Camp. ON. Pm. to bevel. Fin. Gall. schmatzen s. Lat. divided game. the chafldn.140 CHAMBERLAIN . chanfreindre. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . cempa. kanip. or less ignorant. Commonly derived from campus. who stood ad cancellos. Champion. to hold . to smack the lips in eating. a scufSe. a hook . and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. dial. Prov. i. Sp. sukibti. to cample. kabe. E. to tread The sound heavily. to fasten on. chance. accidere. chain. tsamtsogni. kibti. . camp. gekrUmmt. as in It. Dief. combat. kampen. . received the petitions of the suitors. to groove bevel off a right angle. Champaign. to quarrel (comp. dial. kiinp. So in e. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. kappd). to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. calida et sans aguet. Champ. champ. s. Magy. Sup. Prov. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. chamble. kippo. gewolbt. champ. wood. — ^Tusser. tsammogni. fight. to debate. chanfrein. certare. kabinti. hero Sw. Carpentier. to strive at games . G. to excel. chdance. ciambellano. E. When the to quarrel. hamper. . which seems another form of the root. to paw the ground E. calidameya. pinch. kampeln. ciamberlano. Fr. athlete. The happening of things Chance. a game at football. Fr. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. — Hal. to flute as a column. ON. slope of a bevelled angle.Lat. a court of justice. jocus partitus. . is explained by serrarsi. It will. campus. cample). — masterly Sp. or player at football. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. dial. Hence (with the nasal) w. a jaw kianisa. nels. to — — champ. To hollow out in chanPtg. boys speak of capping verses. Chancellor. Chancel. from cheoir. Chancery. dricka i kapp.' ' Pr. chajnbellan . cahir. Meleare. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. Fr.edley. zs jeopardy. a field of battle. caer. game campio. kimpUma.

to truck. And N. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. Sp. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. Fr. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. ceaflas. clapet. Fr. Prov. to spht a chip. chapear. chap. chandelier. or the cracking of one. the gutter that runs along a street. cambiar. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. I. to deal. jaw. surfaces striking together. flat . to hack. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. a jaw. may be compared with ON. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. schimbu. kiceft as well as kjakje. chop. to strike. wood. — . kappen. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. Chap. is used in the same sense . Sp. as skin chapped hands. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. chapeta. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. shift. a small metal plate Port. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. to break . Sc. chop. debeant conjurare. Chandler. Lang. a money-changer. See Chant. Walach. to apply one flat thing to another. Chop. schimbd. ^Jam. Compare chark. Fr. as those on a trunk. to plate. chiappa. properly in a hard body. to plate. to sing. kennel. A fellow. cobio. to cut. while the broader vowels a. 140. Channel. See Chop. to strike with a sharp edge. . any hollow for conveying water. . leather. a strip of metal plate. kemma. from chandler. Aasen. cangiare. and also to chap or crack. In like manner Walach. a pipe. skipta. E. kvar kjceften. — : Lat. Commonly derived from capella. changer. kaupa. to paw like a horse . chapilla. chapeletas de imbornales. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. . The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. Lat.^. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. the mouth. chapelete de una bomba. chapa. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. and the modern canal. Chap. not a soul. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. to peck. Man of Law's Tale. 2. cheek. AS. to — cut. to chap at a door. to creak. jaw. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. extended to other trades. the place where candles ler. Bret. chancellerie. To Change. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. cambium. to cut off . kapoti. kjaakaa. a small plate of flat metal. esclapo. cambiare. Hal. as to chap hands. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. are kept. the loose flesh of the cheeks. chap. Chip. Chapel. waterconduit. . throat of an animal. Chap. from clap. Da. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. to strike. That wide were sentin their spicery. to cut up into small pieces. Du. camjar. a chap is a crack or fissure. Hal. exchange schimbatoriu. to swap. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. to change. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. Russ. Chaps or chops. Fr. Lith. as chancery . klepan. Chape. Molbech. hard bodies. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. —Ordericus Vitalis. chaps. as It. the chaps . The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . to peck. cantare. to put on fresh clothes. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. exchange. esclapa. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. ceaplas. like the knocking of hard things together. the clappers of the scupper holes. ON. a dealer in candles then. from canna. muzzle. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. Da. —Chantry. W. prune. or the like chapar. Probably from chap. to coat. — — —Marculfus in Due.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. Hence It. exchange. Cheek. . a reed. chanter. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. canalis. hack . also a clap. chancery. as corn-chandChandry. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. lips of an animal. It is also used in the sense of the E. kiceft. gab. Hence chantry.

charme. eyre. chatter. carregar. to turn. condo il volgar francese. Chapter. hiss Lith. in turns. kurkti. creak. A weed among com AS. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. chapel. . came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. — a car. Charlock. Justin. in To ness Charity. 2. — — — turned to coal. It. Sup. be- e. to croak as a frog . decken. Chapman. Yx. Deutsch. chirlar. to creak. OE. to prattle. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. Lat. AS. to charcoal. chat. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. turn about. a verse. w. from cape or cope. charlar. for the same reason rosario. es ist mi cheer.). a cricket karkti (schnarren. return. Boh. cabildo. capitolo. . Charge. cedeleac. Gr. seems to be derived charade. schreien. wood to coal. chapitre. tegere. as Pol. chara.whirr. called in Sp. occasional turn. charade. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. it is my turn. cam. ceap-man. Sp. kirkti. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. pohadka. to prattle. charer. dim. to chirp. to chirp. czirbti. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. capellare. —— . Prov. to sing or chirp as birds. gnash. carmo. charlatan. a head or division of a book. ciarlatore. tattler. affection. from capitulum. cha. AS. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. chapelet. Charade. from Charade. go. Character. Chaplet. karout. grave or make incised marks on an ob. Du. dear(in both senses). To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. to tattle. gadka. Inst. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. cher um cher. Chark. It. to of the governing body. a garland of roses. w. from carrus. It. wreath for the head. charitas. Chare. Bret. An enchantment. chirk. a riddle. twitter. krachzen). carmen. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . Ptg. ghirlanda seor garland. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. Fr. eapitulo. caricare. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. * Charcoal. To Char. to chirp as sparrows. cerran. a The OFr. Fr. as. clack. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. to converse. Hence carminare. to talk . to load . The crash. a dispute . car. prattling quacksalver. (eucharistie. capella. creak. canne. Chirk. keeren. twist. Mundart. to dove . The G. Macduff. a rhyme. as a beetle. In that work the verb is written caire. Fr. a riddle. &c. It. From Norm. charger. Sp. cluck kirklys. . talking. enough. to turn Gael. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. from gadai. chatter. Mid. See Cheap. beloved. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. corona. . to . the turtle pitre. to love. chirriar. See Charlatan. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. czurliwoti. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. surris seu Lat. Cot. that turned decken . Fr. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . siarad (pronounced — sharad). a charm. ject). a turn cerran. cearcian. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. 370. a mark made on a thing. hadka. a merchant. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. babdistinction. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. and in It. Lay on. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. Sp. And damned be he who first cries Hold. Lang. called kedlock. Lith. the nature of a thing. Lat. Swiss. Charcoal was ciarlare. kurkelis. properly to place — . used in the sense of magic Fl. jabber. cluck. a hood. gaggle . equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. colliers that charred coal. burning without consuming the substance. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. which was incantation. czurksti. a mark of a mountebank.Lat.' Boccaccio in Diez. from capa. charge an enemy is to lay on. babbling. charcoal burners. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. Charlatan.. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. char. dear. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. Fr. caritas. carus. bler. carricare. — spell. . turn.czirksti. Lat. of chapel. capital.

Cot. gadu-gadu. CHATS fit 143 to name. used to represent a sharp note. from pure. chip. discourse. to which it bears the same relation as chape. It t. cs E. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. geug. To Chase. cyrm. kata-kata. Hal. in Jam. kippen. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. splinters. gazzerare. the handle of a razor . To Chasten. an enchantress. schioppare. It. chit. to make a noise. fragments. a churchyard or charnel-house. a word. OE. or the cry of a bird or the like. g. B. a chatter-box. chits. gazzettare. as purgare Fr.ppen. to cut and faggoted. ch&tier. . clean. Lat.— Chatter. Kil. chip.. chisf. Kil. from xoAn. scraps of for fuel. talk. clean. The egg is chipped. kastaa. incassare. fragments or leavings of food. a crack or a flaw . niggardly. knatiern. to burst open. chit-chat. sordidus. To chip is then to crack. Pol. as in the E. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. Magy. clear. Pol. to set a jewel. — Yorkshire chat. chip. as we speak of olive branches. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. cassa s. charmer. csaterdzni. to crack. karigh. — = Chats. gazzolare. chair. See Cistern. to enchase it . enchasser. —Bailey. to wet. In like manner Russ. also to germinate or spring forth. racket . chatter. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. converse. to chirp. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. a shrine for a relic. —Jam. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. gallan or ogan. as. gazeuiller. An imitative word. So in Gael. root of the Lat. from purus. to chirp as a bird to cheep. It. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. pure. — sharp sound of a crack. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . chat. the cry of the bat. — We ornamental work the to signify E. Fr. tittle-tattle. nommer. crackle. To talk. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. to chatter or prattle . or suckers on rough borders. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. clap. warble. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. a branch. pure. Chamel. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. chykkyn (Pr. To chit. is to represent the chamier. prate. noise.). chasse (another form of caissej see Case). noise. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. Du. to baptize. Fl. clean. D. a branch and a young female. V. germinate . clatter. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. also to hatch. Chary. csatora (Magy. ferire. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. i. s. as turnip-chaits. Chat.a. chit in the latter sense Du. to care). gazzogliare. eclats. to clap. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. jackdaw . To chitter or chipper. a young man . carnisj bones kept. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. to gape. magpie. Parallel with E. the young shoots . warble. or equivalent forms. whence a charm of goldfinches. See Card. the calix of a rose. Lat castigare. chary. chaste. czysty. %aafi. a flock of those birds. be wide open. or pop. G. whistle. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit.— Chit. — The . pure. — Palsgrave. Chart. to crack. castus. . It. Cot. careful. carmen is presented in AS. to cry as a chicken . Fr. — Fr. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. a twig Suffolk chaits. Chaste. parcus. caro. csacsogni. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. to chirp. letters p. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. charm. knacken. speak . little sticks cudere. Malay. ch). Fl. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. a yawning. csacsogany. To Chase. — Hal. chick. — — . blackthorn-chats. shout OE. tenax. To work plate as silversmiths do. Gr. to separate in morsels. —Chastise. occasionally Forby. talk much . Chasm. limpid. Pm. a plate of metal. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. cearig (from cearian. the noise of birds. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. xi'i-'^vui.). shivers. It. snap. prattle. kna. Diez. —Charter. From carinen was formed It. chick. Russ. chikat'. to talk. make a noise as birds do.house. also a youth. Chat-wood. as from nomen It. or a bird out of the egg. karg. chaste. nome and . castus. flesh. Fr. Fr. kata. gaddc. See Catch. carme and Fr. clack. la chasse d'une rose. the bird is iiown. a gap.

upon a checked cloth. a cheater. to stutter gigken.— . Faire bonne chire. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. the tongue. hawkmann. chiere.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. to make inarticulate sounds in . Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. goods. to . catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. a tavern-keeper. chapman. KaviiXog. visage. ceaflas. to cough and hence either buying or selling. Ingulphus. and. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. look. goods. Ek dry and hard. a canting knave. to laugh. Slav.— Chaps. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. kaupon. . to vomit. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. Cheek. kaupa. chavylbone or chawlbone. Cam. Fr. the face. kichen. agreeing upon.ing. sob E.kakot. ceap. chire. changing. The gutGoth. aspect of a man. Chear. to negotiate. Hal. Pm. Chattels. cheeks. bon marche. to fetch the breath with difficulty. e. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. It. to buy. Chew. with the exception of land. s. Fl. favour. sum in a loan. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. a willing look and unwilling heart. kakkaset. prattlingchete. kek. cattle. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . and hence the E. OFr. jaws. CHEEK zitella. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. stuttering. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. jaw. tradesman. chuckle. 'li^'opa jord i jord. chop. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. kok. welcome heartily. — — —Chowl. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. keck.—Choke. Modern Slang. cara.. kik. citello. Lat. Soc. gagkern. cera. teeth . thers. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. giving or taking in exchange.— Chole. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. to deal ON.of the throat in coughing. chatal. Then. a dealer in horses. gig. cattle. kauf. &c. from AS. to coup s. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. chaptel. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. to — . cita. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. stuttering. kikottaa.. truffa. the Confessor. kaufen. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. Pro v. farm for farm. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. Gr. chear in the sense of victuals. NE. Sc. frown. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. Sp. gagkezen. society. syllables ^ag-. sale. which is used in the to stutter. to coff—Yisi. countenance. entertainment. — To check an account. a dealer. et juxta catalla sua. ceafl. Cot. cattle. exAS.' to exchange to gasp. whence captale. the Lat. us. retching.' kezen. dchec. a young boy or girl. the principal ' colloquial E.-^. kakaista. to chop and change. the countenance Fr. See Cheek. are represented piti. lower. from Lat. which is the word in ceap. giggling. to act as a rogue. a repulse. cozener. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. Hence to cheat. kaupiti. in widely separated languages by the Lat. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. to cluck like a hen. . chatel. choule. force of the word. caupo. a piece of moveable property. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. It. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. laughing. G. Check. entertain kindly. snout. to clear the throat . equiva. Fr. catalliim. in Fr. cachinnari. Bohem. koopen. to buy. Bav. price. OFr. mandibula. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. Pr. a rogue or person who used the canting language. Cheat. capitale. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. It — Brompton in Due. with Dief. ceahhetan.. horse-couper. Fin. . . ku. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. . lead to OE. any cheating. See Chess. 144 the It. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. — We ' . Du. to nauseate (to retch). kak. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. while it Bret.— Cattle. CHATTELS has ciio. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. to swap goods . sense of bargaining.

cheek. kaecke. Sc. the final guttural is retained in writing. kjcebe. X'C&s. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. caseus. Cher. skratt. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. to kasa. ceaflas. clear the throat. cough. AS. Fr. chesten. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . ON. the mouth. subjected to this process with that which the throat . to swallow. for cheese itself. mollium congeries. Prothroat of an animal . Sc. . gullet. czypti. Da. Lat. rattle in the throat. castaneusj Fr. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. To make a shrill noise Chest. geagl. as. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. kastanie. — — .pose of acidifying them kasadr. frame by which the exertion is made. Lat.' to w. It would Cheese. kirsche. jowl. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. cherir. As the board to gasp i. Fr. acquisition. to hold dear. AS. hasten. chAtaigne. Pm. chevron. kapen. cabiron. cerasus. See Chess. rupted into chess. ceaplas. gaghel. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. then end. — — . Hence kikna is identical with OE. giffle. AS. squeak as a mouse. The Sw. the palate Chequer. E. kastr. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. kistej Lat.D. throat. a rafter . Kil. Analo. Sw. cista. king). to prevent the attack of cavalry. G. xaque. G. Lith. From them the plish. whence czypulas. Fr.koppen. In these latter forms we see the transIt. Sp. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. quoka. to accomThis they call hdrsk.. ost. Tutschek. Chevaux de frise. the hke. e. to love. kok. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. To Cheep. jaw. Chess. chops. Fris. cheek.Xo belch. . cufd. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. E.their struggle for independence. kjceve. subacidus. Chekenyd or querkenyd. to bring to an end. the throat. ceocian. ca' — . Fin. schach.perly head. to year. kesten. See Case. N. Sp. cheeks. Lith. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. gill of fish AS. to geahl. practice seems to have been communiChevron. Cherish. kdke. jaws. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. Thus "we are brought din. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. a cricket.peep in the same sense. Fr. ichec. kikna of dorum coacervatio. make an end. takes place in the formation of cheese.). Achievement. old bread. condition of being taken. to choke. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. nish source. Fr. . (Kil. Chemistry. Lat. cheek. w. rennet. cheken. F*-.. E. E. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. to boken. things Da. CHE. kikna. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. /Ji2^/(W. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. Chevisance. a heap. a chicken. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. chops. ation. jaws Sw. dersen . by laying it in come to an agreement with. Lat. carnium. whence kasa-leipa. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. . food. to kep. w. cyse. to belch. cerise j G. to make a noise different word. kces. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. — 10 . It. prevail with. Jam. rafters in heraldry.G. kopen. kasiiUPr. throat. to gasp. the neck. schach. cisty G. jouffle. Cherry. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. kjakje. gap. cams. by laying up in a covered heap. kdkel. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. chevir. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. ceac. the loose the game of checks. to gape gab. scacco. made rancid koka. as meat and butter. the The use of the word kcesir. cese. suffo. cireggia. dear. The name of creak as shoes. to heap up such things for the purchoke. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. accomplishment cayed.EP CHEVRON 145 on. geafl. chiffe. caru. kasa. chasi. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. caws. incaseatus.D. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. to choke with laughter. jaw . chaps. treat with affection. Hence chesten-nut. gapen. ceg. See Alchemy. veluti piscium. An imitative word. cabrio. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. Prov. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. cegio. OHG. jaw. Pl. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. The Lapps prepare much of their compass.cirieggia. Du. w. gous forms are G. Sw. equal squares of opposite colours. quok. Chef. mouth kek. chests in OE. Du. gabe. . like a young chicken. achever. — — . &c.

kimia. chin. the rim or edge of a vase. and from the third E. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. k'imm s. to gasp for breath (Hal. then as G. hiss as meat on the gridiron. De finger killet mi for kalte. to go. kippa. to twitter. to smart. to chirp or peep like a chicken. chillrar. Swiss kiden. AS. to chew. from the second Lat. jaw. to Du. queror. : — a lump. pipio. Chime. a finch. Pm. a chicken. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. — It. kop. caferu. chillness or shivering. beam. kilderkin. chicken. zitterti. kindeken.— Gattel. kopf Du. pip. . Brezza. the head.D. 'Among these the G. Russ. rafter . the jole. in Walach. has probably the same origin.. ]). while didder is to shiver or citteren. tremble. . jaws . cib. CHEW . machouere. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. as pointing out the origin of the E. deer's horn. tiuk. kauwe. kime. ultimate origin of the Mite. w. mountain top . Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. Fr. killen. the cry of young . cap. mouth. cidan. klagend tonen. caprioru. Pr. to contest about trifles. Kil. keichen. chieftain. Now gan some courage unto him to take. or chick. a quid of tobacco. capo. Gattel. captain. czypulas. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. — — Mother Hubbard. the young of animals in general. horn wood. greloter is to shiver for cold. Tintillo. capu. alter.. Probably from Fr. or as E. gosling. Chimb. chew or chaw. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. Chaw. into a continuous shriU sound. kitista. To Chide. Bret. kibr. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. a chicken. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. to chime. the least imaginable jot. kind. rafter. creak. from the first of which is Lith. chol. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. chimb. cabriones. grelot). Chigue. then cold.D. Fin. lead through the synonymous E. kimista^ . pipio. when the vibrations become very rapid. a cup cibaw. Fin. to raise the rim. Pm. Chitter. cebr. chaps. Du. Fr. Pl. to scold. tyuk. the Ptg. kuwe. tiukka.^ to resound as a bell. Magy. killen.peep. chawbone. cild. chikat'. chill. It. by driblets. to titter is Du. To chitter. Chill. head. a small cask OFr. Prov. a hen. — Du. choule. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. kimme. pole.). strideo. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. tiukkata. to the brim. Chief. a chicken. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. cica cica. term is ssaru fu. kauchen. ach. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. A To Chew. as.' my finger tingles with cold. Fl. also the horizon. 146 brial. Fl. Fr. the same principle I regard On birds. CHJME the radical form is unusual. The loss of the syllable it in Du. knarren. cabar. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. to use the jaws. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. Child. a cup. Halm. G. chillar. The Pl. acute. De chic en chic. a cup. and not vice versd.-ill. W. Payer chiguet A chiguet. s. Walach. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. Pr. chiquei. chicaner. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. pululo. kidata. aner. chicoter. kinderen. jaw. E. cheek. knit the brow cib-led. E. ' . And hence. crepo.. Gael. See Chimmer. G. Fin. or qf people talking rapidly. cabar beinne. Sp. E. kaau•wen. pipe. quivering sound which passes. — Fin. antler. kaw. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys.— Cot. stake. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. to crackle. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. sonorous. For the see word Doit. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice .— . Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. gills of a fish. Palsgr. or the broken noise of birds. a young bird. capete. — . to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. chiler. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. chavel. while the Magy.. branchy. tremble with cold. kouwe. tintelen van koude. kieken. a little bit. pi. Lat. a head.^ Hal. chef. Chick. a jaw. from little to little. to pettifog. rafter . Da. knirschen. chavel. kauen. Du. are formed Du. twitter. . signifying properly shivering. the throat. tiukkua. to contest. caput. horns of the house. Imitative of a loud clear sound. chic. cabarach.

Chyrme or chur. a chink or fissure. Chisel. — . Valentian charrarj Norman charer. cisaille. AS. To Chitter. hiss chirlar. caminata. E. Fr. hollow. Chintz.Huloet in Hal. See Bright. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. a hall Mid. to chine. Chin-coug^h. czirszkti. do. pare also Walach. genawi. in Hal. Chit. KinneGr. Chitterling. quivering or shakyng for colde. and bodily movement in shimm. cleft. a crowing sound in recovering breath. Chat. chick. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. genou (pi. i. Hindost.sharp. twinkling light. hus. the chine. . kieck hoest. Primarily a shrill sound. It. The change from the sound ter \s. the jaw. Kil. To Chimmer. Prov. kink hoest. clipping of coin. The desig. ciarlare. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. vincially used in the sense of a crack. killed by Bellerophon. hiss Pm. to squeak in It. tsongeni.Lat. name Then. disCot. See Chap. epine. companied. a thorn. chhint. G. backBut she withal no worde may soune. sonus the backbone Lat. gena. and light. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. bone . chin .iron. See Chark. from the geon's lancet. squittire. . so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. clashing of weapons. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. It. Fr. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. schina. the whooping cough. Sp. to chirp . chirp. to sound deep or the Gr. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound.. Sp. The small entrails of a hog. to creak. chatter . verynge or dyderinge. Bret. to tremble. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. cinne. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. Chine. to chink. Chink. sound. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. — — — — — . Diez de. chink. have been used to designate the spine. twitter caminus. komia. Lith. ter. ciseau (for cisel). then to any narrow crack or AS. Chymerynge. the chin . a szemrcU. Chip. caperd. skina. Fr. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. to chirp. Ptg. which differ from each other only as Chirk. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. and from a similar sound to boil gently. keich husten. simmer. as birds the mouth. Cot. backe. shiver and the chyver of Pr. plodere. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. the cheek (jaw) . — . zirpen. cisello. ykvvQ. — . fissure. Sp. resonance .er. then of a fabulous monster part goat. to prattle czirpti. caminsects. chits. It.to chirp. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. cincel. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. Chimera. Magy. sonants. Gascoigne in Todd. and the Du. Gloss. Caminatum. klincken. all these imitative terms being minata. G. to sizel. bx-eak the back of schena.' Phaer's Virg. komista. to sound. Bav. gen. dial. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. a surkik hosta. Sp. kumina.schricken. from Lat. spina. sound on beginning to boil. Huloet. sparkle. j^lf. are In like manner E. Chitter. eschin^e (de pore). to creak. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. kinne. schetteringe. . pork) . to open chirriar. . also vibrans. kumista. stridere. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. to chink with laugh2. and chim-mer. E.. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. a chap. zirken. as the chink of money. but or cry as a parrot. Chimney. from 10 * ' Chia. — . schiena. as the/ is preserved tering. to chirre. to prattle .czirbti. In the same sense.to divide or Du. It. cheek. as a bell kommata. Gower in Hal. in the same crack. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . Pm. the mouth (jaws) . up and down. See Chats. It. crepare. To chirp or twitter. Sw. fyr. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. to gape. the cheek. Lat. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. schetteren. 147 kimina. Du. schrick. yivtiov. A . Pr. a thorn. or chyFrigutus. the jaw. to tattle. et garrire . Du. to murmur. Fr. esquena. esquina. spina. tinnire. cheminde. a fire-place. part lion. To chink with laughter. as a large bell . tschirpen. eschine. a Kuttn. rustle. Chink-cough. eschiner.). . cinan. tremulous motion. applied to tremulous motion. sounding deep. Fr. quavering of the voice. flaw Hal. to simmer. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. representing connected together. tsengeni. clangor tinniens kummata.

to try . to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. Prov. ON. . g'schochet voll. gdnse gekrose. a ruff. then to shiver. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. Fr. chibble. kruszki. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. try. rare. gusten. . coup. kalbs gekrose. bile. a fragment. signify to kiss. causir. to try. The . experience valerie. —Chorus. — Cholera. cepa. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. of E. a small slice or slip of anything . I.V)^x. to taste . kausjan. of an angry — — — ' ' — . As kushnuti. civette. then to try. . kor6n. specially with an application to theatrical performances. — Chock-full. approve. developments of the same radical image. See try. G. Warwickshire coff. Swab. and in kosten. scheve. as with a blow. a twittering. full to overflowing. to taste. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. chiffe. Fr.' At last he dwelt . to choose. i. &c. ^euw. to exchange horses. to tempt. to turn. cke. arkiusan. chorus. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . Goth.' Verie coinme Cot. schevel-steen.gust. to chap. pieces . cive. Swiss kust. a young . a calf's chaldern of E. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. kaup. the ridges prove. a wine taster. chap hands. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. coro. Body and Soul. schoch. cape. to wrinkle. The I go to prove them. Chap. to palpitate . a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. Chuck-full. word is more likely to be from Lat. pluck. an onion. caperd. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. . schiefer. Choice is probably direct from Fr. •- Russ. OHG. fresure. choix. koren. Chivalry. &c. x^poc. %o\ifa. skifa. G.. Choleric. in the same language. disposition. to prove. to taste. it is probable that the root kus.yEuffM. lead us on to Lat. haslets. Gr. whence choleric. a calf's pluck or chaldron . select. kiezen. Walach. * To Choose. a blow. kiusan. Serv.— B jag E.' who shall not taste death. kushevati. . — See Cheek. kiesen. Boh. from kraus. kusid. and in this sense the * small pieces. chawdron.freze. . The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. to try. to Compare also Pol. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . 19. ent quarter. Gr. to taste. a heap. a goose's giblets. Chives are also a kind of small onion. chatter. a knight. G. propagated. — — — . The manners and senti. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. ON. to ing is doubtless to taste. shiver. To Chop. from %u\i). to clap up Hal. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. wrath. are used in the same sense. by which they are Fr. shoot . ruffs. try. gustare. to try. Fr. kieser. choppe. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. keypa. keuren. to chap at a door . chife. and Vf. chimp. prove. called cMtters in the N. chaup. ^S. wein didder for cold. and It. to taste. the small parts of the roots of plants. a scale or fragment P1. chceur. heaped measure. okusyti. 2. . a chive. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. and N. xiv. Schmid. krussyi. taste. kbhren. The Sc. CHOP kros.D. to strike hands . in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. To Choke. kushati. full. whence Lat. Luc. gekrose. cut up into — See Chats. chippe. to taste. by the vibrations of sound or motion. to break off in small shive. a rag. chattering. Chives. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. to shiver. taste. all seem slate .. Yr. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. as green as leeks. friller. to hack. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. wkusit' prikushat. Cavalry. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. to ^cleave . chock full. kustigen. a ruff or frill. from chevalier. a company of singers or dancers. Choice. Enn Sigridur sem ' . also calPs. the inwards of an animal. seallion or unset leek. to experience. crammed Choir.ffrill. anger. curly . Jam. Equivalents in the SlaFr.ceosan. to stop geschoppt voll. Gr. kiusan. ments of the knightly class. fine threads of flowers.vonic languages are Pol. Lat. or original meaning is preserved in G. chives. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr.

as Du. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. xop5>}. cow-couper. chack. dial.. From the Turkish Chiaus. chub. chop. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. kubbr. e. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. Chrysalis. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. connected with G. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. whence the Fr. OE. cauc. choucas. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. caqueter. dealing. ON. whence e. chapin. Sw. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. See Chaff. to clack. Marin. soul-couper. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. Fr. caphatenus. — Quabbe. chapma?i. in i6io. — — — . ley in Giiford.—Chuokstone. gull. Ant. capitanus. That Face. the intestine of an animal. Borgoens happen. an offence against the fitness of times. chevin. sent before him a Chiaus. kaulhaupt (club-head. and we actually find champman for chapman. . — . a stump.sohola. I bring you the Cloughs. capito. cresmeau. one who buys and sells horses or cows. Chord. e. who took in the Turk- clack. to overturn. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper.— Chevin.• — . Nominale in Nat. from kloppen. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. caker. clogs. whence — E. capita. or miller's kaycke . chuet. chapineria. thumb Fl. capitone. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. chevane. See Change. cambiare. peace. Chub. XpvaaXic. gull.). Picard. The Turk was here As one should say. chatter . Come. of which such strings are made. Chough.povucd. . whence apparently the Sup. cheviniau. civetta. a messenger or envoy. a bullhead. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. time ra . kaej Lith. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. G.' They are forebuyers of quheit. equivalent to the E.). ' ' What's that? Dap. Gr. in Chaucer. thick-set.— Landnamabok. chevane. Fr. chouquette. — Chrisom. to speak thieves' slang. chrisme. Sp. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. to strike in the hand. Chronicle. that will thank chiaus — you richly. monedula. Peace. xftovoq.. koppe. Madam. to turn over. Kil. slipper . Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. Du. chroniques. If I discover. to knock. To Chouse. clat. In Sc.\^s.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman.' Jam. To coup. kaw. Fr. claquer. Lat. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. as in Fr. 4. Alchemist. applied to an owl in that language. &c.(. the same word with the It. dial. traffic.X. cheap. Cot. kobe. the teeth to chatter . E. What do you think of me. to chatter. 49. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. we find the following passage Dap. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. quappe. —Shakespeare. E. Anachronism. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. short piece kubbug. bearand aits. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. gold. high clog. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. AS. fat. Gr. klopper. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . cangiare. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. kauwe. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. A jackdaw. Jam. To Chop logick. gobio capitatus. P. a small fish with a large head. In the Alchemist. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. kubb. p. Gr. which was written 27. Du. — Dief. plump. because she would not endure this husband chopping. to cant. kowe. Fr. Confounded with the bullhead. kaufen. a lump or piece chump. E. syllables chat.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. klompe. cauvette j Fr. noble Doctor. chrysalis (Plin. forms are Chrism. prattle . for to defraud. yiSA. a thick piece. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. A fish with a thick snout and head. by the Robert Shirley. xpi'^lia. a The What dhy ^. the string of a musical instrument originally. Chuck. Fr. E. overset. cob. kowej Sax. Chopino. chouette. i. merchant. -chron-. ceo. chronicles. Wall. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. cavena. a trafficker in souls. kolbe (club). Gr.

Chuff. * Cinder. whence church. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. sindr. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. to fall. as in E. cut off. Cleland in Jam. a man. from Lat.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. C^z^j^ churHsh. Jennings. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. a cutting an old chuff.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. sintel.— Chu%. as water running over rocks or stones. from Lat. Wall.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. to To Chuckle. in the face.V//a'6'?. a fellow. ceaflas. See Cheek. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. a pebble . calx. It is certain. thence a belt. to make a rippling noise. however. ashes. &c. an old man. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. klakka. ceorl. . -cis-. ladre from Lazare. marrow. residue of burnt coals. G. chuffy. a husband. Churn. &c. a man. a rustic . the snout of an animal. to jaw chack or snap. i. dust. Probably from It. ceffore. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. spuma metalli. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. Sw. has been impugned which it has really no connection. Da. Lat. e. As AS. kirna. cinis. Cieling. chakil. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. pp. . to form grains of butter. jaws. have given rise. set kerti. Wall. so as to make the happen . sicera. In Sc. chops. joufflu. to churn. blow on the I io6 in Mur. ciuffo. karl. cheek. Gr. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . a man.' he adds. as Epkema explains it. cidre. cinders used disjunctively. AS. in Sc. to Newsp. KvptaKolg. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. male person. swollen or puffed up Cot. chack or stane-chacker. See Ceiling. tindra. Church. Du. kaerle.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. with It the Lord's house. Cider. kernjen. OFr. The spelling of chider has Chump. to fall upon decide. surly. comp. sindra. ceaplas. then the on oh StX iv roXt. a miser. to cause the milk to grain. -cise. or choice part of a thing . -cide-. — — A — ' ' — . To chuck in the fall from. in circumcision. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. pith. flower. x^^i?. KaxXij?. kiorne. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter.rendered by Kil. to him a sudden blow. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. to separate the kernel of the milk.. Hence -cid-. a cutting round. as Fr. log of wood. to throw out sparks. cinctus. a pebble. Sicerawry face ceffata. casum (in comp. . -cido. gffe. The derivation from Kvpiasov. ON. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. we have to chack. Ka-^aiva. ccedo. a douse on the tores. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. chack-stone. giffle. ChurL husbandman. or. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. G. Du. countryman.D.' And cold. -eris. but by way of explan. joffu. kern. sindel. that the word is an adoption of Fr. Sc. Chunk. a girding on. chofe (Grandgagnage). Gr. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . -cisuiri). a lump. chofu. Du. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). tie about). that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. a resounding object. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. Diss. to determine incision. to strike clatter. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. dial. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. See Cheek. . to make a aiKipa. to turn from blossom to fruit. chaps. i. lamak. ON. Gothic nations. to gird. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. geaflas. Lat. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. kerl. sive piratiam facere sciant. kjami. Lat. incido. calculus. Lat. scoria. 24. The origin ation. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. cado. Cob. AS. sinter. e. — . to cut decide. cendre. ceffo. to sparkle. ON. . . cheeks Cincture. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). domhnach. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. kakka.— . Fris. Aasen. accido.^. Ir. whence ON. fat-cheeked.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. Fr. — of the two words.for the residue of stone coal. cinctura {cingo. chife. to fall at or on. as a board. whence deciduous (of trees). the kernel. Fr.

clambar. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. . or quill to draw waier through Fl. lash . -cis-. around. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. and E. glam. Clump. to clatter. clack. area. to knock. outcry. to cluck. as. Lat. Recite. -cite. In Fr. may cite w. to chatter. klamp. vociferation. is traced by Gr. globus. a pop-gun. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. a loud uksa slamketi. cittadella. sindri. Du. a'upiav. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. We . klopati. a rattle . a clod. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. Hence Incite. See Circle. clamp. clapping of klacke. Dan. ter. the door was slammed J slamem. cry out . glambar. claquet de moulin. castus). bunch. The notion of a lump. chijfre. to clack. clat. clamp. Lap. around. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. Gael. It. noise. klekotati. It. Cite. . about. Lat. G. and clash. uproar. a city. and. kluV. clangor avium . clump. glamm. whence cistiti. clapper. city. rattle . —Circuit. klimp. Du. — (Dozy) ing blow. klap. circum. . a kind of rattle. chest. claquer crash. clap. klemte. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. to chatter . accordingly find the roots dab. to clap at a theatre. clasp. to set in motion by means of the voice. Scion. wasserkasten (water chest). The syllables clap. klabb. . a shoot. . klateren. sifr. cry. klacken. a block. clobyn. chupon. a reservoir Probably from Lat. excite. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock.to suck. the place of . to go. a citizen . clog. ON. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. mass . compared with It. crack. a ring. to cry out. Lat. scion. We . Mack. circum. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. klacke-busse. circ2tlus. ON. Lat. Circum-. Sp. forms — — — parent plant. Citron. klompe. ruin. cista. a cleansing place. Sw. domern. to toll . klqb. KipKog. tinnitus . chupon. clamare. to summon or call on. Hal. sound of blow. dim. smack. Dan. a young and tender plant. ball kloben. a kind of pipe.' sione. a mass. To Clack. Lat. parallel root is slam. klater-busse. Citadel. lump of wood or with the nasal.. klubb. * Cistern. Fr. to cleanse. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. sound. cito. clamer. suck). a lump Lat. a rattle Fr. empty Golius. a whirlwind. kringla. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . . radical identity of the Fr. a circle. Lat. rattle. To Claim. fall. a clod Russ. . sajira. a place See place hiddern. belonging to cities or social life . to call. lump . a hiding-place. to bawl. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. sound- — hands figures. 'mass. claquer. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. the tongue. log. to gnash the teeth. a cistern. to appeal. cluster. Clam. klumbr. So a light. and Sp. or split with noise. Circle. E. ciste. Cot. creak les dents. a split. cion. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). chatter . twig. W. clamras. sip. civilis. prattle. Lat. Fr. from chupar. as in Sp. clot ON. clack. . City. a circle. a block. a boss . ON. —Civil. a judgment cern. biw. cittd. KpiKoe. CION See Tinder. with an initial s instead of c. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. klammer. citujn. cieo. clap. in the frequentative form. &c. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. lump. Alt. to call by name. claquer. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. From Arab. E. Bohem. slam. cisterna. as caverna from cavus. to make to go. kringr. clack-box. . to strike. a ball. scion or sucker. a Lat. hringr. It. cisterna. cit^. lucerna. stimulate. a circle. of citta. for Cion. lump. ring. crack. Fr. Fr. Excite. babble . civis. a lemon tree. See -cid-. lump. klump. citrus. G. a knob. crack. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. klambr. gutter. prattle. Comp. circa. cion. trunk. Gr. klak. civitas. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. cittade. to call. Du. to be empty.— . Arab. sprig. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. The Gr. klappe. noise — — a cistern. lump. See Crankle. Sw. bunch . a Pol. to chatter. claim. sphere gleba. Gr. to mention. klepati. a. or clap-dish. Gael. circle. a for water. Clamp. clatCot. a lump Du. dob. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . a city. clack-dish. a whip. . . klappen. a ball. Chaste. cifra. * Ciplier. ern.

Clang. dia. scendants. klampen. a place underground where rabbits breed. klettern. dandestinus. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. to beat. from the w. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. but perhaps not directly from it. c). clajnmy. . klemmen. ney. Clapper. whence sala. AS. . kleppen. See Clam. The root which gives rise to klibb. a stone See Claim. Du. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. dang. kleppe. To Clamber. a heap of stones. to daub pinch. klimmeii. a hawk. klemmen. tenacious. To sticky. strain . to claw oneself up. cleave. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. of which the locative case. massy. klappen. yf. clink. pressed close or hard together. dapier. rattle. a sound made by a lighter clink. dam immediate modifications — . holdfast. to glue. dapier. bandage. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. to hook things together. a claw . closely analogous to that of the fast. to cling. — — . E. sound of the trumpet . strait. tinkle. klubber. damras. beating. to starve. beat. to clutch or cling oneself up. is a nasalised form of gripper. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. Lat. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. G. klynge sig op. solid. club . Dan. buckle klamp. take hold of. tremble . daver. dee. Swiss kldbem. to do anything with a clap. — Climb. dam. the in many languages. . a heap of stones or other things piled up . anything hidden. Lang. chief. clann. klynge. G. a noose . sticky Hal. B. of money Gael. knocking. viscosity . Dan. to knock. Dan. resonance klingen. Clan. to stick conceal. a sound. a rattle . to climb. Clamp. coagulated cream. diver. dank. compression. klem-vogel. klamme. a loud tingle. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. A i. to climb. celo produces Fin. a sound made by a still . clear sound. a stick. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. to stick or glue. klemmen. salaan. uproar. to gingle. brawl. damor. cramp. to pinch. Du. to dame. of the children.' to take coals to Newcastle. To clap in E. klammer. kleppe. Mampe. E. tattle. to Hal. originally a heap of large stones. salafa. Hence the Fr. klibber. contraction. dientes. dink Du. nature . E. dap up. kloben. clibby. children. Fr. klamm. seize. Du.p correspond- ' without order. . bond. grimper.. G. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. narrow. G. Clank. .152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. ancestor. a burr. The equivalent of Lat. glambar. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. dem. The E. Gael. apprehend . in a hidSen place. klamre. Bav. clap. clandestine. hold. cramp-iron. adopted Lat. to climb . where- A — unto they retire themselves. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . descendants . An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. with cramp-irons. gum. cream Manx doan. klepel. dam. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. kleben. . — with hunger. tingle. gliong. from birdlime. dambar. to patronus. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. and hence to pinch . — . Swiss kletten. klepanie. viscous. OE. klappen. dren. also to clog up. clamber. Clap. to cleave or stick. a bird of prey. — Lat. Bohem. to. a claw. klopfen. ring as metal. Du. prison. kluppel. who occuG. Sw. sound object . tight. &c. clammy brace. klavre. to hide. klang. dial. klette. clasp. klank. cluster. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. grasp. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. to Sw^. dam. klatten. — Cot. to clamp. klobber-saen. and that from celo. clav\f. Halma. G. These words To are closely connected with damp. clap.' klibba. clapas. to hold to pinch. klebern.er. Clamour. hands or claws to grasp.1. to clap on. Salainen. chatter. klepati. or klamp-vogel. offspring. E. conceal. as the clapping of hands. sound. a craCmp. substances of a stickydam. for tame conies. dapi^. dienklebber. sound. clangor. privately. In like manner Du. to knock. a trap. a whip. klammern. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . to clap. clang. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. klam. cling. to climb. G. to climb. klappre. as the Lat. clapper of conies. run to lumps Clandestine. chatter. B. tone. children. Clink. to hold fast with the . Russ. These are imitations of a loud. klam7n. compress. rumour. to seize. to glue. accent. The Fr. crowd . klippe. pinching. and hence moist. sound . hook. stick. dial. gripe. Dan. is used in the sense of secretly. G. to climb.

klot. From clairet. biichse. vin clairet. Thus from clamp. klouwe. vinum helvolum. chiarello. klaeret. Clatter. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. chiaro clear. clamp. kiosk bicza. In the same way is formed the OE. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. a kind of small. classis. we pass to the E. seizes) . and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. Pol. a clod. assembly. clairon. a water made of aquavitse. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. a claw. a lash. sphaera. clatter. dap. Clavicle.\x\xvn. to end. a distribution of things into groups. buckle. in the sense of a mass or lump. teren. klatsche. The b readily passes into gleba. Lat. mass. climp. klamme.oi. and clavis. and shrill-sounding trumpet. an ending. an on the one hand. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. from scknallen. the cracking of a whip. From claudo. klampe. clarin. ivy. a club or massy stick. nawith stanis. rion. a claFr. ansa. glcis. klampvoghel. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . to patter. somewhat clear. Fr. flap. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. with a reddish tint. claret win e. a key origmally a crooked nail. fracas. a. under three modifications dava. a ball. locket of a door. Rayn. as Mod. chasguear.). compression. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. klucz. Lat. to fasten. Wyutoun in Jam. a clasp. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. Du. Sw. klaequivalent to clack or clap.It.— CLARET clamp. 269. E. it is called clamming. clopa. applied in their harness. as it is written by Chaucer. Du. K\a. In E. clump. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. and old red rose-water. Eau clairette. klase. chatter. waU. Mask ! plask ! thwick. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. Class. . So Pol. from its use in fastening things together. kleuen. blab. The collar-bone. stop of an organ. hook. row aii/iaTos. clairon of a trumpet— It. Serv . or as G. clavis. a lump. to clap . klos. kletse. Du. Thus from Lat. klatschen. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. Du. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. in the sense of a claw. klouwe (Kil. to animals Sp. Lat. Fr.Z. a. cloi. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. Commonly made. Clause. and through v into a. diver. is used in Sc. — tells us. Owl and that by which cleave to. fragor . nail. a key KKtitid. which signifies a ball in E. Kil. Klatsch- a pop-gun .w or u on the other. klauwe. a bird with powerful talons. bawling. uproar. globus. subrubidum.. the collar-bone. to shut. Dan. clew. to do anything with a .to cra. G. Clasp. klc^i. chiizjj-o. clarinado. a nail. clew or fasten upon a thing. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. sound of the foregoing description. insularum nexus . — Clarinet. crying. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. pet. Gr. klaskad. Clew. a lump . Clash. klauw. fibula. clas. forms are the Du. e. klatschen.ck a whip. same class with w. a little hook . klaterbusse. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. noise. straight-mouthed. schnalle. . Russ. Du. clavus. hawk. gaspe. a complete sentence. as G. from the resemblance to a key. Eya-klasi. to cleave. claw (what fastens together. to knock. to draw it up into a bunch. skeria-klasi. clausula. is preserved in Lang. i. Analogous Jam. thence a definite head of an edict or law. a heap. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. Prov. Sp. to clash as arms. rubellum. a buckle. Lat. Claret. — Clarion. kleeven. globus. It. puUs. clair. contraction. To clew. to fasten together . Claw. also a knell for the dead. But clasp or elapse. KXeiSi. the primary origin clapa. he of white and red grapes mingled together. klijven. a sphere . to snap. kluczka. cinnamon. Nightingale. &c. Identical with ON. chiarino. Originally clasis. ictus resonans. to ring in such a manner for the dead. Cot. The form clew. from clinging to the tree which supports it. It. —Kil. to rattle . The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. mass. Lang. &c. Fr. — Kiittner. ghespe. whence kleuer. syrtium junctura. klatscha pop-gun. Du.Gr. vin claret. cluster. thwack . clausum. a key. biichse. a bunch. sauna de classes. pellet . Nawith stavis.

celebrated . gingle. Clinch. viz. W. klinken. cleave. clean. Mar. ON. date is AS. klink. pretty. a latch. Lat. to sound or make a noise . Omklinken. pure. This word is used in two business is finished off. klouen. kloben. Sw. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. klirre. klinken. or from being divided into two parts. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. explained from the klinken. . to separate into parts. or of a tree. dams. gaklankjan. to clench. speech . glbram. 2.— . vissticky . to cleave. . dut. it cleave together. Dan. to stick to. sticky earth. From clap. clink. glor-mhor. klinke. AS. glent. Du. Fr. conserere antklankjan. to Brilliant. a noise. klag. to shine. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. a cleft or fissure. pure. kluyte. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . give a shrill sound Jr. klouen. a fissure or division See Cleave. The word may be — . the fork of the body. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. doggy. E. clear. diquetcr. splendid pohshed. Sc. a mass. lump. clibby. i. . 154 CLAY dutch. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. dench. . glan. glorious. kldnkelein. This is probably one of the clean. merciful. kleben. pellet. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. kloue. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. G. (Cot. rift. river. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . to fasten. pure . and Celtic glan. clemens. the To Cleave. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. a claw or talon. clout. clash. Sw. Du. klafwa. and. danche. as ON. . probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. as Fr. kleverig. The proper meaning of the word is shining. dial. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. Cleft. bogs cous. Da. cliquet. daggy. sticky. a in that of sphtting. Clean. to fasten. a flash. klinken. a mass. seem formed dial. to tear or cleave asunder. split. bend in a stream. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. klutsch. to 2. is fast and sure. ON.). rivet. Clemency. found in other cases. Gael. a one end. to stick or adhere . dags. klinke.— Clag. deot. to chink. bright. Wilbraham. The word is . an object is simply cleft. and E. glandse. G. Sw. G. kloben. kleg. clear. gentle. polished. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree.' was nailed to a rock. a key. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. a — — . famous. a bunch of When flax). Sc. The Dan. dag. cloven wood. klove The Dan. kluft. B. A — A Clement. a plate. glindse. to glitter. sleek. E. tongs. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. kla:g. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. Clay. that was Torriano. klyft. calm. From dob. clean. a cleft. klank. viz. klinka. glan. the two parts of Du. a lump. either by the coherence To Clepe. kluit. shine. Du. neat. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. mud. from diquer. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. a fissure. in two ways. glatt. to clinch GB. To call. to clink or sound. the latch of a door. Du. to dag ox dog. from the clinking of the latch. Da. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. to clinch a nail. geklonken. clean. klov. a noose. Die zaak is zS. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . Bav. klirren. clay . together . klor. a lump. . G. loam. glint. polish . kluftholz. a clincher. voice. provinciaUy termed dout. glance . and Dan. the original . from nitere. klinke. See Clog. Du. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. glbr. Probably a modification of the word doitt. — : A rivet. klieuen. kleevig. smooth. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. dinquet kleeven. holding together. ON. gleit. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts.— Claggy. klieben. door-latch. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. klceg. words applicable sight. dedgy. G. Cleat. to fasten E. Lat. To Clench. sticky . as Lat. doff. E. chaps in the skin. that was a striking proof. Da. Clear. as explained under G. vice. nitidus. glitta. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. as the Du. rive. to shine . Halma. Thus from G. of iron worn on shoes by country people. Kil. See Clam. to be composed. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. klijveii. radiant. neat. glitnir. opposite senses. glan. kleg. clean. a cleft.Q. klincke. Du. hook. Axletree clouts. clear. kloben.

It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. ized . dink. a ball of twine. cleft. dicher. OE. call. Lat. deik. 3. Du. call. in precisely the same sense as the E. derigon. precipice. Sc. — have the notion of a short quick in E. a mill-clack . d See Clan. which is used in Scotch and N. klippe. a tumbril. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). clif- stanas. a cliff. nimble. to cry. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. G. seize (Hal. derjon. a lot. Climate. skard. . the knocker of a door. Clever. a child's or clack . dough. dial. In I Peter v. which in Mid. Commonly derived from deliver. a sphere. Clew. crack. scar. Boh. Click. a hump.) Brai. to prate. an inclination. We movement catch. that is a clever feUow. kleppe. on. klaiv. claw or talon to dek or deik. . to rattle. kleppen. klever.' ii. to snatch. See AS. deuch. click. clack. in rhetoric. Sw. Click represents a thinner sound than clack.Lat. clima.. See Clench. a latch . implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. dook (identical with E. Clerk. Klover i munden. cave . neither as having lordship in the. crepare. But the Dan. cliquer. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. from clifian. click. ginally from dob (extant in W. clap. verge). crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. The origin is the Gr. CLINCH De . lively. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. e. a latch. to sound an alarm to clap. cart that tilts over. ready of speech. Sp. deudi. cautes. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . Bav. deuck. IS5 Du. Fr. one admitted to the tonsure. chat. G. to tattle. chatter.— Clicket. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. kliv. the clergy. a hold. to cleave. chatter. — — A . dever. a baU of yarn. from Gael glac. pulsare. Gr. dob. a precipice. Client. as Sc. to wink. has also deik. Climax. in the sense of active. Lat. clif. say. had a form. a claw or clutch. to bend. —Vocab. icXi/ja?. would have been derida. clever. cliof. klika. dek. rapidus from rapio. dichet. score7i clif. to confess . Du. agile. klev. ravine. click it. slope . . -Toe (from KXivm. corresponding to the Sc. a lazar's clicket or clapper. Cot. Rouchi cliche. kloof. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. klikklakken. clerus. to stir. cligner. as Lat. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. and (with the nasal) — clincher. diver. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. as from derido. climate. cliff. with hamarskard. a cleft in a rock . Clergy. or Sc. as a click with the tongue. AS. expeditious. a clew. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. gleg. light-fingered. a clicket or clapper. clever. quick of perception. corresponding to Fr. region not observe it. sonare. what so men clappe or crie. hamraklif. click. klouwe.). precipices. to catch. chatter. clep. dial. a trigger. Now the OE. duke.dergie! Wiclif in R.— Clue. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. declivity. Happen. cliquet. Somner. Da. to teU tales. above the pole. a latch. klaffen. to tattle. Norm. crackle. a ladder. one of the clergy. Du. the dick of a latch or a trigger. Hence Lat. has kl'dver. cleugh. littus. to move. temperature. rock. klinke. CLERK sound of a blow. catching. dial. Chaucer. is NE. rock. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. rupes . . a lump. to catch. prattle. it must be observed. syn. to clack. dexterous. Cliff. name. The Sc. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. cleopian. a hook. dergi. speak. cleft in a rock. deik. clyf. whence Fr. and hence climate. klippe. quick in motion. babble. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . klinket. de ripa. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. pen.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. rugged ascent. clypian. highest is attained. derigo. 3. Clam. Det er en Mover kerl. globus. snatch. kliket. a clerk . exactly Gr. on. or an object character- Clerical. derecia. KkrifoQ. to seize. glomus. dutch). a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. Claw. abrupta rupes . cleft of a hill. clatter. See Clamber. Jam. Dunbar in Jam. frap- per rudement une personne. klinge. diquette. diofian. sink. klikker. to talk as a parrot. cleke. duik. klif. the clergy clericus. klok klep- crepitare. &c. Climb. stein- kluppen. and hence deik. a figure mentioned. Lat. /cXi'fia.

Ang. klippur. G. klepalo. Sw. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. &c. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. pinch. to pinch. klincke. Gr. to slope or bend . clique. Kil. incline. klunker. to knock. hooded . but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. club). also to form a compact mass. kleppe. and a similar syllable without the /. Du. kluben. to shrink up. to cling to a thing. ON. speaks of a ' clung bat. fetter. dial. sloping downwards . .. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. to cluster. quincailler. a hood. as G. kolki-laud. klippa. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. declivis. klocke. ten. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. The E. knot klynge. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. compress . * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. disposed to a thing. The notion of a loose moveable substance. G. * Clod. . Sw. Swiss klungele. whence E. hluccti. a cluster. Du. toga muliebris. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. difficulty. dial. to resound. OHG. ON.D. Cloak. kliks. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. as we now say three or four o'clock. or bagging clothes.' for a dry stick. Flem. dag.— KSS. to wither. kukla. parva ruptura. klinka. a snare. Clink. klippen. Een kliks bolter. a faction. clangere. E. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. to pinch klupe. klipa. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. globulus' (Gl. also to wink . Walach. kluppe. to snap kneipen. klok. a lump of butter. Sw. . a clog or fetter for a beast . klocke. chcng. like cling. klungeln. Swiss klokken. to ring.. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. hill . a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. slant. gang. kima. and so' to contract. especially of something soft or clammy. dial. To Cling. Gael. -cliv-. -CLINE make pinch. To stick to. Bi klik uti klak. a clock. klak. clog. glungelin. . kolbe to E. difficulty . brett-glocke. . recline. -atum. klingen. to form one mass with. clivus. knippen. Pl. a bell. straits. clato make a noise. to beat. to shrink up. klungelin. a tinman. toga. shears.ginglej Fr. See Cowl. as thick or curdled liquids. w. kXiVu. to beat on the board. Fr. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow.. — a mantle.— Clot. sloping forwards. to sound sharp. a bell. outcry. to make a loud noise. N orman clincailler. clutch. G. Sw. klunge.. clips. incline. klocka. I. Lat. ON. to clunge. To cut with shears. acclivis. klinken. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. four of the bell. . Esthon. a beU. a separate portion.' From Pl. 'Till famine cling thee. cloche. ' . knippchen. G. schnippen. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . a rising ground. to AS. Decline. 156 -cline. gUong. to strike. and 'E. E. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. Hal. kldpp. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. rima. Du. dial. to crowd together klynge sig ved.und zuk-lippen. to clip. to lean. klippa. S w. klaka. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. sloping upwards procUvis. a lump. g. hlinian. Cliofue. — clot. in Schmeller) klunk. hlinen. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. a woman's mantle . See Clang. clinker. to crowd or squeeze chingy. G. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. Lat. clinke. related to clock. 2. bow. knippe. to lean backwards. G. tuft.'— Shaks. verklungeln. to snap or fillip schnippen. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. Sw. Bohem. klicke. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. met. to clink auf. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. To Clip. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. klo^gen. to . a lump G. Sussex peasant AS. nip. clingan. sticky. as to snip in the same sense from snap. klik. at first probably on a wooden board. Bohem. kol- The word . pinch. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. claw. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. glocke. by bits. to clap or clack. Ir. klupen. cloak. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. hluk. . clock is a variation of clack. . a ball of thread . pallium. ring clag. . to snip. from klepati. Da. Fr. Serv. to wither. klippe. to bend downwards . Du. noise. iissura. clino. Clock. klynge.D. cochl. to snap tongs.

klod. without. closed. congeler. MHG. log. to sup up liquid food. spot of dirt. to paddle in the wet. The origin of clod and clot is to . a field inclosed clos. foreclose. Fr. bespotted with mire E. klotz. a blot. loose. schlotter. loose mud. -clusum. clos. klokotat. or Sc. Lat. a log. ! . lag. dunch). loose trowsers. a bal!. kladde. . chiudere. and Du. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. to cling locks. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. with Fr. kleck or lack. m&se noch stain. spatter. kloster. . gelatinous. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). zocco. clos. . neither spot nor hang loose. He was a man without a dag. kloten. and thus seem endowed . to rattle. figer. Fr. blot. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. klunkern. to bedaub. chiuso. shut up. be&c. clausum. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. Clog. tuditare. Hence inclose. miry laggerit. In the same way Dan. dirt. Close. watery. laggery. I clodde. IV.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. to shut in. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. curdled. kloteispaen. unctuous. bloutre. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. paddle. fors.rge lump. clatk. a babbler. klateren.. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. G. dangle. motzen. schlott. or E. Closhe. AS. boil. to rattle. Klottermelck. from Fr. slob. . I clodde.'^ Palsgr. mud. a block. The game called ninepins. da- . 3. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. pattens G. an imputation.. g. clot. Mat. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig.1a. lobbig. plod. or drablyn with separate existence. slops slodderen. tJokok. loppe. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. to slop or spill liquids.D. a dirty wench claggy. to a. of a body of any kind. a spot. . to bodies. bemired. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. lumps of butter. to shut up. dial. klakken. A — — A Thus from Bav. to bubble. inclose. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. . wabbling from Du. to shut. slobberen. thick spoon . slobber. dab. Pr. be found rattle. Russ. -cludo.' end. terminate. mud klcEg. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. TZoxapov. mire. slop. E. like G. loblolly. clammy loam. . slab. E. a lump from Du. forbidden by 17 Ed. we pass to E. schlettern. shaky. klot. klos-bane. Idppern. then liquid or loose substance. klos. paddle or dabble in the wet. Pl. Lat. der like whey or blode whan it is colde.— Clothe. to dash like heavy rain. lunch. of something clammy or heavy. daggerey. .D. whence klack. thick sour milk. Fr. klotzschuh. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. laggyn. . It. To Clog. daustrum.). lump of mud on the clothes . to wabble. . kl'dnken. a monastery. beklakken. • lump. to spill liquids. G. is connected with pludder. and E. to dabble. to flounder in the wet. cloth. kloteren. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. aspersion. clotted milk klotte. Sc. a portion of something soft and adhesive. from Du. lob. zoccoli. is a blot on one's character. Yule-clog. klottern. Bav. from claudo. splash. Gr. paludosus. loppered (of milk). Cloister.dial. Dan. . dirt. meat from Du. enOE. clorre. I doda clod. clog or overshoe. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. His heart was franlc without a flaw. clogs for the feet klakk. schlattern. Klak also. compared with clump. we pass to Schlatter. geschlotter (as E. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. to rattle or shake to and fro. a skittle-ground klos- sen. bowl . slobbe. -clus-. to close against one. to lobberig. analogous plan to clod or club. lobberen. in comp. . lump of something soft . pludre. Fr. a Christmas log. je amoncele. a log. a clod. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. Swiss schlott. . . or loppern. slops). claudo. klag. to flap as loose clothes. doitre. Pr. separate part. -close. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. kleck. Du. klakk. lopperig. to claggock. a clod Swab. Pm. in forms like Du. shut up. claque. rattle. wide bagging clothes. lobberen. to play at bowls. and Gael. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. klac. the radical sylla. close. a trowelful of mortar. tramp in wet or mire. to dabble. A . in accordance with Pl. in accordance with It. lopin. a blot. dag. a clog. motte. kloden. slabberen. . hanging loose and full. finish . truncus. fat. clogs. to shut. clotted locks Dan. schlottern. clausum. claggy. Du. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. lump of butter.

wisp. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. a blabber. to cleave. loggish. klebek. eine to slop. a knot of people. nourish . clothes ment. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. mire. . a patch. The priClout.). probably from daboter. klever. Du. to a lump. shel- kloen. aglio. eene ODu. Met. to stop.D. Du. cobio. Rouchi dapoter. w. nagelein. Sw. Clumpered in balls of clouds. klunds. coarse. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. to splash. CLOUD an awkward clod . a clubfoot klabb. From dog. warm clothes {dillad. caillebottes. lumps of curd. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . group of people Sw. klumba. clump. and clay. G. clobyn. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. A kind of spice resembling Du. ball of thread Russ. naegel. a clod or clot. a sky Cot. Ir. and -the word Clove. a ball of twine . to strike.Fris. a curdled sky. Gael. to curdle. clou de girofle. kloete. klcBdi. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. to cherish. klump. I. kl'dnne.D. dob. klonte. a. cludaim. formed lump or thick mass. a clod. clumhar. klobbersaen. a log. clothes). . AS. dial. lump. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. To Cluck. E. 2. The radical sense seems to be an unE. Cloud.' Sanders. . warm. Cld. clods. but confounded with cailler. . to cloy. a bunch. lump. duthaich. from OFr. hebes (Kil. clavo di especias. from kloven. Imitative of the note of a society. clotted milk or cream. indispalte knoblauch. G. a sticky. Das volk hat sich in splitten. little nails. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. a clown. dut. sheltered . block. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. davus. clog. of sloppy materials. Club. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. rustic. unpolished. G. a nail. . a thick mass. chiodo di girofano. a . klu77ip. clunch. clyd. clump of a clout on the head. esdaboter (Roquef. Gael. zolla. cobble. zolla dell' . also homo obtusus. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. a bousche. clue. kldverj P1. kluppe. stock. a ball. clunch.). a garthas. from Du. to lump mend clumsily. klubbe. dial. a lump. from W. lunch). piece Cot. motte. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. clydion. — — — . clammy earth. Sw. mary sense is a blow. tered . cob. Clump. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. botsen. and clout d eudaich. a fissure. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . a clove of garlick. to cover Bret. klotzig. kUid. cluth mhor. clod. of thumping clumsy action. lie clyd. dash (Cot. lump.). vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. nelke (dim. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. clot.D. diboter. tuft. Du. klubb. E. as Fr. Fr. G. a ball. cluster. klieven. To Cloy. spice) G. ser. Mabousfrom Lat. knob. dial. ON. It. . from cates the application of the root dab to Du. clot . a log. Move. Du. dabaire. clothe. a breach. een klaven kruflook. E. Kiittner. are also used in the sense of a stopper. a bunch. strike. matte. dump. kluV. the terms expresssplit. of a lump of earth and that figure. ON. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. the air. botch. de Champ. boucher. and of a rustic unpolished person. So Fr. a ball. dillad bumkin. and closely do conspire. klaven. mud (Pat. More in R. Properly that which covers and Du. dirt. daggy. klumpfot. Du. lump of earth aria. CLUCK rustic. a bobbin. N. w.). Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. are often connected. sticky. sheltered up warm. log. to cleave or the splashing of water. in the same sense. (kruyd =. milk run to lumps. and tapp. klubb. a cover or coverture . — . with lout. clot. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. blockish. to tramp in the kluyve.158 . del mattond. make warm. cloud Delfortrie. In the same way E. klubba.ft. klotz. to beFr. dabosser. a bunch. warm. The significations of a clod or lump. kloven. AS. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. Clover.clod. knob.bar. bunch. clod is used in both senses . Pl. klqb. dote. a boss. a clot or keeps one warm. cludadh. A division of a root of garlick. a lump. a nail) Fr. klotsen. of nagel. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. mass. dys. choke or stop up. Du. Then applied to a lump of mate. puddle. Clown. klove. Dan. Sp. when something has got into the touch-hole. warm place . to strike .

rial. seize. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. klocken. from ON. cluster. klimpern. are the nasalised forms of klotte.forklomme (Outzen). Lincolns. . not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. dumps. klikonosy. as clumper. klamen. hooknosed. —To Clumsyd. to tramp. klemma. -olus-. ment. clotted cream. clip or pinch. Du. Sw. unwieldy Hal. carriage in which you klodset. cleuk. clopiner. Compare Swiss klupe. also a cluster. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. — sen. cliboter.mene tied. to rinse. idle.' Comfort ye dumsid. of Du. klunsen. Com. havi. Cluster. enervatus. Clutter. coucher became in unhandy. Du. finish. from laver. &c. See -elude. algidus. a clod or lump. Sc. an instrument for nasal form e. Riwle. splash. Lat. Clump. properly to do anything Fr. dek. to wash. crooked inwards . clutch. whence koetse. through the senses of lumpish. acomelydfor could Pr. klunt.D.' Wycliff. smart motion. Beklummen van kelde. a clod or lump. from klupen.E.— — . dial. or from Sw.'— animal. koetsen. kichlemmit. -CLUDE hen Du. ' Thou clontsest for cold. to curdle. MHG. ' Clumper. inclusive. cluntClyster. doquear. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. OE. a litter. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . lump of soft mate. a block. -close. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. a bunch. G. Hesse. G. claw. heavily. to curdle. a couch. E. clausum. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. hondis. verklomen. klump. eviratus. From the notion of sticking together.' Benecke.Ancr.D. fingers (familiar). the word is more probably connected with OE. a lump. Hindust. with E. bunch. Analogous forms with a tongs. and klotteren. The Fr. OHG. — Cot. klummerhdndt. of garlick. a pinching time. obstructum. . koetsDa. er. G. Lat. to collect in lumps. cleche. as from seken.P. dial. beklommen. thick and clumsy. a clod clunter.pare P1. klont. lavesen. clook. as Fr. — . G. klomen. and koetse. beklummen. kol. -clusum. klumpig. a clove Sw. pinched. may recline. with a quick. 130. to syllable click. awkward. Ray. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. Cheshire. klompen. to benumb with cold. It. clutch. . conclusion. close. to lie. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. to pinch. In the same way Du. to to snatch. But clunchy. dek. ball as snow. eene beklum. claudo. Du. Coal.' Vegecius in Way. Pl. to shut. hand to cleuk. Fr. dial. exclude. klos. A group. Variation of clatter. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. in comp.D. to gingle. pladdern. awkward. Pm. a ball . calling her chickens. * Clumsy. Boh. E. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. klisse. dumpers. Du. claws. to grip. clointer. glocire. a ball. ' Uorte (for clogs. klonte. —More. a lump. klumpern. in v. hands stiff with cold. klods. klikaty. conclude. kluntfrom KKvKdi.e. and klonteren. Graff in Klamjan. wooden shoes. esclaboter. Fr. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. klampa. or aclommyde. Cath. Champ. differing only in the absence of the duik. ether comelia P. . wagen. xXvariip. Pl. to wash. benumbed with cold. * Clump.D. Du. dumpse. klummklummshandt. ON. having the Pl. Clutch. See reclusion. to tramp or tread heavily. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. Fr. glousser. viscous material. unfashioned. to curdle. klobber in klobbersaen. Sp. wooden sole. paste. cleik. and make ye strong feeble knees. Hence cleik. koetsie. plad or plod. coccolare.. clumsy. unhandy. n. might be reached from clump. duke. unhandy. strum on an instrument. dial. kohle. to paddle or dabble. a noise. a claw. — Hence include. klomje. Coach. a coach. -cludo. to stick together . clump. klcise. COAL dumpish. klontet. klister. dystere. ' . klemmen. gelidus. to klotz. 159 E. klamp. klette. to tramp. — ' — — tonista. ill-made . limp. The sense of awkward. Hence snatching. -elude. koetblockish. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. verkommelen. MHG. log. Isaiah. a clod or The noclot. a clot klissen. klonte. -clus-. ball of snow on horse's foot . producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. Gr. Sw. lay hold of. to squeeze. a nasalised form of club.D. clabosser. dussomed (Wilbrabam). tight — — . a lump or compact mass. eviratus. Fris. Teulazy. Muster. Ang.

* To Cobble.' — Thus from (Hal. kuppa. habble. used in — . a coat or frock. — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. s. viz. kop-ar. klabbsmed. ON. Flem. flame. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering. . of E. Coalesce. — Cobbler. glowing embers. cobcoals. to kindle jvAla. from some fancied resemblance.— Cobble. w. E.). pustule. to grow together. tuft. cacd). Lat. cob. pock. A spider's web. cokes was a simpleton. while the sense of dwelling may be a figure from lighting up the domestic hearth. ridi. glow. Colina' the place where a fire is made. dial. as shown in dob and cob. dial. a nest. to stutter. broddelen. to knock. In the E. quele. atter-kop. meaning that she is plain and coarse. cob. bijamie. Trevoux. of cochina. inflammation. pustule. ailina or colina. Coat. a woodlouse. verklomen. a bunch. dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . a crea. are round stones or round coals of small size. a sow. to stutter. properly to daub. — — . small pox (pocks) . to burn.—Atkinson. to Lett.. — Pr. bredouiller. to pdt with We may cite Fr. and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. Cocasse. and hobble. cokes or fool of him. — — — E. of E. and jval. as in arr. dial. to speak or act confusedly. coalesce. to kindle or cause to burn . and E. costa. woman is said to be very ordinary. ignem. says Varro. Coarse. to hobble . from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . Du.). 3. to worship. to be hot. gull. To cokes or coax one then is to make a w. Pm. walk clumsily. verkommelen. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. then to work unskilfully . niais. from a root signifying Traces of such a deto glow or burn. hakkelen. sweets and the other of poisons. probably from the Fr. pryf-coppyn. Outzen. to glow . See Cot. of poison. klabbare. and thence a lump cobnut. to strike. The primary sense is doubtless koelA. . numb. cobble. cochinilla. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. throw a blow. haggle. cofasse.a spider. cule cocosse. to cobble shoes. things. unfledged bird. a darling. tempered clay for building. The wood-louse is still called sow in parts of England . It. Coalition. blaze. klabba. e. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. however. v. the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes. Lat. kop. and the spider as collectors. coste. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. . The OE. to bungle . The contrast between the bee • Cob. large stones . and fig. united.' And colo. Pm. are often connected. large coals. an old idiot. long standing. CooMneal. . quilet. OE. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. to peck as a hen cobyn. a knock.. plaisant. — Cleveland Gl. side . s. to stammer. a firesteel Lat. cluster. Sp. and imperfect or unskilful action.. H^cart. boil. caleo. rivation are found in Sw. It. k'dlla. a spider (/r)^=grub. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. Coast. T' waerkopet. one Pr. cotte. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. probably left his home. kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. a thumper. petrilla. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. kolna.(pi. pockbecility and liability to imposition. a similar According to Ihre. To cobble. to form an union with another coalitus. e. glow jvalaya. acomelyd or aclommyd. a cobweb. may be A found in Sw. koppen-gespin. top cobio. any kind of coat. to cob. COCHINEAL Cobber. give the full meaning of the word. frock. cock or nescock. koppe. a tuft. the one of thump. in Du. The Fris. ordinary as in the expression of cours