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Dictionary of Etymology_1872

Dictionary of Etymology_1872

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  • GESTURE SIGNS. xxxiii
  • 2 ABASH
  • AIM
  • ALERT 13
  • APO
  • 24 APRON
  • 30 ASSUAGE
  • BABE
  • BACKET 37
  • BALL
  • BAT SI
  • BELL
  • 62 BEREAVE
  • BETE
  • BILLOW 67
  • BLACK 69
  • BLINK 73
  • BLUE
  • BOB 79
  • BOLT 81
  • BONFIRE 83
  • BORE 85:
  • ERASE 95
  • BRAY
  • BRIGADE 99
  • BRIM
  • BRINDLED lol
  • My
  • BUSY 119
  • CACKLE 123
  • CALM 125
  • CARABINE 129
  • CARD
  • CARNAVAL 131
  • CASSOCK 133
  • CAVE
  • CHAPEL 141
  • CHATS 143
  • 144 CHATTELS
  • 148 CHIVALRY
  • CLAM 151
  • CLOG
  • CLOTH 157
  • COAL 159
  • COCK
  • 166 COMBINE
  • COPE
  • COVE 17s
  • CROP
  • CROTTLES 185
  • CRUST 187
  • CULVERT 189
  • DAIRY 19s
  • 2O0 DAPPER
  • DARRAIGN 201
  • DAZE
  • 2o8 DEMIJOHN
  • 212. -. DIDDLE
  • DIRE
  • DOIT
  • 220 DOMINION
  • DOSE
  • 238 EMPHASIS
  • 240 ENTIRE
  • 250 FARRIER
  • FETLOCK 255
  • 256 FETTER
  • FLAGON 261
  • FLEE 263
  • 264 FLEECE
  • 266 FLEW-NET
  • FLOCK 267
  • FREE
  • FREEZE 277
  • 278 FREIGHT
  • FRET
  • FUTTOCKS 285
  • GAFF
  • GALE
  • GAMBISON 291
  • GAOL 293
  • GARE
  • 296 GARNISH
  • GATE
  • GEE
  • GLADE 303
  • GLEE 30s
  • GLOP 307
  • GOBLET 309
  • GOOL
  • CORSE 311
  • GRAB
  • GRAVEL 313
  • 3i6 GRAVES
  • GULF 323
  • GYVES 325
  • HALE 327
  • 344 HIND-BERRY
  • KEEL 367
  • 368 KEELSON
  • KIDDIER 369
  • 370 KIDDLE
  • KING
  • KINK
  • LACHES 373
  • LAD
  • LAKE 37S
  • LECHERY 381
  • LEE
  • 388 LIGHTEN
  • LOLLARD 395
  • LULL
  • LYRE 403
  • MALKIN 405
  • -MAND
  • 414 MATERIAL
  • MEASLES 417
  • MESS
  • MILK
  • MINISTER 423
  • MITE 425
  • NUISANCE 449
  • 452 ODIOUS
  • PAD
  • PALTER 459
  • PARAPET 461
  • PATE
  • PEEL 467
  • PESTER 471
  • PITTANCE 479
  • 482 PLATOON
  • 486 PLURAL
  • 488 POLLUTE
  • POTATOE 49
  • PROP
  • QUID
  • RABBLE S13
  • RAFFLE 515
  • RARE
  • RAVE
  • REEF 529
  • RET
  • RIME
  • ROSE
  • RUIN
  • SACK 551
  • SAKE
  • 554 SAMPHIRE
  • SCARCE 5S7
  • SCOUT S6i
  • SCUD
  • SCUT
  • SEASON 567
  • SEEK
  • SETTLE 571
  • SEX
  • SHOE
  • 590 SIMULATE
  • SKULL 593
  • SLAG
  • SLUR 603
  • SMITH 607
  • SOAR
  • SOKE
  • SOOL 619
  • SORE
  • SPRUCE 633
  • SQUASH 635
  • 644 STATUE
  • STERN 647
  • STOLE 651
  • STRADDLE 653
  • 654 STRAGGLE
  • STUB
  • SULTRY 659
  • SWAP
  • SWIG
  • 668 TACKLE
  • TALL 669
  • TARE 671
  • TENDRIL 67s
  • 676 TENNIS
  • THRIVE 679
  • TICKET 68i
  • 686 TOAST
  • VESTRY 707
  • VOLITION 709
  • 728 WHISKERS
  • WILE
  • WISE 733
  • 734 WISH
  • Dm



original of this


is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in

the United States on the use of the


Cornell University Library



dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


and in imitates the cry are used withitself. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. The syllables moo (mu. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. when we is represent to our children of the cow. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. and. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. when neither name for the object to be designated. mind of the of the animal. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. Molli. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. with an initial m or I. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. name of the cow. in language of the present day. the closer we shall approach to the . by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. muK) and mae (rfie. by whom the be understood. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. the present day. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. persons of different tongues at the present day. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. and where we are seeking. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. or. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. but nothing she herself knows the animals. the baaing of the sheep. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. and mully or mully cow is the .NURSERY IMITATIONS. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. come Moolls. is given to a cow or calf. in other words. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. or Mollein. to the syllables which are significant to the child. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking.

and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. 72). his nurse adopting the word with him. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. . There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. Gr. to eat. repulsive to eat. We have. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man.). family. Finally an n was placed before it. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. &c. fiafifi&v (Hesych. mumm. Gradually. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. p. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. he called to to drink. then. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. analogous to Magyar mammogni. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. for everything fit to eat. and some were very clear and distinct. He would now say good. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. I had watched the growth of this word. partly from sounds which the child caught. in children's language. nim.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. to work over with the mouth. by the natural humming sound. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. A member of my own new sfop. for things.. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. had nim. and which we might express thus. hm. On one occasion he said^e nim. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. . as well as the mind of the utterer. Heinicke. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. became more perfect. and nim came to signify everything edible. for bad.' he says. First. to For instance. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. when hungry.' In ordinary speech mump. nineteen years old. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. schipp.

greedy . And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. palatable. snatched (Whitby Gl. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. to taste . stolen. memmexen. savory.ONOMATOPCEIA. to be pleamind . 1 86). mumpfeln. as to . to take.minis. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. Africa) nimi. The Chinese child uses nam for eat.' — Lersch. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. Wolof nahenahe. ut tinnitus aeris. South Jutland hiamsk. we can call them so. at hiamske i sig. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . nvrnma. and the crab — p. clangorqae tubarum. j ing . nyam nyam. Africa) nimnim. on. buckra man's language the white man. as well as the Sw. aptantes adfectibus vocem.' And Diomedes. nam. Gothic niman. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. taken up hastily on the sly. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. i8o. jamsa (yamsa). A negro proOr. Nimm'd up. p. namnam. mumble. food (Tylor. lita. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). voracious. tidbits nama . to Sw. to fill the mouth. sweet (Koelle). or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). Soosoo (W. crab nam buckra man. Galla djam djeda. . Swedish dialect gamsa. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. Vei (W. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. to mump. nobis vix permittitur. jumla. mujnpa. mumpfen. yamming. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. the Scotch poet. to eat mampfen. i. to chew laboriously. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . 130-1. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. (in chil- dren's language). eating. and some of them .). jammla. to smack in eat. and thence to be tasteful. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. and the fizzing (and Series.' says Quintilian. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. iii. agreeing with Ein. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). oves lalare. to move the lips in continued chewing. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. to eat. aves tinnire. ' Motherwell. dial. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. delicacies.' says the author of Modern Slang. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. make djamdjam). ' id est. Primitive Culture. or word-making. djamdjamgoda (to say djam.

und growling.' — We speak of a cow. chattering of pies or monkeys. intended in the instance to represent the cry. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. or. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. croaking of frogs or ravens. ^6^. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. not of a moo of Lect. 'I doubt. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. bellowing of bulls. sparrow and chirping. between dog and harking. bumping of bitterns. hooting of owls. howling. baaing or maeing of lambs. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. grunting or squealing of hogs. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. when circumstances required. but of a dog. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. anything connected with it. barking. neighing or whinnying of horses. Indeed. purring or mewing of cats. 89) with less hesitation. do not speak of a bowwow. for the purpose of bringing the animal. or thoughts of our hearer. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. dove and cooing. yelping. a lamb. twittering of swallows. lowing of oxen. yelping. chirping of sparrows or crickets. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. might be used. bleating of sheep. Yet we ing. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. snarling. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. that there is When Man. whether it deserves the name of language. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. cooing or crooing of doves. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African .xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. before the in other words. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing.' he says. might be used as the designation of it. We . 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. not of a baa. gobbling of a turkey-cock. p.' And elsevs^here (p. snarling of dogs. cackling or gaggling of geese. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world.

village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. In Basque. Malay gdgak. Manchu The kaha. caller. e. Arabic kdk. crow. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. and the sound of that direction. a crow. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. lion. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. gackem. caw kuhii-rava (rava. KOKKvi. layitavya . is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. or quawk. whose sound (Pictet. Georgian quaki.. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. ist ed. crow. coccolare. 4th ed. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. and means a shouter. and gaggele or gagkelein. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. sound). In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. as which is unmistakeably the source Du.). and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. a bird that is be driven away. according to Durga). Sauscr. He to is therefore derives kdka. Barabra koka. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. Origines Indo-Europeennes).' common sense. ghak. and Bavaria respectively. a crow (Pictet). roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. kae. In Lat.IMITATIVE NAMES. it announces (Salaberry). and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. Bav. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. 380. Sometimes the hoarse i . which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. having a general predicative power. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. kuho. Columbia kahkah. a daw. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. 349. We imitate the sound with a modulated. is kuM) for the cuckoo. kauwe. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i.' kd). and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name.). Kdrava. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). in g. a a crier (p. fi-om apakd- i. kdka. 'Kdka. Aoo-Aoo. in is Gr. birds. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. Picard cau. Hungary.

xi. It. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. synonymous forms of similar structure). lUyrian kukurekati. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. tuquheit. girre. Lettish kiekuts. to croak. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. The consonants p. kuku. t. tur. to hoot. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. hibou. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. to crow. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. turtle) as the Lat. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. lulo. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. to croak. are represented. kruk. uhu. Du. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. coccovaec. French dishuit. Zulu kuku. coqueri- Languedoc. another.. the name of an animal will gen- . name. wood-pigeon. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. kurre.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. Pers. in the North of England. or Gr. Dutch kievit. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . krauklys. tbrtora. Fr. 219. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry.. kirren. kukhuta. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. by the verbs gurren or girren. Ibo akoka. k. Mod. Magy. gugu. Esthonian kikkas. Arabic tdtwit. and sometimes both together. kraukti. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. teewhoop. So we have Polish krukac. to howl or Lat. kraeyen. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. kraeye. name of its is the bird. giving turtur (and thence It. Albacuculi a dove. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. koeren. tortbla. kukko. the name for a crow. coucouva. Yoruba koklo. either in the same or in related dialects. Du. German luhu. korren. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. and e. krahe. Walachian coucouveike. great variety of oKokv^uv. Hindi. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. libufs. German kielitz. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. German and Eng- krahen. yell. Swedish kowipa. gufo. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. Sp. p. tor. Malay kukuk. reduplicate form.Gr. a crow . "Welsh hwan from hwa. tbrtola. to crow. Da. to cry loudly. while crouk. The crowing of cot in Fr. Scotch peeweip. and e. cock. as well as of Sanscr. a crow lish Lith. Heb. 6. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. ghughu. lilits. a crow.

skril with n. words imitative of humming . a bee. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. ' — Pictet . skirl. kong-kong. to rustle. to creak Bret. a hornet. knetta. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . pip-pi-ta. The Arabic sarsor. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. give a faint sound. skryle. glass cracking (Schmeller). PofijivXwg. the drone or non-working bee . sirkka. g.vf3. flight its sting considered as a horn. schwirren. Fin. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. resounding of musical instruments. Danish gnaddre. from the humming. g. Danish dron. i. North of England.or bumble-bee. German dronen. schrickel. and probably indicates that g. Albanian tsentsir. and he kong-ko-rong. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. ajo. thunder. resound. a sharp sound as of a 6. or a gnat fly. bamba. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud.' — i. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. dhran. (Jieuschrecke) .' Amazons. to chirp . Gaelic dranndan. In the N. — Catafogo. whirr). to be compared with Sanscr. in allusion to its music. buzzing. Arabic tantanat. little intermission. humming. Lith. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). schirke. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. grylhis. and not from E. cricket is from crick. loud rumour. Lithuanian tranas. to shrill sound sharp. 337. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. a drone. droning is . which they make in their flight very . which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. to sound. The drone peal. a small as hawk is . name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. chirk. Speaking of a cricket he says. Sc. and yelping cry. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. hollow noise. Northern Farmer. gives rise to chwymores. schrecke. oE. German hummel. din. growling. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. horniss and from the buzzing The. buzzing. The Welsh chwyrnu. g. bambhara. zirken. grille. sound. Australian bumberoo. Lat. booming.IMITATIVE NAMES. bee. Naturalist on the tocano. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. a beetle druna. ' Sanscr. to chirp J may be compared with . from schrick. succeeding each other — with noise. The name of the cricket indeed. swirplys with 6. shrill. to hum. We may cite Gr. with or Fr. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. the humble. 'The natives call it tanand. grillen. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. of England it is to the b 2 . Sanscr. there are infinite varieties.' —Tennyson.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. German drohne. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. e. Corean sirsor. common.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. ta-na-nd. representing a short sharp sound. to grumble. a fly (Tylor) . as .

representmake bow. a bullock. bucula. to make. the animal. The Piedm. to ba-L-are. and djeda. bugle. mamoo-heeheek. in same way. to make a loud deep sound. to boohoo. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. Lat. biibnas. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. His analysis leads cow. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. and thence Lat. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). amuse. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. Fr. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. bos. w. Illyr. Fr. are (with a subsidiary k). bull. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. Hottentot bou (Dapper). lulauti (to hoo-loo). The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. is inadmissible. muJiati. or moo. to weep. w. to from bau. ox. to make a noise. mae. verb is evidently identical with our shout. mugler. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. to beat hard. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. Lat. be-l-er. fivKaofiai. a buffalo. baula. bue. or formed Lat. From the same lioao). from the imitative moo instead of boo. mugire. that the imitative syllable are Lith. With these analogies. cattle. btibleti. — ^Tylor. bovis. to mew. to bump as a bittern Illyr. Lat. maukati. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. a bull. Manx booa. as the Illyr. to sound. to or bark. bubenti. a drum . make poo. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. representing the mew of a cat. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. or bau-l-i. a heifer. to . and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. bo. say. On the same principle. to low or bellow. bubati. It. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. verbal form given to the say. Gael. to make. forms a. boo. to bow- own bawl. bu. shoot . or a z to the imitative syllable. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. and in Hottentot baa was the . in a imitation of a ringing sound. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. bwla. Da. bauli. to the uses goda. loge. Zulu lulula. Galla boa. Cult. make to it laugh. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. or with on. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. 167. OFr. to shout. From baa. bullock. to low. bullus and e. buculus. whence baula. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. Piedmontese fi bau. agreeing exactly with Lith. and from to ring. a Geiger. has bilbilgoda. to low . k or g. p. miau-l-er. the Fr. to shout. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. bugler. The Galla lilbil. (iove. Thus from miau. to bellow like a bull. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. bukati. as that of the cow by boo. Norse bu. bolt. bae.XX called booing. grumble as distant thunder . bae. a cow.

cite as by grunt. grumbhng. cry). to howl. Illyr. nire. Africa laa. meugler. a goat firixal^ta. name. leknuti. corresponding to ohg. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. in Wolof bae. a. ^. and Circassian maylley. mutter. mekegni. from hundama. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. a pig. curmurring. mecati. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. a wolf. G. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. a (Hesych. sus-sus. menAda (ndda. to grunt. Fr. to rumble. naskia. grumpf. or in any ! way ! persuading. Gr. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. from knurre. and snorke. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. Moreover.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. grunlike a pig in eating. oe. a sheep. Hence Breton hoc ha. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. ' In driving. a sheep (Lowe). grugno. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). a sow. / The same Gr. this obstinate race. sound. the snout of a pig. does not produce a e. — . . hunon. leg-et-ni. he would hardly. in v. may be identical with Esthon. to themselves. Among dog. and hoc'h. undoubtedly imitative. lekavica. grumble. to growl. as lou of an ox. Magy. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. to grunt. kurren. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. name of the animal itself. purr). And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. and with the subsidiary k or g. . Idgge (Rietz). From the imitative mae. goats. groin. to bleat. knurfisk. signifying a snarling.' Moor's Suffolk words. The g. kurre. hund. lambs. and of (maelon). to bleat. Illyr. a goat. as the proper name of a tame sheep. and thence groin. a sheep or ewe. And it is true there between hog and grunt. 6. karra. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. Gael. smack and naski. lecco. hound. grumble. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. /xijeao/iat. houch. With gen. It. a pig Fin. with the root ypaipm.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. meckern. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. a grunt. sheep or goat. may with to snarl. we have Sanscr. the designations of a dog the term cur. name of a sheep. Illyr. a sow. a dog. Gr. it and e. hwch. meketati. lek-eg-ni. guttural tone. a hog. and grumphie. grunt. rumbling. Gr. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. by which the shingle gives rise to It. /xj/caScj. Fr. meigeal. hunt (gen. a sheep or a goat. meil. hadg- Magy. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. hundi). It is probable also that e.). a goat. Kurren und murren. Da. grogner. to bleat . growl. grunny. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. (iriKov of forms like Sw. although the imitation embodied in Lat. for the voice of the ox). Manx meilee. . Welsh and Breton).

So Sanscr. Sc. coquette. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. from the cry animal. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language.' — ist Series. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. a little am- bling horse..root. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. animal. the cry to stop or back a horse. humma. Esthonian hoibo. cockade. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. to the left. houpy in Craven. to whine. g. without a — we root. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). p. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. 91.). it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. to go backwards.). as in Yorkshire highly right. M).' ticular bird. like artificial flowers. such as cuckoo.. turn a horse to the is In Finland. ^6<. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. hobin. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. hoppe. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. Thus we are led to the Fr. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. a horse. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. (Craven Gloss. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. hiine. e. a mare. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. hobben. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. . In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. . of the character in question. If onomatopoeias can . whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. when he found peculiarity. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. There are of course some names. p. hobby. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. But words of this kind are.' 2nd Series. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. hottihuh. coquelicot.

lapwing. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. titter. horse. signified It. nitrire. hresh.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. but whether there kind between them and other words. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. nounced with a guttural). woodpecker. . be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. to Sanscr. Irieschen. Sw. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. wrenska. rinchar. animals or certain kinds of sound. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. e. diver. groan. hresh. runniken.D. Sanscr. creeper. hennir. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. command of language was attained. hikkd. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. than to the sounds represented. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. wagtail. frenschen. ance or habits of the animal. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. Pl. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. giggle. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. wrena. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. xxiii ginal object. redpole. little speak for themselves. fehtati. swift. goatsucker. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. g. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. moan. Lettish sweegt. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . to neigh. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. form corresponding hresh. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. Du. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. whitename in in- throat. ginniken. Fr. hross. Sp. sol. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. wiehern. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. cough. as sigh. Bohem. hukkup.

' it both sides went. klatsch. Wtb. scream. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. to sneeze. DingBang. the God of thunder . to ham. ding. —Brem.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. to hammer . for blows with a rod. for the sound of milking. banke. went the cannon. on the chops is represented also by pratx. to drive on. White Lies. haw. mer. beat of a clock child . snort. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. knack. banga. for the for the sound of . to beat. are familiar in ' to every one. wheeze. a more expressive than the e.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. pit-a-pat. for in such sound of blows. . Australian bungbung ween. for a small one. Vei gbangba. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. for that of breaking. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . Zulu bongo. for the creaking of a wheel. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. bang ' ! trenches. hoo. hoo ping ping. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack.' 'Haw. snore. tlirob.' ! ! ! ! — dong. for the sound of a blow. or tliat is accomit. beat. aritischane. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. the dashing of the sea . a large bell. haitshu. Mei gbengben. snukkup). familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. plitsch-platsch. dong Read. atchian. 1865. bang. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. lumm. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. tisio (tisho). heart tick-tack. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. — Sanders. ting-ting. strippstrapp-stroll.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. clap ! A smack Puff. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. knarr.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. to throw violently down. hang. Da. debhes-lungotais (deifies. for the sound of a fall. oren : Klapp. or the w. an attempt would be made to by the voice. atchini. bangas. a kind of drum. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. ping came the bullets about their ears. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. for the report of a musket (Colenso) .' So imac. fitsche-falsche. &c. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. root kshu. shriek. heaven). to knock. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . pump. It is represented in e. in a nail Let. thunder (Tylor) . Of a like forma- drum . &c.

being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. Mantuan pipiare. The pi. calls S. Magyar pip. pu. pippione. peep. It seems to him that the teeth t. and whimper. In cases such as these. pigolare. laugh. or a piailler. bleat. Lat. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. Lat. Gr. used as a call to . mobility excavation and hollow ^. Florio. part of the What consciousness has the child. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. e. cry. pipilo. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. Fr. pipegni. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. as the simplest implement for proFr. young child . and their relations.sc. far pipi. and so forth. pipelni. a fife or musical pipe. —Lyndsay. which he added to intensify the expression. to cry pi. not- . to cry like imrli^u). pi. piccione. ducing the sound. the voice of chickens (Cot. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. pigiolare. doubtless. had been used laugh ? two.) a chick. pule. as in other subjects of study. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. of a word will appear supposed to represent. as k. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. pipe. is pfeife. cry of young birds . a fowler's bird call is lost. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. child. pipe. pipio. or the uneducated different consonants are man. piou. to cheep like a bird or a young It. peep. . but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. to squeak. a chicken or gosling. piou. to designate cavity and hollow. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. has been un- employed to designate fixity. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. scream. is of expression. young bird. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. pipare. a (young) pigeon. a or cheep. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. to peep It. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. — . pipio. G. piauler. a whelp. De Brosses. He Yet asks. pigione. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena.' instead. chickens (Tylor).

make wood a clinking noise. rumble. to gurgle.. in German. gurren. murmur (by . what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. to grumble). grumble. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. creak. as representing the sound made when something breaks. lachachen. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. to creak knirren. a drum W. when it force than biscuit. laqfF. to cry pi. Hindoo tomtom. rumble. kuruk. pi . preserved by Kilian. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. girren. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. lachen. kniks. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . to thunder. to bubble. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. to grumble. cricli. a. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. crack. cluck. {to It. sound of dry breaking. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. knurren. to gorgogHare rattle. i. or kaka-faka. turtur. to clack.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. be cate to go on laughing loud . bubble. tonare. kirkirdnd. like the noise of a glass breaking . . to crackle like in boiling . to ring pipio. Poppopvi^to. tintino. the clucking of a j hen . tontonare. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. karkarana.. vaake gorgor) . to grate the teeth . loud laughter. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . a short sharp sound. of a loud strong sound. It. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. a prolonged sharp sound. the side of g. to be compared with Sc. to rattle. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. to gargle . u. sound). as the click of a latch or a trigger. some small vowel or consonantal sound.) Mod. to cluck. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. to laugh. rumble (Fl. a sharp short one. murren. to pant bejii- zela. . is very common. along with tinnio. thunder oil . To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. to growl. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. where the variation. ioriogliare (to make borbor). susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. &c.Gr. Pefuxela. to pant violently (Colenso). like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. Hindustani karak is rendered. to jar. knuks. or springing back. chack. to hawhaw or laugh loud. Pacific aka-aka. of something fine and thin. crash. knaks. garren. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . Indian chack-chack. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. along with Du. Zulu raraza. coo. borrelen. Manchu kaka-kiki. a closed or obscure sound. and lugh. to fizz like fat in frying. kniks.

chut. a smith. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. Newman). wail. KaKog. call. for a tTviror). Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. e. clank. rifiirayov.and e. jangle. Fr. bent her head. clash of arms. as of Tamil muromurmur. or to Du. to say chut. 1871. the tingling Ming-Hang. is Manchu tang-tang. champ. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough.' Member for Paris. Prim. Turk. chuchoter. disturbance (F. a nightingale. a boy's whistle. .SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. of keys or tinkling of bells. to giggle. for the clinking Lat. Calt. the gingling of glasses. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem.* the heart. Sanscr. identical with g. or the bubbling up of to a spring. rvir (in tvittio. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. to whisper. indicating the origin of Gr. a drum . spring of water in the a bell. Maori pata. tumwata. thump. and the imitative nature of tivgle. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. quarren. bulbiil. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. box on the ear imitation of the . a nightingale. shout. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. are applied to the is excrements of children. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . fumtu. noise. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . 368). is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. chinking of coin. or of bells ringing. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. hala-hald-faMa (falda. borrelen. especially one who beats. brings us to Fr. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. Scotch sough or sooch. Magyar csamm-ogni. caca and Finnish adkkd. kiling-kalang. kl'mg-kling. Galla tuma. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. djeda (to say tub). to knock. for the sound of privy whispering. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. is based on the same imitation as the e. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. ding-dong. to be compared with g. The syllables lil-bil. agrees with g. 192). clango. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. klirren. halaidlac'h. tumult. E. compared with Gr. while cacd / used in e. sound. as Fr. and bilhila. and e. jingle. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. koXiw. muro and e. clink. The whispering of the wind I. and her heart went thump. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. Tiie Galla gigiteka. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. for the ringing of illustrate bells. make djamdjam). to ring or jingle. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. tup. drops of i. bubble up. awater* ' The Mme P. to strike. correspond to e. simmer. to the purling of a brook. croaking of frogs. and Gr. at an accelerated note. . for chut-chiit-er. and Gr. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. tubh. to beat. the sound of a stringed instrument. word. bad. csam-csogni. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. a workman. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. corresponding in e. coughing or clearing the throat. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. sound). rain (Tylor. cry. Manchu kaka. uproar.

tomber. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. murmur. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. ' Der puff. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. gargle. fizz. gurgle. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. rumble. Humboldt. squeal. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. in e. creak. clack. without the intervention of orthodox roots. paddle. w. plump. din. report of a gun. chink. whizz. according to the strictest phonetic rules. tingle. The use of g. while e. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. a applied as well to the force of the bang. twang. ring. we have buffet or cuff. lash.. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. disturbance. tumbian (to beat the ground). sputter. But although and also found in Lat. brumberum. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. jingle. whack. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. rap. whine. chatter. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. clank. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. slash. splutter. smash. pop. crunch. douse. clink. and soufflet. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. thwack. splash. It. blubber. The beating of drum is represented in e. hum. clash. snap. to is blow. thump. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. dash. parapatapan. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. and Grimm. to fall. patter. at a door tarapatan. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. tap. and Fr. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. bubble. blow. craunch. and the French pouf. Fr. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. swash. rattle. tum-ultus. smack. Nevertheless. or v^hether jectional. guggle. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. for (Sanders). The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. souse. So in Fr. crack. thump. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. 'pat. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we .' — Nohden. whirr. mutter. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. to dance. flap. answering to g. by rubadub. squall. clap. hiss. rataplan or rantanplan. dabble. it is fallj AS. bang. boom. thump. tinkle. the Germans puff. tymmesll. clatter. crash. flop. clang. squeak. puff. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump.

formerly cited. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . knows them. because they are spontaneous. the kind of action that is desired of them. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves.' . and found in the building of be burnt up.'. At the first beginning of life. little who has time to want of her nurseling. or of any if wood. by the nature of the cry. in the case of the animal or of the infant. and uttering plaintive sounds.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. is Thus ah!. Grimm or Bopp. the interj. or stubble is meaner name. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. the inteij. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. hay. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. p. ugh . and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. 94. are made known by an instinctive cry. every little pain. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . in the rushing waters. xxix on the contrary. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. Crying. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. wringing the hands. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. that he has taken the step in rational speech. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. of horror. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. but if we must not complain on the beach. grief. stractions.' If chaos. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. If. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. without a thought of symbolising to them. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. or any unsatisfied want. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. an imitation of a sigh . Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. and thus they become signs of despair.

of all the mouth. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. or which is of me as suffering pain. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. He says. 344. he cites from Home Tooke. shrieking. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. Language begins where interjections end. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. p. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. as who them spontaneous utterances. If I wish to make a person of an . j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second.' p. more eloquent than a long speech. the lowing of a cow. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. p.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. And again. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. ^6g And to the same effect 371. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. and the eye. should be remem- . and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. 32. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. coughing. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. interjections. more to the point. may become traditional. sneezing. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language.' — ist Series. groaning. them to exercise it. which are frequently so toned down cance.. be more powerful. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. to solve the I shall call first. and some of them the composition of words. One short interjec- tion may fact. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. they are involuntary interjections.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS.

but the less am at a loss what to say. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. then speech begins. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. Koxafw. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. Gr. hahota. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. I am not hearer. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. bered. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. Tooke in truth. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. kahkahah. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. for example. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. and more or less limited . some kind of language might have been formed. loud laughter. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. demolishing here. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. Kayxa^u). It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. in Fin. hahottaa. cachinno. he says. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. hohottaa. Lat. and others from interjections. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. when I arp humming and hawing. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. in Magy.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. it them. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. interjections. and thus. speaking.

and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. and go where we now say stand. if taken as a whole. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. Though. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. words receiving the meanings they now bear. And so in the case of language. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass.' he says. the critical question should be. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. of the world. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. But here nature soon conies to his help. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. a Picture-language. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. like peewit and cuckoo. of the nature of this great movement. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. . with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. and not. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. It as has ing their most striking features. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. dumb is the language of signs. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. a deaf-mute himself. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. makes them stand and walk upon the table. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. What strikes him . The following account is given by Kruse.

it means little. most striking outline of an object. for walk. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. and we have roast goose. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. and fully serves to j . nay. the lan- guage cultivates itself. for child. thought is already broken. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. walker. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. signs are taught for yet. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. the sorecalling them to his memory. and gestures. many when or but these. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. such objects. And is. for the agent. that air. among themselves. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. and it is flesh or meat. xxxiii him between one thing and another. walkest. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. to name. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder.' In the Institutions. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. that. can do better and more easily abstract terms. the whole secret. he. his action. and forms further and further. it seems. as it now opens out. walked. or To pull and flap with the arms. becomes roast meat. and with his thought. for single objects.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. such as than the educated man. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. push it towards the person addressed for thou. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. or the verb to be. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. The of sign for left hand. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. letter To hold the two fingers apart. that signifies great . of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. what more. he. The same sign stands and the act itself. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact.GESTURE most. thou. particular sense in properly so called. like a V. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. and And thus he makes himself a language. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. called Gesture-language. and to taste. but if I depress it instead. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar.

and so is an adverb. substantive or adjective. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. a colour red. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. . Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. it called an interjection. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. Do not bang the it is a verb. depend entirely upon the use. the garden. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. and the as. Who is has beaten you ? would be. He gave door a bang. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. might be the knife. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. as in die it is a noun. in other instances sentence. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent.xxxiv asking. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. in fact. or action. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. and thus performs the part of an adjective. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. putting it into his pocket. or an act. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. as when Bang ! went the gun. as But when it is meant door. When I say. or a passive scene of existence. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. The same word . would be simply beginning of speech. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. or something of the kind. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. or a quality. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. when I say. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye.' dener's knife. I say. according to the circumstances of the case. When a verb. the ture of white term pink is and red. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. You beaten . which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. whether by additions or otherwise. to indicate the action of a certain person. a number of alternatives are suggested. qualifies the against the wall. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses.

moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. but often self-evident. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. that admits itself in of audible representation. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. and may be used language. &c. pain. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. or nei. wonder. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. wherehy. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. Latin. commencement of speech. wherewith. whereof. as cung. and to be great. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. 255. grie^ horror.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS.. some outward display of the affection. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . Thus tafu signifies a great man. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. contempt. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. greatness. in the is indicated by the syllable y. as kuo cung. inquiry. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question.^ — Miiller I. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. wherefore. the man is great. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. middle. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. with a stick. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. whereto. or some relation between it and another object. a groan. . a noun. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. that is. Jii ta. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. in the sense of great. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. which is an old y ting (use stick). or with elements expressing relations of time. verb nor noun has yet been developed. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. coalesces with the personal pronouns. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. inside. a sigh of oppression and .

Such are g. lament from oimi. wai. ah. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. 6. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. I oi[iot. wehen (Schmeller). Gr. as. suffering. woe. to bewail oneself. Lat. vei-a. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. first person. The form corresponding to Lat. is Ay di me I Gr. ache. wai-l. Thus from springs otjucifw. are ol-ire. to hurt Let. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. Gr. weinen. found in g.. e. mew. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. waiidt. jao. grief] affliction. to chirp. la. to weep. grief. wAwa. ohi. ach. g. Illyr. In this way from the root guai. oimare. vce. gwae. hei. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. to make). or r. a groan or lamentation vir. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. ocAJ. to cry at. ing action I. seen in Gr. Let. ai. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. miau-n-is. It. to . to ache. g. guaj-ire. to lament. headache. xxxvi grief. achen. cece. to wail. ochain. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. Bret. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). to ache. form. ui. guai. . And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. ochan. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. probably a deeper groan. axofiai. to sound yapyap. miau-l-er. however. e. gwe-l-a. . och. to cry n. miau-l-is. . to rriourn. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. and cacak djeda (to say crack. Gael. oi. to injure. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. dchzen. the pangs of childbirth. Fr. has more kopfweh. to groan. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. vaj. . Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. woe. guaj- or cry out pitifully. pain. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. wai. representing a cry of pain. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. ach. w. grief. weh schreien. to make bow-wow. on. weh. e. pain. misery. to cause pain. representing Illyr. . oval. at the close of the radical syllable. and to bark . j. as. Illyrian vaj. on. Jar lau-lau. is w. ohg. ahi. wd. A widespread It. al. It. Lat. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. howl. djamdjam goda (goda. lament. n. ochan. It. ach. oh. ace. ah. pain. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. to wail or cry alas . &. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. Gr. och. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. ! ! Goth. vce. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. die wehen. lau-l-e. wehthun. in Gr. aiai^to. to lament. gwae. to yell formed e. w^wa. jaoh. 6. guajo. misfortune.'). to do woe. o'i. to weep. tirr-djeda. w. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. It. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. mostly a ! %. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain.ez. oh. och.-l-are. to gargle. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam .


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

a word of many applications in g. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. When we pointing. that is it. da. ToSe (or in Attic E. when he wants something.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. is-te). A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. But. child. Phil. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. The Fr. give. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. Thank you. as. ' sees an object. we may translate this by there (it is). He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. da. or carry me thither. indeed.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. and by a variety of expressions besides. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. der da-ige.' this. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. well as Goth. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. a specified were by pointing him out. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. thata (ta-ta). Dr Lottner observes. I add) . more emphatically roSj)j that. 'nay. that gratifies me. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. that. is we I believe. Bav. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. the nursery da-da. or wants to name something. • The child. Diet. . says da-da-da. according to Menage.' person. Sanders (Germ. and so on. nurseries. and may be rendered. his trowsers' pocket. saying : there the ad- Trans. Please.' then points to his wife. but the truth is. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether.' all is is — their consent. for instance. case. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. when 1859. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. give me that cheese. Sie. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. as to express. this here. as it Dieser da (as Lat. to here . in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. or give me it. implying the direction of its good will towards them. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. or that it is. In the expression Da.

sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. then instinctively interest. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. make dadada). ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. — Cot. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. to knock.' says Muller. beat. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. thinking. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. to say to oneself. which thus exertion. standing. in every mode of expressing the idea. sounds. to move step by step. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. moving. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. of which any one may. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. . its desire. dadee.' says Lottner interior. or metaphor. meanings. Thus Gr. sinking. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. or dalliance. tattle. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. reality. stutter. speech.^ its ' utters : a cry. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. strike. to tion to another. the original is that which he places first. The da is dodem. childish toying. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. and one in particular must. tasting. and shapes it into an . to chatter.' • liv ANALOGY. to walk. to beat. pay. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. takes it — as When the soul. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. p. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking.

gnittre. is used in the origin. same imitative root with Sw. to sniff. to glitter. smell. clang. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. Bavarian bracht. to ring. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. Lith. iclat (in Old Fr. and. and thence e. scheteren. snuff the sniiten. firom the Gael. from the . wilistd. to snilF. search . think. bilbilgoda (to make . for example. kiimottaa. unlella. on. sound. to flash. to glitter. make a loud noise. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. to sound clear In Galla. to tinkle. which in ohg. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. as kilind. bright. while sapere itself. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. tintelen. schiteren. wilahtaa. outcry. as. snutrs. fiapfiaipw. spraka. bilbil). to crackle. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. &c. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. — 1. schmecken. Du.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. (parallel bilbila. smell. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. to crackle gnistre. tumult. suspect Bav. extended to the exercise of the understanding. splendour. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. to have Sapiens. to shine. to quiver. a dis- cernment. taste. a ringing . then to sparkle. to ring as a glass willata. in the domain of movement. to glitter. It is The word bright had a similar In as. pracht. splendour. snudra. also wise. chime). prudent. Again. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. to glitter e. to smack or taste. to be wise. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. snot. wise. air. The 6. sprageti. kimistd. So firom Lat. . sapere (which signifies the nose. rattle. beorhtian. a rustling sound Gr. . sense of brightness. to sparkle. discreet. judicious. In the same way the Goth. in popular language. the equivalent of g. brilliancy. 1654. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. In the case of sparkle. to sniff out. properly a clap or explosion. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. to glisten Dan. knistre. to 5 ghtter. signified a clear sound. noise. may be it explained . tinkling. ghsten. may be quoted gUt. esclat). Heo Du. and figuratively. Fr. savour. beam. knittre. to resound. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. we have and the and beorht. man of nice taste. a brilliant light kilid. Finnish. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. magnificence. to . wamara. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. a with kimmaltaa. to shine. to shriek with laughter . scTiateren. and schmecker. snotor.

The BpavEiv. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. within. oily. Kpovtiv. rough. v. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. 6\tadaveii'. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. Acre. fitting the letters to the sense. inside. rend. rough both ways. smooth. the clank (stridorem) of chains. gluey. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. roughness. 1. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. break. extremely loose. power of the letter-sounds. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. shatter. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. mel. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. sharp. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. pleasure soft to the ear . then in rpd/xoe. is felt Lana. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. ipuKuv. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. rough to the ear. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. kvTOQ. discusses the tone of a picture.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. the neighing of horses. And observing that n kept the voice within. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. briars. Tpa)(yg. soft. eo ut res vol. to slide. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. of dressing loud. crux. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. which The Stoics. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. \nrap6e. rough. strike. we hear of screaming colours. wool. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. . accordance with the way in which by touch. he says. itself letters are felt as sofl. tremour. the cross. the bleating of sheep. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. and vepres. he framed the words ivSov. whirl. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. or . It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. Kep^arl'ieiv. KoWiiSije. as soft by the ear. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. in truth. flow and flux. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. pvfi^Civ. &c. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps.' he says. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. Much of the same has been often quoted. in of his works.

to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. 138). in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. for exis ample. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. ii. jog. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. p. and in the utterance of a high or or low. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. joli. to reel abruptly from side to side). in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. jag. p. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. g. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. to signify varieties of movement. A greater felt.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. stab. jih. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. jig. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. k. dag. stag (in stagger. d. rug. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. 'and consequently form. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. or checks as they are called by Muller. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. to jogj sac-cade. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . sag-oter. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. degree of roughness sound. the case of the voice. dig. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. Fr. cular effort Again. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. corresponding to the ineor. shag. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. as when. t. tug. a rough and sudden . shog.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT.

to beat or play on a musical instrument. is lanese toch. to move rapidly to and fro. The Mipen or pencil. to mutter. a good piece of road . as tot. kuk. used interjectionally to represent a . mie. a crum. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. to ring a bell. in cases like the foregoing. to take a thing on tick. micare. Dutch kicken. tech-tech. tock. &c. (mitsati). to On the same principle j we have g. cica. Ene olde suksuk. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. to pulses being knock.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. to stir. that we never can be sure. however. sound barely audible. a small bodily object. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. kik. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. S-panish miga. is so frequent a consequence of movement. to mark it with a touch of the pen . mot. a piece or bit of anything. Bolognese tocc. Fr. passing to the signification of motion. Thus we have B. to touch. schuckeln. schockeln. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. to say a word . Then.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. sound Fr. mik. To tick a thing off. also to stir. then. or check. and e. Fr. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. It. a jog. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. Hence Lat. for the sound of knocking at a door. movement. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. not to utter a syllable. to utter a slight kick. The production of sound. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. a . Brescian toch. to winkj micati is Lat. Accordingly the g. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. chicoter. chic. as Italian tocco. is made to signify movement. a little bit. to have it ticked or marked on the score . figuratively. Mucken. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. then. lead to Spanish tocar. Sukkeln. Illyrian migati. to incite by light touches. foot. mica. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement.. to strike It. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . a quid of tobacco. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. g. chique. zigzag. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. Welsh cicio. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. so to Italian toccare. an infant . or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. toch-toch. motion. rough horse. The analogy then carried a step further. The train of . zack. it produces Dutch micken. properly a small lump'of . tecche-tocche. to tickle. e. The syllable suk is jerk. and analogous movements. and It. a cracker. to glitter. an old worthless horse or carriage. tack. a stroke with a French toucher. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. chiquet. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . a playiug-marble. like English tick.

a small bird. to make a slight mark. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. bunch or flock of wool. and a small lump of something. . a small quantity. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. to jog. tiny. a sparrow). tot. In a similar the relations of place. anything small flax. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . is shown in murmur. i. this. titter. gnu. a bit. ri that. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. zitella. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. motte. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. a tot . mutter j dust. little j to that of a small bodily object. iki. . zitio. 199). citto. 48) cites from the African Tumale. often entirely arbitrary. This kind. to tremble. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. a e. that. to jot down or note with a fro. tottle. and toddle like a child titter. taut. little. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. to whisper (Pr. tit.- a jot or little It. for the beating of a clock. or o toi. or the like its It. (Halliwell) Da. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. a little titty. ticktack. tittle. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. a morsel girl . and out there. and dot. corresponding to the personal pronouns. chico. a small lump or pat. tot. mossche. to touch. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. clay . you. tot. to movement of the pen . To jot.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. Halliwell. tozzo. a lad citta. . this . gno. move slightly to . to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. there (further of!) ao. Malagasy to. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . and mite. a morsel. we have e. here (close hand). The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. that iku. But the same is language has re Javan. mot. seesaw. the same organ touched with the man. eo. titilh. tit. mut. or the converse. there '(at a short distance). the least visible insect. The following table from Tylor (Prim. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. a small kind of lark. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). Du. motta. of movement in totter. fait. a light quick blow. to e. totle. mutter. gni. not an atom . fragments It. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. a small horse. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. and he. jot. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. . Cult. not because the pendulum makes a different left. lix Sp. for the three personal pronouns. tot. anything . at where the order is inverted. lump of earth. small titlark.) . Then. . further off. subdued manner. a girl. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. to touch lightly with a pen. So. the vowel sound. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. . as in e. small of kind. to dot. here. 0. e. Pm. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. a bit. there. a. ika.n. n. a certain conception. mote. syllable mot. . neither moit nor an atom. Fr. I. not to utter a syllable. a whisper. . e. titmouse (Du.

here . /wo. mother. nne. Tarahumara ibe. ni. here 5 Yoruba na. child... and a for the female. and origin. Dhimas isho. 6. mas cheche. here . little. km. ta to ka. Japan ko. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. ojOo. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. that. this . an old woman chacha. father k . for the male. biii. . ulri. there. thou . from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. ukko. ni. . me probable that • Vei also little. femina ama. as Mr Tylor remarks. he. father. j Canarese ivanu. Lat. /e«. Magyar ez. Tamul i. this . that. Mutsun ne. ndi. Zulu ajoa. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. that. Botocudo ati. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. is Here. probably initial of distinction that the k. this . bi. child. akha. . Carib ne. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. thou. . respectively. he. ofj. an old . to. It Carib lala. .) nna. ^. olo. qu. there. as in Italian Fin.. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. .araM. this <t. there. young one. you. there. that. here feraa. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). I . as the act of pointing was ta.. usho. uta. that (intermediate) j wana. there. ne. Guarani nde.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. that. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. here j ka. this ole. there. minution further.e^. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. . Then. w. ita. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. that. here j abe. Ossetic am. no constant rule is observed. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. that. mother.) pronunciation of i or e. loo). there. Abchasian aSn. this fi. Fernandian az. that. tiiio. man erne. is father. Sahaptin (America) kina. this . that in the distance. It seems to (fen. (tt). small (Pott. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. here this . Gr. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. Chilian tva. thou ni. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. . /mya. mother. that. Mm. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr.

for the . a step. Thus we have Wolof sopa. repetition It. fretful. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. the idea is called. little. titta. trappa. to teet. whence Fr. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. little To sup up. keeh. dance (Kil. as ding-dong. Fr. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. of smaller things. sound of bells . is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. &c. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. barking of a dog. the principle of reduplication. the nursery few j Sc. just beginning to appear. to peep. to begin to appear . looking through between obstacles. The Sw. lift 8.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. has tittafrem. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. A little wee face with little. analogous to winy-piny. trippen. Top. trippelen. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. and in the Pacific dialects. to make its way through the bursting envelope. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. or chink. pepin. trSpigner. din-din.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. From cases like the foregoing. i Sw. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. . the simplest mode by the g. And perhaps the E. a child. The sound trapp . to sup up by and with j lips barely open. for instance. to peep through. trap. for a succession of light blows low-wow. murmur. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. to tread.' — Merrv Wives. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. wean. 401. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. in old e. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. don-don. a little yellow beard. — Douglas Virgil. nil. A little weeny thing. knob. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. stairs. to feet. wenig. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. Clank represents the sound of something large. the pip or pippin. to leap. as j money.) . Da. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. nipple.' making the voice as small as possible. tion. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. nab. trappen. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. is to express simple continuance of action. or even. at pippe frem is to spring forth. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing.

and Fr. tache. from Maori muka. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. Susa di. to treat with contempt. mpolu is uttered.. And generally. Malay ayun. Thus in E. hardness. bad . in familiar use with ourselves. or el. to say pooh It is ! to. Cult. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. mawhitiwhiti. or rdtchi. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. kamha-gamla. very bad. loloa. 99). So from clamo. Thus in the Pacific loa. Again. a grasshopper. a cradle. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. (to use a to speak. kendagenda. click. the agent in panting . expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. child . may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. little child (p. to vi^alk about for flax. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. er. clash of weapons. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. the lungs. a clattering noise. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. or imitative syllables. to or rub. or a little tee--ny thing. mawhiti. ayunayunan. to cover e. to rock. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. to talk at to walk. amusement. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. didi. instead of being actually repeated. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. random . . to pant. to call frequently from Fr. or in Fr. very long (Pott. a spot. Mandingo ding. very great. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. cliqu-et-is. keep spots. rack. ding-ding. sopasopa. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. . on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. calling. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . be used as far an echo to hard sounds.Ixii REPETITION. if very young.' expression is — ^Tylor. racket. rack click. i. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. tach-et-er. 97). lololoa. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. to to call. or very very great. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). &c. puka. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. repetition or continsignify long. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. is language. kenda. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. smallness. The same principle of 196. could readily be conceived. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. and the words express a continued sound of rack. properly speaking. serves to show and in this way. ratsi-ratsi. puka- puka. clamito. to love. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. rapidity and strength. child . to skip. the comparative degrees of greatness. are echoed by the rudimentary et. the and clique.

jogging. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. he who rubs. miauler andpiauler. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. shuffle. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. to rock. the knie-en to E. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. a from ayun. where all direct connection with sound is lost. The Fr. dabble. The contrivance with any particular noise. or omitted. in some applications. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. kneel. in Fr. joggle. syllable clat . or in e. to continue dragging. to make a succession of grabs . crack. smack. wankel. it. fickle. a succession of cracks to rattle. wagas ging. and in as. guggle. to hand. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. from puka. waggle. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. is In e. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . or fi bau. or by association. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. Ihre remarks under gncella. which. without the intervention of the frequentative element. Jickfacken. Piedmontese bau-l-S. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. wancol. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . to hand-le. to puff. compared with g. the lungs (the puffers of the body). draggle. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. as mAS. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. miauler and beler correspond to E. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. rubber. others. dab. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. In cases like these. to wail woe . in used for dealing with an object by the hand. to make a succession of shoves. to make bau-bau. or Maori puka-puka. itself. to crackle. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. g. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. to rock or wag. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. bub. to bark like a dog. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. wankeln. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. wavering. to make gug. as to handle. mew and baa . by the side of wanken. are to cry mew and pew .Jicol.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. rynel. to move to and fro. such asjlap. bubble.

known in Italian. or in aptness to combine with other elements. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. Polish.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. to cry ugh at. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. it is obviously a mere chance how long. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . Dupe comes to us from the French. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. A gull or a dupe same sense. or how generally. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. will continue to be felt in daily speech. although it is not difficult. and comparatively few easily deceived. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. Breton. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. at was more familiarly known. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. or in mode of use. There is. to the separation between the broken parts. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. the breach. on a moment's reflection. which. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. deceit. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. which is the origin of the word. by a hard body breaking. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. moreover.

the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. and the word is used in a secondary sense. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. however. language is . ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. Hitl^erto. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. life. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. nor any limited of ideas. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. founded in manifest blunder. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. is. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. . In savage when the communities are small and ideas few.

If English. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. unintelligible to other hordes.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. evique. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. compared with the duration of man.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. Naturalist on the Amazons. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. 330. therefore. and 'Russian. in the course of many years' isolation. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. circle perpetrates a new slang term. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. episcopus. French. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. and vescovo. I think it very probable. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. guages in South America. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. out. of material things. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). Welsh. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. i. change. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. hearing. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight.

ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. ancient Greek M . and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. 7. ao8). which are idenr Figures 5. or whatever the proportion may be. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. i. 6. the actual it which would to represent. Cijlt. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. A key must unlock more doors than this. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. as shown in the subjoined illustration. to be taken (Prim. .COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. 8. Nor is there one of the letters. and . are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. it will leave figures 3 and 4. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. 9. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. The combination of the symbols I and 2. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. is MN.

his fellows. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. for instance. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. or. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. and the only safe beneficent Creator. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. known to us as yet. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. had its origin in imitation of sound. which either by direct resemblance of sound. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races.' should be discovered. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. in the shape either of direct inspiration. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. what comes to the same thing. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. leading him to utterances. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose." the use of a change of vowel in as. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive.

or else. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. the conduct of Ixix life. for instance. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. of using imitative conduct . whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . and rose towards a higher state of being. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage.COMPLETION OF MAN. or not. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. and when we look back as far as history will reach. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. or beavers. race were speaking men or not. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. in the course of generations. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. and sooner or later. or of their own reflected thoughts . we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. as elephants. by animal without a trace name of Man. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. until the progeny. that he started from the lowest grade.

1768. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Dueange. Dn. Bavarian. at the end of Somner's Diet. Wtb. ^Ifr. Baile/sEngl. Gothischen 1851. Carp. Teutonico-Lat.Nieder. Finnish. Dief. Dutch. Bremisch. Diefeiibach. Cimbr. Grammar Boh. Diet. Due. B. Supplement to Bret. Elfric's Fl. Dief.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Diet. Gr. Esthonian. Supplement to Dueange. AS. English. Couzinid. 1850. Cimbrisch. Diet. 1766. Provincial dialect. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. 1857. 1737. Carpentier. Danish. Biglotton seu Diet. de la langue Cat. Bav. Catalan. E. Fin.V. Douglas' Virgil.-Eng. Da. Cot. dial. Diefenbaeh. Bigl. Romano - Cas- traise. . Fr.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Sup. Cotgrave. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Anglo-Saxon. or Dan. Esth. Bohemian or Czech.. dialect of the Sette Commune. Brem. 1654. Dueange. Castr. Infimse Latini- D.



CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r.5 ERRATA. Blob plowied r. woman r. (/ijtf r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. r. cti. willekom Blab r.. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. cruccio deyrie. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . yjnaifia r.percurrunt kimista^x.>. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. baltresca nokkutomax. r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. word allagerr. Askance woud r.nokkutama willekem. alUger ahaverie r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. puHti r. kilistaa bugiie r. katowai perairrantr. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . buque 118 brodiquin r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. ^i?^i2! r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. plowied budowaer. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. sveritet Asknace r. haverie crtOT r.


on-bsec . Immediately from Fr. and — Chaucer. abaft. ar. rule. Jvery man shewid baft. o/j of or . a. an edict or proclamation. announcement. to hold . that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. to subdue. AS. the er. from a is to wake to abide. us. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. in a manner other than it should be ablution. —Bruce. Parson's Tale. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. away from. power : Than Wallace thing. onis aback. this word beand Spanish. but now )bsolete). command. until the event jlace . literally. Lat. ab. dominion. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. abs. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. A. erwachen. have entire dominion over. on. as. er. to awake. dominion. state of sleep . Abs-. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . a/tan. ir. be-ceftan. Hence on-bceftan. and secondarily in that of command. to sauff the king or spill. as. 843. from. downwards.t G. Abaft. iway from. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. particular 1 . 244. out of. Again.he Goth. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. orders. baftan. ur. OHG. to arise. a washing off to abstain. implying a completion of J. in. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. behind. K . . on. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. "rom a height. in the same sense. off. said. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. The word Ban is common orders. sion of 'an abandoned character. alike. plesyt him. away. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. of-dune. ifter. Thou spelds of mychty iction. ibandonner. Passing tongues. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. In Lat. vs.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. Thus ip N3S. on-lic. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. into the Romance ftrseg . AS. bandon in French. compounds. Dent posture. his. among. Abandon. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. To abuse is to use iway. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. whatever he be. Ab-.

d. castle. shame. of the Fr. R. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. with or without a final sh. bawi. to strike Froiss. abbattre. down. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. baba. effect of shame. faire tomber. to abaw or astonish. where custom (Grandg. Abbey. 1 1 8. as ravish. abbatere dal prezzo. terminedly. It. to excite admiration. weaken. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. to The . 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . beer. abbas. abate. Castrais. Cotgr. to strike sail . Bate. c. from Lat. Wall. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. to happen. iv. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. Abbot. father. abbatis. of wonder.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. Milton. lish to abaisse orabaish. and the verb was written in Eng. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. et prirent terre.' the surrender of a ' K. from ravir. Beat. See Abide. to take possession of an estate. de. confound. overthrow. or admiration. person. abbatia. to hit.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. may be explained. To Abate. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. and that from Syrian abba. to gape. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. On the other in use as well as hand. Fr. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. I was abawid for merveille. merely the terminations ons. .' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. ais. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. to astonish. R. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. impetuously. to diminish the force of any. to put to con. in the active form. abaundunem-ent.) . to light upon. other. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. or society of abbots or monks. his eyen shene. and grooms besmeared with gold. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. by Wall.fournir.— R.— — . which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. baer. In or.On princes. bandon. Hart in Jamieson. ant. to bate something of the price abbatersi. and sets them all agape. burny was formerly burnish . to ruin. astony. vol. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. esba. 1520. And he thereof was all abashed. astonish. . — Neccham.esbawi. 364s. burny. See . Baba ! Mod. betrash. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. so common in the found in the OFr. his mouth. abandonly. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. esbahissais. thing abbatere le vela. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. law term abatement. son bandon. uncontroUedly. depress. Hence Lat. A. an abbey.Prov. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. polish. at his own the lips.polir. abbatere. ne more vermeille. drink. Originally. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. impulse. R. to beat furnish. Hence the OE. to make lower.down. adverbial expressions at abandon. Custom. Abbess. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. of fear. to overthrow. — — . esbahissant. and it that that it — . More correctly written abbat. esbahir.

' ' . Ducange. to hook. to expect gabeidan. to desire. abSiance. to attend to. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. abie. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. bouche bdante. to It. to stay. Thus we have It. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. to suffer death in Du. pense. In We . wait To Abide. Guernsey beth. abie. Goth. compared with (Bosworth). take notice. bie compared with Dan. to open bader. to stay. Corant sens lui. or in Fr. abet. bder. Norm. b^er. endurArt thou he that should come. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. or absorption watching. ne chastised them. John. to desire earnestly. which is certainly related to It. K. — signifies to suspend action. bialodrze-w.was formerly used in the sense of look. desirer (Roquef. See Abide. beguiling on the other.— ^richer. Quant voit le serpent. syllable ba. . to tarry. attendre avec en^pressement. E. beidan. to mind. expectfamily. .' is in AS. with open mouth . guardare. abidan. Boethius. listen. or do we AS. to attend on . tical with It. Fabl. ne wist what way to chuse. Gloss. . ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. beijden. de Champ. speaking of the Holy places. lingering.Fr. to expect. regarder. also to OFr. To Abet. which the mind to an object. incite . abeter. while the monks under his control ing. deceit. to wait. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. expectation. Gloss. tempting. endurance. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. beijen. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. to gape . badar. to yawn. abetter. intent observation. to abide . The white poplar. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. to wait. ceive. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. baer.— Roquef. delay. badare. Du. to deceive. forbearance. badare. and alluring to his own destruction. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs.. The verb atwaiting.— Chaucer. bidan. bhr. Thus G. Ni engigner ni abiter. Norm. we sceolon ON. delay. is idenwait. to wait. From abahier.to wait. listening. watch. — . songer. 366. exciter. a right in suspense . open the mouth. OFr. bie.) abayer. inciting. baier compared with It. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. from Halo. and Prov. baier. abaier. on the one hand. in Dan. to deanimer. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). —Raynouard. m Abeyance. covet. beter. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. bida. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. badigliare. aspire to. to look. and in E. bida. abbadare. forms with the d effaced are OFr. — ABELE Epiphanius. us. in Fr. . baier. expectation. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. bocca badata. to remain or endure. Abie. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . 1 • . desire. and E. delay. Q. Cat. inciter. signifies the direction of tend. to be intent upon. (Vocab. to be intent upon. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. have seen abide. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. verbeijen Sw. ^couter avec dtonnement. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. to In great amaze. take care. a bay or opening in the coast. beguile. F. bana. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. Cat. trick abetar. white. suffer b. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. tenere a bada. de Berri) Prov. Corresponding to keep in suspense. abet. tity of E. the verb of abeyance. gola badada. gridare. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. beidan. . bada. abiiance. beijen. warten. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. abayer. bouche b^ante. aspirer. house. attendre See Bait. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. — II. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. Prov. abeyance. says. othres abidan' The effacement expect. suspense. with badia. badare. usbeisnei. to open the mouth. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. wait. to ance. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. waiting. literally white tree. deceiving. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. Abele. were called Brothers. look for another. tarrying . qui iaaille. Pol. bide of the d endure.

! ! Cotgr. L. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. the side of a ship. suffer the Jul. being disabled in the highest degree. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. consequences of anything . in for any special purpose. bidan. him with che. though sometimes confounded with it. to redeem. atling hem to her proper offices. at hand). habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. from Lat. P. Q. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. She shall abie that trespass dere. to dress hemp. at kasta fyri bord. on board . God — dear. i. Milton. powerful. Mids. abidge. abigg. Boucher.^and to make his power knowne. —Bacon in R. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. F. Innan bords. habilis (from habeo. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. convenient. or bie. God. to pay the purchasemoney. Lat.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. is the verb abie. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. able. within the walls of a ship. al- be found so some will dear abide it. fault being simply clothing. the Sir Tristrem.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. to wear away. For on board. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. Dr. and death for handsel pay. Fr. habile. as E. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . to have . N. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. abicgan. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. abide. — P. Chaucer. Prol. O If tion. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. 2. as habiller du chanvre. 2nd Tale. power. abie to Goth. abilej Prov. expert. Tr. fit. abeye. AS. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. properly abuy. It. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. — Able. Abie. aboleo. from AS. The —Boucher. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. strong. willing to schewe his wrathe. and Cr. to pay the penalty. . Cassar.ynes. to draw fowls. abolir. to . at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. abilh. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. P. the Pardoner In the original. must suffer for it. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. Fr. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. R. ON. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. habilis is closely preserved. — e. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. a board. have-like. Spenser. forbid for mother's children should abye. If it badare. R. adapted . bide. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. the Fr. use. was often used in the same sense. abie. beidan. Wickliff in Richardson. In this to erase or annul. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. sufficient. within the ship. &c. purpose. without special reference to the notion of retribution. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. Merch. to perish. bord. de la volatile. and the simple buy. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. durance in both applications. when compared with Aboard. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. abycgan. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. while in later examples As I . The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard.

by the to bring up. titan.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. levis to the Romance languages. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. on high. Gael alaich. be-ufan. Above. of any kind .abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. Severe the threatened evil. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. heavy. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. to break off. abbrechen. In the same brevis . boven. butan. to produce. .foda signifies to beget. giving birth to. for ligeth butan. becomes leu in Prov. hard. AS. to grow up. and also. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. ala is made to signify to rear. ABOMINABLE adolesco. Tale. to grow together. en.— Abbreviate. kindling. al is growth. the vital spark. to aggravate. The radical idea is to feed the flame. disastrous portent in some passing oc. abrcBgdan. snatch In English we speak of away. awaking. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat.ymbutan. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. agreujar. but from Lat. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. to turn. explains soboles Lat. to let sleep. nurse Lat. alere capillos. the idea of breaking about . or cut short. to rear. Melibaeus. vital PI. abowen. way Sw. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. pedigree from brevis. from . and in-d-oles. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. af-oolden. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. from Fr. seems aras. Then. to awake. without. Of these synonymous adolescere.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. to light a fire the Abraid. to main. abrdger. while the verb alleThe root el. full ofte his words for to Fr. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. alan. greu. — . alUger. progeny. literally. to beget or give birth to children. bufan. the OSw. OE. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. OSw.. abufan.' Ymb hancred utan. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. and also to abridge. to fatten. d. currence. s —Casdmon. gravity. brood. that greatly agredge their sin. . breaking out in language. which may God avert. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. AS. about cockcrow. natural ed direct from the latter language.aboon. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. common in Chaucer and Abominable.ger.. abbrechen. Prov. ala. the form a&^^. The primitive idea seems that of beget. outward. abutan. alan. onbutan. abominor (from ab and omen. coalesco. is not from G. agredge. See To Bray. around on the out. life. abredan. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. Finnish stock. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. as AS. whence the Fr. and bidden him abregge. Goth. Kiittner. ol. his contemporaries. Abrdger itself.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. gravis. See -und-. nurse. af-oleii.' Parson's rence. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. Lat. So in Lat. leading immediately to Fr. the hair grow. Abray. abbreviare. motion. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. AS. ufan. Du. to progress. sec seftre — Chaucer. break out. to rear. oil. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. to bring up. Quod abominor. below. the identity of which with ting. to nourish.) . above. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. and alere flammain. abracan. to cut short. is a ively. as withotityn and without. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. side. while the sense of beget.the older form. and to do something to avert abbreviate. to start. the man dwindles away. a portent). To abray or abraid. Virg. nourish. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. to AS. be-utan. Thence to regard greugetat. To Abound. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. as the duty of nourdisposition. or young forth. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. which passed into English under Abominate. OE. to snatch. Fr. Sc. adolere. — ' — — preceding verb. parent.1. D. to feed. Abundant. For on broach. to feed. draw out. Thonne Abroach.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


To ape. So Lat.is to be given. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. Gr. anxius. — — — . Gr. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. swaged.— . Fr. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. inAgain from the same author cudis. like a jack-pudding. Otfried. cenig. eigs. E. Ful- Apanage. surimitation of the ancient models. all of gold. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. aside. i. to strike G. from an and — - . Prov. choke. antefn. Ilvtwotov. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. younger child. In like manner. Apartment. to go in strange disguises. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. to sound in answer. bread. To go antiquely. press. avri^ava. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. Antick. panis. Lat. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. a small quantity. but the expresent day. Fr. panar. from Stephanus. three antike pillers. a preventative . from avTiipoiuia). on. and claret wine. wealth. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. work. to imitate gestures. the anticks — behind. Gr. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. to have. something ler in R. a definite . whence anthem. Anvil. amboltj Du. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. from ango.legacy of given against. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. a termination equivalent to Goth. andouillers. Antique. and ig. Apart. a few. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. left as the . d. one having wealth. to display pario. to open. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. Antidote.—Aperture. Pezron fiUist. from in and cudere. Lat. ambeld. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. apanage. some one. anfilts Pl. antifena. from ante. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. rich. in Shakespear. plenteously with red. to strike. what Roman civilisation. Apartment. villan Gloss. and devils. fauns. white. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. or antique single chamber. part. from eigan. were chiefly of the former class.th centuries the recognised models of antic. Hall's Chron. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke.D. Mannequin. before. Hence the applica. separate. stem. Thus from gabe. or in a ridiculous dress. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. one. Fr. transferred to the grotesque characters. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. a gift. should be received. Aphorism. See Cover. anticus. from an. As the browcalled antiques. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. post. whence Prov. a puppet or an anti^hona. trouble. which by anvild. Percutere. Anxious. as from as. G. Aperient. separate purpose. a block to hammer on. one at the least. AS. . aperio. from. set aside. apatiar. from. burnished. ab. AS. apertum. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. af. to strain. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. finally applied to a whether grotesca. AS. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. to support. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. Jorioc. of. Antler. to bring forth. vex.. as posticus. were andouiller the second. Lat. such as savages. to nourish. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. strangle. as the Italians. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. Lat. : . the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. as we call it. from the imitative habits of monkeys. gabeigs. d<popi(xnbs. Any. verberas. before. ReApe. anxi.made out. incus. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. —Spencer. anapoz.

. apropid. They werin his approvirs privily. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. appareo. apparecchiare. prize. — dirondtfiu. to learn. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. one for his defence. to send off. Apotliecary. Appease. become dizzy . Fr. or the like. off. to understand. to call for judgment. xv. one the MLat. 'LaX. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. And among other of his famous deeds. whether through age or sudden teiTor. ai. 'L-zX. fit- — ness. apin R. taking. to deaden. diroBrjKr}. — prehendere.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. an epistle or letter. —Diez. Mod. seiden of the stones. . En peach. set a price on. to Lat. appaiser. manner. Prov. Fr. apropchar. ar.t. mine. approver. prohts.probare. when the . Yr. H. Walach. pragigua or prixcoda. to be open to view. to learn. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. and metaphorically to take the meaning. Apostle. jabloko.prix. decree. to call. to dress in this fashion. landmark. probare. apal.parecchio. to approach. to suit. The PI. obolys. a price. Fr. i. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing.propius). preparation. OFr. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. to set a price on. agree. aparelhar. — Approve. pronounce fitting). Cent Nouv. diminutive pariculus. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. oVooroXof. cepl. corresp. . he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. Cotgr. horror. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. e. d-n-o. N. A — . good. equal. to lose one's senses. order. one sent out. in commendation. Yr. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. to mark to define a bound. to deem good. in data.parejo. Apo- good time. apar. trim. iwKjToKri. and in the sense of condition. to disable oftat. Sp. Fabian in R. apprehendere. laven is used both as E. a learner. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. AS. pronounce good. Apprehend. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. diroTrXriaatii. to take away or lose the vital powers. and also as appraise. apprendre. habiliments. From Lat. To Appraise. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. Apple. like. apal. peler. from paix. to approve. ^wss. habilUr. And whanne sum men Lat. to rate. rise to \t. appartenir. in fact. kind of action. To cause to pall (see Pall). appareiller. Lith. aptly. Palsgr. to deter- to strike. to announce. poind. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. approcher. ap. like. dress.pareil. Fr. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. Fr. away. Fr. apprentis. whence the e. They were considered To Appoint. Appareil. approcdare. From Lat. Hence It. from. prope (comp. w. It. Pliny. Prov. ON. irpaiKOKiaov. Apoplexy. pertain or belong to. 11. proper time came. piteux poind. to accord. the good. Epistle. in Chaucer. — Appurtenance. case. to finish a controversy. To Appear. to which it is often referred.— . find Then like Fr. to strike down. array. An old appalled wight. Gr. avail. S^. to store or put Appal. Formerly apricock. a thing for one's purpose. to fit. were formed appropiare ejar. From Gr. Parson's Tale. to assign or grant over unto. apprise. consent unto. Gr. a crime. of. after his mind . Friar's Tale. APO sentence opoQ. that it outfit. word was specially applied to clothing. or E. to — . The Fr. ciously than nede is. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. to seize. to — — . Cotgr. (cited by Diez from a late author). to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. despatch on some service. in good season prendre son d. Cotgr. to come near. appris. peace. —^Apparent. make a composition between parties. agreeing with "LtA. to make a thing Apparel. lAfiaam. from aTroorlXXu. one is in. to send to. opportunity. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. Fr. Ir. purpose. known. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. Nouv. Fr. 5w. I prise ware. a'^opi'Jw. Gr. For their acquaintance was not come of new . appellare. to commend. Hence appoind. — Apprise. Gr. value apprdder. properly to join like to like. prover. pretium. Approach. esteem. allow. APRICOT off.his giving evidence against his principal. praise. par. : — — speak 'Lz. 23 .—Apprentice. poind. and appoinder (to find fitting. To praise. quoth the frere. to catch hold of. Lat. D. plight. near. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew.

arwelo. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. pracoqua was not an adapt. aro. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. Marsh. grande nappe. This path Aqueous. con. From OE. Prol. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron.] in the N. A. arbitrium. sortium ductor. to plough. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. — napkin is Naperon. Maan initial . a lot. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir.meaning at Shrewsbury. Lat. . and taken away before dessert. a lot. ughe. aa. derived. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. suitable. C. Pm.sors. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. From OFr.. a cloth. the spelland umpire. Now one of the points — — — . Freshly turnid Arable. aestimo. aptus. a lot.shrubs {arbor). garden. divining rod. The loss or addition of n very common. Now we find in Fin. scr. OHG. aqua. of of divination arpa-mies. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash.o. ahva. ap.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. herbere. tion under trial. intensitive of nape. and a protection of the clothes. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. She made. and the one who gives oracles. {mies ^=ia3.' —About. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. proper. conjicio. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. short. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. Gr. J. ear. account for either of these significations. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. auguror. la nappe. . is taken in is a soothsayer. hariolus arpelen. a soothsayer. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . As is a pretty parlour. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. Arbour. and sortilegus ation. . . wata. however. 2. Alban. naperon. Lat. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. Roquefort. Naprun. aha. to preserve it from stains. man. opinio. or eft. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. arwaus. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. Beryn. sestimatio arbitraria. and with turfis new Goth. Flower and Leaf. and thence fit. sorcerer. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. P. conjectura conjec^ra. properly the arwella. OE. found in Fin. a pleasure-ground. arbitror arwaaja. It is certain that the apricot oracle. 31. Aquatic. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. quod he. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. or barm-cloth. nected. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. symbol. water Which that benchid was. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. most conspicuous situation in the garden . to decide by lot. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. doubtless is the origin of E. P. arbiter in re censendS. a river. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. delon. Thus we have natiger and auger. Lat. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. nawl and awl. as an eye-witness. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. 331. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. fastened close. as ihe diminutive. arpa. It may be doubted. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. however.) E. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . Pr. — . Hall. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. be That it inne groweth. Albanian. shortdr. arbiter. words derived from arpa. rofe and all. Arbitrate.

Fr. Lat. while the Fr. ancient. curved line. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. 2. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. arm. Lat. Sp. Applied in modern E. faint-hearted. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. arson. area. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. difficult to reach. Area. weapon may be simply an application of annus. ars. ON. ramo (pi. Cot. make clear or prove. TiKToiv. lofty. Arcliives. to demonstrate. Arm.4 rir/. forearm . Lat. sluggish. in Due. een erg kind. troublesome. arwe. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. weapon. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. G. ' — Argue. apxtipfve. sly. morally bad. a. man. . an arch boy.' Paul Warnefrid. from areo. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. by Russ. are formed the participial nouns. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. i. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. Arduous. argr. vescovo. wretched OE. There can be no doubt that E. Gr. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. fabricate). rame. . From the verb armare. ein arger knabe. * ArchjAiTaxit. which has been referred to W. arch-bishop. Arcadia in R. exercise lordship). aridus. worker. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). Aristocracy. the best. Gr. a bow. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. apxtlov. as in E. stuff. timid. Du. Ardent. to burn . and Kpurka. arg. G. Lat. Langobard. the court of a magistrate. the a brute. the terminaGael. un malin enfant. D. to Arch. an arrant usurer. A construct. ardor.In E. the most arrant trash. . — degree when appHed to a bad quality. to be in comp. et vulgari verbo. gwyrek. erz-bischof. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. apxh. wanton. archangel. arsum. high. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . bad. is essentially the same word. curved. signifies chief or principal. Gr. Gr.— Army. arrig.aioj. raineno. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. Brem. Arch in composition. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. apx^iv. earm. mischievous. arguo. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. whence the body of the nobles collectively. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. Fr. ardIn G. adjective.' the Gr. earg. ers-betriiger. government. argvitugr. malicious. ruling by the nobles. arcA in e. det arrigste snavs. gwyro to bend. The . . and not with apx. a bare plot of ground. shoulder Boh. arrant Arms. a threshing-floor. arma. arga. arcus. burning heat. which is derived from it. W. an arch-deceiver . 3340. erg. shoulder. aj-f. Lat. apxri. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. patus). a branch. to be on fire. Lat. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. armada. a chief builder. contemptible. Alisaunder. armee. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. bad of its kind. and must be identified with Dan.' Lex. ill-tempered. Lat. kpxi- beginning. especially shoulder-joint. It. erz in G. Arson. arduus. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. Du. to arm. Perhaps erz-wticherer. arm. Dan. to rule. armata. Ardour. Sax.. to dry. an arrant rogue. Lat. — Architect. branch. fainthearted. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. receptacle where the public acts were kept. a burning or setting on fire. Arid. From apxeiov was formed Lat. an extent of flat surface. . AS. part of a circle anything of a bowed form.. And thou as arwe coward. bad. vocaveris. — Wtb. and our army. a rule (princiruler. ardre. ardeo. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. a court yard. from nixa.is the natural weapon of offence. it signifies roguish. un petit rusd. bravest. mischievous. ^Argument. Uo^a^. sly. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. a noble. earh. arm'ee. as the arch of a bridge. first. taxed with cowardice. ramend). Fr.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. lealo. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. Ball. a ball. I. ballare. Sw. Bale. balja. to ail. to on Holmedon's plain. ache. to partition off . a skin. blister. G. . Sp. . globule. Hence. Ballot. OSw. Dan. ban. hooting. Fin. ballone. maan pallikka. pallo. to see-saw. boleii. ballare. OFr. package of goods. to paddle in water . * Balk. dial. Sw. Bohem. floor. on the shore. a dance. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. mass. palloilla. afbalka. baalien. Du. It. are applied to a From the same analogy. Da. ball. torment. a pestilence. on. It. ball. Hence Dan. bol. balla (with the augm. Ballata. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. It. whether of wood or stone. bol. dial. bdlkr. pallikka. ON. to by beams. Fr. E. gen. . . heap up. balare. bola. bbllr bulla J. bollr. Gr. Sw. the ballet of the theatres. to dance. balken. bala. sickness. Pol. Ugutio in Due. bolawy. a ball. cka. plague. with the perhaps from balg. weak liquor.Fr. ball. a continued noise of waves gently beating . to Not sparing wight. a great ball. a separate portion. a pail. F. similar connection is seen in Sp. balka. pila. a water-skin dim. Russ. stage or scaffold. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). a clapping or flapping of wings. (Hesych. misery Du. uveirs bolk. ballet. to be ill. Gael. a beam. vcdra bdlkr. To Bale out water. a division of the old laws. a wooden partition . Boll. says Ray. the beam of a ship.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. balk. palcare. may exhibit the original development of the signification. to rock. to cause another to miss pustule. a scene acted in dancmg. a But making way for death at large to walke. bielke. bal. a balk of foul weather. dial. balk. a ball. balk. Sw. boll. — A — — . balveins. balva-vesei. Goth. as we say. balloon. See Gall. balkr. ing. wickedtorment ON. and evil in general. bacgtteter. Bowl. malefacGower in R. Sw. balge. . to move. bealwes. other while. Sw. to stir. to be balker. Mid. Perhaps on. a pill. to shake or jog. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. OHG. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. ballan. balk. 3.ing.). pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. a. baloier. ne leaving any balke. from the more general notion of moving up and down. hue et illuc inclinare. a boil. G. destruction. bolker. Q. Du. balle. chapurrar. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. dial.—Ballad. Venet. to avoid it. at giore en balk. a bubble. separaison. Wotton. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . and the dim. i. balken. baler. Sw. ballo. to plough for a boundary between lands. a beam. Fr. Balloon. the breadth from side to side . to pack Da. a together in the form of a ball. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. a ballad. ' is a piece or confused talking. balle. AS. balka hopar. to dance. TtaKKa a pail or tub . balle. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. to ache. bolyatchka. ballar). It. bold. the object of his expectation. tum. ill. on. a clod of earth water. roof. palla. on. baalie. calamity. Baulke of land. In like manner Fr. probably Lat. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. as in a barn or cow-house. Da. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. balka bunge. bjdlki. taich. bal. maleficium. balle. 2. bal. A balk. to speak an un. e. It. pain. a ball balla. Ball. shouting. trouble. a globe. pallukka. Fr. Rouchi ban. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. We have then separate dial. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. . to roll. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. ballotta. a ballot). to wave. a partition. a dance. Grief. sorrow. pallo. to plank. to signify washy drink. grieve .' speak gibberish champurrar. a ball or pack. ballare. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. wickedness ness . sick. Bret. . bolyaf.of men .Lat. a ball. The primary sense seems as in G. beaten road. a washing-tub. vacillare. bal-daed. Sw.— Ballet. from bacquet. To baulke the Sir H. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. w. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. a clump .— 42 BALE to BALL heap . ball. to grieve . N. pilula. to bale out.

Sp. to enchant. little round and short pillars. endormir par des contes. Said to be from balaustia. bambolo. Fr. Du. bertesca. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. ^Arbuthnot in R. also with flatteries and . Report Pennsylv. to walk. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. barandado. &c. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. 1. To Ban. galleries. bambocciolo. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. To make fun of a person. or movement of one who walks. To Bam. Balm. It. baume. a battlement . 43 — Cot. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. Bret. is in Sweden and Norway. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25.that the going vessels. command. ranked on the outside of cloisters. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. a duty on goods last. ballustre) is a corruption. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. A — — . called Bait. Bret. Lat. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. . bam. deceive. Lest. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. because. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. age. the act of walking. inutile onus. deceiver. forbid. Sc. by met. ballustres. as he says. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. Fr. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. bamein. lestage. of balusters. mare Balticun. more serious objection is . a fragrant gum. When a ship discharges. explains ballast. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. To proclaim. Bamour. It. an Old dotard or imbambolare. Balluster. Balsam. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. puzzled. To Bamboozle. R. more frequently than outward-bound. In OSw. analogous to what is seen in It. for a load or goods (Roquef. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. Venet. . It is explained back by Adelung. last. a nettle. lastagium signified not only ballast. &c. bag-lest. baranda. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. Baltic.. If bambocciolare were child of one. terraces. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. bamboccio. urtica. lest. like Fr. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. This is the backload. curse. and Mid. a small balustrade. ^a\Ba\iov. a rod. The Baltic sea. railing around altars. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. Gr. balconies. or ballast of a ship. sorcerer. objects to the foregoing derivation. i860. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. balsamum. Mr Marsh whether the a load. denounce.). small railing. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. dial. fonts. lastre. a young babe. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast.Lat.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. astonished. a false tale or jeer. Dan. Cotgr. it is forced to take in stones or sand. make fun of a person. ballast. baU. Ballast. enchanter. bag-las. 1854. But Fr. from bara or vara. paid for the right of carriage. baltresac. balustrade barandilla. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. seems the original form of the word. inutilis sarcina. lastra. The Sp. barauste. to preserve equilibrium. but loadage. the backload. bumbazed. from Lat. in the first place. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. a useless load.000 tons. for want of other freight.' And Kil. Sept. — — oltriga. To deceive. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. the flower of the pomegranate. back of the ship. baUa.

cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. G. Car. bandera ground at his mill. Goth. . change to the feminine gender in banda. 2.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. he assembled his host. band. also the band or of marriage. Wyntoun. says Muratori. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. ex. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. permission. Baud. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. bindan. we constantly find the expression. the ensign or banner. tener da alcuno. v. Sp. then the signification w.is further developed. hoc est vexillo. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. See Abandon. bande. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. populum. curse. to excommunicate {lysa. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. R. ba?idare. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. banda the colour or material. bandi. In a special sense the term company itself. bannire in exercitum. From the verb to banda. A.e. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. bound. R- He Translated by Chaucer. to bring corn to be fahne. Mag. 26. Cot.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. to form parties. and in E. he bannede his ferde. those who side together (bande. i. power. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. E. etc. from at the Lord's courts. banda. There is some doubt how Fr. It. to take one to task. Bandus. &c. theodscipe ut abannan. Commun^ment son bandon. — excommunication bann-lysa. eiiseigne. to unite with a band.^ bandy. side. side. banner marked the place of assembly. to ban.Lat. To Bandy.. bandon somewhat party. Les saiges avait et les fols d. Sw. Fr. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. and thence to any proclamation. Diss. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. to . It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. a company. Thus the word is also used in both senses. — To partito d'alcuno. OE. Assises de Jerusalem. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. bundun. in Fr. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. and It. authority. In Fr. region. a coast. 15. bannum or bandum. It seems this signification has arisen. The to . parti. It. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. bandon was used in the same sense. ligue Taboada). sostener Torriano. 1. border. band. Fr. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. bande. Goth. faction. flag. is That with which anything AS. banda. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). Capitul. Band. 'A son bandon. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . to ctide. Spebifid. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. summoning to serve So in Swiss. acquired the sense of proclamation. whether by way of injunction or for- command. bando. in hostem convocare. 19. Leg. 813. bannire exercitum. bann. —R. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. D. biddal. to follow a faction. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. margin. fahne. admolendinum. Sp. . Ripuar. Se il — Romance languages. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. Bandear. to side or to bandy (Florio). passing on from proclamation to command. bande. — R. It.—John Villani in Due. to publish) banna. banns pany of footmen serve. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. at his own discretion. &c. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. to reprove.

Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. It is in this sense nounce. banke. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. to cabal. Banditti. banca fallita. Hudibras. se joindre. to hammer in a nail. Sw. of bandying words. bankruptcy. Fr. The ridge of a hill is AS. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. bank. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. — Paulus drive in a nail. desk. that the word is used by Romeo. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. Dan. banqueroute. Benchi. a table. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. Lingua. . Bane. Diez. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. bander tin arc. Bankrupt. a counter. See Band. 2. has bang-bang. hricg. The child cries bang! fire. bana. rap hatike et som The Susu. &c. Goth. a bench. a de Vaud. to knock. Tibalt. beat. a sand-bank. When a man fails Lat. to beat. tumult bangas. Fl.: . band-dog. bandear. banco. a bench. Roquefort. . bakke. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds.z. whence the mod. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. Lat. bana-sdr. The ing. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. N. a wound OHG. forbear this outrage. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. bana. the same verb the It. follow a party. to foment factions. beating. bank of Dan. language of W. bandire. the slope of a hill. The word is in E. bank of river. AS. distinguishes bekkr. in R. benk. at canis peciiarius. a blow. bance. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. ON. bane. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. Bank. . bank of a river. banca his creditors. a rising bank. to knock. s'associer. Benvoglio. pastoralis. outlam came to signify a robber. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. Du. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. the former Fr. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. ON. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. banc. From Mid. Bandy. Africa. From a desk . bander. — . Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. de- party. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). broken. in the same way that E. and hence. Mercutio. a bench. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. — Kil. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. to work in wood. to bend a. a long raised seat. de sable. Mid. banish. stir. se reunir.HG. back of a knife. It. to join in league with others against Cotgn. See Balluster. from banc. AS. Diaconus in Due. It. banc G. Banister. bandi. put under the ban of the law. bent as a bow. a bankrupt merchant. bank. as of an explosion or a blow. bana. bow. — Fr. and poise Their lighter wings. Bandy legs are crooked legs. among rotta. 45 — — Bandit. . canis vinculis assuetus. bander. —^Vocab. . banja. in the sense of a pirate. It. many a bang. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . death-wound. A Shipman's Tale. With many a stiff thwack. ruptus. seat . The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. band-hond. &c. a bank. Draw. Banner. eminence. bannire. bench. shoal. Fr. clouds. was formed the OFr. Ripuar. But natheless wife at I bank. hammering. b'ang. large dog kept for a guatd. bang. destruction . roupt. death-sickness. and OFr. murderer. banditti acquired the like signification. standard. to slay. disturbance banga. bench. in the sense of place of business. g. eminence. Brewer. Bang. To Bandy. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. bana-sott. Bacon in R. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. counter. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. banka. See Banish. home — Bandog. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. to proclaim. dorsum was applied to ject. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. and therefore tied up. panca. Milton in R. E. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. Fr. to publicly order one out of the realm. for shame. — — whence E. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. death-blow .^ knock. Bantze. a i. and bakki. Your stool. ON. the back. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. to make a stir banke.

rod of any rigid substance. barre. either in the Gr. ^oTrriKio. the word came to signify rude. Thus Ovid. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking.46 BANNERET . it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. It may be thing. then branches. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. Gr. To Banter. himself in Pontus. that the noise of voices Bantling. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. It. Gael. senhal. of banco. Banneret. a which the barrister addresses the court. senhal. banniire. from reifa. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. The origin is in all probability Goth. to beckon . sbarra. a bantling. G. a sign. and it was accord. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. indeed. to dip. which is surely in barbed arrow. Fr. Barbar. Fr. summit. ON. privileged to raise Barbarous. . iandvo. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. inur. as they call it. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. E. barrou-gwez.. OHG. jSa'pjSapoc. Lat. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. token. OFr. arineXov. banchetto. barbed or trapped as a great horse. bandiera. sign. barbe. rarii. barriire. barra. sparro. Celtic bar. branch. to wash. Leduchat. a war-beacon or war-signal.aTa Kul nest. A It. then fell among the foot. to wrap. merki. Bret. It. and with an initial s. heri-pau.cruel. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. Lat. E. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. Sw. E. Fr. Fr. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. jSdirTO). Hence ner. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. 2. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. a bench or table . a beam or long pole of wood. and he would seem to derive Goth. Barb. signuin. OHG. Duo. Flesche barbeUe. — We A . probably corSymbol. hence a repast. &c. ban- Baptise. bar. i. The spar. men. barreau. inferior to a baron. manu anto make signs nuere. or of this bantering. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. Gr. remarked. —Cot. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva.8ap6^o)voe. uncivilised. to having that signification. sparre. &c. barde. an animal a year old. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. The barb of an arrow is the sign . banne. a ban. It. banneret. In a similar manner are formed yearling. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes.hinder. banneret was a higher class of knights. and from ensign or banner Prov. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. banda hendi. milites bannarii. chan. period vexillarii. ing term appears in other languages. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. wrapped. Bap. top.. in Gr. Fr. Hence Fr. knight Bardd. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. ingly very generally known by a name branches. barrer. Barbe. BARBAROUS reiflingr. from the same source.— Swift in R. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. and the work is done. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. bandva. and even of calling it banter. a barrier or stoppage. banda. 3. a tree). bannereti. a bearded or Cot. barrack. Banquet. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. According to Diez the It. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves.the analogous syllable viur. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. says. of a sign in general.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. ON. would rupted from Fr. The original import of their own banner in the field. barbarus. To mock or jeer one. nestling. such as the Roman Eagle. of wind. Barb. to bend. benda. speaking of battle. out of a wound. senheira. senh. Lat. a. brushwood. Fr. barba. banner. branches of a tree {gwezen. by a repetition of the syllable bar. dim.

jargon. or more properly (says fer. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. and flanks. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. a jetty or outnook in a building. to barbe or trap horses. tree. saddle-cloth. is lb. stutter. Barbican. — Cot. barbeter. barbar. Mod. But Sp. coping. barbacane. baares geld. Gr. i. Russ. Cotgr. G. Sp. and in Flanders to vociferate. Fr. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. barbarkama. twcEtta. . bds. upper chamber. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. unqualified. ready money. lb. barboter. Festus in Diet.) . barbugliare. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. which was of talking. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. Pr. berries. open. skialldar-bard. scouthouse. barS. uproar. brim. small pack-saddle. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. Thus the on. barbel. border of a garden bed. barbeau. twattle. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. Hatt-bard. OFr. — . and Sc. as well as thwcEtta. a shingle or small board. . to mumble or mutter words. Barberry.— BARBEL merit of water. Lucan. a bardelle. to chafbargain. Fr. A7 to the and warlike. Hall in R. Diez. Bardeau. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. A shrub bearing acid Diet. Bret. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. It. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. the edge of a shield hval-barct. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. bdsas. to stammer. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. in poetic language Bard for poet. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. Barder. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. Fr. An outwork for the defence of a gate. Barber. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. skola. baar. /3£pjSepi^w. Mod. barbaris. Applied in E. to bubble or spring up. to bubble or boil. Fl. w. borboglio. in Fr.) to wrangle. mutter. in the sense of fight. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. the beard. to rumble. boil. borborinha. Cotgr. Etym. Etym. as well as the modern twaddle. a rumbling. The Pers. albarda'ah. quarrel . the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. a tumultuous assembly.— Fl. haggle. Lex. — — — men. barbeum. to wash. Fr. ala. Arab. brabble in the making of a bargain. to gurgle. to It. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. back. a long saddle for an ass or mule. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. bdla-khaneh. bdsiis. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. the flap of a hat. barbier. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. on. guazzolare. bardd. barda. barbelin. powdered all over. to stammer. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. — . murmur . albarda. bardes. guaszare. a pack-saddle. to grunt. to plash or dabble. bare baskojis. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. barguigner. g.' Cot. bar. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. albardilla. skirt. horse armour covering the front. dial. barz. Bard. also to wallow like a seething pot. Sp. name Fr. borbulhar. Sp. axilla. berj G. to make an outcry . Barbel. Port. the quilted with. Cot. Port. uncovered. used 2. baragouin. fortia —Strabo. to boil or bubble up . ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. bhasad. tattle. Gr. borbollar. Barde. the nakedness of a woman. Bargain. barefooted Sanscr. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. Lith. and the word was used in OE. Exposed to view. skirmish. to prattle. also to bind or tie across. /3opj3opwJu. Hindost. — — Hence. and foolishly. gibberish. It. grumble (Lowndes. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. border. barbulla. borbotar. muttering. barda. speak confusedly.— — Pm. waschen. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. formerly used in the sense of tattle. Bare. such as houses are covered Bardelle.

name being given to spectacles. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. . bern. Sp. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. ON. barms. Baron. Originally man. strife. was barlic. barley.. ON. beornt. OFr. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. Tarn baronem quam feminam. lap. * Barnacles. am. barafustar. limpets. baratta. and the word. Acervus. to rout. and ern. Provj bar (ace. baralhar. barki. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. barn. bern. as baces-ern. beer. Ripuar. and may therefore be an Eastern word. hemlock. Bret. So also ON. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. the fore or after end of a boat . Bailey. Rayn. ber (ace. AS. See Barm. barlich. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. To Bark. edge. one who stirs up strife. dispute. trouble. See formed Yeast. barley. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. borkr. entangle. ThS man was not created for the woman. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. a beak. Barbour in Jam. disorder. Manx bayrn. bcern. W. mhg. berm hoys. Bark. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. a barn. On the other hand. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. we pass to the vert) barguigner.Barum vel feminam. a boat. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . Port. commonly explained from bere. Garlick. Lith. border. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. prominent part of a thing. baron. louzou. a place. then honoured man. berm. E. the slimy substance brewing of beer. quarrel Port. also a boat . bamagh. limpet. to skin over barkandi. barnis. berm. baaren. . Leg. adj. hladi. 2. astringent. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. dispute . Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. bosom . meta foeni. to wrangle. the A — Ihre. So ON. also to exchange. barnacles. dispute . —Bark. baralha. a load. Sp. plants). Gael. and hence probably (by a metaphor. fray. baarm. skutr. struggle. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. It. Ibid. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. bread. Cornub. the rack or manger. tion of the sound. barretor. barahunda. baaring. dispute barattare. bosom. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood.^Voc^. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. baragouin. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. from an imita- Barley. barlys. confusion. dregs of oil. . The origin may be throat. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. Alam. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. dispute. in Nat. bard). Leg. the or prow of a ship. corn-shed. and llysiaw. contest. The older form in e. prasepe . strife. to scold. quarrel.) lihtes-ern. . baratta. barii. v. 2. chaffer. to cheat.. Du. berem. barizeins indicates a noun baris. to chop. i. charlock. (Ihre. AS. brenig. Camus. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. and 1. the G. husband. barone. Barn. bargain. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. barlys {bara. then the bows pectus navis. to strive. baron)^ Fr. a heap . Sp. barafunda. Spectacles. It. baarn. Barge.' bardagi. a. Isidore in Rayn. quant a perdu sa barja. ON. Dan. bernac. limpets . Vocab. barn. Swab. Uzen. Antiq. spectacles. a baking place or oven. Gl. and is probably a true bartig. barley. altercation. herbs. baniffa. to all the barca. Bemiques. tumult. a lantern. aheap. a heap. hay-loft. — Barnacle. at barka. The Goth. bere. as. bcerme. bread-corn. as well as Scandinavian tongues. a lap. baimeach. giving rise to It. OSw. strife. As Goth. put to confusion. to shufSe. barajar. Sw. Romance barsie. Du. as in the case of Lat. hlaSa. bark . From Fr. — Zeuss. is simply the Bret. kani. as. barmr. contest. Dan. ON. houbartij fsnile. barja. barge. dial. Port. w. but the woman for the man. barn. Prov. — battle. berma. beorcan. a receptacle for barley or corn. — de Berri. wine. OFr. a cap . Kil. varen. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. in the Brim. baerm. squabble. skuta. a stack.

baraignej Picard. Gael. cover. a man. w.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. whence Barrow.. shed. 2. from cavallo. heap. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. habeant. to carry. It should be observed that. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. — Kil. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. barchent. barraca. beorg. barile. The Sp. OFr. baragan. ^Barrator. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. Russ. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. also termed bannerets. which would barragdn. barague. breinej Du. sterilis. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. from beran. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. Nominale of the from braeckland. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. Bohem. ibid. baronetti. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. were sometimes confounded. Gael.have been named from the haggling and gant. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. It. hut. It. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. booth. and not from Fr. Sp. It.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. A. AS. seem to be radically the same with Lat. iver. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer.— Gibbon. in Nat. as. — A . man and wife. fear. in the first instance. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. Barricade. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. bara. bera. Bern. staves. bara. uncultivated. fortification.' that Barrier. baroncelli. Barrister. AS. Bret. from a tree to which a man is hanged. Sp. strife. Baron andfemme. Barrel. barri. by early examples. vel pretiosos burellos. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus.. Barratry. G. barril. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. 26. berwen. barrier. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. a hiU. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. a word is always used in the plural number.' Op. vair. vir. an obstruction. a barrel. squabble. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. facture. G. berewe. semen non accipiens landiEL. mound. composed of dry branches ofer. borov'. Barrack. bahre. 1. Joshua vii. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. See Barter. barrique. man. a. the braw. barrack. The feudal tenants next Fr. a hut or booth. alongside of barrow. qui have not much light on the pre. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. MHG. to shelter. See Bar. bredhan. or simply bahre. bier. perhaps through Prov. Bamnculus a baronet. like bargain. barre. — — 15th Cent. barrique. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. a bar. todtenbahre. fallow. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. a. bark&n. dispute. gravis et authenticus vir. calico. Goth. the two names. StiU he shows conclusively. tomb. S. Antiq. and in several instances. a bier. especially those killed in battle. to * Barragan. implement for carryAS. D. cise formation of the word. litter. branches. It was not until the time of James I. gwr. sepulchre. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. Fr. as cavalcade. then traffick4 Barrow. Sp. signifying. beorgan. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. OE. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. braeck. a horse. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. whenever Barrow-hog. This word introduced into Fr. garment still used in Morocco. a barrow. baronculi. over him. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. beorh. (Schmeller). ^Vocab. baronuU. rolls of Parliament. Formed from Fr. Barren. nobles. became bidre. On chet — We — — their resemblance. bearg . change of goods seems. barBombicinus. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted.root signifying confused noise. Bargus or moreland. a castrated hog . brushwood.parchanttuech. bouracan. boar. baracca. a kind of coarse camlet. E. An ing. barrila. Fr.

netting. beortun. Du. The original meaning. bass-matting. lust. MS. Swed. It. Sp. baste. Bassus. It. to bargain. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . barley. mock not. pdrdt. fraud. basg. bast. Bast. unrighteous gain. but he dreth presently. over-reaching. basso. truck. 516. Basilisk. F. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. ing for profit. n' is n' is bacino. dwelling. said Base. bareter. Kil. Gr. cog. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. baratar. corn-farm. OFr. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. HoUinshed. i. mavult dicere Roma suam. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. submovet omne Lucan. then cheating. hoops of a cask. besst-u-b£nd&t. but born in baste. also the demesne lands of a manor. to cheat. bds. beguile. baste. also to Cotgr. a halter. Sw. — Bassoon. foist in bargaining. HaU in HaUiwell. to long — a British word by Martial. peel. to deceive. bran. Sylvester's Dubartas. the manorhousfe itself. chasa ogli a bastard. to Diez. bastear. as It. Fr. descended of an honorable lineage. bast-reb. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). partieren. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. him. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. to truck. lift me above Parnassus.D. Halliwell. w. PaaiKhms. to bind hand and foot. low. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. imbastire.). plaiting of splinters basged. beretun. fhe outhouses and yards. low note. Fr. and tun. ohg. cheating. he. low. Sicamb. Basket. . the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. baos. bast. Pl. ' Bosworth. Sp. To Baste. basta. Bartizan. It. the thin skin Dan. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . from /3aR. by imbezzling their goods Bailey.' Papias. It. of the same sense. lattice-work. berewic. bestan. aiKcig. scale in music. Lap. exchange. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. or running away with the ship. basgod. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. chasa. a deceiver. bark. stitch. found in Turkish . Sp. embastir. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. The like property hath the iasilisk. bast. discourse Nay. Bass. oe. — hanging. AS. It. to baste. as the diadem of the basilisk. To Bask. according from Gael. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. basso. Al is dai. to bind. to cheat. court-yard. a bastard. a king. baxoj w. commonly A joined with the word binda. besst. curtus. which covers the grain Ger. Fr. on a. or wic. preparatory stitching. come near. leviter consuere. more noble in blood than notable in learning. Barbara de pictis veni patch. MHG. fornication. piiiguis. Apparently of Celtic origin. baratear. at basta og binda. thick. Newman. a basket masg. a tying. God it wot. ' He was begetin o bast. Isidore. a court-yard. low part of the Hickes in Rich. MHG. baraand especially teria. to stitch . barter. OFr. to bind.' Gl. shallow. See Bath. To stitch. It is mentioned as . See Brattice. exchange. bassin. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. bast-maatte. the a wide open vessel. rope for — . bdtir. would be. a bass rope. fits de bas.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. husk bast van koren. tierer. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. But according And Dan. pressed down. baraet (from Fr. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. the — — to kill those that look upon it.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. inclosure. a ipgli So Turk. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. binding. fornication. BassuS. Du. humilis. HaUiweU. Barton. Bastard. basta. /«r<fSp. from bere. Arthur and Merlini. mean . bestcn. — in Rich. ^Is de bast. Fris. . flat. back. barter. which sets up its hood when angry. Sw. and Bret. Lend me your hands. ibid. .looketh upon his eyes. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). crassus. to baste piece of cloth. bas. a ftiesh. baste. There is not one that. It. Dan. Bass. A fabulous serpent. Dan. imbastire. G.

nade. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. back. bastille. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. natt-blakka. quelqu'un son roulet. R. bastir. the original has corneille.-^ Chaucer.— . to give him a sound bastingi 3. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. to thrash . ON. to pack a saddle i. blakra. a blow cloth for dinner. contriving. a things prepared for future use. Fr. blaka. Fr. frotter. has bastine. settiilg up. Pr. All from bastir. It. To baste one's hide . Florio. e. liiake. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . — — Fl. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. which in the E. a barSp. dial. Prov. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. p. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. comp. pre. in the Romance languages. ari instruineht for beating. bdion. or implement for 4 * A . a stick. disposer.baste or knock soundly. iinbastire. a packsaddle. to flap. as weU as besteau. to whip. dial. is explained by Cot. to spread bread and butter. bast. translation to a bat. to build. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. R. basto. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. Sw. blows. night-bat. to beat.stitching in general. 'iJipistreUo. vespertilio. a pad. contrive. bat. I. the E. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. blatta. bastonnir. aftonbakke. cudgelling. Sw. bastida. set up. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. club. baston. Dieiif. beysta. vespertilio. E. 164). raise. bak. For the origin of baston see Baste. * Bat. To beat or bang soundly. badger. put it together. To donjon. bastonada. basa. a with a stick. victuals. bladier. Sc.. Dan. bastear. military term of a bat-horse). Bastinado. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. whence ledrblaka.fortress or castle furnished with towers. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. in the use of the E. also to cudgel. a bastion. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. packsaddle. to quilt or stitch wool into it. It. to rub gently. devise. stryk. to teach one before. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. to Due. to lay the Sp. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. bakie-bird . 2. . blakka. blatta. staff. compared with blakka. bastilde. guerra bastir. stryka.'CaB. but this is hardly satisfactory. Antiq. That yche blak y dar wel telle. a sconce. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. Sw. bastonFr. a. blacta. a blockhouse. Cot. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. a pad or packsaddle. boste. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . . pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. frame. Fr. bastia.— Bailey. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. baston. to belabour. to build. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . Rayn. Sp. bastir. batta lucifuga. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. which to rest the load. business (Altieri). Perhaps baska. — — — . Mid. bastimento. 2. and Arabs. to devise or begin. Cot. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. Supp. bastione. the clapper of a bell. Sw. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. and Cot. It. basta. Fr. set up. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. 2. Pm. worth (Nat. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. ment. to rub. and ditches bastion. like the owl and the bat. also the ricado. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. passage Imbasto. niammal. to cudgel. Derived by Diez from iasi. For the loss of the / in back. the bat . vledermus. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. blakta. flyinge best. Dan. to set on foot a war Bastion. iastir. to stroke. bastine. to drub. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. the winged . seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. 11864. the night-jar or goat-sticker. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. a bird which. from Fr. provisions. BAT neither. beating. erect. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire.stick.Lat. to beat. — Bakke. Sp. explains Sp.

bdt. was formed bastilU. A batch as wood. Goth. From OFr. 2. Jurgor. A Bath. also a sun badfish. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. Fr. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. of bread is so much baked zX one time. It. and as a verb. oneself at the A into faggots. to fire or in the sun. The bat with which a brot bdhen. Du. bat. a main battle. a stirrer-up of strife. Battlement. to foment. a battle. Fr. cudgel. a blow with a light instrument. as wood-en. the root of e. In OE. battions. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. beat. buask made like a fortress. Sw. Holz bdhen. dial. tagUone. hot. an arrangement for giving blows. abattre. a great seems related to baden as Fr. Bat. perhaps first used adjectivally. on. battle was used beath wood. to become fat. baeddu. Pm. Pr. betten. badda. quhar he suld assaill. adapted for defence. It. dispute. to bathe. to refresh oneself in language.— To Bask. baden. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. bataille. flour. Jeddris and covering. battaglia. batir. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. w. made of bats. made of — A made by one Batcii. bdda. heat. as E. gebdcke. gebdck. as signifying warm baths. altercation. To Bate. in the sun. Barbour in Jam. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. allay .' Palsgr. bada. also. batte sig. — Cot. a from ON. battere. Battery. to beath wood Battledoor. a washing beetle. G. See Better. beat. as E. strife. to heat. or break down. Bailey. Eggs. to beat. to warm oneself at the fire. Flem. badda. batna. Fr. is in falling. better. a band of armed men arranged basa. basa. batador. tradire. trahtr to It. bet. to betake oneself. to flutter with the wings. squadron. solen baddar. howis. water whether warm or cold. to cudgel. a stick. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . bdda vidjor. batterie. wet linen in washing. pak. a blow. a battalion.Bathe. to for fighting. signifying to give repeated blows. for biia sik. to fell. to beat se battre. Batten. Battle. to beak. Battery. I bathe in water viz. e. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat.— . to become convalescent. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. certain bend. G. lessen. to foment with hot applica. whence the sun burns . . or make debate. Baka sik vid elld. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. baquetazo. Batyn. To Batten. beat down. Fr. battre las ailes. to heat . to fight. to warm oneself. Slav. from on. is a simple adoption of Fr. bdhen. baka. Mgy. Ayenst the sunne. Sw. badask. E. fortress or castle. sich bakern. Gael. remit. — To . Battalion. on the fire. Pm.Hence in the augmentative form It. Batter. fashes basking in the sun squadron. To thrive. to feed. quell. the heat of the It. G. battre. — — — ' — . or a dry stick. Sp. to toast bread. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. gabatnan. to dial. term in falconry . by projections or in any licoure. In some parts of England it is striking. to get better. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. dial. solbase. From bat in the sense of rod . then to warm by the application of hot water. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. abate. . Sp. to beat. and with staffslyng. in the case of a wall. dial. to thrive. bastille. to be profited. Strife. battre. Hal. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. Bate. Pr. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. and milk beaten up together. bat-en. bludgeon. makebate.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. . and about an inch thick. busk. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. I. PLD. more. from battre. to warm. baz. Plkkis. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . debat. batacazo. Florio. a staff. to foment. ON. a beating. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. to bathe oneself. dial. Fr. Fr. Chaucer. I baske. to beat. Hence pro. Bret. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. battere. a Baiffi. bake.

Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. and authorities in note. OFr. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. toys. obstrepere. It. child. OFr. fields. — — ' Lydgate. Fr. Zalli. Pr. Prov. represented by the syllable miau. fe bau. Fr. a spot. a lump or cluster babhaid. or Cot. P. baugant. spotted. baula. from Fr. spot. It. horse. Fr. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. to low or bellow as corn. an — — — A — g — — — . to vociferate. or toys. bow-wow. trifles. balbob. nastiness. instead oi s. P. or the animal so marked. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. the face. guigaw. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. Piedm. expressive of disgust. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. Formed from baw. dacchino. a dog). E. b \% bouala. a gavel. ball. Cloth of gold.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. Jam. to me-wl. cluster. It is all bawdy. a plot of Chaucer. the Swiss baben. a horse marked with a procession. E. a white mark Bawdy. The It. and to-tore also. Hal. a tassel. baudrat.. ground. tille. From Bret. dung. Lat.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. P. to bark. bal. Descript. bablyn or waveryn. to bark . scarf. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. librillo. It. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. also more Bawdekin. an object.— P. Cotgr.' ' Pegma. bauch. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. is Bagdad stuff.. pegma. Gael. baudrdj OHG. —R. zano. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. Sc. Cot. Irel. babiole. Pm. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. An analogous noisily. as Fr. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. Ball. a belt. Batylment of a wall. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . lewd . excrement. ballach. E. Bawson. — Pm. babbole. filth. sword-belt. W. From ! an interjection of disgust. dial. because made of cloth of white. vacillo. having a white streak down Bagdad. Bavin. baue. to play the babby. s. fooleries or fond To Bawl. also the canopy carried part of his body. to make the noise Baudrick. 8. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. faisceau. to void the bowels. to cry. Baw — . i. babsmall toy to play withal. and Sp. disgusting. the white of his leg or foot. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. an embattled wall. ! Bauble. whence the E. s. sorry. from Baldacca. fagot. javelle. bauU. bobbin or cluster of thread. a horse with white legs. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). whimwham. In like manner Grisons filthy. Cot. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. bad. balGael.' The origin of the word is tab or bob.guage). 2. c. divided between black and white. tab. collar. to 53 manure the To baw. Pr. speckled. in OE. dirt. baban. bausan. ish baubles. propugnaculum. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. baffe. bobine. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. baw. or sheaf of Bridel. The word may perhaps be sticks. rotten. miauler. E. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. mew. was simply a field gold. BAWSON Swiss. dirty.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. to talk Lacombe. Swiss Rom. balderich.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. Fl. bouaila. on the face of animals. bal. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. dente. is used for a sented by bau. bau. a tassel or hanging bunch . the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. Bagdad. ON. Baldrick. trifle. bow (as in our nursery Diez. exactly corresponds Fr. baubare. form with an initial seen in Fr. pie- . R. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. Filthy. A name of the badger. to the same origin. whence pouacre. Beaus^ent. a zan. filth. a lump. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. to trifle away ment. brush faggot. Ball-seirc.

Piedm. life. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. To Bay. baya. baye. Sp. bay.. berry. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. A stag is said to stand at bay. as if to signify a window of curved outline. to betray. Arts. Fr. bahia. beothach. baca. bay. weary of running. beo. waiting . bahia. Abide. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. as gazing. Earth — By Nature made to till. Q. or berries. A hollow in the 'line of coast. buidhe. the cod of peas. Fr. to stand watching one. which however. Fr. trahir. &c. batibari. the world Gr. bayo. It. Sp. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root.— Stalder. or to have been first used at the Cot. ist./^ bau. baher. a berry. Cot. to open as a blossom. It. Swab. like a pie. Holland's Pliny in R. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. laurel of the ancients. hddhe-dhonn. Vielp. life. baionette. to open. Drayton in R. a mark. to split. — A At Bay. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. a'uno. Catalan hadia. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. Prov. bajo.' Bailey. overture. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. — Schmid. See Bawl. BAY marked with bjly. a cluster of bacon. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. to keep at a bay. . watching intently. Lat. living Ir. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. alive. —Bay-windo'W. It. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. badarse. desiring. See At Bay. and keeps them in check for a while. bilyega. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. bde. tradire to Fr. corrupted into Bow-window. expresr sion tenere a bada. 1. badius. . From Cat. . . bagaid. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. Serv. Gr. bacca. badarc. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. —F. bilyejiti. Q. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. See Bald. bijel. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. bayen-stein. or window ' (in Fortification). |8i'os. in order to keep the enemy in check. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. stood watching him stoop. It. gate. Fr. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. Gael. The word bay. Swiss beie. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. large window in a handsome . to gape.c. living thing . w. Feb. baer. badia to Sp. that from ba. &. especially beans. It has been shown under Abie. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. bai. to be Bohem. from an imitation of the sound. the cod or husk of beans or the like. put to his last shifts. arose two forms of the verb. Bay. to amuse stare a bada. baca. when. to iiitent nected PoL white. husk. bdcr. at his last gasp. Fr. bate.. barn of two bays. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. buidhe- The ruadh. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. baie. dividere. open the mouth. and zndly. by the term rendre les abpis. yellow . white. siege of Bayonne in 1665. he turns and faces his pursuers. or at bay. beonj Gael. Bayonet. OSp. the laurel-bay. BauSfi)/. * To Be. From the former verb is the It. Fr. from badar. Sp.' — — 54 bald. bialo. Mod. aux dehniers abois. to keep one waiting. Lat. F. baier. is perhaps not directly from Lat. Such Antaeus seemed to me. —Diez. berries. or recess in an apartment in modern times. baiare. stare. abbabayer. baga. S. Gael. window-sill. the step is the same as from It. Bay. baja. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. ing-floor. a dagger. house . a beast. dehiscere . grapes or nuts. 25. Bay-tree. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. bioth. The — Fr. to mark. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. window . &c.—Journal Soc. BE Probably conRuss. AS. to on anything. It. and the To bark as a dog. a hole. baccello. so called from its bearing bays. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. 1859. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house.

* Beagle. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. Fr. Bret. an attendant. bean. W. gebed. beic. Beadle. Pardoner's Tale. post. Q wait upon him. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. beacnian. bM. was introduced from England sea. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. . beacen.from AS. as well as f& or fav. a nod OHG. pierced for hanging on a string. bdkna. Beak. bokan. Lat. bairan. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. W. Beck. badmr. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. Gr. to nod . l^ax. boom. into a snjall river. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. a hill. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. beugler. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. bauhan. Farrar. ffci. which is. Beckon. Beacon. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. Bear. backe. or breathing. bead. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. Slavon. signifying individuality. to beckon. bohne. — Bellenden in Jam. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. Thus the final en. The immediate shore of the Menage.' Suetonius in Diez.to have a French origin. bidello. ffaen. bank. N. a prayer. or beic. Du. a curtsey. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. Gael. prodigy bauhnjan. or any action done with a pointed thing. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. support. ohg. «va\ioQ. as. to wait. bearti. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. not applied to the yelping of dogs. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. vii. or however. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. bedm. like most nautical terms. Bean.ad. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. to carry. Boom. See To Bid. bob. stock. . signifying a point. Beach. rising ground. salve his hurts. . A two-year old nephew of mine p. bee. OSax. AS. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. ON. Moreover the name. G. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. Gael. -phxr. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. faba is Kvavoq.' Hall's Chron. the part overflowed by the tide.fuis5e. The nutu significare. g. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. bek. He says. Goth. The origin seems preserved in E. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. Fr. It forms a. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. — to bow or nod . a single bean. as. to bellow. however. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. a sign. a single bean.fui. baun. Chapters on Lang. — : Beam. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. beans. —F. Sw. Miss Gurney in Philolog. bagms. becco. Gael. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. fd or faVf beans. ON. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. beck. a presage. Hackluyt in R.' adheres to the root. 54. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. AS. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. To Bear. Bret. bidan. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. into France. be. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. on. bohnej ON. a tree. fero. Be. according to of Sanscr. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. It. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. vol. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. The wild beast. bydel. E. pig. a beak. a tree. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. — bedeau. and Lat. bar. atUndre. to nod the head.. baum. It is BEAR SI court. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. beic. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. Trans. It. would say. tale of prayers or doxologies. to wait-. Catalan becar. Netherlands or North Germany. Goth. to produce young. fromthe danger. bakkje. A Esthon. bakke. G. fora-bauhan.fer-re j Gr. nokkima. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. faba. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i.

while from Shep. slobber. receive. Bo. as. whence baveux. to assume a certain form or Turk. tidy. ON. OSw. G. to fall in with our bavard. boroda.fit. to wade through the water like a beaver. talkative. limpian. He becom on sceathan. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. proper. Fr. now confined To Become. get J ' He got very angry. babrad. to G. which. perhaps a living thing. Now the Beast. brook. E. to be incumbent upon him. bekommen. bearing. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. brook . to happen. E. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one.AS. to happen. proper . G. blast. bur. decorous. befit. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. barf. suitable.to clothe to slobber. — A — A — . Lith.— Kiittner. because made of the fur of the beaver. baviire.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. when up. . Boeth. I do thee pray. i. to dabble . taste. Fr. Perhaps from Pol. from the same in the sense of bear2. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. Beck. to those goods which endure for ever. Sp. as the babble of the child. to come to or upon. bcek. R. See Bank. pretty. to be a part of his to. produce. timan. gabaurths.we call the arrangement becoming. to live. bestiaj Gael. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. Slav. bel. ziemen. fitanimal. and to acquire. den.' are equivalent expressions. riviire. Cal.' every way suited to a prince. ON. Beauty. baba. riviera. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. to the brook itself.S6 fero. G. bach. i. Beat.of being very angry. or special purpose. bett. covered the face.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. a bank. to please. bave i. Lat. birth. beauts. ON. to get. bring forth. bedr. Prick of Conscience. from beau. Thcem. decent. Beckon. to appertain. opportune. gelimplic. to arrive at. g. byw. bib or slobbering cloth. G. the beard. it is probable that here also the to become. Lat. to happen. bava. limplice. limpan. dize or dtzen. and also in that of birth. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. to shore. Beck. bekkr. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. to happen. chin. bard. bart. R. handsome. the ece thurhwuniath. iida. to be fulfilled. See becymth anfeald yvel. badi. dushmak. Lat. Beaver. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w.getiman. AS. and on. tidig. — . With shepherd sits not following flying fame. venient. befall. o.' ' He became very angry. a lip. On the same principle. beatanj It. place to lie down. a brook. brada. e. nothing to thy name make. baurthei. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. Secondarily applied to a hat. to hem. a. name applied originally to the bank then proper . bello. agreeable. edge. barba. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. to attain to the lot of any one. Bedizen. becuman. Lat. The moveable part of a helmet. to carry. duty. See Beacon. Fr. E. to fall mode of being. Chaucer. nod or sign. AS. bobr. W. comely. suitable. Goth. Do no To It fallith favour. but now a river only. ting. bebrus. our taste. Diez. judgment. Prov. godum with ON. The fitting or suitable. dress with unbecoming richness . This meaning is to be explained from Beard. As rivus. See Bat. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. Thus OY. That thou mayest attain Goth. convenient. rying. seemly. to the good hapHalbard. obtain. ON. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. fiber. behkr. byrcti. bellus. or river. Russ. pens unmixed evU. G. bavec. biber. border. Bosworth. a bank. to fall. fitly . bequem. Fr. To load with ornament. 2. agreeable. bobrowai. The OFr. burdr is used in the sense of a car. bave. beo. 1. an notion of being convenient. to bear children. The quadruped. It. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. battere. formerly a happen. or a feeling to be gratified. e. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. fit. pleasing. Fr. In like manner condition. becuman. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. connected with ripa. gebank. living. and Fr. Dan. gefallen. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. con. happening as it ought. biivre. the latter are derived It. from baver. if sound of a sharp blow. fallinn. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. It. to sleep on. to happen.

to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. waarin. a bee. beost. Bee. Beef. in Nat. Slav. imperative pi. the ox. * Beestings. Beetle.— B. to drink. biest-milch. Bernese. as the milk of a that purpose in London. turn (a garment). curded or beesty.cz//aj. a agulatum in the original Latin. AS. woman that is newly delivered. ris. bbtel. bove. turn. Fr. water. whence familiar. piwo. bovis. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. ' MordiThe Lat. Cot. badigeonner. crespir. .'— GL ^Ifr. to turn. of beatmg. Gael. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. beer. cousin. Fr. G.' So Gr. a malsense of drink. the biter. ^. blow or thrust. The honey-producing insect. also bienst.— JI14. case. g. . AS. to beat bossel. E. bedde-redirj ohg.' the last word corresponds to cofly . to fall. 'La Gl. a cover. translation beOj. mars betada. may be from K. also the bite or sting of a bees. betel. beyki. an Beetle. It. used for boull. bitela. to coagulate. /SXirov. a pad or cushion). . boeuf. drink. a stinging bieUe. buk. a paviour's beetle batail. briest. and in driving piles. paralyticus. GaeL bior. But possibly bedizen 2. comb. doubtless. a Properly a cover that biiren. cited by Diez. to parget or rough-cast . briesch-milch. an inhabitant of the desert. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. AS. fall. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. wedges. Pl. to knock. bedawi. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. Gr. bibere is a re. prisons Venet. P1. a wasp. 1. Beet. sang vermeilh betatz. to become Beech. bitel. The meanpainting. in Schmeller. a pillow case. to colour with lime-wash. kivih. to curdle or lopper. a cup or implement for AS. pude-vaar. Arab.D. by-flugaj G.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. the loppered sea. from risan. 57 — Palsgr. Grimm. an ox. I dysyn a dystaffe. bukva. The beer al for te shenche bate. beetle also signified the impiti. de Fierabras in Diez. to twist poorma. prigione. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. stakes. Fr. cushion-cover . a mallet. extant in Bohem. to poordma. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. . Cot. Horn. from leberen. bedskiissen-bUren. beest. desert. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. erroneously modified in form. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. thick. garden-herb. Bed-ridden. KXlvoTTiT^e. as in It. bet. D. bytl. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. Bethlehem. as. biiren. to change .. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr._t from the root pi. which also 2. from the hos. on. Dan. Fr. Lat.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. G. Fin. pital of St Mary. Fr. . sela que environna la terra. a drink potus. G. Esthon. 1. Bedouia.(paddi. i.). from blood. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. ir'm. a clapper. bletumj Gr. from jtst-. biene. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. vaar. taglio. It. PI.ing of the word is curdled. by the analogy of bedaivb. buka. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. &c. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. the meat of spinach. In a passage of an Old Fr. The first milk after a dizen. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. tree. bos. duplicated form of the root. Confined to bed.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. drink. and lebermer in G. a bed-tick. Lat. to flatten In OE. 1 to drink. . bossen. For that was law of lend. cugino. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. E. to rough- cast. Ant. ProBeer. thick. batAfter mete in sale. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. I A pillow-beer.ON. a horse-fly . cozen. beta. trees in a forest . Pett. beach-each. cow has calved. poculum. qui de lecto surgere non potest . bette or blettej Lat. red curdled Arab . door. 1156. speach. Fr. buche. Rom. bably named from the destructive quali| T. may be shpped on and off.^ drink. calleBedlam. fagus. knock. cogionare.possible. Let. a wandering Prov. pettiriso. beutel. whose face is clotty. I put the flax upon it to spin. Originally. a pillow-case. clog for a dog b'oteln. byst. from Lat. beach.D. to and ale. a wasp. boytle. madhouse. It. Bav. kiissen-biere.

& go a begging. Political Songs. viii. ykvog.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. V. but in the same language from poc.quently used in OE. When Q. P. above quoted to get beaten ON. He did alight. Du. — Stillingfleet. in E. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. it is both to acquire and to beget. to take. sel. fangen and Lat. a stone-cutter's chisel. bag {baigean.bag full of the G. seizing. a bag. or Of a pure poor man. ytyvwfT'Kw. gen. can. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . Fr. a wedge for cleaving wood. beitel. steinbosil. anfangen. ornamented phoc. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. can. oppressed with woe. So from Gael. 'Aboutin undern monly. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. to begaan. from whete G. &c. chisel. chap. From w. to arise. iv. su with gold. P. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. to begin. beutel. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. capere. 168. a bag . but probably erroneously. pose-pilte. begger. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. whence the E. Florio. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. onginnan. baigeir. a scrip. to be acquire. signifying to conceive. P. Mundart. gigno. It will . yivofiai. lapidicinus. although it ' the future. &c. a beggar . a — wedge. 1430. to be able. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . a wallet. 2. one after that other. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. Lollards. ken. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. Du.' for ye shall lament and weep. on the tramp. Bruce. to bear young. woe-begone. duginnan.pose. hags.' about undern he got down. is com. y/yvo/iat. bertola. In Luc vi. Barbour. Cold-begone. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. Du. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. Ancren Riwle. at geta talad. Si'Xa/coc. ' ' .' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. ip AS.— . ken. Vocab. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. The tother seand the dint cum. Goth. covered with gold D. V. on the bag. P. a beggar-boy. P. air a . It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. beitel. taking up. It.n. aginnan. Gr. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. ysgrepan. 1867. vir mendi. Deutsch. P. tale. to go a begging. literally. to know. be^nnan. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. to be born. 25. ' . Schm. as alighting is a momentary operation. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. P. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. in Lat. word. V. 'ex quo. also called Bigots. two betels —a grete oke. Beghardus. Nov. genus. OHG. 'Dz. to get children . Of brede full ycrammed. AS. touched with emotion — . image is cleft out of the trunk. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. cans. To Begin. — yivsaiQ. P. referred gan this Erie alight. Skinner's derivation from bag. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. a beggar. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. a chisel.3. Creed. a bag or poke. To produce children is to acquire. yiyvo/uat. to beg. begging. of Gr. ysgrepanu. 40. on further examination. to cleve.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes.D. yivwajcw. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. 58 BEG BEGONE G. is formed pocair. the fundamental notion of attaining to. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. beriolare. a scrip euXaiciJoi. kind. gan. to reduce him to beggary. P. by the help of wedges and beetles an N.' A. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. ' Begone. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. 142. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. Lith. giving in Gr. origin. beginning. in D. not began to alight. and Lat. beissel. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. P. yivtrri. Mod. appears improbable at first. krapszas. beis- plement driven by blows. To Beg. incipere. a little bag). affected. Into the are D.

R. It. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. hcef tig bort. nittaa. behat. to take away. to meet. to R. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. Goth. as in the case of E. right. the name adapt. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. behoof. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. is also found in the sense of looking. by the compound observare. on. K. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. to lift. promise. what he wishes another to do . N. AS. observe. behind. Command. And so from hania. to hit the mark. to fit. The Lat. AS. G. ge' hatan. to promise. holding is originally derived from that of looking.for throwing it. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . at the tail of. tail. and (as Fr.' Richardson. name of the head is used to express what hbva. to lead. heita. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. G. to follow. seeing to. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. to be fit. to carry corn into the barn . obliged. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . hatan. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. what is so required. to command. To Behold. The seyn. hafjan.to vow. hafwa. ward. beperson addressed. to call. hove. hafwa. take heed of. gehat. to keep. —Hest. to the equivalent of Du. to vow. to hold. AS. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. is supported by many analogies. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. Sw. is on the top of or opposite to. to regard. Plautus. to be named. invoke. behces. to name. G. to halten. the equivalent of E. to keep. habere. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. behold. — Behest. han- — js Kil. to be suitable or becoming . laborare. G. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. or necessary. promise . G. to gehouden. to turn one out . In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. hcefwa in seed. hafwa ram. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. commonly expressed. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. behaviour. ifl fact. the distance of anything. solicitum esse. To be expedient. the two verbs seem radically the same.the figure of throwing at a mark. and the E. to bers of the body. to carry. promise or a command. to tend. But. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. taking notice or care of (Gloss. Sw. and their senses intermingle. to carry.). to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. portarsi. se porter) to fare well or ill. adjust. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. Kiittn. To look steadily upon. gehaben. take yourself off. G. a follower. heeten willekem. exhort. or the hence advantage. Paladino. to be well pleased out. AS. beholden to him. 17. bound. zijn. to be obliged to one. to heave. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. premi curi alicujus rei. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. habban. furtherance. hafwa bort. garder. guardare. to vow. fixed upon any object). OE. behete. servare. to raise. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. to look. to keen or hold. to have. to call. have the sense of calling or naming. to command. To place are most naturally ex. according as the * To Behove. healdan. vow. to bring forwards. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. Thus in Finnish the heave. Aan iemand bid one welcome. to behave. to lift. keeping. hevja. tion. AS. from tragen. hces. Robert in Warton. behatan. To Behave. hevja. The It. betragen.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. to hold. to carry. gehalten seyn. keeping. use. ufhaban. Sw. injunccommand.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. behefe. to feed. gecall.— . hovast. gehouden. hofwa. At the back of The re. or purpose. us-hafjan. zu etwas gehalten haitan. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. to be be named. to be obliged to do a thing. heave. heeten. hantyri. vow. when the verb will hoof. to look upon it as true . advantage. to cast or throw.

to befit. bertefredum. bylja. beleggen. ornament. To Believe. Q. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe .D. for purposes of low estimation . loven. Du. honoured. overspread. leaf geleafa. appearing in Mid. stand. From AS. glauben. to believe. to put a high price or value on. — . to sound loudly . De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. beau sire and bel dame. Du. is (Sternberg). Sw. Du. peal. belja. praising. . or a sconce. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. b'ola. tain a certain end. a tower. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. to promise or engage. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. moderation. beffroi.Lat. loven. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. verloben. met. belief . to der swaren lave. esteemed . Fair sir and Fair lady. promising. to fix a price upon one's wares. satisfaction. to belay. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. to praise. See Gain. a. consent. bellan. lov. In the middle voice hofwas. on. in nautical language. bealcettanj OE. distance to which a piece will carry. properly belonging to the church tower. Goth. to estimate them at a To believe. if a promise. 6o BELAY BELL loven. Fr. and Du. To Belch. are other modifications of the same imitative root. to cry out bell. to lay be- around. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. Pl. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. and. fringe. to give leave. to hit hafi. praise. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. Another application of the same word is in Pl. To Belay. resonare. to give leave Dan. fitness. garnish. reputation. and E. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . ungalaub kas. It. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. Fr. To praise is essentially Xo prise. a watch tower. promiser.Lat. bettifredo. a vessel made for dishonour. precious. with the consent of the heirs. gelyfan. bolken.alyfan. ON. Hence to simple approbation. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. ON. or house. permitting or giving leave. border. bercvrit. hesfa. cela est audessus de votre portde. to roar. to express approval. AS. ley/a. bialla. lofa. OHG. battefredum.D. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. certain rate. bealcan. . to lay the cable round the bits. esteeming good and valid.. bounds.D. to give leave. frid.D. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. under the forms belfredum. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. mark ON. loben. beffroit. is an easy progress. to praise. galaubjan. measure. a little shed. and bergan. boare. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. AS. are innate . bervrit. galaubs. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. true. aim. — mankind. giving leave or permission. —F. and E. to bellow. were civil terms of address. to be required for a certain purpose. laven. to a loud noise.. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. to boke. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. berfroi. laubjan. legsel. — Diicange. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. Du. Det er ofwer er hofwa. Then.. beset. permission. orloven. to resound. turris. bellow. from mhG. reach. to bolk. to protect. leave . behove. Northamptonshire. a tower for defence . bell. to believe. to praise. Bell. range. laven. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. G. lyfan. is used in the sense of approving. to believe. an implement for making a loud noise. Pl. pro3. erlauben. on. portion. to to make A Templorum campana boant. filu-galaubs. we have Goth. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. In Mid. to extol the worth of anything. locus securitatis Schilter. to sanction an arrangement. then. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . allow. to make it fast. P1. OFr. or high estimation. bulken. then. . if a narration. to promise. The word be- Belfry. to permit.

Bret. ON.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. I araye. to attain belangen. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. to say. disposed to oblige. binsen. bell. J'emboue. bimaissen. Fr. vulgarly the belly. wallet Benefit. Bent. Dozy. To Benum. dirt. I marre a thyng. benir. See Bank. a border. to stretch it on a frame. Lat. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. Benign. benefacere. one who does good. to touch. To Belong'. bander un arc. benejicium. an inflated Lat. To Bend. as. bellows. binssen. Benedico. to hallow. to hold to one. Lat. a blow. balg. — root consisting of concentric skins. G. Fr.— Belly. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. Benefactor. gelangen. See Nether. a benefit. bandoir. bimpsen. a water-bubble builge. poX^ri. a accusative. OUG. to do good to one . a bellows. cod or husk of pulse. se bander. was in Mid. becwathan. bolg. the skin of those animals that factor.polch. — ray. benjoim. In E. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. ' I beraye. because bcelg. Was das belanget. from Arab. the womb. to. bienfait. bene/actum. Gael. Sw. Lat. the word. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . to arrive at. or sometimes louban. attinere. pervenire. Fr. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. leather sack. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. benjoin. belt. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. from benedictio. to make bilbil. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. or a It is times the to signify services. a good deed. to become one's property . benaigon. ray. benedicere. Du. a kindness. balg. a spring. .' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. to come to the crown belangen. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. ^To Beray. . beneison. needs no ex. benedictio {bene^ and dico. bellows. blast-bcelg. Lat. The ing-skin. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. Bench. blister balgan-snamha. a bellows . which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. a leather bag. to belong. or simply djawt. Kil. to bless. to reach. are stripped off whole blase-balg. bendaj as. OFr. to ring. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. Quoth. to concern. to touch one. is a kindred form. Lat. belgr. as concerning that. G.' Palsgr. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). to concern. Eenison. Lat. has assumed a plural form. . rise against external force . from which is also bulbus. attinere. volva. ball. well.' — Hie fimus. bless. Gum benjamin. belly. Ptg. a speaking well of one. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. langen. Benefice. . hence with ashes." — — . bilbil-goda. belch. to use words of good omen. ON.Fr. To Bequeath. a blessing. . bolg. is The word balg.pinuz.videtur. a round or bubble-shaped root. vulva. skin. pertinere. pod. Gael. bilbila. Bav. bolch. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. gwaldas. belly. welt of a shoe gwald. pino3. belliJ Lat. bag. See I . on. . Benzoin. G. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. incense of Java. loubdn djawt. pertinere. by itself. generous. Belt. Javanese perfume. bags or bellows. . and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. Benignant. hem. G. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. I soyle it or araye it. balteus . Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. from cwcsthan. to bend a bow . — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. wallet. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. Benediction. benehusk. to attain to. est matris in lucem editus. fyle To dirty. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. to exert force. Beneath. taken absolutely. fens et hie liraus. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. ' . rushes. bendan. attingere. from another modification of the word for bubble. or fyle with myre. w. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. See Bind. border. bellows.' The term had been previously planation.. pouch. — See Numb. To belong is thus to reach up to. welt of a shoe. I say). bcelg. skin. kind. means seeds of plants. — Ducange. benignus (opposed to malignus). From OFr.

that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. p. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. From abet. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. besmas. het vuur The serise of Boeten. a berry. is to perform a serviceable office to him. might have been . AS. beseech. Tha het he micel fyr betan. reafian.— Hal. broom twigs. bal oppbota. baete. Fin. sheltered from the wind. and on which the wager is laid.—^fake. reparation. bota. encouraging. to thrust. Fr. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. ropahtaa. an incendiary. reparation. compared with bargham. Beit. To Beseech. To Bestow. mud. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. person to lie in. to be-place. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. Best. to entreat. amendment. betan. in the sense ctf beria. to fall with roisto. lay out. it seems hard to separate as. to cast. E. Goth. or. fall with sound. as bouter selle. sweepings. to word is shelter. To help. Du. what does it better a man. berwe. to to deprive of. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. same word with the provincial barth. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. making better. as conversely a besom is called broom. to the place boarded off in a. stede. because used for making besoms. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. hva mannan. to exercise on a definite object. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. bet. think more probable. buttare. It is the restore fyr betan. Esthon. dirt. BEREAVE Wall. Fr. R. I from lew. AS. When men of mekeness him baet. fearful. advantage. Hfence backing. botesward. baete. Ihre.t. — amendment. E.irova. the side bhakshya. AS. * Berth. scopse spartis. as. a fire. to make better. dung . bur-we. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. to defend. bat. stow. of ffeed a fire. brem-bessen. Besom. To seek something from a person. dial. bdt. make better . to stand one in good stead. vi. seems twigs or rods.• 62 Antiq. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. Bestead. lewth. boeten. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. what does it boot. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . to To Bereave. roe.X. Kil. fyrbotare. put forth. Devon. So roto rattle down. repair. See Reave. berry. OE. besIn sen.iooA. So Lat. bouter. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. So too Yorkshire arf. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. berwham. position. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. jnore. — Chaucer. p. To bete his Jam. boeten. dirt . * To Bete. supply. place. dust rojahtaa. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. but it is specially applied mister.fish the other hand. houseless. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. Zeitschr. Grose. to strip. the origin of which is to be found in ON. earh. Berry. to kindle the fire. barfham. advantage. The proper meaning of the bale. besje^ Sanscr. sets fire to. Sw. as. rubbish. to thrust. . betan. to give a place to. protect . improve. or to bestead one. supporting on the one side Lat. but in practice. 3. one who shelter. and also to entreat. boutefeu. ariierf to 113. roju. barthless. boteith Goth. ^•n. rods. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. To Bet. ship for a make amend. profit. Du. — . from AS. a horse collar. put.D. from grow. basjaj Du. a place . besein. beorgan. to make it. to light the fire . to seek. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. boeten. barth may be for barf. better. Du. peto. . to fire a funeral pile of . R. and Du. Sw.ot-i. Beet. stealth from steal. buttafuoco. from It. roju.bhaksh. bestow. to put on the saddle. to supply a want. Rob. — bota. to mend. Tusser. to amend. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. the guardian . eld up- On is to be placed A — . The dry. — Biglotton. besen. Du. an incendiary. or the space kept clear betan. as Du. burrow. G. preferably. earg. ^akka. vol. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. To Gl. to on the other Goth. as.— VixHsm. basya. as. See Better. Beere. arwe. small eatable fruit. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. solicit. bacca. On the other hand. noise. bdt. BETE dirty'. The origin is AS. as in growth. G. bereafian. besnij Pl.

against. e. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. dispose (whence schicksal. are there Regt R. in the middle of two. of quails. vrohjan. beuvrage. betaemen. for measuring angles. trakir. a drinking . The inflections of Fr. Now the stirring of an object. Pl. from Fr. of pheasants. AS. suitable. betera. traditor. R. thy speech bewrayeth thee.D. /alia. riigen. In the water anon was seen His nose. dir. BETEfiM translated. Dit tungomal rendered in E. to drink . in the middle of twain. Fr. Mich self a good glass of wine. — Betwixt. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. advance. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. to fall. Ober D. Ik tame mi dat nig. taemen. has — In a like sense tanie>i. To Beteem. I approve of beveau. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. as from obdir. gesiemen. i. . tradire. progress. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. what does It is forward him. as trahissons. to Hence It. to happen. G. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. to accuse. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. bevere. is used for the — R. trahir. twain. to cheat. *Ah. wreia. From the former of these are AS. better. Fl. Between. beva. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man.— . roja. Sahissais. polish. to happen. verbs in ir with a double ss. treachery. bibere. two. G. ON. bevde. ruogia. evidence of life. by a final sh. zimet. e. R. some attention. to discover. be fitting or suitable. whence beveraggio Fr. from Lat. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. e. Fr. tima. Buveau. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. his eyen sheen. to make forwards. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. spritigs from schicken.' Dialogue on Witches. which may be compared as to form with amid. a brood. Car son umbre si le trahit. Best. not to have the heart to give up a thing. E. To Betray. tradere. abash j from polir. Lat. to deliver up in breach of trust. bedriegen. larks. better. In like manner folissais. beverage. tima. Better. is treason. it bewrays itself. to fall Some call it a bevel. order. betweoh. Goth. bet. better. wrogia. in the same way Lat. trahison. moveable and compass branches. best. deign. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. Thus from dbahir. batista. kein leben mehrin no signs . gatiman. afford. betest. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. to Teem. lot). The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. as one would have it fall. batizo. obeish. To Bewray. sloped off. pair of compasses. his mouth. fallinn. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. x. Bevy. tweoh. G. by two. From It. proficere. Dii. betwuxt. Det sig sjelft. betray. Hence last G. to deliver tip. — that schickiich. bat. or with again. taemen. the being pushed to the frbnt. It. Golding's Ovid in R. more. A — drink. Slant. bouter davantaige. R. betweohs. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. In like manner from twain is fothied between. from. a different form of twa. find in one's heart. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. i. are commonly to one's lot. Sw. E. springs from ON. amidst. 88. fate. OE. — See To Bete. Goth. roebucks. as envahir. E. To boot in coursing (i. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. to stir. AS. betwuh. Fris. an instrument opening like a a thing. Fr. zemen. ziemen. from invadere. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. Bav. trahissais. amiddes. become. Pl. G. Fr. Percy Soc. find it good: Goth. &c. obdissais. awry. Du. fitting. -to appoint. to deceive. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. and thence twegen. regen. Friar's Prol. Tinia eigi at lata eit. It. deem suitable. On the same principle ON. To vouchsafe. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. make manifest. a bevy. r'ojer dig. The as. gezimet eines dinges. as tlock. baet. Chaucer. bet. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. Cot.D. betst. betweox. traitre. a traitor. ON. betriigen. — of the authorities. suitable. said he.

sbias. Fr. baverole. to tipple. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). Sardin. like guzzle. to move. to give signs of life. kwijlen. to well up with Cot. Cat. Piedm. biberen. An excellent Basil.s bellum for duellum. sbrisciare. b&zahr. convicts thee of being drink. In Arab. bes-azur. sbiasciai. to it evident to sense.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. to stir. Lat. foul weather. Bible. Piedm. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. bring under ' Thy accuse. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. to tipple. The It.' bibble. (according to the Fr. or by any rapid motion. he is Wtb. or in and out.as in Biped. bickel. .or from obliquus. Gr. Diet. to stir up . makes ble. Dan. by throwing of stones. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). of the sliced off. bezling or skueing. Cat. Sard. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. snout. pddzahr. Bibelsworth in Nat. kwijllap. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. specially in a bottle. sbiescio. petit-lait.D. to stir. . The train of thought is then. To bicker in NE. metaphor). sik beregen. it were the mouth. sbriscio. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. ice . Prov. See Wriggle. besanca. whence Du. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. to make tongue Du. poison. I Wallon. a Galilean. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. Probably. babbefore the eyes. slippery. lips. bias-wise. Uprogen. Bisect. aslope sbisciare. a bibber. wrogen. used in precisely stone . to slaver . beregen. love first begins to life signs of him. babbi. evident. To Bicker. aslope. . bisel. rogt un bogt sik nig. Jamieson. —Dozy. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. a stone-hewer . bestemps. to sip. Bib. the papyrus. Fr. to cut in two. which good bibbeler. To Bezzle. sloped. Ant. bibo. 78). to dispute. Bice. as an eel or a snake. In comp. bescompte. edge of a plate of looking-glass. is explained to clatter. To Bib. To Bibble. or kwijl-slab. inferiority. —Bickering'. Pers. dial. bihais. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. beslei. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. kwijl-bab. tailU en biseau. Fris. Fr. in Fr. biaiser. one who drinks in excess. him. Fr. bebble. baviere. Oh when shall I bizzle. — crooked.two.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. has a singular stone-picker. . rogge. stock still. asure-bice (Early E. expelling or preserving against. to stir. bending. crooked. liwell. Misc. a sloping edge. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. Ci^. Fr. An inferior blue. bickeler. OE. sbrisso. — Bi-. bibaculus.{ioin dua. bark of which paper was first made. its clothes. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. bis. Biseau. sbieco. Fr. sbiagio. pible. shows the P1. roggle. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. . It. to the stirring of their conscience. it becomes (Jz-. Bias. wraggeln. bavon. the basil Sc.D. biascio. It. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. To skirmish.a. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. presence. Bezoar. in two ways for duis. 172. and zahr. a slabbering-bib. winding or crawling in and out. to Jam. a bezle. bickelen. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. Du. discover.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. oblique. bickai. Hal- — do something aslant. Mantuan. slanting . notice. bisdare. reveal. from pdd-. Lat. Sp. biax. To drink hard. to slaver or drivel. /3i/3Xof a book originally. Yes. sbiesso. It is especially applied in Sc. to a fight with stones. biberon. to be a paring. the word became bddizahr. Pl. two- footed. a fragment bieco. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. sbrissare. Schiitze. ber-laita (for bes-laita). Bezel. biberer. Hal. to glide or slip as upon. though such a change of form would be very unusual. to creep or crawl sideling. to shake. biais. twice. to purl. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. sliding. bickel-sieenken. dial.to drink much. whey count . bible. biascia. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. in him. misFr. wrangle. E. sbiscio. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. per\'erted belief.

bauen to cultivate. to bid one good day. to presimpler pare. to solicit. to inhabit. ' Bug as a Lord. to build. as. Bickelen. swoln. OSw. bulk. bulge. be bug. from bidan. called the tertiary order. To Big. to start out. offerre. cultivate. R. form. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. to dwell. belly. AS. as tears from the eyes. Bigamy. to swell. to belly. inhabit Du. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. praebere. quiring something to be done. the belly of a ship. in the sense of ask for. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. A bjudan in anabjudan. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. to build G.. ON. Analogous expressions are G. G. to move quickly. bis and in comp. To bid the banns. ON. to offer it to public notice. porrigere. to ask. belly. balg. Jam. pressing on one's notice. as G. A pose to one to come to dinner. and consequently ordering or reGoth. bidan. besides the professedmonks and nuns. beadle. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. or bad. With respect to logical pedigree. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. from seek. qucero. G. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. has leta. bead. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. a flexure. Big-swol- . Du. bced. G. bulge. Two verbs are here confounded. of More ' in Richardson. bua.Leta). inhabit. The ON. The original Swollen. to forbid . to look for. to curve. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. bat . who. twice.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. — — — Halliwell. bugne (answering to ON. repair. — prepare. gebeden j G. einen vor Gericht bieten. consisting both of men and women. praestare. byggia. bo. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. beidast. to bicker. iiQ. The loss of the / gives Dan. may plausibly be derived from Goth.peto. bidjan. a suitor. to bulge. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic.' Pope in R. England for swollen. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. bolga. build. AS. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. to abide or wait on. by seek and beseech. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. bilge or bulge. to cultivate. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. bedun.t. anleta. to marry. 2. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. bieden. bouwen. biegen.uddered len heart. the meaning of bid. bidel. It must be observed that the word bidja. Kil. — To Bid. or. from belgia. bow. Big. rising up. OSw. and yajiBui. which is stiU. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. to arrange. bugan. ewes.' Addison. Bigot." buque with E. To Bid ' Big . swaggering. Einem einen guten tag bieten. becoming in Lat. explaining the Sc. The . spelling seems to used in the N. ten. to build. athird class. BIGOT beidan. 1. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. or third order of penitence. to ask. to pro- command. bolginn. a chip. From Gr. abidan. bog. and Gael. to offer one the wish of a good day. AS. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. forwards. to have one called before him. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. bigan. a swelling. faurbjudan. bidill. to look for. and the Sw. . to pray one to dinner. Bight or Bought. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. bend. ON. pray. related to big or bug. ON. gebodenj G. Palsgrave in Halliwell. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. W. to offer. bugt. to bend. swelling. to forbid . an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. bit- bidja. buga. to inflate E. are also used in the sense of asking for. Hence Sc. proud. bend of a shore or of a rope. an entire skin. byggan. biddan. BID of stone. . P. bag. bieten. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. beodan. The 'La. bug. bi-. bidan. verbieten. bygga. bath. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. boa. to E. Compare also Sp. bolgna). bulky. Wallace in Jam. The ON. to bend.

' translated by Muratori. and underwent much obloquy and persecution.— BIGOT bigardo.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude.. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. vol. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. From bigio. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. Bizocco. honesti plebeii amictus. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. S. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. A. alii Apostolici. 560. In the same way Fr. the other form Per te Tribune. absque votorum religionis emissione. grey.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. natural grey or sheep's russet. says. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. was formed bigello. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. 15 18. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. xx. beghino. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. perch^ i Terziari di S.D. bigio. 1499. ac labores manuum detestantes. aliqui Begardi. both men and women. Beguttce.' Chart. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. all apparently derived from Ital. bigotta. biso. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. beghart. corruption would easily creep in. and also unlearned common men.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. A. rustical. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt.' says one of of bigio.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. author quoted in N. which must not be confounded with begardo. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. begutta. vocati Fraticelli. Bizoccki. signifying bagmen or beggars. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. with reference to A.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. &c. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. dark-coloured cloth. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. clownish. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans.D. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. and Q.' Matthew Paris. ix. and hence the variations bigutta. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. G. A. probably from biso. bighellone. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. Bighiotti). a blockhead. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. coarse woollen cloth. a dunce. sed maxim^ in muliebri.a. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. as well as bizocco. They wore a similar dress. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. face VIII. grey.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh.— Ducange. D. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. alii de paupere viti. 1243. borel. bighiotto. homespun cloth. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. Augustini dotarint.D. Bighini. the nobles to Rienzi. Francisci communiter appellabant. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. Flor. to adopt a similar course of life. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. Hence the OE.' says an Venet. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. In a similar manner from bigello.

of boja. a man who rests on a stick in walking. top. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. To Bilk. deceit.— — — . OFr. to swell with rage). and in Lat. the trunk of a tree. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. Mundart. bill in parliament. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. that of swell. a floating log to mark the place of some. bla-berry. Bilbo. a negro. So in Gr. to pick a millstone. names bill-berries. boia. BILBERRY nated. symbolum. obsolete. false pretender to reUgious feeling. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. See Bulk. blue . Deutsch. Johansen. Aurelles. Bohem. — — ' . bigotto. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell.' mariners. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . buail. bizocco. horn of an animal. an ingot. to peck. a shackle. a seal. Bille. . loi. belghen. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. bull-berries. a bigot or hypocrite. AS. to be angry (i. in the sense of a writing. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. Lat. bulgja. bill. Prov. bolghe. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. 5 * . See Bull. Sw. dissimulation . Bigin. person of religion leading a loose life. a hatchet. the swelling G. seems to be rather the unda. an axe. a hypocrite. — bigardia. p. from Mid. b'olja. crowberry. A slang term for a sword. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. Bill. clog to a fetter. to strike. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. 2. G. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. bisoch. Bilge. belgan. from OSw. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . bui. Sw. The Du. as craneberry. a seal. however. bulghe. bigardo. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. buoy [i. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. Bilberry. weapon . in the same sense. tepati. Billow. billot. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. Sw. as a bill of indictment. bulla. bille.' bilio. from the dark colour. whortle-berries. and dziobas. Du. In English the meaning has received a further development. genus vincu- Bilboes. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. Dan. to strike. at sea Billet. AS. . bila. In the same way are related Pol.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. Lat. boeye. might be taken to express a hypocrite. gleischner (Frisch). blamand. beil. a devotee. an ingot of gold or silver. axe. Sp. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. gan. bigot. topor. Tartuffe. Billet. Du. billet is the diminutive of this. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. AS. to job. 'tumidi fluctus. A lorum tam in — Diez. Gascoigne in R. now A Bilboa blade. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. bill of exchange. Fr. The proper meaning bylgia. I.' in Richardson. bil. The origin of the term is probably from bole. Bill. an axe . bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. the beak of a bird. Piedmontese bigot. . bigot. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. w. Du. 2. on. an adze . fluctus maris. — Cot. e. a sword. bwyell. Dan. dziob. the bill of a bird. boja. irons or set in a kind of stocks. Roquef. Bojce. buie. Ludwig. dziobad. biilge. Gael. a beak. and a billard. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. Thus we find in It. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. a of the sea. Langued. e. a short note. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. bile. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. plog-bill. beghart. inscriptum. An instrument for hewing. billard also signified at billyards.. Kil. Billette. Fr. an axe. To defraud one of expected sinking. 3. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. billet. blaa. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. is properly a sealed instrument. used in legal proceedings. Fr. of E. an axe. Kil. procella Kil. fetters. NFris. bullet. ^Billiard. abelthe fetter itself. the o changing to an i to express diminution. ferrese quam ligneae. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. billard or billart. a name given to a.

by the verb knit or net. wine. Du. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith./«idere. Bindweed. to fasten it together. videt. evigue. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. AS. twice cooked. bundle. Bailey. Sanscr. a bunch. from \t3\. bundt. Bisson. to net. . a little dog. a heap. We — A Birth. a knob. Fr. to bulge. to wreathe. It. poule. poultry. bigne. bunki. a weight of 48 pounds. See To Bear. biccej ON. bin-wood. a gallinaceous bird. binge. a habit- Binnacle. Bisen. biscuit. in Swabia. where the compass stands. overlooker. i. terial. betsel. Sw. AS. bunga. V. to bind together. ge- from AS. . binda nat. Then added division in a granary. bunch. a brood or hatch of young. Bitch. viz. a weight. bundle. 'tumens sequor. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. a bitch. a pig petz. Dan. bij sienigh. a house. To — — —D. Lap. brut. an eagle's young G. qui nisi propius Blind. i. — Kil. bord. or bin. bunt. Sp. bindan. The proper meaning is a heap. Bing. to plait. Bittacle or Binnacle. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. truss. bikkia. — — . G. Lith.. episcopus. G. AS. a corn. Fr. . Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. from Gr. pinnii. piccione. G. Habitacle. AS. or ben-wood. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. a female dog hindinn. and of Fr. &c.. berkas (z=:Fr. or baked. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. beitsl. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. Fr. bita. H. pin-ti. I would derive the verb to knit. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. isfiw. a heap.68 BIN Bio-. vescovo. bindan. admota non Bit. When compared with Fr. bundt. sc. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. than vice versi. — Surrey in R. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. a female stag. also a stone weight. AS. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. Thus I suppose the Gr. is rendered in ON. band. — properly near-sighted. The term ON. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. habitacle. propius videre bij sicndc. beisseii. To Bite. BITTACLE /Siof. bitill. Sw. Goth. forth. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. bund. pundas. life. to twine. Lat. — See Bittacle. Goth. bundun. Gr. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. and especially to a small poor horse. . biclie. Lat. bhurja. Bizened. or petze. evegue. lusciosus et myops. properly a young pigeon. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. from Lat. hiindiiin. nodus. while bind-wood. to knot nets for fish. See Belly. Bin. to build. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. expressed by Sw. a bump or knob. to bind at . IV. to swell. Bird. to form a knotted structure. beorth. e. a hind or female stag. a bitch applied also to other animals. v. Fr. an overseer. pippione. . Lith. a bitch. ON. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. burt. ON. Bind. Birch.' and the like. pinnu. pullus. In like manner from knot. . beran. fowl. to hang. pittjo. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. bij sien. to bring Biscuit. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. beitan. EpisETTiTOOTToe. earnes brid. bund. a truss. from pondus. a bear. The bitol. It. evesgue. the young of birds . to bear. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. bjork. Bisom. G. beize. Fr. to be derived from Ibfiaq.. by binda. which is expressed in E. the young of an animal. to cook). Something of the same confusion is seen in G. are commonplaces. bircej Sw. copus. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. See Breed. biscotto. E. hith. Bine. brid. j). Lat. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. piiiti. is in Scotland applied to ivy. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. Lat. bitacora. AS. doubtless a stone.

Hald. NE. . to let out whai should have been concealed. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. Sp. — cheeked maid. Goth. blabhdach. G. The Gz. shining. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. beuni. Sp. beiwache. as of a body falling into water. yellowish. mouth. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. Blabber-lip. faded. . are two strong posts standing up on the deck. bleg. in contempt. blubber-lipped. pale yellow. his blacan light. plappem. thoughtlessly . Gael. Percy Soc. blabaran. to bivouac. bitr. Applied in Hin ON. bittore. as is seen in sputter and splutter. baboyer. Black.' G. Again. bittour. black. pale yellow . Mantuan babbi. cut. to To blabber blabber with the lips. blakki. gabble. yellow . blob. blebberis. /ealo-/or. bitter. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. Sp. whitish. to watch. Bleak. Bivouac. white. buft". the moon with her pale — —Blabber. small guard-house. maculS. bitor. night guard. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. bleich. AS. In a similar manner Gael.' by Haldorsen. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. corrupted in Fr.. iroxafealo. whiteness (candor sine It. Fr. x. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. To or he can speake. blesmer. baitrs. white. round which the cable is made fast. bihovac.€i. from whence we have adopted the. blabbern. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. v. term. blakk. synonymous with baber-lip. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. In Legrand's Fr. apparently from its biting the tongue. blob. So Fr. as of water gently beating the shore. unintelligible talk plabair. white lead. plabartaich. fallow fawn-coloured. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. pale. quoted by Ihre. Fr. In like manner E. ' Biovac. 332. ON. dusky. Fieldfare. to wax pale or bleaked. bird of the heron tribe. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. to talk much. blab. a tati. as in that of pale and white on the other. a stammerer. or water beating gently on the beach . chatter babbler . blanc. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. Deutsch. from wachen. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. to loll it out. gulblakk. mona mid Dan. to babble. Wit hung her mourn. garrulous. biacca. fallow . blob. indistinctly. — Collins in Hal. pale. — Hollyband. first. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). ^aj'/^r. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. a shelter for the steersman. —Neumann. I blaber. Mag. to speak Dan. blake. the palebleff. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. Bav. Ai-mstrong. a large coarse lip .' It would thus acle. bleikr. even humour seemed and beuin. on the one side. 'fuscus. Nagt huis. bites. a fluttering noise. stutterer. as of wings . ON. confusedly. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. Sw.. ON. Bittern. babbe. is apprehension of danger. a childe dothe gasouille. To Blab the anchor. Lydgate. out the tongue. beitr. an additional watch. 't kompas huis. shine. brunblakk. blunt we say it will not bite. a beam in a house or ship. to chops. faded. Cot. blac-hleor ides. on.— Blabber-lip. 156. . a flapping. "uivac. viz. bitones..' by Gudmund. light-coloured. Pl. pins of the capstern. blepLith. A a rail. ^chops. AS. dark. a babbler. Hist. biti. a* mast . leohte . Gael.D. to the sharpness of a weapon. mouth. things —Palsgr. blank. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. babbling. Sp. to babble. a large lip. Fr. Hal. Je N. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. ' plabraich. bitts of Bitts.). The bitas. Why presumest And laam's asse. It. G. blabbre. pale. Du. blobach. Mund.plab is used to . 't huisje. Fr. quick. pale brown . an edge is sharpest sword. Alex. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. Se bleek. butorj OE. is placed. ON. Bohem. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. Cotgr. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. whitish. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . obscurus. a continued soft sound. discoloured .

a. on. white. — Sw. plat. as scullions. pass over. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. p. Reliqu. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. blatt. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. to —Blaspheme. borrelen. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. vagrants. chatter. blanchir. blather. blegne. a bubble. blasphemare. Now. blank. tree. blegen. to omit. contracted from bladeren. or blafich. blahen. D. also jabber. plate. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. blister. . 1854. biastner. Eadmer. 86. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. chatter. as. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. a bubble. Play in Nares. pimple. the origin of . slush. foolish talk. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. mire. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. Dan. Du.. blad. to dabble in water. leaf. . dial. bladre. candidus. biasimare. a pustule . or as E. blister. boys. Sc. To Blare. blactra. G. blanchet. —We Bladder. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. coat. Blank "verse. Lat. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. whitish. Torriano. &c. a blanket a bed. Hist. his meat burnt. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. But perhaps a more Gr. The present forms then should be classed with blether.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. to blanch. PI. or a mass of bubbles. blather. Blade. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. speak impiously. Fr. blaeren. blaere. blanchet. Blame. also tanned by the sun. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. 7. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. bladeren. commonly called the Black-guard. blad. to make or become white blanc. — — — to jabber. leaf of a. in R. Blank. and G. to Hence Ital. and wandering men and women.. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. a leaf. piatto. Du. G.—Blatter. blanqne. blatter. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. pladdern. moere. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. bladder. leafy. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. to To bellow. whitish. imbrunire. to bubble. dripping-pans. most complete example of leafy structure. reproach. linkboys. Blanket. which we . is identical with Flanders borlen. Fr. probably ate. blister. See Blubber. Dan. blinken. a bladder or pustule. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. It. rogues and wanderers. mud. blether. and the agitation of liquids. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. Dan. a white or unwritten ticket. vagabonds. Besides the examples of this connection given above. Cot. white. and E. — . pluddre. to disappoint. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. flap of a Du. Bav. also white woollen cloth . Sw. a boil. Perhaps from blegen. mud. and thence to babble. to shine. as Lat. — rura. skola and thwatta. on. roar. a blank ticket. blanc. to glitter. e. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. gabble. smore.—Blatant. Blancli. cited in N. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. Fr. Bacon in R. bladder.— ^o thehotsun. . The radical bubble. blein. waschen. to vocifer- — Cot. to shine. and others engaged in dirty work. madder. from candere. the leaf of a tree. sheet of paper. board. Du. and he shall be sure to have O. livido . broad. leaves. Sw. Du. defame. to glow. pXaatpiiiiHv. bladder. black. I am degraded from a cook. to bleak in the sun. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. Blain. To blank. and Q. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. irXariQ. blena. name originally given Blackguard. polished. plat. Jan. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. revile. blame. pallido. smother. bladder . 5/^a/^ of colour. bladdra. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. tattle. G. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. —^Webster. branches . shining. as blader. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. Gr. blister. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. Du. the ON. Fr.— Kil. blatter. with all other loose idle masterless men. a buible. Sir. to purl. variable than the signification of words designating colour. bladra. as. to blow. mus-blackt. Wott. or of an oar G.

. Fr. Blaze. blateroon. i. e. blaodh. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. magnilo. each of boaster. The AS. To blast.). as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. whence Blazonry. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. to cut off prematurely. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . pale. abroad. braise. or blazening. gloriosus. thraso. . blezo. ing of arms. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. blis. on whose behalf the herald appeared. blcest. a funeral oration . noisy blor. somewhat different train of thought. blaser vid. shield or surcoat. But now. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. to set on fire. blase. A strong flame. a shining spot. oron-blasare. Dan. also praeblczse. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. and. Du. a blast. redness . to trumpet forth. G. Du. blasa. to publish. brasa. blason. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind.' painted or figured . a whisperer. Blatant. a loud noise. to de. an empty and two theories are proposed. blaodhrach. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. baladrar. blysa. also blazon or the blazSpenser. to bellow. blys. blcesett. A gust of wind. First from the E. blus. to proclaim. live coal . To blow AS. blossi. the matter incendiary . to blow. blason. bawling. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. used. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. and which. ON. biter. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. proflare tues. I. ther it was erst not knowe.whence the Fr. is from AS. Golden Book in R. commendation blason funebre. If armour. light-coli. visui patet. clamorous. G. blesse. a lamp blasere. the noisy. beast. a flame . — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. coloured prints. by stripping off a portion of the bark. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. to extol. magniloquus. — Elazen. baladron. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. bliEsan. blaze. Du. blose. blass. among other .sound a trumpet. Cot. . bleis. bles. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. to blaze Sp.— . blaesen. OE. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. also only pains and excellent endurance. is the imme. Sw. oured. besides blesse. As Kilian. blast. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. 2. blcese. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. might spring from the same origin by a .would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. and to make him word blaze. laudes (Kil. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. See Blare. a shield. blazen. a coat of arms. is used in the sense of manifestatio. ill-speaMng their proper colours . like the in English. AS. bldsse. to publish the praises. Prov. Fr. blcEsan. kept up. an conium. a voice Jr. blaterare. to blow . — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. a torch . a flame. blorach. Du. stultd loqui. Gudmund. in that of praise. Du. loud . With inversion of the liquid. quus.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. blasonner. a flame. — ' — stroy. it is manifest. Blast. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. to blow. Sw. blatero. Troilus and Cressida. boasting. — — ' : bless. splendour. might And sain. abroad. ventosus. proclaim the virtues of. fire. Cot. has also blencke. The origin of this exSp. g. blesse. blaeteren. to spread news. in the same way as we 2. indeed. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. Blanches illuminies. Lye. The other derivation. of an animal. Dan. a torch. a MS. or to the sound which it produces. much plausibility. brasa. embraser.' to fastum . She roade at peace through his heraldry. a shout. To Blaze. A blaze is so intimately Then. friend Cornelius. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. declaratio. senses. how. as a verb. ON. 'op een trompet blaazen.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. AS. Du. blcEsan. Kil. blasoen. Gael. — ^Jam. Fr. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. Sc. blase.

which are blurred with the have shewed you. Gower in R. sinen langen tranen. 242. Manuel de Pecch&. whitish.'he cried till the tears ran down. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. blister. what blenched him therwith. a blemish in one's 2. ' . blakna. blema. a spot. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. from the than schal I go. c. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. pimple . sugillatio. bleakness. Bleed.P. (faith or creaunce) Be war. spla7nU sie. to humbug. Blear-eyed j having sore i. ' He blarrede or roar. from on. on. a spot. boggle at something.filerren.' God in his wordes. paleness. ^Xiixaoftai. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. B. As AS. to spot. to bleat as sheep. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. to become livid. blot. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . start vor den augen. to soil. bldmi. like one that has long P1. See Blood. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. See Black. To salir. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. BLENCH obfusco. livor. a been distinct. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. guenchir. blench came to be used for a trick. pale . exposed. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. ' — — ' : — — . blur before their eyes. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. . to bleach. — — R. a red watery eye. A Blab. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. to disgrace one's name. or blemish.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. a boil. Schmel. as of dust or mist . in the expression reputation. souiller. Bleb. To Bleat. light-coloured. or to low as oxen. N. to blare been weeping. to blear one's eye. inflamed eyes. a blot or smear blanking one.v. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. From the OFr. dead-coloured Cotgr. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. Mac. Blemisli. . goda nainn. 115. ' — — eye. Bejaune. . bloken. p. See Black. a fault. So in Sw. Richardson. to cry or weep. pier vor den augen eyes. to cast a mist before the eyes. is Blench. blarren. plama. Sir J. G. darkness of vices. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. Blancher. blesmissure. And now are these but mansbond (i. blot. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. Bleak. color plumbeus bldma. to wink the eye. ^Blencher. bleikr. wan. A stain in a man's reputation. tacher. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. a spot. flack. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. AS. . blemissemeiit. geplerr. Blear.D. Pol. to spot . gif thou blenche from ony of tho. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. and thence to a bruise. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. I chaunge colour.' the devil makes a vain back. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. drop of water. Gr. a spot. the formal equivalent of English wink.' to deceive one. Bailey. to make him feel blank. to start away from. blesmir. splamii!. Fr. wanness. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. to stain one's honour or reputation. spSt. blink. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. to wink at it. livid. novice. tutnan is a cloud. a disgrace. a stain. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. blcecan. . Palsgr. wheal. The term blear. while the agent ac- From . pale Du. Ancren Riwle. or blemysshen — blaken. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. tumanid. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. To totally different from the foregoing. a blotch plerr. confound him. the livid colour of a bruise. avoid looking it in the face. — blink the question is to shrink from it. 419. And By a similar metaphor Pol. Sw.

blicksem. Du. Serv. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. a flash. blinde fenster. lightning sweet blago. . Paradises blidnissu. blicken. a nounce happy. blitzen. Dan. happy . doors. wink. glimpse. . to be blind.wink . ON. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. happy . From the action of the hand making Sw.D. blincken. pearance of the blighted . plonsen. Du. G. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. blican. a glance. Biglotton. . as a blind entry. tless —Gamm. blatida. blendian. sertion of the nasal. a dead nettle. AS. happy .corn. blithe blis. AS. to shine.. — A A — . wink of sleep . . Blight. money. blinzeln. but by no means therefore a pre. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. blogi. lightning. cascultare. blag. Bliss. lovely Bohem. blink. Russ. good. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. moment. bliss look . . false windows. to make a rumbling noise.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. to bluiter up with water. livid. blet. . glitter. as a vatn i vin. Nares. De Sonne ' verblekken. to pro. to flash. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. blend. tative source of the word is wholly lost. to twinkle. also to wink. to dilute too much . the sign of the cross while blessing one. blide. a wink.eyed. mixing in general. to bless. riches . the verb to bless is some. or nettle which does form. make these hands 3. to dabble in water. blotzen.Q. a blessing. and joys of Paradise bliden. Kiittner.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. to plunge. a. blicken.not sting thiiren. plotzen. AS. To Blend. glad. glance. the Slavonic languages. blund. blahos. to glitter .blinkard . to lighten. ^Jam. blinzler. Deprived of sight. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. 375. blent. Blink. blitz. (=bene dicere). Sw. to shut the eyes. to glance. blessed. weaklaveny. a gleam. to rejoice. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. G. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. a. bleg. window-blind. to glitter. pale. gives blinzen. G. liquid filth to bluther. to glitter ful . representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. OHG. to consecrate . to churn. ' Pl. I hold thee a grote thee. lighten. a look. trix. OHG. as in Du. G. A . the G. burn up. fortunately. vious one in the order of formation. Swiss (obsolete). blich-fiur. readily passes into a /. to shut the eyes G. as taschen. . To blunder water. Sc. blac. — when he — Bailey. blind- ON. Du. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. lightning. blink-eyed. although in the in the next article. to bluiter. blaziti. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. joy . blidu. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . thou knave. to mix. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. to shine. to dazzle . in potters' language. an entry which leads to nothing . happily. to rejoice. joy. Wtb. well blagaya. Du. The term then self or others. bluiter. seems the simple netel. riches blajennii blicksem.nasal. Tany. F. blende. blanssen. blithe. j). blazeny. goods. mix from blekken. — . a wink With the bletsian. sweet. tire. blinzdugig. sung. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. be glad flash. Du. joy. bludder. . well blahy blick and blink. a blick-ooghen. to — make it thick and muddy. blindr. to act like a — .blunda. . Sc. graceful. blindselen. Owl and Nightingale. to shine. Blazena Bea. to fall into water with a sudden noise. The inblissful. pockets. to make happy. flash of light . shine. To Bless. AS. joyful. with or without the nasal. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. blick. — Goth. giving (Fr. glitter. —Brera. to blithsian. gladness. . csecubrandish. glitter. Swab. Needle.blinze. blahoslaviti to twinkle.blinken. III. Pol. Blind. blind. Thence apblinds. The sound of k before an s. blago. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid.' To — blunge clay. to merry. . a glance Swiss blenden. dazzle . to stir or puddle. to bless . . to dash wine with water. as in the case of blaze. blissian. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. blessed. is I shall Gurt.

bluster. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. To Blissom. in bulk. busten. ^Jam. to dash liquid. G. Of sheep. soaked. To a smoking or drying by the fire. blcesma. Blob. or the mark which it makes. Bleb. blobbes or droppes of water. to blow. a bubble. shells. Du. a . biota. To Bloat. B. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. blinzel-maus. pustula. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. to soak. merciful ON. . Gael. blindman's-buff. fiustula. round. frequentative. a dirty blister.plisg. . as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. to blissom. blotfisk. a bubble. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. or is inserted or omitted. weak. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. expressed by cognate roots. Dan. Hence. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. — — — — — From blabber. light yellow. a See Blot. boucler. the unhewn bole of a tree. taken altogether. blobber. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. blouca and Fr. blide. separate portion. husks. buckle. or blinde-kiih. cooking. a block or log en bloc. is also used in the sense of swelling . a blister . a lumpish head plubach. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. Ibid. an unformed mass. plub. Fr. and bouclette. — Blob. must be classed with forms like Gr. in gusts.—Bloater. buclde. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. to steep. blote.— Hal. to close it with a solid mass. Jonson. a small lump of anything thick. The stem or trunk of a tree. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. also to set See Bless. a bubble. or the like. mild. Sc. — . bloc. from blcsr. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. must be referred to AS. blaud. Block. bloated. kostua. joyful. as blinzeln. Sw. In Fin. blaustem. . to swell. W. like clot. Fr.pusta. gentle OHG. orbicular. bleiths. A solid blouquette blisters. speaking rapidly any . —Bailey. a ram. Blister. and F. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. to block up the way. sloppy dirt. bubble and blubber. Gael. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. whence blast. blod. Svt. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. to blow. to bubble. Goth. bloc. a little blisg. Blond. soft. in the sense of a soft tint. is formed squad. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. blister. as a blab of ink. Hence E. blond. Lat. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. Dan. senting the dashing of water. blab. a drop of water. G. a blister. See Blot. in Nares. blot. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. mild. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. as in E. viscid. pausten. to blow. swell. ^vaaa. Kil. blautr. Mod. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. in the lump or mass of wood. Bav. Boyd in Jam. having an unsound swollen look. bausen. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. like manner the coloured. It may be formed Blithe. For this. blidr. to desire the male. blijde. And so from squatter. repre- pusula. and easily changes its place. The roots /. blithe. blister blasan. blot. blubber. a blot or spot. blot. I believe. Langued. fish blind person. Sw. Cotgr. Thus we have blab and babble. lagga i blot. — Sw. pods. Blob. while Lat. blindsehn. soft. . to cure by smoke. inde humiditate tumidus. stone. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water.— Bailey. A under this name was imported into England. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. or bleb. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. soak in water cured fish. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. soft. pusula. Egillson. and inarticulately. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. blesme. B. signifying in the first instance to soak. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. ON. bluyster. and pisg. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. to to puff and be noisy. mass. puff. any lump or mass of things. to breathe hard. strawclod.. The blow E. pimple. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. blad. Du. formed spot. a blain.—Bloated. as if soaked in water. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. it is must be observed. kostia. ON. N.

bloemen. lump of anything soft to blad. Jios. straw. bluish. a. blosma. to glow. . Ein platsch milch. Blotcli. AS. spots in the sun. blady. Ir. Schwenck. Blood. to dirty. bldts. blooth. glus. — Cot. a flower. to dabble in water. Blad. See Blow. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. a pelting shower). to strike . platz-voll. Sw. fall down . a blow. bloutre. Blossom. bloi.blauschlagen. Fr. glose. Lat. white blatte. dial. Florio). blotting-paper. blou. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. skam. to sparkle. to blaze. flower. S-wiss pladern. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. blond.D. bloetnsel. to shine . gammon. bleustern.^ Kil. to flame. to slap. ' — . —Barbour. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . OFr. a drop of water or colour. glasi. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. Harmar in R. from G. blose. a flower. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. a blot or spot. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. soft or flat. Dan. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. a torch blusse. plet. plottra. Wendish blodo. a deli. Hatch. Stalder. platt-voll. platsch-voll. blosa. blus. of a blow with something lios. bldmi. bloeme. G. blut. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. to dash down Du. a blaze. blond is used in blatt. light. in v. as the skin or hair. pale tint. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. to spot or blot. yellow. bfys. bleistern. dial. plants which prepares the seed. bloed. PI. a Usaae. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. blue. bloto. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. blue. to glisten . bletister. E. AS.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. pale. lustre. parallel form with ON. lump flower. plot of land is a spot or small rage. ^lys. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. blotter.properly to scatter liquid . livid . Schilter. D. bit by bit. gloss. Plots. platschern. a water ploutsche. E. a Schmid. fair in en blat vand. Du. Du. the bright to blot paper morsels. wan. sbiadare. couleur livide. livid marks. bloi. . brilliancy. — gush. Sw. Erploten. bliise.' the rain is driving and blue . blauwel. . — — . clod. plattata. Fris. ^Bleed. to slap. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. cow-dung. (of cattle) to dung. blaeuwe ooghe. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. Dan. glossi. pale biavo. a gush of milk . spot pletter i solen. blosen. Blot. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. from the bright colour which 7'vci. to be red with blot. to patter. kobladde. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. a spot or blot. . Du. a nature. blosem. blust. probably connected with Pol. to dabble in water . redness. j^ blottir. mud. a cow-dung. G.— . to grow pale). E. kuh-plader. glister . blue. Sc. to blaze . E. coloured (Diaz. blat. Fris. a beater. bloi. pladdern. great leaf of cabbage. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). blodelsa and blawelsa. biado (of which the evidence plattern. blaeuwen. . blue. platz-regen. to squander. blysa. to scribble. proto shine with bright colours . ON. Du. bliihen. splendour . Blow. It. pladern. dirty spot on the cheek. shine . tions of sound similar representaare formed G. . gfyssa. blaeuw. blase. blois. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. . to dash down. Sc. bliithe. See Blow. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. a lump. Russ. blostma. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. a black eye Du. It should be of filth blak-blatte. to blot the land was in a leme. gleam. on. a The form platschefz. E. to exists in biadetto. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. colour of the cheeks. or the sound of it . Prov. to squat or lie close. Wflz<^«. fall to overflowing. — Stalder . leme. blue . The G. blistaf. to strike with something soft or flat. yellowish It's G. blond en blaauw slaan. en blau ach. Schmid. to From . blatte. 2. blad. lidmr. a Halm a. to blush . to be red. the bright colour of the cheeks . E. to strike with such these objects exhibit. — Blotch-paper. bloedsd. . ON. ON. blawels. to splash. a flower. Pl. whence plader. ])erly Du.platter. blotte. Bloom. blomstr. blowen. Sw. splashing full. plotterwis. blondheid. Dan.

and thence. blady. pale. — Bluther. sound like water. Pl. glowing coal . Wtb. bledniai. /idXavoc. AS. B. to puff up. 1292. Prov. G. Gr. to fade. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. A. blezir. bldt. grow pale. gloeden. Gael. . The aUied forms. blubonciti.— . G. blebber. a fat. . bliithe. OHG. . like manner Lat. The primary sense is to shine. bliuwan. blao. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. Pludern. Lat. Du. where the word may be compared bliggman. sponds with Sw.Jlasa. disordered in head-dress. bluther. . Kil. to exhibit bright colours. To Blow. blahen. to inflate. plustrig. piusen. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. And. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. and closely allied with Du. a herb Gr.D. bloeyen. blava.nify bubble. blubbern. to gabble. coup. — . bloemen. OHG. florere. br. is confined to the — . Blowze.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. a continued noise of agitated water. green. It. bloi. Chaucer. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. blodyn. v. pale. pale . glaodh and blaodh. Bav. bloes. fied vowel. bruised Prov. . gloeyen. withered. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. to beat. in E. a bruise. pale OFr. Du. bloeden. — To blubber. blodern. 51. Tumbled.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. fqded. Her sweet bloderit face. y\r)yi»v. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. P1. d in Sc. to bubble up. to make bubbles in drinking. fem. gliihen. into flower. ^Jam. pludern. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. Pl. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. plubartaich. glas.to blossom. glansj Ir. blazir. — — Mundart.xo'»'. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. Notwithstanding the We . or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. To Blow. 1. . Raynouard. E. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. to spot. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying.D. —SchmelIt. blau. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . to guggle. to hard. a blast. to fade. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. bludder. wan. 2. red-faced bloted wench. Mund. meurtrissure Roquefort.. to glow. plubair. a blow. blau. G. ' BLUE or guggling. a. glede. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. blust. plodern. sense. wan. to breathe G. closely difference in of blabber. Danneil. plusig. gUd. to beat with a mallet. to glow. to flourish.D. chatter. to flap like loose clothes. disordered. ler. toused. especially with respect to the hair. fiubbem. puff. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. gliihen. 92. to bruise Roquef. the red fluid of the body . dirty. is very frequent. Bret. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. heath. glas. blodelsa. — To Blubber. bliihen. to fade. blue. |8A)'. to Plodern. bl. corre. to blow. cheeks bedabbled with tears. or gr. blow. It is howbliuwen. blubbern. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. to blurt out. marking some application from that bladder. E. to breathe bouteiUis. to make blue. grey. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem.D. bloom. to shine with bright From colours. may cite for example G. These are — Bludder. to blow. Deutsch. tache. blaw j biavo. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. Chaucer. Langued. -ii. a Blossom. blawan. grug.' — Palsgr. OFr. blazi. — . bliihen. blue . blois. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. boasting. Jla-re. blass. Sik upplustem. flower OHG. Deutsch. Blue. a flower. to show flower. w. blut. The radical sense is shown in Gael. a paddling in wate r. jabber. G. We . a gurgling . foam. blduen. to gush. bluh. in rapid or indistinct utterance. plubraich. blosen. The interchange of an initial gl. flower w. to'disorder. Blowzy. glow. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. little apparent resemblance. vi^ound. bluod. and the forms mentioned under Swab. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. to blow. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome.' Hamburgh Archives. to with Bohem. bruk. boil. In agitation of water. MHG.

Pol. Flor. blac. Roquefort. without image or superscription. tutte le semente ancora in erba. Dief.— . liebefactor. Pl. a blunderbuss. blutter. Roquefort. ploffen. falb. a fore. verdoyer. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. Lat. and biavo (Diez). — — — . to mix it up with water. a plain coin herausplatzeu. an ill-done job. Bodge. Dan. contrasted with the dle. devenir vert blavoie. polter-hans. corn.. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. Du. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. 't — —Hal. to puddle. jaune. polterer. blunt. A bluff manner. blue. je perturbe. blake (identical with AS. Blunt. and metaphorically. mix It. glundra. originally growing up turf and water. all representing the — . sloppy drink. has donder-bus. pale straw-coloured. Sw. We Blunder. yellowish red. Bluff. a boisterous violent man. buller-bas. from the brilliant green of the young E. like Du.D. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. blunder. bawling. blahir. pludder. Bohem. to dabble Biglotton E. biavo. to plump into the water. abrupt. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . blave is moreover. Romance bluiter. OFr. fallow. The word is here synonymous with amplus. herbe. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. Kiittner. or an abrupt manner. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. G. The Du. Hence we pass to Prov. to work To blunder out a fronto. corn. to become pale or livid. blavus. discoloured {plowiee. bulmanner. something. blunderhead.//aay. Kil. - reddish yellow. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. and then generally idle talk. in the same way as from It'. earth and water mixed together. yellow. E. glundr. to lose colour. from an imitation of the sound. bullern. biava. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. blue. . flodderen (Weiland). The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. non rotunda. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. Analogous forms are Du. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. pale. G. confusion. Blunderer or blunt worker. to become pale or wan. Altieri. G. Pm. I blonder. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. Supp. to agitation of liquids. to blunge clay. Kil. and Du. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. fawn-coloured. blanssen. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. The Du. Halma. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. planus. plomp. blunder. from the Lat. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. herauspoltem or sloping shore. to dabble in the mud. tradire to Fr. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. segetes virentes. It is remarkable however that the E. Ditton in R. From G. pale) is provincially used in the. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. to blunder water. bluish. buller-bak. poltern. a shore abruptly rising. Dryden in R. — Pr.' trouble. to fade). And blunders on and staggers every pace. like the Celtic glas. dial. verdure. trahir. Palsgr. a flounder. plo-wy. biada. puddle. disturb. to fall suddenly on the ground. blue. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. sense of yeUow. to confound. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. — . blandum. which is rendered by Florio. and sbiadare. Blavoyer. Blaffart. See Blurt. used for the work of an unskilful performer. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. and bustle . his business with much noise. Hal. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. bUich. Then with the nasal. applied to green as well as blue.make a noise. See Blunt. bleu et blanc. having a bluff forehead. blond. in water dobbelen. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. G. is. To blunder is then. speech. It then signifies something done at once. sbiavare. rustic. as well as sbiadafe. find accordingly It. Bladum. as well as biado. blaf. superficie plani. flav-us.• BLUFF biado. Biada. pale yellow. to become pale. in plur. bloi. Hence a Slcelton in R. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. . mistake. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations .in mud or water. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. Du.

poor Sc. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. maol. heavy. absence of preparation. dial. bleak. inaKil. or heraus plumpen. stupid fellow. plumbeus. rough. pale. a portion To inquire for slaves. to handle a thing bluntly. used in both senses. platzen. unceremonious manner.— — — . blatte. but of something soft thrown on the ground. Won by degrees. rudely. F. thick. obtusus. naked. clumsy. mit etwas heraus-platzen.pludse. to make a noise of such a Stalder. blait. bare. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. to bring it suddenly out. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. homo stolidus. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. A light blue colour. insensible. united in Gael. bald. Sw. Molof something wet. bare. Dan. fooUsh. in Richardson. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. hebes.—D. awkward. through which a man is so blont. naked. bare or blunt. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. blotta sanningen. awkwardly. Halma. . silly. Kiittner. ang. it will be observed. The blait body. dull. as in E. plutz T)\i. naked. seems to be derived. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. and in the same sense. exactly corresponding to the G. and the like. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. dull. G. without horns. rude. Dan. like a thing thrown down with a noise. Swab.plompen. blott. or blab out a thing Kiittner . Probably radically hlekit. Bluntet. — blunt. and an unintelligent. blockish. as Sw. identical with E. Then cometh indevotion. pointless. G. clownish. viz. with or without the nasal. plump. blunt. — — pidus. heavy. . heavy. bus. plump. blunsch. More in Richardson. plains The large bech. It. plump J to plump out with it. to plump down. plotz. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. it will be well to point out a sense. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. Woddis. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. a bluntie. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. good plump person. to blurt. is The word dull. plump. Ford in R. blat. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. Pol. to plump into the water. It will be seen that the G. a blot. plonsen. from the loud report a fire-arm. Du. Plontp. blunder. obtusus. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. blait. bloss. as cow-dung. down. a thick and will person. to blunt a thing out. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. unwrought. —D. Q. raw. edgeless. is thrown. and. to make foliage. Stalder. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. nature. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . V. of a knife which not cut. sheepish. Blaitie-bum. wan. without the nasal. Kiittner. Plump. Sc. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. platz-regen. biosso. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. massive. viz. The syllables blot. void. blue. — Kil. A modification of the same root. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. Plump mit etwas umgehen. Sc. without preparation. duU. Chaucer. plotsen. blout. blutten. azure. a simpleton. Sir T. forestis. nis. that the sense of bare. figuratively. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. —D. ineffectual reason. pressions. blunt. plump. that it not easy to discover the connection. bluntschen. unfledged Sw. and hath swiche languor in his soul. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. biotto. Bare and blunt. It is from this notion of suddenness. unpolished. inactive Swiss bluntschi. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. blunt.to fall into the water. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. Blunt. the absence of sharpness. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. V. V. blunt. naked. without Maolaich. Now the Swiss bluntsch. fling down .

For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. BLUR Boar. blotch and botch. a small lump. Sc. Gael. bord.— . cluster. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. my dear. primarily signify loud noise. pludern. Hal. and swimmeth very well. Bav. c. The to radical meaning D. blusse i ansigtet. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. boistous. Bot zeggen. an edge. it implies that it is empty sound. a torch blusse. puddle. as splurt to splutter. as in Du. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. A large snake. Fl. to snuff. Dan. Du. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. . bdtr. to breke. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. boccheggiare. E. Fl. geplerr. literally edge-wood. boord. baiag. blaere. bora. . to rumble. bakke bleustern. &c. the Brem. Du. to bark. a bladder . whence bordvidr. lacerta. to say bluntly. then applied to indistinct vision . BOB 79 — To Blur. Fr. to dangle. G. to endeavour to terrify. Explained by Jam. flat. cocodrUlus. G. table. to give a crack. a dangling object. G. a burst of tears. to bounce. bord. bdd.plodem. to puff. Wright's ed. blaffen and baffen. Lat. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. an end or stump. the sound of a blow poffen. To tinct. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. Halma. ground. to guggle. edge. 156. of the word seems . and when applied to vaunting language. skin. dial. to blore. Related to blutter. Boost is used for the boast. — — — * Boast. Pull the bobbin. bluter. to crying. beer.D. Du. 'Ba. — From mouth. blader. pfludern. Fr. to dirty. both used in the sense of boasting. . boot. AS. Boa. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. to make mouths. to chatter. to puff. bot. large. beacon fire. to dabble. pluddre. bateau. a club foot . blurra. Supp. — — . be a crack or loud sound. Swiss blodern. dial. outward edge. gabble. baban. blunt. short pieces of any filthy mud. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. Comp. Board. to blaze. a short thick body. this root are formed Sc. crack made by bursting open. to brag grande loqui. As the as. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. plump. gabble Sw. E. coarse. It. bludder. Boa. pausten. a flurt with one's fingers. blast. Wtb. Hal. — a blaze. properly noisy.y. or blurt ^ih one's uppi.the syllable bot. blot. AS. blur. blose. a. a blow . 9396. V. planks raised up outside the roofs. blubber. cheeks glow. bobine. blaustem. to be out of temper. bustuous. Gael. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. bludder.—Bobbin. eber. 274. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. — To Bob. Slur. and E. planks or boards. batello. rude. lindwurm. Wallace. to make a noise in boiling. margin. a mistiness. to blush. bar. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. dull. violent G. margin. blodern. to smear. Sc. blosken.pusten. edge. blirt of greeting. to roar. bliise. blaste?i. Du.' — Red Riding-hood. a Jam. Pl. fringe. It. a tassel. boa. to glow . Blush. to blubber. botte. whence bob. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. will fly up. and boisterous. It. De Boat. . aper. board. bladdra. on. ever-swin. to make a noise with the mouth. OE. To move quickly up and down. to talk quick and indistinctly . a border. Du. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. bleuster. to sound like water boiling. splurt and spirt. — ' Dief. To splirt. or bog also thread. blot. to spurt out. voce intonare. rude. AS. a smear. To blow in puffs. and Du. or blurt with one's mouth. and the latch . The elision of the d is very to chatter. stellio. e. . table. common. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. bluther. a tassel. a blotch. Du. sudden. to disfigure with E. pustern. bit. swagger. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. To Blurt. Bluster. or backwards and forwards. Kil. w. stupid. See Blossom. is formed Du. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. 29.v. bausen. pof. violent. Schmeller. burra. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. an ear of corn. to puff. a mist before the eyes plerren. like the parapets (viggyrdil.plerr. hot. Sverris Saga. margin. chicchere. bord. berd. border. Du. ON. P. i. to blur. blasen and See Burr. a grows to a great bigness. mire. bhis. a board or plank. puffen. to jabber. borrar. bdta. a blot. To brag and to crack. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. to blurt out. bur. a baU of thread the mud. blarra. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. to render indisbhir. bobbin. to threaten. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. ader. eafor. See Boisterous. imitated by has also In like . strong. bot-voet. 1. to blow. brett. acre.

bod. to butt.rabodi. the belly. goggle. point. anything protuberant. bodi. so large a feature in the country. exhibit another modification of the root. gag. To portend good or bad. * To Boggle. potacha. barrique. — as well as the body of an animal. a body. Bog. Bohem. a dagger. gago. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. expression hogglin an bogglin. . Supp. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . mud. a puddle. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. to push with the horns. boftich. to roll. bob.a (i\ia. bodat. toss. daubed or dabbled with blood. whence Fr. round. bodi. stuttering. To mock. See Bid. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. bogadaich. biodag.! .\\i\c\iset. rounded. boll. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. . bodhag. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. . BOGGLE trunk and G. ^Jam. quakmg. to bob.' A — Sherwood's Diet. See To Botch. to scruple. corset from corps. palleg. a cask. Russ. barriga. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. bog. belly. And waves. shaking . corpses pot. quagmire). . Lap. a spur. Banff. — Grandg. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. agitate. gog. fickle . Now unskilful action is conmire. bog.' Bogglie. bagges. potahha. See Baber-lipped. gagoula. a sting . formerly bodies. as signifying anything spherical or round. a . as a horn. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. butt. or a pair of bodies. bot. dies. to make. bodilo. . rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. to blurt a thing out. busti. unsteady. a prickle. a prick. — H. The signification of the root bot. . French bouter. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. Gael.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. bogach. corpset. speak of the barrel of a horse. It introduced from Ireland. to fail. a round body both. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. To Bodge. to prick. Bret. moving backwards and forwards. swelling. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. bod. Body. gog in gog-mire. the stem of a tree . In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. gebod. ON. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. bottig. Shakespear has badged with blood. to waver. bolr. Cot. Ir. to stick. bothog. Ptg. Gael. AS. bodies. to be unsteady tich. is a lump. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. nodding. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. shake. to be uncertain what to do. the body of a shift gaguejar. stutter gogmire. Ptg. or bag. unsteady nature of a soft substance. bo tich. of which the E. from fitting close to the body. to commit a blunder. strike with the horns. precept. potig. a messenger . the trunk of the animal body. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. to stir. or stem of a tree. body and G. bogle. a quagsoft. unsteady. Commonly explained as if from Sc. bodig. then from the yielding. patsche. Bodkin. bogadh.. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. Lith. stumpy. to dabble or paddle. AS. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. wavering. In like manner E. bodnu. to thrust. Gl. a ghost . the thick part of anything. To make bad work. to fail. an announcement. and the word is well explained by Bailey. . is identical with Fr. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. as in stammering or staggering. Schmel. by the syllable patsch. moist mire. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. calf of the leg. needle. to smack. baboyer. Reliq Antiq. thrust with something pointed. bodetz. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. So BOB To Bob. — 2. bayonet . an awl. Crist. and E. to deliver a message. to stammer. woman's stays. the boss of a buckler. cask bottich. . bodian. To Bode. badyti. meaning the round part of his body. a command. bodene. gogach. pall. a bog or morass. the body. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. . move. gagei. nave of a wheel. 3.gmh:t. e. where bogs form Gael. arise E. bodak. whence paUchen. Wall. biodeachan. to make a mow at. to bodge.hollow. anything soft. bog (equivalent to E. to start start and back as from a bugbear. waving. stitch. bayonet. message boda. Bodice. bogan. corset. a cask. 43. With With this we charged again We bodged again. We . The Sp. potacha. VI. bottich are derivatives. Thy i. Miracle-plays. body of a shirt bol. W. Gael. '£. bole.

a swelling in ice. tartalear. Du. confident. Mund. whence bulla. bolstar. wag. Boll. flax-boU. insolent baude. boly. notes. ON. courageous. capiing into a cavity. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. to give a hoUow sound. pimple ON. G. w. a bump. boystousnesse. bulr. glass phial. Du. Lat. noise. swelling. sels of flax. Pm. stutSw. The round stem of a tree. as those of nuts. blow. is probably a modification of boll. as. Lat. bald. bagaji. bolt upright. bulla. hollow. 374. bol. i. boutpijl. bul. bola. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. Bret. bola. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. bald. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. gerade signifies straight to the mark. a head .' Mrs Baker. to hesitate from doubt. bealder. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat.Du.D. (of Mons) b^guer. The term applies in — — impressed . — — which the cushion is stuffed. also a blister. stameln vel bochken. . from the branches. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. pusten. cows the people from speaking. belc'hj. bolt. furfures. bold. bolzBold. to the belly as the or dislike.. and manace for to de. Da. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. a quaking mire. may be identified with It. a bubble.w. bolle. b^gayer. See Bulk. swelling. intrepid. coarse. ON. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. stud. pillow. tartajear. rough. balder. in speaking. bhster. caput scapulse.— — . a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. Kit. bula. huge. prince. the lir. bok. bolster. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. excellent. pustule. Bustuous. to swell. as baltha. Me doth awate. by which it is moved to and fro. a boil or swelling Du. bol. ^Vocab. 45. to stammer. To Bolter. which are not used for a similar purpose. obex. used. Daring. bSlstr. to be at a loss a shirt. courageous. puilen. bolzen. tomentum. to stagger. buile. bag or bog are derived Piedm. bolla. ^Boistous. shake. see Boast. strong. Fr. folliculus grani. to waver or hesitate. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. puile. baud. Fr. Chaucer seems Dan. gluma. Kil. a cushion. fiausten. V. scruple. hakogni. Magy. E. The bob. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. bullire. ohg. warlike. from Du. It. dint in a metal vessel. strong. G. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. to stammer. quick. or the like.palleg. Love. 304). merry. a bakazikni. stramenta. beule. . . but that Bolt. bochken (titubare. bouil. treated under Bowl. Westerwald bollern. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . Sc. the body . Goth. tar. chaff of corn siliqua. cheerful. the gurgling sound of water rush. free. E. 1430 in Deutsch. Fr. G. the. roydeur. the body of a man or of ter. bold. Swab.— D. haughty. capitellum. In the same way Sc. Cot. biiilen. To Boil. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. up of bubbles. bal. Lap. chatter. to boil. bol. bout is explained by Kil. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. bout. bold. round the first instance to the materials with . strong. the husk of nuts. * Boisterous. to puff. This iv. Properly noisy. A. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. bog. polc'h. . bollen (Kil. to stumble. styffe or rude . a bubble. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). bolr. Bole. and then applied to other husks. animal as distinguished from the limbs. Chaucer. hero. repagulum. to be prominent. a bubble. Test. properly represent belly. Stalder. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. bolc'h. he will speak out. in the sense of handsome . ballr. pall. balldr. impetuosity. Du. boss. bolster. perpendicular. bald. boggle. buller. tulum. globular bod)'. OG. OHG. boll. G. brave. bulla. Pr. Sw. poppy (Bailey).rounded part of the body. ON. as E. * Bolster. tartle. boil . Sp.). to tattle. trunk of a tree . Gael. a fastening for a door. then violent. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. ON. Du. — ' — tagliare. — 6 . pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . Boystous. bog. proud. bul. Wall. bolleken. Boil. as.

Dauphiny a sudden movement. the wheels groaned. we see that the one consists of a words. to shake. hammer. projecting eyes pul. bulla. hammer. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. Brem. Supp. I boulte meale in a boulter.thump or blow. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. pultare. ' — — ! ! : — . And as the agitation of cream in . knob. small heap. MHG. bolzauget) Sp. bullern. rugged. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . pull. to become lumpy. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. buretter{CQ\. grasbulten. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. a small portion. Lang.— . barutela.). to bolt meal barutel. cro.protuberance. OFr. a sod (Schiitze). tuft. ler. a bunch. agitari (Kil. tling or crashing noise. OFr. lumpy. fied bot. a club-foot. Bav. Dan. .D. beliitea. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. brattle. a crashing or racketing noise. die treppe pressed.through a cloth of loose texture. the sense of right on end. jolting. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. je bulte. a round glass ending — bultig. . achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. bolt. . bulk or quantity . and to crash. Du. barutela. Lat.as the essential element signifying the talum. crod. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. ex•wagen. bolt head is a retort. bolting to that of form. zen. a clap of thunnences. and the Thus from So. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. also to curdle. bolzaugen.noise {brattle of thunner. hulter de bulter. Pr. as of a trumpet. projections. to talk pulzen. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. buUire. So also we pass from Lat. holier poller.by forms like G. Fr. ' Holler poller / bulter. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. beluter. : ' — — . poltern. buletare. to coagulate. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. or a racer from the course. Schiitze. bulio.agitation of the meal in the bolter. then to knock. staff which sounds tar. to come rattling downstairs. a . to form lumps. bulk. to significance of the term was overlooked. to start with palpitate. burclct. have Lat. to bolter. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. swelling.). croler. Champagne burtcau. taratantarum. hulch. It. crotlar. or ill. The ulti. .) E. uneven. to E. bluter. On this account Mid. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. we der Brocket). P1. bultig.On the same principle. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. uneven. buletel. to bolt meal barutel. boss. taratarrum. one after the other. zare. to knock. a clod cloth. in S'W plotter. clump. Here the radical image is the violent O. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. . In the next place. Prov. to bolt flour burato. Du. barutare. gebolder. racket gepolter. The ment and the operation. Bulte-pook or bulstar. budeln daz mele . a clod. . poll. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated.D. on the one hand. we pass to Du. a bolter Prov.nature of the operation.clack. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. to agitate. a rattle. a rattling carriage. hump.fe/2?.i5a//^«. btilt. with E. hole. as snow balling on a horse's foot. representing a rat. as a rabbit from its baritel. tar. or the like. to start out. protuberance. Hence Palsgr. a millpoltzet augen.. 2. bultred. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. curdle. crash. . as Fr. bulstrig. abolter.D. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. we have Du. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. sestuare. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. Pl. rugged. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. Hence. poltern. / is transposed in Fr. G.D. buideln. to spring forth E. Pm. as above explained. taraabout. — — — . to make a knocking. kloteren.. Passing from the sense of movement burattare.u. Sw.Lat. by the representation of a racketing sound. bolt-foot. from G. Mid. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. Wtb. Pl. bortelen. tantara. . vessel with narrow opening. Sanders. OFr. mole-hill. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. pattern. loud and fast. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. tumultuari. to clack. bolzen. blotttre. baruta. cruddle. a clump of turf. a bolter or implement for bolting.

as in . baum-bast. bopin. and in fact we find the and Du. Fr. a beacon. agreement. to shake (as to shake the head. .bast. PoUitriduare. bommer. tie. band pi. ODu. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. and Mod. raw silk. bambagioj whence It. In legal language. a stem or base. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. and also the leg. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. bon. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. tie. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. coarse. In E. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. band. burato. The material called by this name. bone of the . sijde. G. a drum bombammen. Kil. the murmuring of the sea. beuteln. or trunk word in W. bambacium. as Banbury. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. bein. to thunder. a churn for butter. bombicina. bonfras. band. &c. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. Banstead. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. It. bunden. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. tiffany. from teu. thick from shaking. is supported by the analogy of G. the shank the shoulder-bone. however. assuming the of leg : special signification W. e. the contracted form of Du. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. the leg. Moreover. It.) . to resound. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. As cotton was used for padding clothes. a boulter of meal.^Altieri.D. It. Bonfire. Dan. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. builen. bambagino. Du. OE. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. When ture. gossipium. bwmbwr. a stock. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. Butterglas. bwmbwry mar. buttel trueb (of liquids). to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. HoUybandin R. a hollow sound. an implement of binding. bongam. booming over the water. a bone in general. thick. sije. stuff. beil'n. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. iuttern. bolting-cloth. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. to bolt meal. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. . any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. Schm. butteln. breast-bone.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. bureau. term is appropriated in G. to cast to and fro. and Bond.Su?. silk-worm. achsel bein. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. Fr. biire.Lat. bombdra. bommen. — having a stem or stalk. beuteln. again. thick-legged. 155. Gascoi^e in R. to bind G. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. banitola (Fl. ^o/j. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. bombasin. brust-bein. stump. a thundering noise bomre. bombasine. Bomb. Need you any ink and bonibase. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. It. to which the leg. ties. Mid. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. Du. rimbombare. bombice. Near 6 * . which has given rise to so many false etymologies. borel. buidelen. Bibelesworth in Nat. bauniwolle. produced the Pl. to boult meal. bonds. butteln. has repeatedly varied. G. and that from Fr. to thump W. Antiq. bulter from It. q. a word of which we have traces in several English names. we speak of a gun to resound. a ligature. From builen. . bombe. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. E. cotton. Bone. bombase. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. been. It. — Bombard. bomba. and called in Mid. sericum arboreum. silk. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. a —Bombasine. G. to shake down fruit from a tree. gunpowder. crook-shanked bondew. derivation. and Du. boulenger. sye. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. lana lignea. to beat a drum. — bombast came guage. a baker. bond. the silk-worm. bureau. to ring bells. . Castrais barato.). baun. bombarda. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. . from boom. tree. 83 Gr. a string. the Fr. buidelen. Fl. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. bonog. barate. bras. i. basin. to shake. bindan. bande. must be explained Fr. It. . also thick-shanked. d. bombast. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . whence bomme. . Du. — AS. cotton stuff. Dan.

p. In nautical language. boandi. build. a simpleton. ganian. a lying-place for dogs or swine. the scriptures bokareis. inhabit. boutig. swinbusa. by itself for head-dress. N. bAkva. ON. G. Schm. desire. and from AS. A stall for cattle. botte. beiSne. babin. to ask. bota. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. build. bid). fool. bonnet.. Mrs Baker. a hollow skin. dress. Gael. Bun. boo. tigh. bua. which one gaping and staring about. Boom. a letter . botte. Du. From bo. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. to dress. a silly fellow. Fr. a scribe G. Fr. Wall. boia. reparation. AS. remnants of hay or straw. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. boom. help. and thence Rouchi baia. the possessor of the farm. at everything. a lofty blaze. remedy of evil. AS. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. Boor. gaby. although in the OG. wall hangings. Boot of bale. chaff. bonad. pole. bote. A favour. in w. . Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. . to cultivate. Booby. stabulum. A peasant. beam. prayer. tapestry. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. the cultivator. the alphabet. betere thing werse. ass. in Phil. as the Brecknockshire Banns. — To boot. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . and Ban in w. a stall. from gape. is Du. to set in order. signifying beech. . dial. bossen. relief from sorrow. a bonfire. the mouth. petition. To Boot. tall. house. badaud. — — . Perhaps. hu?idbusa. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. Boot. busu. bos. inhabit. Pm. The origin of the word is probably the W. b^er. Basa. . E. to gape. petition. without ad- . But bosg. succour Bailey. ON. a head-dress. G. gawney. 232. bonad. The i. bua. master of the house. prayer. Thus from the syllable ba. babb^o. boutig. foolish. botta. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. a. quest. Kil. writing bokos. . ben. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. bommen. — . gaping hoyden — Cot. Bootless. head-dress wai^g. simpleton. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. baier. Book. . bauer. often cut for burning and lighting fires. dial.Boos. bose. where a cross (or a gun. E. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. Mrs Baker explains bun. Build. 13. . Jr. nachbar. till. pig-sty. Fr. w. Du. a dry stalk. to yawn. one who dwells nigh. to aid. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. set in order. OSlav. Busk. by arbitours sholde bote the P. bobo. high. — e. Thin ben Luke i. Prov. from beida (E. letter. also called Brecknock Beacons. a good turn or re- meaning. See Butt. bobo ! interj. been. Palsgr. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. or Vanns. gehyred. * Boose. bdn. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. Goth. Gl. are formed Fr. the name of the letter b. bas. from Du. The character of folly is i860. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. Kil. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. a letter Russ. . \ais-band. a vessel for holding liquids. as a lying-place for cattle. till.n. Trans. pero. to strew with straw. however. bene. See Bown. The latter is the original AS. Hufwud-bonad. ON. boubair. Sp. buandi. and fig. Swab. to cultivate. bds. Binau Brychyniog.^ —P. See Bomb. of wonder On the same principle Sp. countryman. Bonnet. dolt. but stall. wondering signifies not only straw. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. bosih. short boots. — From the participle present. biikui. comes bondi. and Gael. b&ber. ON. a tree. Ox. boer. literally cow-house. boubi^. boa. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. a bag of skin or leather. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. bosig. b'ukvdry. bauen. bonaid. G. boten-shoen. Hal. Boon. Bonnefyre. from badare. OW. clown. It is commonly explained as identical with It. booby. buch-stab. blockhead. bowwen. babau. dog-kennel. to gape. Du.—Bootless. whence ban-ffagl. the first consonant of the alphabet. ty Gael. feu de behourdis. a. bd. It. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. bolt. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. Pr. the stubble of beans. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. dress. to prepare. lofty. Hal. netis stall. — Bailey. Fr. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. . . litter. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. to litter bosu.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom.

to bite. bauen. purro. tent. to hut.— Return from Parnassus I inR. puras. yfirbdt. to pierce. Magy. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. differs only in termination. a shelter of branches. boards. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. BoracMo. to foam. borino. wave. bata. Fin. ON. sawroot. bower. G. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. betan fyr. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. Booth. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. Fin. Sp. are parret. . butin is explained by Flor.. puras. 1. chisel. borracha. struere ignem. forare. swell bara. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. BOOTH vantage. baete. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. biorag. to The Sw. to mend. a responding forms . to surge. See Burgeon. recovery bata.—Burin. both. bordi. butin. And so in ON. bite. Mag. a sharp-pointed tooth. to to . It. a bothy. N. Border. a hut or tent. sculpo 05\xiik. . is purin. The Fin. puru. budowai. hut. nor E. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. mat-bod. It is admitted that Fr. cellar. exchange or divide. puru. and parrets. to divide. cup- awl. amendment. Pol. hem or gard of a garment. scalpo. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. fimbria. Lat. bauda. Gael. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. uzboro. It. A phorically a drunkard. making good again . edge. dust.. a chisel. repair. Du. chewed food for infants. baara. amendment boeten. . from deila and skipta. Bete. a border. to build. Burke in R. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. cottage. Du. . to stick unto as a bur. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. purra. ON. a word. furni. byte points to the verb byta. the . welt. sharp. rof. bardure. . bdra. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. See Bower. a leather bag or bottle for wine. pi. bothag. to importune. lappolone. bora. from bord. lappalare. a borer . phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. admovere titiones. pointed. a shop. terebra sculptoria purastoa. pu purro (saha =: saw . to patch. Kil. abode. or anything pointed. purra. Another derivation from Fin. But probably the E. and thence to eat build. bothan. a borer. to . comminuted by either kind of action. batr. Esthon. . an engraver's chisel. limbus. In the Fin. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. and meta- Fr. bottino. a hut. a cupboard.por. or the gradual working a hole in anything. a shop budowati. scsdes-bod. limbus. Gael. bud. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. a shed. p. terebro. OHG. a. to quench one's thirst . The as G. to swell. The ON. bolino. boete. to restore. . piercer. boeye. drillen.par. reparation. are derived from G. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. fire. budka. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. remedy. a tusk. burin. to build buda. Fr. wine-skin. of an edge that will not bite. to bore. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. OSw. and hence to fine. AS. better. furd. To Bore. — ON. a borer. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. See To We speak in E. bdt. a wave. margin. to boot. kvit-bara. Fin. Esthon. • — To Bore. to bete the properly to mend the fire. The cor. on. Fl. make . ON. beute. cure Sw. urboro. to profit Goth. to bite. Booty. ora. Alexand. as afford a satisfactory explanation. a granary . and E. boede. borracha. Bohem. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . botjan. 266. a great bur. to repair. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. Compare Manx birrag. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). Gael. Fr. dens mordens vel caninus. a booth or shed. to expiate boeten den dorst. from borra. which are probably from the same root. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. bord. &c. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. bohren. Palsgr. in Lap. . 3. to anything Neither G. a bladder. barn. in Ihre.. boeten het vier. extremitas Bore. aid. . to profit. schare of a man of a prise in warre time.

Fr. Hence knot. by which of or belonging to plants. It. Jam. primarily signifying coarse sound . — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. burgess. pegou. brown cloth. — — — A — . plant. baurgs. beorgan. borough-holder. or because a blow berga. Gr. nonsense. AS. empty.' or system of bail. is used in the sense of bussare. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. Boreal. boss. and borough in the sense of a town. from AS. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. tuft. a bunch or hump. grey). bizocco (from make a hollow sound. i. a citizen. in instead of without.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour.vr\. Hence borhes ealdor. (1867). from their grey clothing. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. the Sc. boschen. cnag signifies both a clergy. to save. to strike so as to Bureau. borel. beorgan. Borrow. bussi.' if thou give money on loan. f graauw. a blow. vain. bundle. botch. Hal. bourgeois. agrees with E.. bump. connected. empty. ^ma. as we speak of a thumping potato. useCanterbury. Borough. viipyoc. whether from the fact preserve G. basse. knocking. poor. borgese. blow on a hollow object. is probably radically Boss. coarse cloth made of the Du.any round sweUing. a wen. Altieri. pego. huschen. surety. bossen. to pick or cull plants. G. to contain. poor. loan. D. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. a little blow. . to save. bourg. ON. a citizen. a city . to strike . a. bom. . agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. without. Botany. tive idea seems to bring under cover. knob. to protect. undyed wool of brown sheep. borei.' the chief of the ' borh. Bos a surety. knur. borough or chief constable. of bail throughout the country. knock and a knob . projection. Bosh. to give bail or answer for an. cnoc. formerly used in the sense of knocking. bump is used in lump or piece. to protect. the North Wind. to keep. busse. borg. E. Du. bergen. striking. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. — ' wind burya. V. the hollow between the Borsholder. less. (Bridel). the must have arisen burgensis. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. destitute. ' — — .mass. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. botsen. a boor. boussi.ribs and the side. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. The origin seems to be the Goth. cormpted. head. unpolished. rude. I. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. In like manner It. a knob. bos. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. cob. hollow. while Gael. botch. The other. Du. as if from the verb to hold. Sc. or head-borough. Borowholder. Bunch. to take in. bos. or perhaps it may be See Bury. to give a hollow bizo. 106. tempest. byrig. a surety. one who sticks to you like a bore. bosse. Swiss Rom. AS. . boss. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. to become is emitted by a hollow body. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . AS. bierge. a pushing or striking out. /3oraMK6f. boss sound. borg. borealis. And that unsittynge is to here degre. bunch. bussa coarse. boss of the side. bail biirgen. to knock or strike. in the body struck. Goth. botse. See found in Bav. was origin of the term is the OFr.' Vegetius in Diez. &c. burh. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. ' pledge. secure. northern. bosseu. It. a giving rise to It. Lang. hollow bucklers. gum vocant. empty. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. The primi. bosh. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. burel. Jam. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. bttssel. cnap. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. So Du. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w.' every man be under bail. an eminence. which now signifies a knob. Fr. Newbury. when that system was forgotten. a herb.bucklers. butse. a bouncing baby . butsen. clownish. borgo. pitch. gesylle. rustic. plain rude fellow. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. . and thus could not shake off the old burr. Bailey. the ordinary a swelling. Fr. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. boss or knob of a buckler . Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. the sun sets. Russ. Lat. to conceal. that which biirge. Cot. a boss. ^o^^flj. whence the burg. or perhaps also To Borrow. borh. the N. to save Sw. storm. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. Turk. a tower. into borsholder.

to knock. bots. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. abbu. Podge. fundus. Decorde. butwo. To confuse with noise. botel foenn. btitse. disturbance to . poltern. bundle. Fl. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. bottom. a plague-boil Kil. It. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. Botcli. a bunch. bdsser. however. to simmer. to mend. ixorapudder. See Butt. to from the root bot. bAdtr. &c. Fl. putra. botus. AS. ba. ON. nets. patch. they two. whence the name ol pool to podge. On the other hand. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. we two. was called a push. as Fr. hurly-burly. Gael. . stump. a cess. round lump. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. abbution. bunch. a boil or swelling Halma. 212. or plague sore . * To Bother. a cesspool pass. of botta. ing out. Again. mess. oba. abbi. botte. to dip in liquid (to Gael. j3i/9os. bozza. Bret. bodem. botch.— Hal. a waterfall. bun. a bubble. bdt. Gael. dial. tumour. stock. Fr. &c. to make a make a noise. boss. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. for a bud. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. to strike . — Dief. a pit. — . . maggots in barley. Mudu. i. kessel-biisser. Diez. a wisp. in the sense of mend the fire. gen. bozza. pozzo. boute. to put on a patch. See Boss. puddle. Boa two. to smack. blain. abyss. especially in Gael. . is also a bubble. potra. to dash about . e. and E. to fall : with a sound batsch. Judwi. OSax. A — oba-dwaj Lat. Bottle. Danneil. bativa. stem or base. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . . — — belly-worm. The Gr. baiothsj Sanscr. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. BOTCH understood). noise. corresponding to . And so we speak of an eruption. bethia. boitean. boil. stock. G. N. Fyre to botme. House-bote.of a ball of thread. Fr. Stalder. stroke. the science or knowledge of plants. A horses. to work without order or know. podge. botte. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. to stir and mix together. — — . you two. G. a root. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. a depth. ON. ambo. On — Du. See Bound. scuohbuzere. a bundle of straw or hay. a humpback. is boteau. Lat. botola. an abyss or bottoniless pit.foundation. to podge. boiteal. pocciar. Kil. empty or hollow. burgi vel pontis refectionem. a knock. It. the lowest part. AS. ' G.ments of the same root. any plain round viol glass bozzo. Here the radical image seems a bubble. bSn. a tinker schuhbiisser. AS. bulder. — Jidwi. Butu. • Bott. Ancren Riwle. the first rough draught 2. a. a vessel for holding liquids. the other hand. . gling piece of work. schuhbosser. blow. we have Swiss batscken. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. Wedu. — — A 2. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. a bottle. to froth as beer . theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. bosser. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. a patch patschen. to make better.D. — duj Lett. gipuozan. Lith. botel. Du. — . an imperfect and bunbutt end. beggtaj Goth. a bott . by met. butsen. bottigUa. — Fl. Hal. signify a in OE. a botcher of shoes. botn. Jtidu. It. Parmesan poccia. shoes. Prov. ledge It. and ajSvamg. dim. E. botm. See To Bodge. a maggot. bluster. a slop. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. batschen. blister. biissen. botsen.^Dec. pozzanghera. boccia. mend. — Bottom. To Botch. ON. From the dim. Hal. bulderen. botte. w. bouteille. boden . to stir and mix together . to we have OHG. contusion . Bouteille. Pl. Bochu. any round ball or bowl to play withal. a pit. A bottom depth. bossu. buazen. a bottle. H^cart. ^kvBoQ. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. dabble). butse.' to the fiery Csedm. mess. buideal. a slop. both. a bottle of hay. a cobbler. buddeln.) . abbi-diwij Slavon. to give a sounding blow. Bouds. fire-bote. boiteag. botse. pimple. Lith. bund. from the dashing of water. what pushes outwards. knock. I. repara- — — See To Bete. . noise. to mend (kettles. pother. a cask. to botch or patch. to rage. the bud of a flower . ubhau. Bailey.— . thing soft batsch. Canut. bot. Leg. a bump or swelling. mutter. a lump of somebatschen. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. bide. . Dan. buddl. turmoil.— Swift in R. bile. disturbance. as a push or windgaU. a pock. Du. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. buts. whisper. Both. to bcBta.

to set bounds. to bow. Pm.D. round. A Langued. winding.>a bout. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained.— — — - 88 BOUGH . Bough-pot. Raynouard. has hot. the larger kind of pebbles. bamsen. a button. bonzen. — Take care my house be handsome. Bound. So It. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. dial. geration. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. to thundering big one hum. knock it sounds again. bugt. Bough.. AS. to resound. bay. bugan. the hollow of a bay. a bound. and F. from bugan. See Bunch. signifying in nautical coil of rope." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. as a nosegay. Halma. tnndo. pimple Richards bothog. Ni gacha cor bondir. frequently used in the same sense with bound. bullra. or Bow-pot. as that of E. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. ni frestelar. boundina. a bud. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. jungen. iv. to thunder. bone. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. boss of a buckler. 3. an de dor bunsen. from volgere. a round body both. strapping. carpet. bunsen. to spring. From Sw. a bouncing apple. Bodinare. Bonny. bonna. volta. he fell so that it sounded. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. the bay of Benin. Wtb. 136. bumper. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. bog. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. bend. Fr. thumping. see Boss. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. Bret. mere. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. to turn. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. gulf. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. See To Bolt. till The dat et bunsede. buUersten. mcn-bomi. ing. Coxcomb. its kind. Brem. Bout. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. to knock at the door. p.' round and round in similar circles.— F. in the absence of actual e. whence buj7isen. a boundary stone (men stone). . The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. signifies a sliort thick mass. Alpine Re- — gions. bons. a large pebble. march. bonndn. The W. I assure you. bondir. to set out by metes and bounds. boriie. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. Ducange. Du. Primarily to strike. came home with his face all to-bounced. Probably from the Celtic root bon. like bobbin. bolder. to knock. to fix limits. the verb bondir in OFr. Q. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. . pothel. botwm. to spring. boh. bottom.'— Charter of K. . contusi. dial. Nor a centinel whistle.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. nor horn sound. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . the smaller ones. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . from AS. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. — — leap. to make a loud noise. as a bout of fair or foul weather. Pr. To Bound. an occasion.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. butina. — — Bight. a large stone rounded by the action of water. turn. bun. Sw. to hum. To Bounce. Bunche. by Bujns or Buns. root (see Bottom). boujtce. bodina.— Boundary. E.— Cot. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. bend. Fr. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. Webster. To Boult. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. a blister. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. baby. — No i ausiratz parlar. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. language a * Boulder. Bought. bouton. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. — strike. 2. The branch of a tree. nave of a wheel bothel. The Bight of Benin. Dan. of thread. a stock. bunda. and Prov. Mid. Boulderstone. Bowlder. bounbounejha. a turn or time. jump. limit. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. debodinare. a blow. a boss. Fr.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. in contrast to klappersten. And the new stools set out.' B. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. ni motz brugir.

while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. the Bourdon. to banter or laugh at. to bulge. bugne. bourdon. mockery. G. bow to shoot with. to hum as a bee. bourde in the same sense. drink deep. lance. bend Sw. When used alone it . Bourd. in Fr. bunaiteach. schulter-bug. bov. warbling. a brook. a. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. the burden of a song. different modification gives ON. to bow. steady. the shoulder of the vessel. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. puff out. spring. Bourdon. taunt. verb bua. ruption of bonne. and that probably from a Celtic root. are applied to the bow of a ship. good. their time -With "wailful tunes. Du. brummen. Immediately from Fr. Sw.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. . ridicule buirte. hence musical accompaniment. curvature. on. a. hous^ Man in the Moon. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. jest. bue. identical with E. schenkelbug. epaule du vaisseau. Fr. address. a bow. sotich. Sp. a pot. crutch. bugna. burd. buzzing of bees. springbiirn. potio. bugan. burt. . patesten. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. Du. Fr. buga. burlare. set out. . biegen. to tope. or of an Gael. G. game. . bonitas. ready to pike or spear . biugan. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. to our bous. Bound. a — — . is. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. as was for. head Fr. bordo. to mutter. drone of a bagpipe. fun of one . to swell. . A —Cot. Gael. Comp. buzz. prepared for. bending. bommen. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. pared. spelling the word iox bound. buys. to tipple. when we speak of. the fixed. kroes. saufen. buyse. Cot. firm. — — — A pare. addressed to. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. ing. deceit. the ting of a bell. bending of a joint knie-bug. bug. bonus. purra. limit. bage. burdan. Fr. The meaning of bound. pre. Sc. bausen. to hum. to take deep draughts. Prov. whence buysen. buizen. pausen. Lat. bogen. shoulder-blade. Gael. Bow. Du. cudgel. to drink deep. And there in mourning spend Sw.. It is the participle past buinn. a drone of a bagpipe. Swiss bausen. — — . A water. a humming noise. that ON. to tope W. a go to. btiga. joke. a corToward the garden. beogan. an arch. to drink deep. trick. the big end of a club. to take breath. w. bourd. has also buirleadh. . G. brausen. g. beygja. bourdon. Sw. a sing-song. repartee. bordone. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. it is probable that the It. analogous to Fr. to pre2. and not in the sense of curvature in general. a prop. to bow or incline the . a from Du. bound. bog. belly out.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. bogr. ^<7r«i?. AS. Dan. The foregoing derivation seems. to trick. bending. bend. Eown. Borden. burn. of the ON. a mill-post. bogna.which see. i. to draw a deep breath. language of folly or ridicule. bog. bwa. bugna. staff. burreti. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. It is remarkable that we find vary. G. Burgeon. sport. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. Goth. bovne. . Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. also the humming or ON. a humming noise Macleod. must be referred to the same root. As the Gael. ready. Gael. bogha. Dan. bontS. pusta. Du. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. purlBav. grumble Sw. gurgling. Spenser in R. Burden. souf. brunna. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. a jibe. from spring. like quaff. bordon. tinton. flagon. way ba7n. sense durd. explaining Sw. on the whole.bass of a stringed instrument. Bret. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. Bounty. Dan. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. buigen. a well. Chaucer in R. Gael. Sw. to take one in. fresh* water. a jibe Shaw bururus. Cot. burdan. pot. whether by sound or gesticulation. drunken. cheat. a drone or dor-bee. borne. sausen. to draw a deep breath. bdgi. It. to indulge in his cups . a for New York. So Sc. to — Hal. a cup kroesen. Dan. Gael. It is bov. — probably through this latter signification. Bourdon. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. bagna.

Lat. bulk compared with Sw. E. bollen. . witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. Fr. an outhouse AS. . buchsbaum. purse. a bundle. buckelig gehen. pullo. Sanscr. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . Bret. swell. Sw. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. a iDubble. a hump on the back rossbollen. a pot. Fr. to make crooked . bwr. wisp of straw . boel. bulcken. then by the loss of the /. bulge. bugy. a drop of pullistaa. bog. as well as the name of a. Hal. ken. folliculus . is applied to a coach-box. to raise the back boll OHG. round glass phial.flask It. The word may probably be identical with Fris. a box. bowels. koziel. to swell. spring as water bugya. Thus we have Esthon. a box. Du. dial. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. See Boil. a buck. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken.D. Boll. beutel. Dan. Sw. In like manner the Pol. hollow place Fr. bent. to stoop biickling. . to stoop. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. a ball . buis. bolle. in both senses. a swelling or rising up. stream forth bugyogni. tumour. bow. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. Fr. boudin. a round glass or bolg. intrenchment. budello. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. . W. a parlour. round bead. bowel Box.cup Du. . bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. . crown of a hat. buk. ON. . . buckel. bouellou. zich onder jemand under to him. or. . The / a bow. or in e. kupukka. hollow wooden case. a bubble Fin. sausage. signified by forms like Gael. . box. a wine-can . box in both senses. the box-tree It. kupula. boil. PLD. bosso. a protuberance. to guggle. honse-bur. swoUei) Lat. w. a separate apartment . kupu. make obeisance. the crop of a bird. a croft by a house. bolla. bocka. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. bugna. biisse. buigen. belly. See Crab. Buckle. the box-tree and articles made of it G. Sp. a bud. bwra. puffy.). . fyn. buello. botulus. belly. . utibur. Du.). belly of a cask. a. globular body. bogla. a box Lat. . painter's easel. of a wooden ball to play with and — . knob From the former modification we have bolla. It is more probably from the G. a sleeping-room .a. as in AS. Cable. bug. pusspan. pocket. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. A Bulk. bolne. a hen-coop . bur. . to bend. globe or spherical body.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. lump . a the other by the loss of the / into ON. &c. iri'iaQ. the head. convex. ask. a bowl. buga.. ON. without the and grits. peated in Magy. a ball. beuz. a black pudding. . bhuj.\s. * Bowels. a wardrobe . Bower. bouzellou. the head. Bowl. bulla in aqua. bog. Hence. G. give in to. ku^o. in walking appears in a . heafod bolla. a thing of liquid. Du. bulb of an onion bolleyield. A . OFr. compared with Fr. ^o«/«. buxus. a bubble. Bohem. the box-tree. biiske. to bend down. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. crooked. at the e. Dan. bulne. with inversion of the round. See MHO. bhugna. tumour . to yield to one. OE. boucle. to bulge. the barrel of a gun. a knot. bur. bucka. guestchamber . Gr. prominence. bulla. kuppelo. bossola. a sack. the bogna. Pol.. G. bubble. passing on stud. mausbollelein. to puff up pullakka. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. polla. Bret. a polla. to buckle G. . 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. (in pass . to bubble up. convexity. different position in ODu. as in E. bugyani. . Bav. cumena-bur. . acsian. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. bol. hollow. spherical Dan. AS. a box. W. trestle. gut. and to a coachbox in particular. bol. to bow buck. bugyola. a ball. ne. . . and on swollen. Sw. bow. bowl . water pulli. . hiidel. bukke. globular. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. fata-bur. a bubble bolli. similar shape. hill. to puff up. ^o/a. boss. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box.) to incline oneself . bulka. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. bugyni. busskai. . shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. . busse. bending. inclinare se (Kil. bolla. boxtree pusska. AS. a stud. bock. biicken. a little box . a boil. blister. . bolgna. bouge. ON. From the other form are G. anything globular. boor. a box. biichse. bola. a bubble. head of a cabbage. bubble. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. ttuJic. budel. boxtree. the skull or brainpan . similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. a chamber swefnbur. boss. an inclosure.

braquet. Heligoneed. by an overflow of sea water. . AS. Hdcart. ' — A — — — . foul. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. to give a blow with the fists. BOX To Box. G. bresta. want. . to is derived brestr. beagle. . brack. salo sive aqua marinS. dirty. baske. murmur. OFr. brechen. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. brae. flaw. boy bouba. flap. lalear-eyed Prov. It is B. braca. bragos. braque. . — . Prov. brechen ihm. let. See Broker. brae. brabbelen. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. is a rope holding G. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . Fr. Lat. compressing. and F. fault. to burst. in R. Brack. baukscheht. by the same inversion of J and k. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist .. Kil. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. On the same principle from the buksteht. braic. brasselet. acidus. which sigof straining. to want. brack. armour for the arm. rack. G. brae. Swiss bub. pus. want. defect. or bracer Cot. strike. brae. land spoilt Kil. Boy. breuque. suppuration. brek. whelp as. Sp. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. mud. isolated part of the text. to slap. Prov. breach. pupus. In like manner the It. brakke Bracelet. breptati. confining. breach. damaged board a ship. break. rakke. Rouchi Then as an adj. A brace probis. s. filth . The different meanings of the brageux. mud. race. dog that hunts by scent.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. boy. dog Sw. bracha. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. bube. Pm. bracon. . ghebreck. a comworld Rayn. bracket. bue. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. a girl. Prov. jabber. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. a guard to torf. refuse. Sp. &c.puddle. a boy pupa. It. pube. to box the ears. Kil. Cot. Lett. bou^ba. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. Bracelet. taneous talking. OE. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. . To fight with the fists. . priated to the original sense. fuse. briche. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. — .— D. ON. which has many representatives in the other Europe. brostia. brakke grund. to crack. corruptse. a sounding blow. in R. Gael. and then Pl. and string of his bow. A — — . Fr. buah. Swiss Rom. Fr. bouibo. Sp. Ptg. wristband. ON. to be wanting. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. bracer. It. brageuses. to stutter. brace on and Du. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. A to halt between two derivations... Bracket. youth. parallel with OK. Swab. Du. a grown youth Cimbr.. ratch. ing from a mixture of salt. babble. merely in our mode of considering them. to give a sounding blow defect. a bubbling dura del mun. or defect. need. See Brake. V. Prov. land batsken. Water rendered boubo. bracil. braecke. an languages. OFr. Kil. to give a gebrechen. defect Du. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. root). quarrel Bohem. Thus brack. brago. a braceOFr. . dog in general. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. Du. a box. s. thwack. to smack the hand batschen. brassard. bitch Du. bask. a bog or pass Fr. boiste. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. fault . to Swiss batschen. To Brabble. boussole. braco. moral or physical. unmarried man . Fr. posh. Brackish. to fall. Pl. a pair of braces. brec.D. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. wrack. brek. To brace is to draw together. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. want. Brach. bray. — — . rakka.nated by dirt. It. bruxula. bracco. I sal slyng. disturb. the first instancebya physical tie. a crack. to stammer. con. odorinsecus. defect. clay." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall.with a noise. — . loud smack. from a root brak. rakki. — . as noticed under Box. — . his eyes are failing him). cramp-iron holding things together . matter. . From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. braco. variation of babble. flaw. spaniel. wnzC/J. La ville ou y avait Brace. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag.D. salsus. mud. Brack. Pr. One girl. bracke. then from break. MHG. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . the arm. 91 the Dan. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. Brak-goed. brague.

to flaunt.breeches. se pavaner. a noisy talkboasting. Lith. binding anything together. is identical with Gael. brave. Dan. . braguer. crash. See Brace. handsome. splendid. blusterer. Lat. It. beautiful. to unbrace or let down the breeches.hy which this idea is con\eyed. Dan. idle talk. breach. bravado j Fr. stout. also derived Fr. in the sense of the Lat. braga. to shout. bragging. vaunting. braies. would be to brace. breghe. brave. brave. braka. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. Brake. spot. Fr. hectoring. brag or jet it braguard. a carriage for breaking in horses . Rom. Wallachian bratsou. Walloon bress. i. in order to prevent its catching the wind. bragd. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. boasting.aburst. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. BRAG Piedm. Bret. h-avare and Fr. Haldorsen Gael.^Vocab.explosion. braga. flaunt in fine clothes . Fris. an iron for holding Zalli. . expensive. The plant y^r«. Bret. subduing. to brail up a sail. gayly dressed. vain glory. From brayel. gay. To Brail. be found. goods. an inclosure for cattle . . confining. gallant (in apparel) also proud. bragaireachd. The meanings of brake are very numerous. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . used in the sense of force.. vanter une chose. Brain. A — Hal. The meanings included under — Bragget. well-dressed.. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow.%. . 2. brachittm. swaggerer. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . — Equivalent forms are Gael. empty pride. crack. a roisterer. bullying. brake is. or from braie itself. in numerous dialects. — From W. Brag was then used brisk. that will carry no coals. breagh. braske. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. drawers. Cot. Brail. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. swagger. Langued. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). to rattle. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. the feathers ON. stately. Thus Bret. To Brag. as the type of exertion and strength. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. — A — . To Braid. bushy . bravo. gay. valiant The head are sumptuous. fine. showy bravery. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. braicli. bravacherie. gorgeous. gallant. It is certain that the word for arm is. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. be noisy . flaunting. compressing. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. to crack. Brake. called by our braggard. w. brabhdair. brayete. fine. was formed brayele. breyne. Thus we are brought to the OE. Turk bazu are used in both senses. &c. brazo. to strut. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . . Faire le brave. Primarily to crack. Hecart. riches. braszketi. strength. smart. brao. braver. excellent. is Cot. noisy ostentation.^ Sp. Hence E. brails. crash ON. to cord a bale of tie up. dhbrailler. braegenj Du. Fr. fine. . . breghen. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. braw. to Rouchi brMer. the opposite of which. brav. finery. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. bully . . slight modificajoining the two legs.Shepherd's Cal. also tion of this was brayeul. boast. and it is very likely that the root brak. Sc. See Bray. to make a noise. the arm. ative fellow. brabhdadh. cry.i5nz^. proud. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . Chaucer. se donner trop de licence. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. AS. to boast or brag. —Spenser in R. braka. brake in the sense of constraining. courageous. also insolenter se gerere . brae. or by gaudy dress and show. bragging of his own valour. torture . braga. Cot. Cot. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. affront. to sprout malt. braggard also valiant. and that from e. — .—— . and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. Sp. braske. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. ^Brave. From Fr. to stand upon terms. subigere. power. 92 Cot. brave. — Chaucer. fine. de Vaud. about the hawk's fundament. brag. se parer de beaux habits. brave. to swagger. bragio. Bray. From sprouted corn. make a noise . sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . to boast of his own worth. brag. bra!. bravache.

for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. to harrow (Lat. ^raca. Fr. low wet land bruch. broilium. Prov. Fr. braken. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. break of such a kind. Gr. el arco. broil. a marsh. as in Du. a swampy Mid. brook.' It. brog or brake. brambles. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. subigere is used for any kind of dressing.. brage. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. in usus braca. or a wood in a marshy place . brake. signifying to sweep. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. — — . de Vaud. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . gebroge. as well as in the case of the e. brook. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. Dan. Biglotton. in northern climates. to The ON. the lever by which the string was drawn up. Fr. is braukti. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. brego. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. . In the sense of a thicket. Lat. briers. a brace on board a ship. OFr. Sp. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. referred brake. We — . gebiisch. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. braka. It. To the same bend a bow. as in the case of horse-breaking. In like manner Lat. briser. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. bregille. broken fratta. copse-wood. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. bredza. ing of flax or hemp. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. bush. brushwood. gebroge. Brake. tnurdma. watered. dial. bushes.bracan. braeken. bregar. been confounded with the verb break. conSo in G. a stream. Pl. Corrfeze bredgea. fratto. frangere linum. a spinning-wheel. to rub. breuil. Brake. for — Due. broor bushy place Hal. to break. braecken het vlasch. gebroge. nemus. to break or fracture. or A A ' . bregar brake. to bend or direct a cannon. to brush. murrokko. any thicket of brakes. brambles. cetur. thicket. gebrUche. t° moisten. game. Dan. to distinct. breaking in the operation. word. to bray in a mortar. bush. it is not surprising that the word has here. —Ovid. and Lat. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). casser le \va. a fen. a harrow. marsh or swamp. It may be sus- . to head must be bit. bruch. brak is a frame in which strip. brolium. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. thing is brought under control. where from Esthon. to break. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. as in Sp. marsh. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. 2. to stiffen against Taboada). while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. break flax PLD. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. brage. glebas subigere. The Fr. have thus Du. a horse's a horse's twitch. Dan. the original meaning of G. or overthrow of trees by the wind. Voc. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. gilum. is formed murd. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. brogille. Gael. — Fl. farinam in mortario subigere. to knead or mix up in a mortar. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. broeck. Swiss Rom. G. flachs brechen. cover G. gebrUche. e. brog. broyer. pasture. subigere. murtaa. tris). brake. murran. brog above mentioned. brega. a thicket. 3. brcekke. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. to pound. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. braca. to row. to subdue. to exert force in different ways. P&. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. might come to signify a swamp.— . It. iSpsx". and when once thrown down. quarry from Fin. braquer un canon. properly braking or subduing them. riguus. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. to fracture. and G.D. to bend a bow. —Bracken. broillet. In the case of the ne.D. brook. BRAKE to external force. In ON.

pfriem in the sense of an awl. brenn. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. bruch. . Diez. bromboli. Rouchi bren d'orMe. dirt . also a marshy low ground or fen . brenna. brug). constrain. brom. brandmurk. brin. breme j Sw. from brand. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction.D. bruch. piece of anything. a bud It. Brank. Brancare. also pfriemkraut. brein. broem. clutch. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. as. titio. brin (as It brano). — branca. . a shrub . In like hrst. sweet broom. the bull-finch. to brank. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. hallier. Thus in Lat. sprouts. brake. G. Bramble. a halter. chaff. heath. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots.D. virgultum. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. . and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. Bret. brouskoad. broccoli. ordure . &c. a shoot or twig. brandr. Pl. and E. apiece orbitbrandone. . braam. Russ. brugek. Gael. brushwood. i. E. broussaille. brancas. and thence a shoot. restrain. But we find It. brejo. Bav. broom. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. It will be found that shrubs. Branch. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. thorns and Gen. bruskoad. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. excrement. Piedm. Thornas and bremelas. iii. a bud. from Lat. bruk. That beareth the red hepe. brarn. sedge burkni. heath (Bret. brin d. brass. a shrub from Bret.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. a thick bush. young twig {brom-beisser. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. broust. to bridle. brank. a bud. Serv. heath. cack. in the same sense. brandiiialil. a single plant of heath. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. to gripe. The same form becomes in It. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. to -brugen. G. As ON. brug. gebroge. brano. . . A mark made by burning. stink . brous. brank. w. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . nasty. and waste growths. Fr. Bran. brok. is the draff or excrement of the com. Dan. So Swiss gaggi. cabbage sprouts Fl. branco. from Servian pnit. 1 8. from virga. w. Gael. a small deri\'ation . gebriiche. a briery plot. Pl. young buisson fort epais. the thorn apple or stramonium. a heath. brosst. . G. It. a burning fragment of wood. brang. brughera. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. Thus we have w. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. burning brennen. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. Then by comparison with claws or arms. compress. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. brenn hesken. bruk. may be so called in analogy with Bret. Bret. what is cast out as worthless. brambles. brem. or ling. bren. — . It. a shoot. from brug. or with It. ear-wax mud. prufye. G. bushes. branche. brenda. Grisons bruch.. bronbo. bracken or fern . —Ducange. Fr. to or iron. bruk. bramble Du." The bmno a • on . or other plants of a like nature. Brand. . branchia. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. braeme. thicket of brambles Cot. a dunghill. Bret. a rod or twig. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. heath. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny .G. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. heath. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. that is to say. See Brush. a vine twig Bav. The naof strain. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . in the sense oi fern. bren. breanan. it glitters — — . brandello. sawdust. a firebrand. broembel-CBppel. breun. ground full of briers. Port. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. Sir Topaz. bro7n. pected that brake. brand. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. &c. to burn. a bridle or bit . brog. Fr. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. brwnt. broom. . from gaggi.). bran. the branch of a tree. bran. Broom. briars. pfriemen. Fr. 2. as AS. wood composed of twigs. piecemeal brindelles. bit by bit. heath ON. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. snotty . and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. pfropf. bretnel. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. berneux. Bret. AS. a roA.

though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. a fragment. Fr. became ashes Pied. to make sense of a bright red dye. billet. to shake. brasil. hot Fr. firewood. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. aqua ardens. a brusler. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. to quarrel. fire-wood. bragia. to blaze. spirit distilled from wine. make a — . to braze or lute. Lye. To brase AS. brangle or brawl in E. to hurl with great force. brand. brascct. set on fire. brasa. It. — .^Brandle. plained by Florio. braise or hot coals. N. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. conbillet. gebrannter wein. Bret. De Barros considers vinum ardens. to shog. Braser. WaUon. Milan. to confuse. to burn. brandigh. Thus the bound up again. brandende wijn. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. prasseln.well. With top trimbling. a roaring fire. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. glowing embers . to make shine with shaking. eldibrandr. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. to shake. Sw. brasca. hoisting to the fall. faire fracas. to totter.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. Sw. — ting to confusion. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. Chron. in Marsh. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. brush. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. brustle. brus^. so. V.pan of coals. Fr. bra?ier. bragale\ wood. Guill.. bum. is bntan. So. e. not. given to the country. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. G. Ija. then brandr. and branchis shaiand D. a stick. bresil. brane-wood. brausen. to sound of the Fr. put. brazeiro. branler. to glisten or flash. totter. brennen. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. Du. brandiller. brouir. bransle. n. weinbrenner. Fl. to bicker 2nd. live coals. to solder iron. to crackle . bracea. from used in dyeing cloths. as Fr. distilled wine. — . splinter. to murmur. branler. forms brasil. braza. briiler. to and fro in the hand. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. to dash. the colour than hitherto known. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. It. Port. perplex. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. bruire. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. E. to French brawl or brangle. make an outcry. urens. to brangle. du Roi et laine. Fr. d'Angl. The name Brandy. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. firebrand. In the same way the set on fire . to distil . brazil. braise. apparently very distinct from each other. incendium. Kil. comes from thence. was in use Fr. all. to roar. Gris. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. brasca. crackle. a round dance. Fr. Formerly brandy-wine. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. branla. Brangle. to Bailey. bruzi. Bailey. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. to brandle or The It. as again by well as the blade of a sword. E. flagrans. bruciare. to make display . Jam. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . Diez. or in stick. bryne. stake. The corresponding form in Gael. to burn. braser. to rustle. the spelling to kindle. De Goes. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. ish. and scold. and bruir. to brustle. The tre brangillis. It. G. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. shake. bracia. Hume in brand in ON. ist. to brandle. AS. Manx bransey. a To Brandish. a pan of hot coals. brandiller. to shake The word brisil. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. Brasil. brin. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. crackle. bransella. Brase. as Jamieson explains it. brastlian. brasa. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. 59. bruan. To brand. Fr. brandolare is exbrandish. — . to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. noise. embraser. before the discovery of America in the brandir. to burn. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. from to vociferate. braise. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. morsel. Chron. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot.

bronzacchiare. ' A vraale. luncheon. bribe de viande. — Deutsch. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. a slabbering-bib. squall. 2. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. bratidone. P1. fraiche. Swiss bradle. a wooden tower.D. OFr. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. bmhon for brado7i. —-Jam. ni autres choses sur Due. a lump. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. a rag . le repasser un peu sur la braise.^ — Sverris Saga. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. Pm. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. esbraotier. OHG. a mantle. or whether it be from Fr. ship. bratdn). deblaterare. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. breyon d'chaur.96 Roquefort. neita girl). Fr. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. brat. bras. It. boarding being sbranare. bartising. — . brailler. W. AS. pan- — Rayn. whether contracted from brabble. as lattice.— Remade.— Fl. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. calf of the leg. slibro. bradon. A bretise or bretage is linguarum.brettysing. breteque. as criailler of crier. Bartizan. from Sc. 368. slibro {neita. a rag. Fr. to carbonado. braede. Dan. to talk at bralle op. Gael. bralle. Mundart. any piece. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. a contempt- banner. slut. tasce. a contemptuous name for a young child. coassatio. Sp. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. Hist. bratach. to copper. as a brawling brook. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. as scrawl from scrabble. bronzare. ferruminare. ON. apron. . Brangle. Sc. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. Fr. the buttocks. a lath. muscular parts of the body. brett. Fris. The verb is probably derived from the brase. a clout. bradlete.propugnaculum. a parapet. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. Bailey. Paris.' Hal. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. Pisana in Mur. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. bred. discord. Certainly a little girl. The same correspondence is seen between It. brdto (ace. Brass. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. Brawl. Cot. &c. brass. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. to shake. The muscular part of the body. braser Fargent. Cot. A. breyon de kinds of . cloth. braodhlach. roar. A. Jam. See Bray. lat'te. burning coals. Westphal. calf of the leg. Brat. to Gael. bretays).' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. frequentative of braire. is The word — uous name for a woman. slakker-bortchen. a Lap. baltresca. a battle-girdle. and bronzo. See Brandish. brat. Du. the calf of the leg. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. to braze. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). bransle. from branler. So also See Brag. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. breyon. brettys. braion. KiL Prov. a. braon. in the first instance of boards. It.— Diez.D. A dispute or squabble. 1156. borderinge. trul. It . a plank or board. braiio. cob. Lorraine bravon. to solder. a patch of cloth. buttock Sc. to tear piecemeal. bronze. contignatio. Betrax of a —^Jam. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. as rashers upon quick burning coals. noise. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. to scold . then a parapet. bretesque. Sup. braoilich. Cologne broden. equivalent to the Du. bran. Brawn. brat. brazen. a — A from the confused noise. For the application to a^child compare Bret. bas morceau de viande brawhng. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . braeye. pil. at brasa. bartisan. a cloak. or on the top of a wall. 1224. I. branle. strepitus 2. Florio. flesh of a leg of pork. brces. brandillo. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill.walle — Pr. —^Bronze. from Fr. Brave. a rag . Kil. Brattice. Circumeunt cibertesca.— Braid. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. Wall. especially that used in the working of iron . A land of dance. bruir. OFr. ^Altieri. saillies. a fortification. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. a lump of flesh. rag. G. boutures. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. berd.D. solder. to cry. Many gambes. bratid calf of the leg. a loud noise. Math. bretesche. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. a lump of flesh.' BRASS BRAY et AS. frame of laths.

disturbance. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. bradar. 145. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit.y.' To Bray. relation is seen between Lat. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. to break. To rub or grind down Sp. is . — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. a rag f . at a braid. Bailey. braa. brand. a . braa. instantane. . F. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. starts crackling up. &c. G. V. Fr. braidar. to cry out. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. &c. abraid. to braid. riAprjyvvfu. at braga eftir euium. verb to break. to bray in a mortar. to break. Goth. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. — . e. bray. in Jam. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. as the notion of turning crack. R. Du. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. Prov. to knead.ear rog. to braid acquires the sense of bend. to braid the hair. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. broyer. augnabragd. ON. to cry Port. Cot. soft . V. vapna-brak. to resemble. to roar or bellow. twist. to have the lineaments of one's ON. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. ON. upbraid. braid. To Break. a crash. a breach Cot. bragr. to The cup was uncoverid. Breach. From the or brack in a wall. bratsche. rangere. brice. cyprinus latus. — — — explained motus loud noise. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. D. V. brot. to the seijauntes. the sound — of arms. brikan. explaining a very obscure application of the E. Swiss bratschig. crackle . D. to N. crash. to resemble. fractus j Gr. brak. to resemble him. Fr. &c. crepo and E. i. to start. Cat. bregda. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. to rumble. brechen. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. &c. Bread. at once. yell. Wal. ^p&xia. breuan. which has given much trouble to commentators. Ppvxia.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. Q. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. to scold. . braidir. and fracasously. to bellow. roar. to crash. braire. or cry out loudly . breach. 2.ch. braea. the sword was out break. rogi.^ Fr.g. crash. or wound. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. as OE. with or without a final d.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. — koa. OE. 7 . turn. rustle. to break. to rush. and make a hideous noise. a brake for hemp or flax. a brack. ing. to snatch. the miller's dog. See Brake. And at a braid he gun it bende. R. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. broad. And with a traid I tumyt me about. Bret. to bawl. paste or dough. ybrayid. to roar as the sea. rattle. mos. I'll live and die a maid. to roar. paxog. G. breche.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. Chaucer. the clash of ai-ms Dan. father. bragd is also applied nets. to crash. brugier. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. Beryn.. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. a mill. baiyl. to braid. The ON. make a disturbance. kind. Bread. to work up in a mortar. Prov. Then. bruzir. Gr. . BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. to sound very loud and very harshly. to break Fr. to cry out. resound . fragor. D. to bray like an ass. to rub Fr. Lat. bruire. a rent. regi. Chaucer. plait. Dunbar braessem. bru. a wink. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. brage. and frangere. AS. to tear Bret. imitate or resemble one. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. iU-favouredly — in Jam. and to signify the fracture itself. weave The ON. Fin. to pretend. The same He might don us both a villany. to t. to smack or the eye. bregar. as the voice of the ass. E. yell. k. ser. bregar. bragd — ON. roar. fish. noise . father. on. appearance Hal. brak. Then is simply. W. The Lat.fracas. brame. gestus. will.

E. brdtschen. Breast. breinse. as by the Sc. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. trembling. a smack. to murmur. See Brick. one on the breech so that (klatschet). binding. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. bresilles. brijsen. QNtsterviald) pritschen. braca. Prov. broza. braia J OFr. G. brezzare. grillen. Gl. briig. brodel. Originally probably the word signified steam. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. rubbish. Bracha. may be from the wurh fesser. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. as in the case of twitter. peitschen. brossi!. bre- I'os qui bresole. to bray. breme. also to chill and shiver with cold. Breeches. Breath. brinisa. to brew. as the G. bra. brison. broden. in Schilter. bryi^ga. Hence the Lat. — And blood. braies. broil.). briosa. Piedm. — See Broth. polenta. braguier. — . the soler. dial. brasiuiii. to brew. to crush to break. briiz. breath. fastening . brosame. cloven. clout for a child. applied to shivering. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. G. braich. to hum. Fris. Brize. brache. Gael. bratscher. coaldust. braies. brcekur j It. singing bone. Breeze. — Halma. Russ. brezza. as. as commonly explained. a cramp-iron for holding things together. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. break. brciz. of trees. simmer. noise.t. zare. brumtnen. braca. w. griller. drawers. Fr. Gl. Sw. bris. from brace. brcEth. to be misty and cold. — — strument for smacking. —Briss. Swiss brdtsch. Du. malt. and E. briosat'. Du. then to broil. de Vaud. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. brissle. a girdle. britze. to bind. brise. brodem. orts. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. breeze. G. Lat. point to G. siibligar.vare. forms. b}-as. with It. brire. instead of being derived from 'La. to fry .D. vapour. forms analogous to E. brut.'— Gl. a gadfly. OFr. . the dry spines of furze broken off. bris. So ON. are related to Prov. brustia. Piedm. PI. Rom. de bridse geveii. a crum. to simmer. brusc. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. malt. crush. to burst. briosa. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. bruise. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. bruzun. chilly. bark Fr. switch. . a cold and windy mist or frost . The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. windy withal. xyligogio castigare. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. brasser. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. a twitch for a horse. It. Prov. braie. so AS. G. Bret. murmur—Vocab. simmering. an odour. bragues. Du. or the blow itself. grillare. to smack. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. their stings draw . drive the cattle gadding through the wood. briste. bridsen. Du. a cool wind. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. Breeze. brezling. from AS. properly to crackle. — . scent. braga. but more probably the E. and other rubbish dibris. of E. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. G. E. brimme. a horse's twitch. the breech or buttocks. an into shiver. Lat. Biglotton. bruzir. /esses. sheep's droppings bruss. Briss and buttons. morsel. Fr. to buzz. Dtyden. of straining. Breeze. Hume in Jam. breost. little bits of wood Berri briser. Swiss AS. i5r(Z^. AS. . rubbish. and brought beneath between the legs. brijselen. to crackle. to whip. chillness or shivering. braucn. a to lay fly-flap. remains of leaves. braciarc. trusts. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips.98 borst. brist. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . fail. Bruise. We bragezj on. bris de charbon. brisciare. as. fitzen./ssus. — Brist. grill. bruc. to fry Then from a Gl. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. met de bridse slaan. bretilles. Compare OE. brasiare. to feize or feaze. braga. Fr. body brostia. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. Dan. broiiwen. .) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. to break. AS. to roast. bremse. subligaculum. Swiss Rom. to resound. brok. . Gael. Dev. bracecs . the bust. from ligare. brew. &c. to shiver for cold. Isidore and Tatian. murmur.britschen. sprouted corn. einem de britze geven. to breech. representing the sound of a blow. brisd. The Teutonic verbs. Goth. G^nev. breson. brugga. bandage or truss for a rupture. to rattle (as hail). brisoler. a crum Du. The Breech (Prov. To Brew. corresponding to G. braux. brimsa. burst. . Bret. a box. are in like manner ' .

from Bret. company. the Fr. So in The Prov. frayer. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. a wedding priod-fab. to boil. bridge. bruith. E. to beg one's bread. brukkas. privus. to boil. BRIGADE dead. briiths. crew. bread. is still used in this sense. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. a Bride. from Bridegroom. with transposition of the r. any jot or crum. twopares Lat. corresponding or letter. brittil. . Bridal. remarkable that the Gr. bygga. sugga. beaten way Dan. to press in. bricou. breve or brevis. jetty. feast of espousals. bridelj OHG. ment of anything broken. Bribe. AS. or brizo. feast. a bit. to press. birbone. bably contracted from brigantine. fraoch. brocaly. ' . buskins. brigata. pier. to boil. has briguer. Fl. Ihre. Fr.Fr. division of an army. a crum. brilt. brutg. Bridle. malt. pavement Lith. briw. brug. AS. to break to pieces bricalio. it is applied to the letter to OE. to rub.. brice. fit. bara briw. the equivalent of to the dial. . A — A — . barren land priodas. — .' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. brigantine. married. Brier. as so. . E. of burial. brA. pavement. . W. . guma. bruskr and buskr. pavement brolegge. a lump of bread briber. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. malt. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. a sow. collect bits of food. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. bribour. Lat. bretonica. ON. Goth. brughiera. to break. bruk. from bit. hlafes brice. Brief. Walach. a bush.bergantino. from the last 99 of which. betonica. to circulate. G^n^v. In the G. AS. Bridal. If the foregoing were not so clear. then the marriage itself. brigade. Gael. It. E. The Sw. a fragment. bro. two-masted vessel. a lump of bread. a man. but to a paved road. Diez. . a cheat. bryd-gutna. a rogue. masted vessel. braut. arf-ol. from the Normans. served (Patois de Bray). fragDictante legationis suae brevem. Flor. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. a beggar. to meet together. to tlie brico. Grisons bruch. brau. to Isrew.rough with brambles and bushes. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . AS. son. stone-bridge bnikkoti. a married man guma. a briole. bruk. brique de pain. bricge j G. Sp. priod. a bride. broosekens. brakes of high-grown ferns. as. Mid. briwo. . a bride Brig. bo. groom (mab=:son). Lang. Fr. a rogue . Dan. boiling up brocoliere. Cot. It. whence berw. a heath. lipdZu}. E. to appropriate. Due. ap. Applied ous words derived from break. In the patois of briccia. which however is undoubtedly from brace. . Diefenbach com.pritil . imprint. Ducange. Pol. conjux. Rouchi brife. bro. a proprietor. but probably Bricoteau. a heath brughera. briicke. gf2o. brahi. one's ovin. especially to a letter or command. broken bread. Brick. and ODu. brere. broken.It.groom. httle bit. a fragment. sponsa. brieden. piece of burnt clay. brar. grug. appropriate. buckler J ON. to prepare. and that from It. priod-ferch. OHG. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. Brique. in the sense of OSw. Trovarfor bride-ale. brasser. birbante. bryd-eale. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. bribe de pain. Gl. a lump of bread. bulicame. berwi. a quoit of stone. Bridge. AS. a boiling. A bribe is A — — arval. Neumann. — . — — — — — — . bro is applied not only to a bridge. bride. w. a crum. a little king's writs. Priodi. Fr. berwedd. jipaaaiii. brood. Hdcart. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. to stamp. So It. . bruyere. Thom. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. See Broth. heath. AS. ter-in-law. fastningar-ol. bidsel. fervere. In E. consort with. OSw. bitill. troop. brygga. peculiar. Du. Brewis. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. to pave brukkti. Gael. a brig or priodor. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. Hence OE. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. bride. to pave. funeral. to brew. Brigade. ibrukkti. bruarium. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . thick appropriated. graf-ol. It — is Kil. daughheath. Pro(merch=:maid). ' — . The origin of the word is the w.privatus. and berweddu. owned also propriate. the marriage si in brigata. fragment. broken victuals. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. the newly. nurus G. betony brulicame.gfiugga. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. a married man or woman Lat.

See Brake. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. noise. to glitter. . and. from hall. It. at a later period. twinkling.shine. — Probably then to strive. and ner me hit iherde. — brigante. necessary business. there are many armour. splendour. and the E.Lat. in the first instance. Florio. glitter. to sound. combat. briga. In Fin.' in Due. 312. inde squammatus. shriek with laughter. a sound. OHG. and led it away. Schmeller. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. to glamr. tinnitum clarum movco. braid. glbram. Beorktode bene sweg. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. kilistua. and. Goth. a brigantine. and secondly. brak. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. the grew high. the gleeman's song. Brigand. It. wilella. to reservavit. glir. bregar. show the origin of Lat. to rob.pracht. So G. — A A . loo BRIGAND lor. They or brigantini. clear. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. From ON. clear sound. . kii:'a. to bend a bow It. AS. to shine. brigan. Wilista. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. tuilahtaa. brawl. XafXTTpoQ. tinkle. — — . in later times a robber or highway-man. Gr.dorem clarum reflecto. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. to ring. hell. is easily understood. to cry. etincelle. brcEhtin. to contend with another. jurgia. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. Due. In the same way to strive is. a glittering. — Beowulf. brdgen. sound. seems to be to exert force gar el area. clare lucens. Lat. schateren. representing a sudden noise. moment. 1654. to rove. bryhtm. Du. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. tumult.glampa. splendour. manifest ON. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier.' The sense of strife or combat express. A strepere.clare ^tinniens. The primary meaning of Sp. rixa. a noise. riis ' — Chron. brigare. schiteren. and hence be explained glampi.' torum. The E. strife. tinnitus. labour. a spark. Brilliant. bragen. clear. — Briganbriga. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. that of Fr. to shine. to resound. and to associate with them. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. glamra. speech. briga. splendens . praht. glamm. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey .' The passage from the sense of a light. beorht. on his — own account. brigant. lay was sung. bray. Adelung. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. Bright. Heo — song That AS. then.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. clarus. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. with respect either to sound or colour. Flor. the bench-notes resounded. in the sense of a robber. —Capgrave. splcnornd de brigandine. to shift for with care. Brigata. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. Gall. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . tion.D. It. A. brigandare. may play the pirate or thief at sea. transparent. Bav. and diligence. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. willata. outcry. secondarily. bairhts. clangour. clang. — brigante. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. brigare. biartr. Swab. to strive for. dine.— . — Due. bright bearhtm. — Brigantine. clear. Mid. The Ir. 1351. himself to serve men of merit. Owl and beorhtian. malandrini. pugna. briegen. Xa/iTTii). brebrigare. \oice. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. also called briganders. to make a loud noise. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . dine. squamma . rover either by sea or land. to piracy. to cry 'Schmid OE. a small light pinnace pro. cange has 'Veles. a pirate. It. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. bracht.

Rugere. brunft. briller. sprainged. 1. brim Magy. It. beam. The meaning of the Fr. brummen : de soge brummet. bramar. brullo. bremmen. glisten. from bringe. The expression is now confined to the sow. — g. with an initial br instead of gr. to fret . griller. finds the Fr. a rod.' Elyot in Way. have then in Fr. brdnnsten. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. fierce. brummen. to . to glitter distance . Thus Lat. Streaked. kimista. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. bry7ie. broiled. brennistein. vigorHal. a borDu. Du. chime).— Brinded. os qui bresole. on. brama. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. briller. bray as an ass bramire. ling noise and a sparkling light. It. lip of a vessel. brmdottr. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. brisoler. an apron. ardere desiderio. brow of a hill. brame. fringe (Lat. brillare. Supp. breme. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. ON. to make a crackling noise.D. frequently interchange. to creak. crackle . Hence with an initial s. to roar. (poet. ON. to shine. tience. kimmaltaa. perent. brinfire. the singing of Sodom — — . and 1. brezil. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. burning. as well as bl and gl. furious. the heat of animals. Sw. lap. Brindled. a border. brommen. the eye-brow. Brem. to utter cries. ter. bresoler (Gloss. grisser. whether of desire or anger. brandr and Fr. as is the case also with Pl. Dan. the meaning is transL' amour. barm-cloth or barmskin. griller). sonitum edere bremen. to shake. grullo.preni. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. to sound deep or hollow. Prov. gresiller. brissle. to twinkle. G. der. Said of swine when in heat. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. to storm. griller d'impatience. barm. Closely connected is OE. of the eye. fire. a streak. identical with passion. bramire. komista. is used of raging. Kil. the heat of animals. In Fr. post. rugire.) brimi. vattubryn. the sow is brimming. greDiet. E. Brimstone. grdzil. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. crackle. . voux. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. To Brim. glit. a long. s. greedily to covet Cot. kajata. edge Pol. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. spraing. Dief. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. broil . seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. dial. to glitter. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. Fl. 154. . the verbs Flor. kimina. Tutschek. brimmen. brand-krossottr. as in Langued. barmr. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). sparkle. Tresiller. from brandr. ON. or violent action. The E.ioTiviS acutus. Subo. fringe . breziller. — — So Fr. to quaver with the voice. fimbria) . a stick. parched. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. . burning stone. the lap or bosom. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. whence bilbil-goda (literally. AS. brim. kiimottaa. Swiss Rom. — . the edge. bryn. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. originally the lap folding over the breast. rym^. clangor tinniens. surface of the ocean. komottaa. to burn. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. leonum). brastlian. to crackle. bramer. rut. to sparkle. shine. bramar. gresiller. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne.). : ' — bone). striped or streaked. Langtoft. as of meat in broiling . small gravel. Brim. In the same way Sw. to resound. border. reecho. cross-barred in colour. AS. to long for a thing. FJ. — Rim. Sc. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. and corresponding to these. breme. earnestly . to roar. bremas. Fr. to creak. hence the bosom.' d'etre marie . to wish or covet. that the original meaning of the Sc. The identity of ON. which seems identical with rim. Rayn. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. Wtb. lap of a garment . Lith. A . briller (related to each other as OFr. also to reflect. to make bilbil). to crackle.its vent in cries and roaring. border. bremmen. It. noise made by meat in broiling. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. breziller. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. brant. 1 1 64. border. pMiller. to shine. brumft. ring. to shine. rugire (cervorum. to glitter . ous. — — — . excited. Sc. grisler. kommata.— BRIM . coloured in stripes. margin. brame. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. s. to broil. to parch. to shimmer. bar. 754.

coli. Gr. a brooch. to put one in a rage . borstel. Sc. brim. fierce. the surf. brodden. rash. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. brickie. broche.procio. Brisk. to turn up the point of anything. byrst. rebrousser. spricka. brim. brusque. a deluge. a stormy brimsea . ruffling. Brisket. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. fiscbryne. a bit . broccare. to break. a belly. a clasp. brisciare. a brad or tack.'— Vita'abbatum S. flames. bringe traced through the brano. fantas'* tical. Brym. borzen. Fr. to stab Gael. a projecting tooth It. rude. bruched (Fr. is called a birssy day. Fr. brocchus. to spur. . brytan. The Pl. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. See To Brim. the surf. of E. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. a cold and windy mist or frost. e. In the N. chest. to spit. to broil. Da. to shoot. bringue. Salte sand is called brimsand. Alfr. to crack. Du. Sp. borzos (struppig). suddenly angry. thick — A elastic hair. sprout. britchet. ' . flame. Bristle. the twigs of a besom. from brande. a spit. Walach. Swiss to stand out . NE. . against the grain . to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. brezzare. angry. to set up one's birse. Brine. — A . A similar relation may be observed between Sp. broca. — in Due. from AS. See Brand. to thrust. the brisket or . To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. Brittle. breaking of the waves brim sior. Hal. harsh vin brusque. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. to stitch. rebursiis. Liquamen vel garum. emotions which produce it. It.). setting the hair on end. as. brim (poet. a slip or sprig of an herb . Palsgr. birse. Hence ribrezzare. Russ.rcendij'i. whence may be explained the Sc. fragile. Pectusculum. brittle. to set it a going. brocco. Lat. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. brimhliod. a rebours. bruckle. bros. Fr. bricho (with the diminutives. bruskett. a rod or twig.). brittle. — . . a fragment. cK) the . a crum. Port. brot. 'V^. Prov. Bohem. a morsel . from break. startling. Berri. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. sour. to break. to begin upon it. to bud. Commonly explained as from Fr. brissle. Dan. Breeze been connected with the Sc. craw of a bird. to shiver for Sold or for fear. brindelles de balai. a bud. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. Fr. is to erect the hair. wine of a sharp. bringe. Sw. strong itself. Brooch. G. birs. to birstle. a peg sbrocco. Brickie. man's throat. a stitch brocher. to goad. brin. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. Mid. brcit. a skewer. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. Russ. quick. a morsel. bristly . Zeuss. a bud. broccata. Gl. to broach a business. has under It. brijn (Kil. smart taste. briser. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. brich. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli.g. brust. breaking out into growth. Du. brocar. prick with Sw. aculeus. bresk. of astonishment. Compare also E. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. It. spur. . and forms on. eager. 222. Then as the effect of shivering. setting the hair on end compare It. trembling. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. to spur. brusco. brissko). broc. . brocciare. brote. brimme. bryde. Boh.D.Lat. as unripe fruits. broca. and Sc. See Spread. brocher. Fris. p. Fr. to burn. brime. roar of the sea saltr. to break. Prov. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. It. Formerly written brotil. b. Prov.' Nat. hot-tempered. brichet.. birssy. — — . brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. sharp. brezza. as. humorous. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. Fr. brog. Sc. to scorch. and hence. — bryme.. brocco. britar. sprocco. breidr. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. bronchus. and. saulmeure. a shoot or sprig. stitch. briota. i. /3pE^m. apt to break. lively. like the Broad. sprouts. . Bret. brandello. metaphorically. bros. to roar. birsle. a button broche. Brocade. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. brockle. Ptg. briota. shoot. briocho. britar. reburrus. brisk in taste. expression. It. ribrezzoso. sticking up . Cot. brusk. crabbed. or the full • . Antiq. bryne. braidsj ON. as. grim. very salt brimi. or — . Abroacli. birstle. as a noun. ' breast. to stick. are used in the sense of brittle. form bris. ON. borst. brioshko. an awl. breast. Bret. brddj Goth.

grullo. A badger. sting. Icnotty. to crackle. or roast on the braise. from the white.— B. parch. a quarrel. Here to ornament with needle-work. Compare also AS. prasseln. speckled. brasiller. agree in being the extremity of a thing. — brissle. prod. noise. a brecJi. the line of development has been something different.tumultuous. streaked. Ihre has guU-bord. broukit. to parch or broil. border. broil. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. broighlich. broiled. ToBroider. From direct imitation of Brock. a border ornamented with gold. Florio. v. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. onbryrdan. of pointing out their latent defects. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. brasuole. a prick. It. broder. broc. a flock or Gael. bordar. bmsciare. brouda. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. scorch. to instigate. creak. brucilare. initial . freckled. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. brocach. to crackle. Fr. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. Gael. — . to knots or loops. bustling. gold and silver.. brucach. to streaked or speckled in the face. 103 embroidered. sparks E. bawling. a b?-ustolare. brodio. parched. spots. brusuole. parti-coloured. rustle. motes. braird. brerd. Surrey in R. Sp. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. kled breac. broc. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. and w. It. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. to broil. Thus brod. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. silkes-borda. E. A fried or boiled steaks). a freckle. embroidering. — Gower in It. Cot. rinj'. It of br the Fr. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. briefh. badger . to boss. Dan. or snag. brizen. broccuto. broice. bram. froco. brusler. a fallingThe sense has been out. speckled. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . Fr. to crackle. point to an origin in Bret. confound. ciare. and AS. a brouhaha. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). whence broccare. B. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. — The proper sense is that of Fr. broglio. brustle. brocart. precisely analogous to the Sc. noisy. thread. broccato was used to signify stuff . brooked. Bret. shuffle. briz. bruler. spotted. borprick. to spur. brych. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. with Sc. Hal. bordo. brullare. storms. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. a freckle. breard. Ptg. to crackle. brastlian. brindled. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. Sc. border ornamented with silk. or salted fish on coals. tumult broighleach. a point. frocadura. ornamented with a raised pile. carbonado. — Fl. stump. forming to jumble. a brim. . to darn. to On the other hand the Sp. trouble. a To Broil. a border. age was termed a pricket. piebald . R. brocco. parti-coloured. Broker. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. Brocket. frecSee Brawl. Fr. Contracted from Fr. tori shows that.. AS. To roast upon hot coals. or It. to stud broccoso. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. So from Pol. atoms . tufted ornaments. gresiller. Grisons brascla. houx. brasbrasciuolare. broil. hart of two years old. Gael. The ON. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. Cot. trouble. to embroider. here. The Bret. brychau. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. to embroider. — — . embroidery. Sc. brod. bramowanie. to burn. to crackle as a shell in the fire. a mole. to scorch. and bord or bred. has grisser. brasiller. W. birsle. broud. knobby . . dar seems derived from borde. q. b?-od. grislement. a confused streaked face of the animal. a peg. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. hurly-burlies. the shoot of corn. a badger. or glowing coals broged. brasolare. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. Compare G. an edge. fundamental origin. blusters. margin. brouFr. to prick. to burn. a flake of snow sion.sound. bj'oil.

progeny of birds. rejection Pol. to sort goods . dial. an outcast or rejected sheep. brack-gut. ordure. The Langued. — point out the faults. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. brechen. brass does to Sp. to reject. brokas. bring eggs and spawn into active life. to sparkle. hot. in the sense of rejection. to be hot. Pl. a cough Hal. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. bridde. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. wrack-good. wreak. to throw blame upon. i. has exactly the force of G. bredan. Pl. phlegm. vrage. braeck goed. brack-gut (Sanders). warm. trumpery. Dan. an operation performed over hot coals. 396. Brood. an . but from the primary sense of the It. a broker. racaille. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. which E. faulty. Prov. selection. cherish. criticise (makeln).— — . to braze. sbrinzlar. abject. to copper. brot. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. Alb. sort. to criticise. from break. Bret. sunburnt. fault censure. bric-a-brac. Sc. cracker. bronze. brokers' goods. brokoti. The use sunburn. spittle . braken. damaged. brid.D. bronze. Grisons brinzla. to be wanting. e. brakyne. whnake. . hraki. G. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. embers to brund. brak. — broeden. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. brack. embers. brasa.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. . brieden. a makeln. a fault. matter of blame weak place. damaged.D. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass.— Lib. Du.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. Jam. designation is indkler. and fishes . Abbronzare. a brood . to pick. to sort brakovanie. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. To correct an exercise is to Lib. Fr. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. ODu. to pick and choose. w. It. to brew. brasa. — a spark. S. fish-spawn broden. brunds. lack. reject. bronzo. with. Russ. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. Fl. brae. merchandises de rebut G. brwd. dirty. broiid. couratier. find fault with. brak. to sit on eggs. Sp. to hatch. correctarius. refuse goods. wrak. from makel. and as an adj. To blame mens ware. refuse wares. Pro v. a breach or flaw. refuse brakovat. inspection. analogous to Bohem. . 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. Bronze. nounce unsound. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. broen. In those countries the term braker. want. bronce.D. Adelung. et A. racher. refuse Fr. rejected. If to vomit . G. spittle. inspect. tan. buy and sell by commission. filth. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. to hatch G. G. glowing coals. the spawn of fishes. blur. Kil. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. term was correcfo^ir. keep warm. to garble. Lat. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. Alb. hot. brod. on. Pl. goods damaged by sea-water. — Fl. cast Lith. bronze. Teutonic class : Du. find fault — — — fuse matter. . whence the modern courtier. This word shows the same relation to It. OFr. abbronzanchiare. Bronzare. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. mediationem quorundam J. pan metal. the young of any animal . brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. refuse. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. wraken. or brascla. corrector. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. to hatch.— Breed. to . — . • . bracker. vile. to emit sparks. to scorch.D. to — garble. brut. find fault with. to nourish. In the . brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. try out. See Wreak. Per manus et old worthless horse. mud. ON. insects. as. brands. vile. See Brackish. hrak. to pro- to reject . slaae vrag paa. It may be compared with It. brod. embers. Du. . a chicken. in which sense the OHG. brackefi. and to reject the damaged and unsound. refuse brakowad. brumo. fermenting. . briiten. For the same reason the Kiittner. make out. stain. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. raca. to roast on the embers. try . to spit . to blame. burning. raquer. Tooke's Catherine. 38. screatio Junfus . brydio. : ' . On • tliis principle the G. refuse. tussis. See Broth. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass.

. awl-plant. to Pl. edge. pith. bryii. brew . brauwe. broi. brodo. Gr. simmer from the murmuring AS. strength Ir. eye-lid. briihe. cabbage water. Sanscr. brd. braun. — . brost. pfriemkraut. the colour of things burnt. riviera. circuindedit cum familia. waves. eye-brow. eminence . to border. . broeye. bushes. laissent Domunculum. a bud brous-koad. But the Walach. (for brodem). brosst. face. of plants broust. bregh. juice of briars. or broken up . presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . a bud. bruc. Bret. bruith. shrub with leafless pointed edging. It. eye-lash . vigour. 105 Brook. 'Lzt. OFr. and also border.D. who is steaming with sweat. brouic. to use. Pol. to browse. brushbrothas) gives the OE. Russ. juice of meat. a derived from the boards. bhratrj Zend. brous. brushbroccoli. bruddeln. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. briu. shoot. braces. protecting the eye. Prov. — ' . Du. shore . as small-pox. to murmur. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. to roar. sodden. brothas. bud. a hut or cottage It. shoots. surface of Broth. properly boiling water briihen. hut. brmi. brlgh. noise. brozia. brodem. brusmalt. Cot. brawdj Slavon. &c. Fr. dumetum. to boil.braubiti. Celtic. broth brothaire. to sprout. a sprout. heat. Here we find throughout the Romance. plants composed of twigs. . perhaps burnt coloilr. brocco. b7-un. chen. infusion the barley bree. a shore. brow of a hill. Limousin broudi. fabric consists. bank. verge. broth. sprot. brosses. bruno. &c. G. Commonly Teutonic. and It. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. briar. breg. spuma. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. G. Fr. Catalan brossa. to use. The origin is a re. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. border. sprout. — . Gris. braussa. signifying low wet land (Brem. as rhododendrons. to browse. broth is sometimes used . brue . . brogues. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. brink. Prov. to boil bruithe. BROOK brook w. juniper. the bubbling or springing up of water. brennen. thicket. Bohem. . bordel. . brov. bank. Wtb. Sp.. bruich. sprouts . G. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due.D.— Overyssel Almanack. bros. browys. bordeau. and Slavonic families. eat. cabbage soup . The meaning of the word brook in the low G. house of ill fame. shrubs. broza. or bushes and scrubby growths. See Bramble. a bruth. bryn. ceales briw. a little house or cottage of timber. Due. . a source Gael. as Fr. on. eye-brow. sense the Sc. branches. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. brad. breg. Manx broie. brabruach. . brukjan. Dan. brio. Gael.brons. Fr. G. bruscosd quam de arabili. wood . a little . has briw. boiled ." Serv. Gael. w. brewis. brwd. thick bush brousta. a hill. Fr. . edge. to use bruks. a sprig. rage. brudi. . Serv.spross. a shrub broust. t— Cot. or shoot. AS. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. Roquef. Browse. low The AS. bryn. borda. The softening down of the consonant bud. heath. dialects is very different. hovel. bank. frui. Lat. The AS. Gael. to burn. . kail brose. enjoy Goth. broit. &c. Mid. vigour. meal. frucius. w. to bear patiently. Ppim. to spring . broth the ocean Sw. bor. bruach. warmth ch'an. breh. shore. . margin. sprocco. grow into a bush. brun. brotar. bruceti. and Sc. brouser. braew. Bret. from Goth. mettle. bruth. a confused noise of winds. AS. a . Russ. To digest. from ripa. brosses. OHG. . Fr. . Kil. bruich. A — . Tam de terrS. surDu. grow brossa. signifying twigs. brau. buds. Du.brink. sprout. — exiit et heath. rerum decoctarum. augen-braune. break out brewet. pottage. to bubble up with noise. eye-brow. . It is Brother. cia. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. It. broud. brouskaol. brouches. broth Brown. bank.) . infusion. sproc. . thairj w. to boil. fur Broom. broth. to scald. Bav. eye-lid. heat explaining the Prov. bree. ale . useful G. broc. brdtaj Gael. was originally used in the innocent sense of . Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. It. may be connected with Russ. a spring. to shoot. steam from heated bodies. forms appear related to the Ir. brotar. bruithim. a caldron. frater. broden. brow. Brothel. brucan. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. OHG. Bohem. a river. broccola. to boil.' Due. heath. Ger. of which the variety of forms. brouet. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. Bohem. Pl. brost. Gael. in which brinnan. brus. eye-brow. Sc. broem bark. brstiti. bros. &c. G. Sp. borde. bntdien. brouter. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. breg. a hill. broo. brpuster. strength. sordes seu strigmata young branch. sap. bruitheati. hot. Brow. spirit. brass. pour boiling water over. on. bratrj Lat. iVlanx broogh. broieii. seethe. brst. broca. riviere.

quasi twigs. brustid. or shoot. Pm. quisquilise. escousse. bushy ground. brus. Piedm. abroncar. a crum. bris. A. rods. Gael. a rumbling. a bush of hair. 134. appearin Goth. The Bav. Fr. OFr. brusc (Diet. wool-card. brossa. burt. To brush then would be to dust. a flax comb. insultus.). Pr. . . Fr. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. Lang. Cot. Fr. irruo. In E. . while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. britar. Pr. Sp. Pr. brousso. it schall be al Sw. dust. a little brizal. brossa. — Fr. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. broustia. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. Text Soc. brushwood. a bristle. brico or brizo. Broach. a bud or sprout Bret. bris. Sw. Bret. bruise exOFr. rubbish. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . an enmy. G. to cleanse. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. but on whom it schall to brisen him. shock. Piedm. Poems. bruc. brosst. and in the second place a besoiB. splinters. briiis (in the pi. . and also Brush. bruito.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. Diez. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. seems named from burst(on. brustia. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. brisd. OE. a horse-brush. twig. brusco. 174. wool-card. Prov. bruiser. brikan. —Chaucer. a noise. bruscolo. flax-comb brossettes. brise. On the other hand. to break. a brush . to butt. as It. of twigs. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. Pm. See next article. broust. Bruise. fasx . a mote. a tuft of heath . a brush . brosse.). E. effort. Gael. — those signifying a sprig. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. to strike the foot against an obstacle. Port. Brunt of a daunger. dust. tremely. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. bruscia. shivers. broken. brosse. a brush . Gael. a blow. brunt. brik. to stumble. Gael. brizeto. * Brunt. Alexander. and It. Sw. It. AS. a — — (Agea) said. remnants of hay or fodder. ON. and . sordes. to make brusshes on. broza. rubbish. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. brous. — OE. brosst. rubbish. Beryn. —Fabyan. orts. bruyere. brisar. bud. Brunt. bruit. Bav. britar. field.). bruis (sing. modification of the same root which gives the E. biirste. Allit. to crush. brossar. E. wood composed OE. also a head-brush. bruire. And that best is. to make a rumbling. a bud. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. brusca. Brush. to break. borste. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. broza. Fl. coal See Breeze. insilio. briketo. brusg. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. borst. and sighid therewithal. brugir. dust. brottcher. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. fescue . burs. brMt. biirste. brit. a brush. . du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. brous. a brush.— Palsgr. Pr. bross. borste. into a multitude of points. twig. brustia. B?-usske. Cot. Prov. ling or heath for brushes. Prov. desbrisar. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. p. bruzir. brist. brista) or breaking out . — a bush. bris. crum bit . bruskr. break. Wicliff. bris. a shrub composed of small twigs . Bruit. bricalio. brusca. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. G. brysan. shoot brouskoad. bush. Hall in R. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. dust. NE. or sodenly comyn' dust. Prov. K. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. borste. a brush . a brush. It. wool-card. . a bristle. brist. It. The same relation holds good between G. . Castr. brust. heath. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. brusco. The Lat. Fr. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. Lang. mg Cat. Palsgr. blow burcar. borste. crush. brist. That in all haste he wouli. a briser. to brush.— — i. ca7-bo>i. bross. bruscolo. borste. fragments. to break or burst. tuft of grass or hay. 201. briser. E. and actually come in collision. a brush Swiss bruske. to break to bits . chips. brist j Port. Fr. detergere . and Piedm. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove.

who resorted to the islands beichen.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe.D. blister. to soften. ac. to butt. to soften. to soak. buerj It. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. to soak. boucaner. faire la lessive. bubbola. a bubble. to soak foul linen before washing. . .steep or soak. to filter. lye. bokni. a steep for flax. to wet Pol. 1586. Formerly. buck-ashes. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. This bubette. Pol. de la Floride. and the bunch. The word was very generally Buccanier. and then to other wild tumour Lith. a bubble. caned' Hence those who established them. very generally designated by the same puk. Esthon. is 1. Bret. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump.to allow a free current of air. a. erweichen. The natives of Florida. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. it is beuchen. The cipally on the Spaniards.wet Lat. soft It. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. bugd. to soften . bubiti. moist. bukke. bucata. or mok. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. mokry.byka. set of pirates in the spread. in which the flesh dish. BUBBLE bruschetta.lessiver. bucking. Diet. bubseti. hog dressed whole). tender. knock. bifbel. a to the male deer. bube. w. to a place used for the mouillir. to stick. bubauti. Bohem. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. boc. to bubble. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . The term bocan is still ap. buquer. bugada. also applied Una. or projecTo Buck. Pol. molle. See Dupe.tare. as a buck rabbit. different form. to bump as a bittern. not so plentiful a commodity. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. bubBuck. pukkata. lye. — — ' A : ' ' . — . bduclien. of wind. and Fr. does not hold. bouc. to butt or jurr Dan. open lath-work. to which in their language they call bou. moczyd. boc. a bubble . from colar. the first wheal. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. bucaIndies. bwch. the upper for coifee. Fin. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. colada. and as a verb. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). In G. to murmur. because bucare does not in Marsh). pup. mollire. at a door. Bret. The place of such a 2. plied in the W. Fr. Bubble. buborek. w. as G. bublati. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. The male goat. March 28. — . Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. hump. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. Sp. 17th century. Bohem. Cot. Illust. wood. The name. to butt. tuft. hump. when soap was tion is commonly taken. bub. was called in Fr. Sc. soft. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. News. drying of produce. mieknad. . Etym.derivation has been much discussed. It. From an imita. pokka7na. from weich. to Gael. the linen at buck. a fescue.-wtt miekki. Fr. buck-ashes. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. a. tender. bog-aske. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. watery bud. Gael. I. soft. buquer. It. byge. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing.boukaat. maban and baban. buchen. Fr. to strain. and exercised their cruelties prin. was called bucking the linen. But the analogy nih-e (Hist.buchen. boil animals. bouk. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. a ashes. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. But see Bristle. a hole. . thunder gently . boh. Magy. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. soft. top. 1857. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. . soft . which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. blast or strike with the forehead. designation of a knob. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. the lower soak in lye. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. Pref A. bub. It. Sp. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. bucquer. says Laudon. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. a knock word. to buck. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. mote.— . . Magy. . rap. tap . Dan. . A . a push.' Palsgr.biiken j Svi.

don't stir from hence. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. a shoot. swelling. The knob or projection formN. push forwards. Budget. call bo.' Boccaccio. to un bout d'homme. stir. It termination is lost. It. from Gr. — . butz. * Bud. knock. jSouKoXiKog. It. * Bucket. bouljein. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. Dan. a bump.. boglyn. a trough). prick in a target. butt . from bugr. with which it was ornamented. boucle. ble. stud.chissima. boucaran. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. or male of to boil . case of leather . bouprobably identical with inok. macero. Lat. bloca. rabodS.r//'. The entire train of thought is bucket. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. pulga. a boss. lump. OHG. a pustule bout. bouton. butzen K. budge. call. ON. of a surface. bode. convexity. boucle. loud Cot. to stir. bloca. seen in Hesse botz. need. K. boucle. to word. rump of fowls . It.) . boach. a wallet. Du. above mentioned. weichen. sboge. the radical image seems to be a set plants. ' . thrust. Bav. . Cot. . a budget. This expression boglire. having a boss. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. Dan. W. The dressed fur of lambs. soft. bougette. to bud or bocla. gjeit-klauv. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. . don't a baby).). Sp. a cowherd. a curl. bump. bouger. bullion. boqueranmis. a ring. stroke. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. from bo. bulga. bud butzen./a. bollire. botzen. a little coffer or turgidus. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. bogla. . Port. Prov. Buckler. bouge. dim. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. skins pushit'. — . a fold ceilio. and weichen. . It is explained by Miiller (MHG. ' . The word is a ddyn. cattle. and of the Lat. bdden. Wtb. a boss. Fr.' Schm. Prov. water message. goat's hoof. bloquier. knob . bulla. a tuft. botzen. — — . knob dwfr yn boglynu. . The Fr.. bugnir. wallet. Sw. boccula. weich. Bucolic.goa. bedde. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. protuberance. butzen. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. bougette. Bus.t-le!L{ * Bud. OFr. pwt o Fr..Lat. Pied. bucket Fl. were To Budge.pode. no wheel bogeilio. Bret. to budge. Du. bunch. agreeing with Gael.may probably be explained by N. In the dialect of the Setti Cem.stumpy man. also a leather tuft . Hence quel. Fr. So on. no business to do that. with let. bolgia. a boy. trunk of wood covered with leather. like a bean. . whom it is still much in use. put. a bud. a navel. bog and G.stuff. to line with fur. with a central boss. Fr. butze. To thrusting part of a long body. clasp of a book. to poke. to butt. bulais daqui. noise . a leathern sack.' And this sacrament bus have dial. blow. motus creber. boss. bunch . butzen (Du. to thrust. to pen cattle. Gael. Russ. scion. is to shrivel up. a budget. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. dint . hump. become bochen. as in Fr. belonging to the calling of the chen. pulga. bulka.anything short of its kind. to graft or bud trees. butzen.) as to soak. excrescence. It. Bav. weich. great pouch. bulb. Fr. and the reference to It. probably from the notion of bubbling.poot. explaining Fr. bod. w. Budge. words is converted into b. the word w ' — . boss of a shield. ornamental stud. to boil. See Bulk. a pail or flowers. NE. Bret. G. imbuere. crack.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. * Buckle. Hardly identical with Fr. a servant. ' . movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. boiling. pwtio. inboachen. bucolicus. Prov. is doubtless fallacious. Swab. bucherare. boaLat. Fr. to swell. bucherame.' Hal. a buckle or protuberance. bod. A buckle or fastening for botch. buachazlle. w. A water-plant with leaves and gille. Fr. . bouk is a pail and with the dim. II I'a feru desor I'escu. Mid. bouclier.— . . child. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. — — . mani. clump. Pol. Buck-bean. of bac. pote. a . mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. bocla. bo. brobrocchiere. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. of bouge. male or botzen. In Lat. buckel. boucler. . ein. call.n. bug. a small shallow and open tub. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. bub. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. in the beginning of to pierce holes. bouter. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. to move. a bubble three thyngis. built. Fr. a short thick man. a shield. set of a plant in bulk. to 'soak. bul. dinted. to boss or swell out G. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. the root of the Slavonic words gran. bukke-blad. fur. a stump buckle up. a dumpy gin. where the G. Behoves. bolgetta. swelling. potz. turgere buczendig. a buclder or shield budge. boulj. Mid.

sounds. — — — Buffet. bufogni. thus be translated to tap. to rePl. Romola. a side-board. either alone or with various terminations.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. to give a as of a blow. to blow. Pl. mumming. bubach.D. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. bukow Ikow. bolgetta. bobaow. Sc. senses. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. air. Lith. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . to puff. buffare. buMagy. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. tastes. bugle. — Z. dausinti. buffets. made to —Bugbear. tabernarius. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. w. to frighten . to bellow . a hobgoblin. It. dial. buffa. E. to blow . site The two — — iii. wine may The verb in taverns. Cot. often blown upon. a hollow sound. 265. buffetto. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . A blow. buffle. bubaRuss. a block-headed noddy. of colours. From buff! of terror. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. — La Crusca. Buffoon. Buff. bugbear. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. colour.D. Buffalo. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. Limousin bobal. to strike face to represent the unknown. btifetarius. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. boman. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. buffeteur. a dull BUG From 109 — A . as wine that hath taken wind. —Boggart. bwg. le reste emplissant d'eau. buivol. breath. buffet. — retailing buffeter buffetier. made by a person. deadened. Fr. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. as Diez remarks. Mid. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. bolgia. W. soufflet. buffer. Cot. also a G. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. yar^aa. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. from souffler. Buff. Lat. . bufHe. bw.' La Crusca. stupid.D. bouffer. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . a skin. buffalo. puff. a bugbear. bauwi. bouffer. botffon. pulse . a budget. the place whence the wine was drawn. for this purpose is very widely spread. a goblin). and in Fr. by metaphor. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. buffen. scarecrow . him but Boyd iugges. Magy.' perfield. — thence it has been transferred in E. a clap. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. Esthon. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. Fr. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. Thus buffet would a tapster. confused. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. leathern bucket. bo ! an interj. The cry made to excite terror is then used. Teet-bo. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. A puff with — Fl. bw! It. wauwau. blurt or puff with one's mouth. baubau. It. From bulga. bugs. God's boast seemed feare children. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. caupo.—Buffet. the buffe. to marre often tasting it . &c. bubus. while in Sp. things in Jam.— Buflae. a cuff or buffet. een duffen toon. ' They rether puffed at him. The children were playing in an oppocomer. buff leather. bumann. A — Bug. a jester. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. word other cases. It. rebuff. dull sound. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. or wild ox. bau ! children. a In . smells . as from Lith. human. to beat. G. Fr. Fr. bubiti. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. Fl. a buffle or a bugle. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. to puff. often covering his E. popo. Lat. a puff. or hath been Cot. Gael. as emblematically making light of an object. Pl. Bufetarium. Lith. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. buffet. also the skin or heck of a buffe. Swiss baui. Hence the E. to jest or sport. to signify an indefinite object of terror. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. mingled with water. buffle-headed. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. buffet. Sc. to a representation of his voice. duff^ dull. Fr. to excite terror in Macleod. boo. bufogni.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. cuff . buffare. — Bogle. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. from It. The use of the exclamation children. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. to blow souffleU. dausa. to give benti. Buffeter. It.

and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. w. bug-bear. as an object of dread. — — ' . Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. saucy. Serv. oxen. buffle. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. to bellow. E. bold. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. worm. protuberant. insect. Mid. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. fette. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. vermin. bug. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . monster. to roar Aasen. bau (Pureiglia. quos what produces dread or disgust. pujalo. The name of bug is — . The w. roo. scarecrow . an object of terror. and bugle. thus connected with bug. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England.3uhtii&:. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. the buggaboo w. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. xiv. bug dung-beetle. blustering. with more or less modification represents bau. bogk. of pipes sewn on. to take fright. An ornament of female dress condread. a silk-worm. banian boube. i. il brutto Demonio. Deut.. Bug as a lord. It. — . tumble-bug. bbgni. long. Illyr. and a boggarty ing. bauginti. fear. a misshapen person. Swiss booggen. troll. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. disgust. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. buba. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. * 2. larva (a bug-bear. superbire. a rabme. bukati. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. fierce. pugalo. booggen. It. coco. Big. used in the same sense. boeuf sauvage. biignt. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. a buffalo. to take bug. is very common. beugler. — — . bugbear. Swelling. baco. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. of bugabo was given. Parolone. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. a beetle. also a bug-bear. bok. to frighten scarecrow. Lett. Hal. Fl. boa-peep. buggabod). tion of the beetle tribe.— . See The name terror). the black a maggot. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. Sp. iv. bukashka. a goblin. affright. roarHal. bug-bear. Magy. bogil. especially to beetles or winged insects. Cheval de trombugti. — — terror. Hence bugle-horn. dial. an insect. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. 493. Russ. pugaf. threatening. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. boo. is the dim. any disgusting animal. the word is lin) bbgge. to origin in the expression bugs words. bugar. Grisons bau. bwg and E. bobal. Fl.loud noise. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. Magy. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. Bugle. according to Coles.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. language any kind of insect.. the Devil. . Grose. poggl. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. bogil bo (e. bugler. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. The final guttural of W. Stalder bog. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. terrifying ward. high. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. also a bug-bear. a proud overbearing man pujat'. Bogge.Fr. to creeping things. . swollen. as Buffalo. — boogg. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. well as the terrific object. I. bwgwl. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. Lap. bwgar. Same as buffle. bucula. and in Lat. to bellow. a bug-bear. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. mask ' . shepe and gootes. 2. W. b'dgni. Sw. a bugbear for children. ghost. Lith. Mundart. great or bug words. Schmidt. (Spurrell). earwig bau da grascha. Lesachthal. gad. and is Deutsch. Chaucer. and in child's Magy. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. . . bogk. threatening. Manx boa. proud. 1551. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. insect. then a horn for drinking. buculus. also a baco-baco. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. big. bug-bear.Lat. a boogg. provincially an insect. rose-bug. bogle. Swiss ing. : no BUG . BUGLE Tentennino. Bdronie. bugle. paws the ground . A similar applica. Bug. high-sounding words. Bible. a. to take fright. hert. 3. given in Chaucer. forSc. a bug-bear.

pulks. has bulbuk. bolso. Mandeville. the position of liquids in the word In English. or of what is shaped like a bubble. bubbling up. Hence e.' Palsgr. . chest. bolgia. Bav. A — ' — Bulk. Lith. belly van de kerche. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. bulwis. in Sc. and put it home.' Cot. mass. the womb. wallet. balcone. bulbus. bulbe. as well as is very variable. trunk. See bollekeii next article. bubble. knobby. bubble {palgan tiisge. a. a bulb Du.d. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. or feminine termination gives Bav. belly. bo. bolnyn. in vessel. a round bulky body bwlgan. bulne. belly. In the representation of natural sounds. bouge. Pm. Pm. . bolle. a bubble. swollen OE. Jno. to blow. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. a heap. the potato G. bolle. ne. G.— . . It. habitaculum. bol. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. a stage or scaffold. . bubble. G. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. and N. husk. — — . turgeo bolnyd. puff. pocket.' Anat. bulle. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. balco. pouch builgeadh. Dan. blister. From till. a prominence. a bubble Gael. cultivate. to bubble up. bulgen. herd^ swarm pulkd. swell. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. trunk of the body. Othello. or bear out as a full purse. skin bag. buc. pimple. the capacity or burden of a ship. Here stand behind this bulk. blister. balgs. Gr. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. to bubble up Pol.'— Cot. acervus. anything prominent.' Fl. G. bua. belly. the body Du. bwlg. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. bale. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. bouk. or cargo of a ship. to gather. of an inflated skin. bag. . pulkas. bulge or bilge. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. bladder. body of an animal. bol. skin flayed whole. Hal. cumulus. to raise a habitation. Palco. jnake bulch. . a globe. . Gr. to build. the belly. leather sack. Bourser. belly Cat. boa. bilge. MHG. . bulk or capacity of anything. to puff up bolginn. bulge or convex part of a cask. projection. To Build. swollen. boss. bulk. to belly out. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. a lump or mass.). and bulbukd. He found a country fellow dead drunk. Boss^. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. hull of a ship. bed of a river. bubble. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. belgja. van loock. of E. straight will he 2. See Bulk. in bulk. ^ — . as water beginning to boil bolg. belly. — — . a leather sack or budget Fr. boulge. balg. at riufa bulkann. tumidus. knot in thread. a protuberance. — — . on. ' . snorting on a bulk. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. w. boss of shield. principal portion. bellows builgean. ON. sedes. The radical sense is shown in Russ. . Melancholy. m um Placentiae. unevenness Sw. pod ON. Dan. Bulch. the head of an onion. bulk is a partition of boards. ON. Lat. womb. . The Walach. a bunch. Lith. to bol. belly. lump. knob. bullka. — . byli. bol. whence bylja. villa. Pr. balg. trunk. nave or body of the church van 't schip. it again. compare Da. — Bulb. belgr.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). swell. . Mister. formed a farm. blow. Bulk. the contents of the hold. body of a ship . bulbe. bauen. bolgan. ' . . See how this tode bolneth. bulgen. blister Manx bolg. 1388. hold or bilge of a ship. bauch. OSw. bulki. bukr. The addition of a dim. knob. globule bolg-lhuingey. the carcase. a leathern sack or portmanteau. bulg. bulkaf. be protuberant. hollow. Ptg. Muratori.' Festus. crowd. swell. a tuberous or bulbous root . bolg. boss. bunch or projection. a water-bubble). Pr. stuffed bag. to throw out a convexity. ball. . buk. skin of an animal. . or. . Bulge. as it was merly written in English to bylle. PoXj3a. beuck. inhabit. boss of a buckler. — . Kil. body. bolgna. thorax buick. bugue. Sp. lump. head . dial. a dint in a metal . With these must probably be classed ON. bolgetta. bulked or bumped out. ' . . buhe. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. to spring. bulcke. a. belly Sw. were a habitation. to break bulk. For the latter sense ' — My . Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. to swell. I. (3oX|8oc. bulka. bug. gebolgen. to swell. biilken. Lett. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. tumeo. Lat. vulva. bole. to undo the cargo. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. Bolke or hepe. . domicilium. mass. OSw. a straw corn-vessel.

2. to bellow. G. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. the seal affixed to the document. pimple. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. bal. Gael.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. to bubble. bulla. N. a blockhead. large. bole or trunk of a tree. eth and frighteth. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. beams or boards. dial. bulderen. Eullrusli. Terriculamentum. It. bullern. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. billoti in Fr. scarecrow. urchens. Du. blunt. This word is used in several senses. stud. bauli. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. to seal. bolli. any embossed work. bubble. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. witches. Gold or silver uncoined. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. is of a class with Pl. bolla. a stud. sloes. child by the represents the hobgoblin. which may probably be the origin of the name. embossed work. a framework of balks. &c. but is more probably iden- palchetto. bellocier. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. and vellon in Sp. bietebau. The male W. any great-headed or studded nail. The final element tergeist. of the ox kind. poli-cheannan. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. it may be observed that a bullet in E. stamped money. Lith. pollach. to tical with Sw. Du.. as It. is called a ball. Fr.lle de fusil. a cow. of boule. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . bellow. a hobgoblin. a seal.'— ' Palsgr. as the ornanails. elves. on the contrary. from the Lat. 3. stud. biitzibau. stamp. pwl. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. a noisy violent fellow. boss or stud. bollar. brass-headed nail . bolli. of Witchcr. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. and thence terror. BulUiead. The bullfrog. as a mill-dam or the like. bulke. bollos de relieve. penbwl. a scare-bug. dim. as geting. also of the tadpole or young frog. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. Pm. G. Bullfrog. Pl. Bullet. tition of deals instead of a wall. — — Bull. bugbear. boillon. /SouWivu. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. boulct. a bul-begger. round glass phial. thick. in N. from baula. b2iggaboo. bouillon. bullos. a bowl. Bullace. Fr.. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. 2. w. Sp. bulk of a thing. The wild plum..' Baret's Alveary in Hal. lumpish. bollon. billon. bouillon. lumpheaded . blister. Dan. a bull Swiss bullen. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. balgeting. boss. in the sense of base metal. bulla. it is boulet de canon. A papal rescript.D. Bully. . bwbach. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. ba. Cot. bolos Fr. coarse. See Billet. bullocks. from Lat. a seal. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. a beam or rafter. Bret. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. poll-cheannach. poltern. A lace tree. a hornet. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. as in E. BuUiou. — Fl. to boil.Fris. many to protuberant objects. from Fr. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. bulle. bwlas. a bulox polos. And The word bullerbak. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. whence bullire. a little fish nearly all head. bulk. a tadpole. also a parFl.. assito. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/.D. — A tition in a ship. W. bullebak. however. bullus. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. large of its kind. hhint. a tadpole . baula. Du.' do not go by the dangerous water. polten. leraures nocturni nigri. Scot's Deso. from the use of the equivalent terms. a bull. bwla. signifying roaring. It. Bullbeggar. w.D. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. See Bowl. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. bulloi. G. Du. ON. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. spirits. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. from the noise. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. a hobgoblin. G.Gr. whence Mod. I. stupid . a wasp. i. the matrix or die . to emboss .

baluarte. 1687). to make a droning Du. buller-brook. To bum. buller-bas. blunder-buss. Miege in Hal. droning. Hal. bastion. To bully is to bluster. propugnaculum. blunder-buss. bombilare. G. IIL st. block-werck. bulderen. Du. Bum-bailiff. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. 14. and porter au billon. D. buller-jaan (bully. un faux brave. Hence bom and ban. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. Kiittner. or work of defence. Du. The Stat. is called bumping or bells. buller-bak. III. then in general a rampart. John). botm. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. Bully-rock. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. a blunderhead. a floor. poltem. — bombam?nen. 2.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. boulevard. 2. Fr. up was termed monnaie de billon.' for the purpose of exchange. Du. a boisterous. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. St.' agger. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. by corruption boulevart. Kil. bustle. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. 'lega. Thus ' ble. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. c. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. &c. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . agrees with e. ierd-beame. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. a bumble-. BULLY with which coins were stamped. It. clamour. to dun. bolderen. primarily the ramparts of a town. Bully. 9 E. The 27 Ed.D. 2. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. Fris. The decried coin. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. furious man. 4 Hen. G. — — plate d'argent. to drum Lat. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. ON. a stage. c. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. boisterous fellow.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. a hectoring. 1305. A. argentum and silver. bomtnen.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. intonare.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. — Bump. to make a noise . a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . noise. violent. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. beat a — Hal. a noisy blustering fellow. perturbare saevis dictis. Sw. From the notion of a humming. provides. on the other hand. to .. bottn. G. hum. ground. vallum. honunele. AS. or a humblebee. Bailey..' reals of standard currency. ierd-boeyme. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. from boden. Etym. minari verbulderen.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver.the ramparts. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. provides. bol-werck. Philip le Bel in Due.' Stat. but now is the central part of the town. sound. Fris. buller-bas. The Sw. The cry of the bittern. Kil. blaterare. violent overbearing person. buene. resonare. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. For bottom. polterer.d. biihne. ^Bully-rook. bommele. To bum. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. is bullion — A — buller. a. boene. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. — Bumto .' Again. c. Hence — . 10. IV. bodem. ^i^/«. To Bum. bottom. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. debacchari. to behave tyrannically or imperiously.' ' mettre au billon. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. to terrify by noise and clamour. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. legaggio di metallo. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. Bum. the soil. — Boom.D. scaffold.

any round knob or bunch. cluster. especially girls. bunt. foundation w. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. pwmpio. to ' . whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. banke. . pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. . Bump. to thump. Pl. a bump. awkward. Pr. bumtel. or grete knobbe. signifying one who does things in a thumping. dial. a bowl P1. bunch— Hal. bon. lenten loaves. blain. bun. bulse. bump. mto Sp. dial. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. Probably from bump. a swelling. Bung^. Roding.. also for taking a pilot to a ship. hdk passing and E.— Pr. w. to knock . bmike. abrupt manbuns-wise. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. bongie. a button. a hemp-stalk. binge. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. Bums it's hit. bugno. Then. as we have seen E. a bunch Magy. a rabbit. pompon. and related with ON. truss E. stump. strike E. a knock. . trunk. a heap Wall. a hump. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. stalk. Bunewand. any round knob or bunch. — — — — ' — knock. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. are dim. See Bounce. applied to young persons. Forby. callus. stock. a wallet. BUNCH bum-bailiff. — — Bun. throw down with a bang. a knotty stick) Sw. the tail of a hare.D. E.S. root. E. from bunsen. bu<rnone. a boil (punkos bot. — — de dor bunsen. to .). . a bunch. an old stump of a horse. bunkc. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. so the form btmk. noise. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). . bottom bun feoir. a boil or blain. . ! — knocking. pompette. . Bunch. Bony. bignet. nor would it concern the public if he did. to swell out E. bund. knuckles. stump. bunga. Moor. il me pousse. tundo. Fr. explaining E. Manx bonkan. botn. Ir. bunka.D. bmidt. a pumpion or gourd. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. E. A clumsy. forms. a bud. a knob . a bag or sack. — Marine Diet. lump. a Sp. Bumboat. a dried hemp-stalk. bunsen.D. . poumpi. butt end. He fult dat et bunsede. bamgetroffen.P. bunny. boi7ieog. a heap. a. to strike so as to give a dull sound. a round mass . a heap or cluster. banga. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. . bonnock. A Du. to bang down. to beat. a person employed to dun one for a debt. Hal. Suffolk bonnka. bunnion. Radically identical with Dan. OSw. Hal. bull. . protuberance. the Pr. bunke. a swelling from a blow. Dunchyn or bunchyn. Hence E. a heap. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. bolsa. and signifies consequently a mass. bungersome. — stalk . Thus e. passes Sw. seems to unite Gael. gibber. Li cake. to bang. hay stubble . as in other cases. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. Holland and Flanders. bulscha. a large . bum-boot. — — Bun. Gael. root. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. Kyx or bunne. It. lungeous. Fl. clumsy. Pm. bung. S. Pm. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. bune or boon. Sc.^Cot. a lump on the foot bunny. gibbus. . To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking.pummel. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. To bam. bans. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . Related on the one side to Pl. a rabbit. Hal. bugnone.' Palsgr. to beat. ner.— Bunnion. strapping. bottom. a purse . one ever saw the word in that shape. knob or heap. Again. Bunch. &c. a heap OSw. . Gael. Bun.' Bun. bunken. bulto. — round fruit. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. a. a knob. large. bundle. bonuach. 1. round mass of anything. bonge. H. . to bang ON. Pl. stem or base. bunan. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. clown. Daal bu7iseti.' he fell with a bang. knochen. or to the mass by which it is given. —Bunny. a into Dan. poumpido. buns. awkward clown. Bang sen. Sc.! . from knock) It. pwmpl. He buncheth me and beateth me. Du. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. bunga. bumsen.D. to . Fr. Dan. w. a tail (Macleod). while bulch was traced through Gris. pumpa. calamus. bugnet. Lang. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. Hal. a knob. See Boss. Pm. pwmp. Bunk. Dan. bunki. bottom. Probably for bun-boot. a boss Lith. bugno. pumpurras. a pocket Sw.. See Bunch. Bumsen. bun eich. Mrs Baker. inconsiderately. should probably be a short tail. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. a dry No .-^Fl. bannock. stubble Manx bun. Bumpkin. . bun with ON. stubble of beans. stock.

from beran. buove. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. to gingle. Sw. It. a sort of helmet. and now more Bailey. to botch. whence bunting. bourjon. Hal. gyves. working in wood (especially with an axe). tinkle. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. Burganet. dicimus rufum. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. A load. sprig. bury. Prov. to bear. to knock. Bret. a bungler. bongun. loosed from bonds. dial. Bunny. See Bourdon. would be the earliest float for an anchor.punt. Sw. tap. with the head. Banff. So in Pol. bangla. clogs. to in to stop the hole. borgonota. Burble. a drum . OFr. OG. bondelj bundell. Prov. — . to bud forth. Rietz. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. on.D. The stopper for the hole in a boia. bunta. racket . — — To Bungle. russet. Palsgr. boil or bubble up. was formerly pronounced buro. punishments for prisoners. Sp. bindini. noise. the loose open grow big about or gross. the young cloth used for sifting flour. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. borboUar. ho-tapp. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. shackles. bonde. driving in the bung. AS. to stnmi on an instrument. dark. to knock. buie. properly a Burgundian helmet. to Somerset is to sift. bourguignote. The Fr.Fris. bou^e. bond. . boei. The Magy. a bung. guggle as water. Fr. bolting-cloth. tinker . knocking. to push with the head del. bui. N. Bung. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. The word is flags are made. la Borgonota. of a song. AS. to hum. bundt. 202. bag to catch the wind. dial. a wisp of hay or straw. buret. to hum. to work at carpentry bangan. bangla. Fl. biirde. a bunch Burbulas. burion. boj. to stop. bongani. whence in bure. G. To bunt. ghebundte. So Du. To do anything awk- wardly. to bungle. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. in is Fr. colligatio. to stop. — — . or tuft. A bubble. coassatio et Du. bon. and Du. or used as a receptacle for papers.— . stiimpeln. to bolt meal. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. is originally a wisp or bunch . a bunch. OFr. stilmpern. burboloti. * Buoy. bang.' Festus in Diez. . boya. knock. to shove. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. Sp. Du. Russ. generally known as the material of which bud. and bomme. buret. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. Biu'geon. the stopper of a cask). to push. bondir. E. banghagr. Lat. racket. boucher. modem bummle. banga. or putting forth of a vine. Sw. are from bouscfie. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . the middle part of it. bummle. to float. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. bounta. the noise of drums. Fr. Burden. a boye. shove . — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. to work ineffectually. bondel-loos. B. — btiruii. ' — work . The belly or hollow of a sail. halm-tapp. to hum. a cork. Fr. Bundle. something bound together (Mrs Baker). G. clumsy performance. a water bubble made by rain. p. to kick. reddish brown. a botch. See Borel. to cobble. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. and van t' vat. bote. the bung of a barrel Lim. bondon. bonde. Sp. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. tapp (whence tceppa. bang. fascis. bommen. anchor or of a net boyar. also a piinple in the face. to resound. Cot. bundel. . dark grey bura. Johansen. bondeau. bungande. rumble as the bowels. bourion. to strum on an instrument. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. Burly. bunsen. See Barbarous. byndel. Burden. — Bureau. bourgeon. unskilful working. . Muratori. and the Sw. to gingle. the float of an bundle. an anchor buoy. and E. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. to push ghebondte. bove. See Bun. that the primitive meaning of shackle . . Bung of a tonne or Lith. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. Sp. Kil. Bunt. Pl. bouche. knocking. fetters. B. however. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. Compare G. byrthen. especially in wood. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. To Bunt. stocks or such OSw. Cat. klimpem. bimge. klempern. do a thing bunglingly. contignatio. Bunting. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. A Dan. bundle. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. To burgeon. bouchon. to pype. Fr. The Italian buio. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. on.

is termed burling. Burlesque. Fl. as in cousteau.. bouril. — Han to bruser op. brasa. brunna. robber. from Lat. See Berough. Walach. . — . pressa puret. It. a fountain. The primary origin of the word. spring-water bumach. to burn. The Gael. brun. from the roaring sound of flame. grancelli. Pr.). The in. like. brinii. to set on fire. Sp. Nat. to roar. to burn. laer. he rustle. to puff up borr^ . to hum. ends of thread. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. sea. and the Burnish. Lang. water. to To Bum. broil. roguing beggars. a margin. bourglairs. Fr. Fr. a jest. as of suggests. ridicule. Pm. j. brinna. to murmur. — . leo Fin. and OG. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. to bourda. ^ttsa. crackle wood in burning Hal. Goth. is an Thus G. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. Dief. to grind on a whetstone. G.). So also Sw. de Vaud.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. OFr. jest of. to swell oneself out as birds borras.— . &c. brima. watery. to ridicule. compared with G. Burler. burgeois. thence. Fl. Bestiary. brunnen. to sharpen on a whetstone. to roar. to make a So from Fin. Bouffer. BURNISH i5«r/. See Burgeon. which has given much trouble to etymologists. and the Burin. tumentum. brook. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. Bret. Prov. to bouronna. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. boura. burren. ii6 BURGESS Gael. Burryn. to rub. schleiffen. swell up or strout out. to sharpen. in Schm. brunir. Bav. brusler being a faulty spelling. to roar 5. to swell with pride.). brase.ireui£r:e. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. explaining Sp. ^Notk. bourd. A legal term from the Lat. Fr. a knob. In the same way ON. the word seems Pm. a lie. a bubble to spring as water. Gael. angular . a purling hiwe brennen. boure. ample of polishing metal. Burgher. to surge. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. the J in OFr. de Vaud. bururus. like straw or small . A — — . sbornoi. . born. See under Bore. to Gael. 122. bud or sprout forth. a wine skin. N. Burglar. warbling. surge or dashing of the sea . repartee . Burn. Cot. from bryii. — — .. to puff. bremmen. a well. It is probable indeed that Fr. to roar. a blaze.bryna. Pren7ien. to roar (as lions. with little iron nippers called burling irons. borracka. OFr. to fiy. In the manu. borni. Supp.— Pr. a bladder. lorra. borr. has also borr. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. as the / in purl. and Dan. to give an edge to.j'own. to have acquired the sense of polishing. — — . a jest. to polish. tahko. condemnentur morti. Burly. lerre. embraser. Bav. with Dan. to ridicule. buirleadh. a prominent eye borracka. burn. bourou. fires up. tion of the root which gave the OE. purra. burle of cloth. to polish. the er is a dresser of cloth. — — . Probably. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. become big and proud. briis^. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. It. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis.. an edge. bunch.sharpen. OE. to roar. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. a spring a robber. G. protuberance. it of the knots. occupying much space. dial. to polish helmets. toast. a gurgling ^. swelling borr-shuil. mockery. to swell. OE. a bud. Swiss Rom. bruse. burgen. language of folly or ridicule. brandung. to burgen or wax big. Burgh. abourioner. borujon. must be explained on the same principle from G. sidiary element.' a jibe. brausen. a whetstone. taunt. Probably a modifica. ends of thread. Castrais bourril.. purling. bruzir. ' rugiens. ON. an &c. boiirre. pur (see Burgeon). the flocks. brAler. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. to effervesce. to tell lies. bururus. to bud . purrata. big. burgi latro.' Cot. See Burr. tahkoa. singe or scorch with fire. E. i5«r4 biiirte. . Hence Bridel. burlare. Swiss Rom. a bubble. Todd. It. Sw. . burly. brunnr. the roaring surge of the — — — . like the wind in trees. Compare also Piedm. A burl. Lang. is connected with brim. Burgess. brinnen or Also ein roar. Antiq. sicut sound. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. brim or edge of anything. burgensis.. blow. as Diefenbach bud. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. brustolare. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. knob. From Fr. Limousin bourdo. explaining the E. Sw. 56. joking. brynsten. brimmen.Ps. borrelen. barrel. Schm. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. fire. flocks. brustle. From the same root E.or bubbling up. bears.

and thence flocks 'of wool. -burse. a rabbit burrow. but it is more probably a development of It. brjota. brast. britar. In OE. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. A rabbit burmotion. shales. burra. save. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . Compare also OE. bres- — tan. G. Sexy. to P'air. barza. beorgan. verbergen. I. Du. talk fast and indistinctly. g. idiom if 4. straw. a. burre. a purse. borra. mentioned under Burgeon. to burst.. It. skin. to hide . Fr. stuffing. shelter. brest. Brun on bane.' Harris in Todd. bris. Mid. to hide. brickie. as in Northumberland. purr. byrgen. whence Kil. byrigels. a port. iii. a purse. brico. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. also ' any such trash as chaff. bourlet. It. . bur. bourrer. brokil and brotil. be more in accordance with AS. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. makes the disbursements of the college. brist.— . Cot. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. briso. Burr. borsa. Hal. Gael. Shelter.' The same word with burgh. Fr. This word seems safety. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. whirr and burr. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. — Clare. bourre. any kind of quilting or stuffing. the officer who bears the purse. birgan. briser. to stuff. Sw.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. husks. to bury . ON. &c. See Burgeon. from AS. a place of defence. byrsa. Swiss burren. from whence we pass through Sp. Bursar. also all such stuff as hay. casting bullets. tomb. Burse. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. borrow. to mutter Sw. shearing of cloth. keep. Jam. buscha. ber•whirr to whizz. explained E. the — — castle or fortress. ptcrren. brizeto. force. briketo. . as for the protection of a child's head. To Burst. Beowulf. an exchange. AS. prsnuti.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. its own protection. bur. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. To Bury. -Grisons bulscha. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. and. shuffling. a pad. borsia. fortify. Burr is related to buzz as protect. to break. an annular swelling. 2. bolsa to It. impetus. berstan. Burse. bourse. brown. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. swell. With a slightly different ghen. brist. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. In a met. 5150. ultimately resting on the Gael. blurra. — Translated by Kemble. preserve. birr. preserve. brittle. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. burial place. bergen. Dan. a harness or collar maker) . ' BURR AS. perruque. root borr. G. OHG. S w. beurs. peluca to Fr. dial. chips or anything else Fl. bristen. pipaa. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. borra. that birds make their nests with. Hence Fr. some people in pronouncing the letter r. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. foretell great storms at 3. 225. borre. dial. a sepulchre. . tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. byrstan. Burrow. OHG. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. bristeach. Fris. moss. as from Sp. borsa. any rapid whirling biarga. byrgels. appears under the Lang. ' ' — — burren. of England. Du. brisd. burgisli. brisdeach. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . hair. brista. byrgan. i5(7&a. and spelling. Fr. AS. when they spring So in W. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa.' edge grew weak. Sw. birigean. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. Port. bourrelet. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. brit. from Fr. cover. Burser. leather. ON. See Bulge. bersten. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. cwning-gaer. to buzz. and met. a wallet or scrip. coo. break . borre. whirr. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. E. signifying protrude. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. karborre. a barn or cupboard. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. as it is still pronounced in N. &c. to save. caer is a — — — ' ' : . bourse. Burial. The root forms brik. brittle. of a body hurled through the air. a morsel. bris.Lat. bolgia.

busk. boissa. to dress. To prepare. then a tuft Sp. They busked and malced them boun. occultare K. preserve. 2. induere vestes . Layamon. ieorh. as boun is simply buinn. rad. at bua sig. bouche. AS. bussellus. wisp. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. a corpse). a troop. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. brake. to turn. 410. ' . to bury. bramble. Ptg. R. ' . bussare. to direct one's course towards. Du. to stop. and not directly (as Du.-^Bushel. bairgan. Du. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. Fr. BUSH hreaw. for at buasc. ' . the past participle of the same verb bua. borghen. Mid. besom). a -tavern bush.' The buskin is said Bret. bush. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. truasc. boistel. —Busk. . bulk. Bush. bousIn the other copy ser. and thence Mid. box wood to bush. To Busk. the land. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. basse. bosta. bos. boxta.gur bidst austur um EySascog. bousche. cluster. G. beorgan. bustellus. The word frequency with which to busk is used. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump.' a box.) to hide in the ground. Bouchet. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. Sw. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. borseof trees. The bone in a woman's stays. ' . to forest of Eyda. in OE. boisseau. abdere.— ' ii8 {chreo. as synonymous with to inake one boun. and we actually find bushel. thicket {buski. or the like. protect . a tuft guini. brodiquin. to swell. Sir Tristram. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. hjul-bosse. 'at bua sik. a tuft of hair. hunch Du. basse. Sibriht that I of told. Fris. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . a box.' The word is explained by — — . to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. AS. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. to prepare. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. a box for measuring corn. to sepulchre. Thus Froister . projection. : — . bosc. The primary sense of hair . van wijnbesien.P. barst. roquies. biichse. It is certain that buast must once have Fr.Lat. a rampart. Sc. gave Lat. bundle * Buskin. buxida. berghen. bosch (a diminutive ?). tow. that the lend had lorn thorn. burial mound. And her ful sone tuft. bunch. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. bossida. a gun biichse. . diminutives. thicket of thorns . busse. busken. Gr.fiasc. bulge. sur une litifere. is thus accounted for. . -idis. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. signifying to entomb. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. bush. knot. bossen. a bundle. See Bust. buysschen. and he cites wisp bauschen. to dress. bausen. Prov. Le roy Richard mort. aheap of stones. bundle. to bend one's steps. It. to keep. Thence byrigean.boisteau. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. boiste. It. boucher. a bunch. So from Fr. Harold G. bousse. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. tuft. bustula. The radical idea is seen in Goth. In to Brutaine. OFr. a box. il fut couch6 l^jkema). and from the Fr. or — Busk. fiast. a little box Dan. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. to bow. condere. OFr. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. make ready. defence. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. bo7ich (Fr.' sheath. clusprobably Morocco leather. qualster-boscken. dead. from the ON. oneself. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. bussel. . brodequin tout noir. a tuft. verb. a bush. a tuft. ch). the idea of knocking. we have Fr. a wisp. bua. buxula. apparently a secondary verb. whente beorg. a hump. a been written buasc. iriCtf -ifoe. See Box. buskr. at buast. buxta.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. Bush. in the For Skirnis . a grove bosch van haer. . a bush. Brunne. the Moors and of Morocco. Brunne. which would later have truast. whence at bua sik.Lat. a bunch of twigs. Du. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. lump. whence bouchon. ' —P. a clot of phlegm sart. barsc in Heimskringla. . borcegui. Malberg. to enclose in a case or box. mount. grapes.

a kiss of reverence. or Cherqui. brut. abutarda. especially of a woman's dress. employment bisgan. Namur — Champagne Fr. a kiss. or chest in which the vitals are contained. the trunk. Sp. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. sunt quas Hispania aves . would explain the G. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. a stroke of wind. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. a blow. arbor ramis trunGloss. 7o\. a kiss. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. Edrtst. Busitiess :c3iVi . knock. 22. Prov. geidha. pussa.Lat. smack.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. and by transposition morchequi. beso. forms morseqiiill. biist. ottarda. the body without arms busque. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. tarda. The proceedings of Parliament. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. thick end. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . bacio. putschen. outard. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. — hardly be distinct from Fr. lip. bust. Bustard. bus and Pol. to occupy. Lat. signifying trunk of a the body. work. bust. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. I. 1372. bucha. a fishing vessel. kiss. butz. business. worn to make the body straight . On the other hand. Lindenbr. With respect to bust. lump.> Also written buskle. I bustle.— . 2l box. baiser. bysgje. of a doublet. Fr. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. The Prov. Cot. a large cljest or particular applibox. BUSS Dozy from Arab. So in Fin. windbutsch. a. — — — — It is like the smouldering. crack . putta. buc. The form brust. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. body . an ostrich. mohedairova. busq. morsequi. Bust. basiuin. bruskras well as buskr. Bulch. cata — . borcegui. a bunch of flowers . forest. beezig. a Mid. trunk of a tree. a bush. a mouth. B. the long. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. Box. body of a man. bukr. stump. stump. a boat or small vessel . besoigAe. Xerqui. — . To Bustle. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. Fr. snout. busch. Fr. ^A. abotarda. Gael. avuDiez. ON. — clattering about. or avutarda. mons. sera. stir. body of garment. to make a splash in the water. 10.D. hipista. a backstock. To hurry or make a great B. and also a sounding blow. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. Prov.pjik. Business.d. body. kupata. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. busch. Pol. btcc. utarda. So Wes- terwald munds. bussa. — — difications of the same word. knock. ' BUSY 2. trunk of Cot. Lang. from jnund. bus. buta. plated body or other quilted thing. mouth. bisg. chest. as in moharra from harbe. also a flagon. busta. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). Cat. to knock . body of a woman's dress It. of the human body (Grandg. busy. Buss. occupied bezigen. statue of the upper part of Fr. buyse. Busy. 119 bi{tr. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. says. log . a tree. A A busquer (Sigart). busche. a projection. vessel employed in the herring fishery. stem.' ON. as in ON. a great billet Cot. bu. a kiss. body. a sleeveless truss or doublet. bustla. betarda. lip. Comp. Hence probably au-tarda. mouth. buz. kiss. occupation. Bav. made stiff. bnist. Bust. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. tuft. an affair.bezig. I. 1555. representing a blow. its slowness of flight. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. biseg. ship Sp. to Swab. bulk. Rouchi. inde discurro et operosus sum. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. love gestures. ViM. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. fe^a. small. besongne. to make use of. lips. busc. Sp. trunk. mosequin. but. and supposes that the common Arab. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. the breast. buc. . Swiss butschen. also a It. Fr. Sw. bist. — Thus we should have mocherqui. a bust. AS. mogangas from gonj. in Diaz Gris. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. ' bistardej It.' Plin. a ship of some size. Sp. Walach. . A great sluggish fowl. a busk. Prov. a bulk or trunk without a head. otarda. 2. Nained from Proximse iis zia. Fris. Fl. Hal. trunk. busto. austarda. Du. ON. See Boss. also a busk. brusc. bisgung. I go strepo) . A wisp. and then with avis again prefixed. buquer. Busk. outarde. to bustle. body without arms and legs. box.). Port. a log. bus. buc. a blow. brostia as well as bostia. the point of a lance. bussen. bysgian. bisegung.

ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. the principal apartment. Prov. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. botte. calf. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. Lang. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. boquier. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. from as. ox. able. in addition. But when will you pay it ? the belly.' — — ' . the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen.' there is really a negation to be supplied. ont jhi^ton. Butcher. binnan. the trunk or body of an animal. the body of an animal. (children) boc. belly. large barrel. bout. Sp. beccaro. bous. It. an outlaw from bouche. a butcher . the mouth). besides that . properly a butan wite. gives at least two pounds sterling. bag. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. from boc. — . Here the but implies the existence of an. a cask. being wholly unten.The Sp. Du.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt.jamin. boucher. bitten dai. a budget. hollow case. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. bola. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. sup- meat and drink. the body of a tree or of a man. that which would be translated by Fr. — we acle for liquors. But In Sc. collection of casks. The E. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body.' Thus Chaucer says. of the wine and drink. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. skin-bag. buta. Lang. boteria. AS. earthen which the debtor has adverted.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. boccino. is put in a class by himself. bol. also a hollow vessel . my is called the adversative use of but. Fr. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. wooden receptthing to be done. a bottle. those in beccaio. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. the Perhaps besogne — . barriga.streets.in which his brethren are included. a butchery. viz. the precise correlative of but. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . outside that moreover. bochier. without buiten-man. without care. to-boot. Sp. bisgung. by the mode in which he is treated. are. As a conjunction but is in every portion. Wall. So in Italian from becco. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. the belly. similar train of thought is seen in ON. or what in in charge of the pantry. Butt. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. viz. without the house kept in bottles. ' Besides all that. If that where now we should compiler. bute. bodifie. the present day we should say. bountifully. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. as Pantler. and the real origin of the and within . Where at an earthen jar . add. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. without punishment . Ben-house. belly. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. then hoUow trunk. bolgia. a goat (and not besides . . moreover. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. the servant in charge of the original object. Fr. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . hull of a ship. bocin. A A . we find ben. belly. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. Fr. a small winebag. Buttery. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. bolr. Whatever is in addition to Butler. slaughter-house. a wooden cask. G. and bot. beyond the Piedm. But It. calf of the ' say. and with It. ways. without law. which the word corresponds to the Fr. young mais. ' There is leathern bottle. a butcher. "PLT) . beccaria. the store of ten. the name must have arisen before the within. a barrel. rotundity of the body. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. except. the bottles. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. Butler. equivalent of AS. a leathern bag. bitlga.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. bouz. Sp. . nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. bhcciero. but one thing. the jug and in E. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. rumpf.' ' write._ bitten j biiten door. a goat. original sense of without. the full expres. Tooke's dis. butan. trunk. biitait slaughterer of goats . a baiTel . without. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . bounds of. body of a shirt w. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. botilla. botija. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. mais. tinction between but. bouteillier. is well explained by Tooke. bole of a tree. butan ce. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. beta. be out. OFr.

bothog. boter-vliege. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. boutis. thick. a buttrice. Du. to thrust. hillock . a boss. Cot. -ez. e. a boss. to abut a stone roof. aim whence to make a support to a wall. bouton. to so close to the Fr. butz. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. Boutje. humble. Boutant. Hal. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. a bun. are the strips at the edges of the field. Kil. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. Du. bout. to thrust. Fr. * Buxom. pwtiaw. buttare. an ox. Buttock. bot. Grandg. the edge forwards. strike. — A .' thick from shaking. short thick thing pimple. any small projection. R. caput scapula bout van f been. to thrust Fr. — . boteria. to boult flour. Fr. a little push . Sp. the store of while bottich. so as to make a sounding blow. . To strike with the head bags. lams-bout. bot blijven staan. . Fr. W. buttals. any short thick thing. The Bavarian potig. an etwas anstossen. a dle . bouter. Fr. povrvpov. rabodd. bata. So in English pimples were fora clod. a flying buttress. bocsam. Gael. in the R. as rejeton. the prick in the middle of a target. large head. ment being supposed to resemble butter. and the true derivation boar. give way. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . Halma. Buttress. See Butler. from notirrir. To Butt. a wall butor butt on. Lang. w. from stossen. bottig. Perhaps corrupted Lat. butter. butt. from bouter. grease that sets by merely standing. waste ground. From Du. a button. a button. From the noise of drinkables in a house. botten. Btetter-schmalz. nourrissons. thrust forwards. Fr. botte. geboogsaem. a stump or club foot. Mur-buttant. boding. clumsy . from the large knobbed head of botto. striking end. bott. butter un. . nursling.. bocgsuin. or person Schmeller . trapu. to cast. of the present day. having a rotundity . a blow. Gr. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. by boE. to be con. clunis. Fr. to bow. Du. bottich. butt of a person. put. nourrisson. bodi'. An erection built up as a Fr. buhsom. A — — — . BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. botta. W. Kil. bouton. Du. buter. To come full butt against a butts. bud.rejected thing. Gris. — . boiUer. a scope. the trunk.— BUTT leg . a bolt. or or shore post. dripping. Butter. to blad. Kil. a large belly. to thrust. boutoir.. coxa. is formed the augmentative buttatich. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. Fris. to butt. Bout van het schouderIt. Fr.to push. a heap of merly called pushes. to thrust . a but in the W. from bugan. oir spike with a k coup . a corner horses' hoofs. buttock of beef is called butr. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. what is kept in a blow. to push earth . butt. a mound. a leg of mutton. bodi. buttern. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . boil. from rejeter. a. Buttrice. end . bouter. to strike. Schmell. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. tress. bout. — A . a button. Du. a. the Butter-fly. a blow. &c. butte.putan. but. at. botwm. butt. — — — — . fle>(ible. stump of a tree Fr. pied. but this is probably from Fr. i. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. bot. pwt. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris.thum and not button. Hal. It. : . a ribbed glass for dient. Buttery. a mound of turf in a field to sup. of E. to femur. a buttress Cot. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. poke. signify a cask or tub. suddenly . tout seat or breech. as in G. butte. butteln. Schmell. a barrel. boter-vogel. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. Bav. the thick end. G. courtaud. potacha. botto. thrust. a cask. Butter-glass. obeto shake backwards and forwards. to touch at the end. to throw . The word body itself seems identical with G. a stroke di animal. &c. AS. Buttel-triib. From Grisons biitt. fowl. the thigh of a goose. a bot. stump. both. obedient. to heap up earth or ihrust. then the thigh or leg of an to push . botta. gigot. a hill. on. So called from the excrestomach of cattle.arbre. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout.against another which needs support . So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. a thrust the thigh-bone. to abut on. as if from Povg. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. butyrum. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . leg of lamb. able that Chaucer. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. the rosebud. boter-schijte. butter. Button. a tub. Bav. submit shaking up salad sauce.

stall. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. to swear with him by . and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for .. A by. . bohte. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). Sw.. who makes abigg. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. buzzicare. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. buzarg. lete. and would have been lost in E. To Buy. as in Da. good-humoured one. It. Many good mological explanation. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. 3. a by-path is a side path . to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. Originally the law of a particular town. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. tions by one. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. groat in token of his good heart towards him. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. byar-rettr. farm. from by. byar-log. to whisper. frabttg- To Buzz. CABAL Goth. The sense of buxom. gracious. lb. to sell. a meke thynge with — alle. and it is of good will. 200. AS. . called Cabala or Tradition. and boxome of speche xviii. & Q. village. favourably to a petition. big. leges urbanse ON. bij. P. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. bi. buteoj Fr. bugjan. favourable. a buzzard or puttock. blessing me with their of side. A ful benygne buirde. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. .— Diet. Etynj. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. harty prayers and God speedes. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. town having separate jurisdiction. The ON. byr. as Fr. 21. indistinctly. jus municipii. bozzago. confusedly. buzac. also say. \s\xy. to buzz. bar. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. A A We — — — days' wonder. as heedless as a cock-chafer. a borough. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. G. depends upon a esteem in falconry.in N. from whom it was addressed. train of thought which has become obso. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. p. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. bygge. bauhta. Lat. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. By-law. bylove. a beetle. bylag. cow-house. son. See Abie. bei. Goth. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. bycgan. to jan. OE. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. to stand at his side . bees. Mercy hight that mayde. iii.busardj Prov. Dan. bi. —gracious of speech. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. ii. Pecock Repressor. AS. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. 519. Byre. It. Then applied to speaking low. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. a town. to purchase for money. Verstegan in R. Du. Buzzard.— P.P. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. 116. ON. buso. — 122 BUY P. to pass by. Cabal. abozzago. Sw. to wit.

kabat. cabasser. serious injury — In like manner It. a cloak of felt or Cack. precisely in the sense of the lari E. hovel. su/Furari. gaban. forms indi. Kil. cadabula. kabaSsen. a headed cole or cabbage . The Sp. as Turk. Fr. as it must have stood in French. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. It. . Du. &c. kabane. a car- We convasare. overwhelm (Diet.. w. to hurl in Nat. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable.Lat. for the origin of which see Carabine. akista. a covering. covering. a shed. traboccare. Fr. Du. Sp. cabuyskoole. cadabulum. kakaloH. Very generally used. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. Celtic. the bowels. (ca/coe. Cot. or rush basket. cabacho. Cabbage. bad. name of the projectile engine. OFr. cabarino. .Lat. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. main. OSp. lactuca capitata. cabre. Fr. a head (whence cabochard. . is probably unconnected. The name of the engine. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. would correspond to cable. agge. cabo. Mid. —Diet. — Tarbe. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. To Cabbage. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. wilful). come the Fr. cabuccio. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . cabas. : — from violence without blood.' Due. accablcr. caables. giiare. manganare. has kabbel. dung. brassica — capitata. whence Lang. prostratio ad terram. origin is the OFr. Cablisb. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. laitue cabusse. Ptg. Cabinet. chabla. cabre. cadabola. E. or as an interjection of disMod. . Brushwood — — B. to put or pack up in a frail. Neckam — by the wind. It is remarkable that the Esthon. Imitative of the cry of hens. disgusting such an engine was exerted. cab. Antiq. . cdble. kakla. cabaii. Due. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. signifies down. It. Coticesserint Swiss aa. case. — . Cabin. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. vincially used in E. Lang. hut. cabo. Cot. as Diez supposes). to chatter. Sw. gabardme. or cadable. Didot. especially shepherd's frock. Common to Lat. a rope or cable. cabane. the Slavonian. cadabulum. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. a jacket Fr. and the Arab. Lith. cacare. round or great headed. Katr-iT-aKt. Lat. to strain in such a manner . vile. agga. gaggele. geese. hoard together. cab lis. manticuKil. — Ibid. deponat a store closet. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . for discharging mentally to signify shelter. mdhaigner. cabus. gaggi. dirty. chadabula. caable. caable (in legal language). filth. from manganum. and Finnish lanLat. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. and Ptg. cacare . cable . a rope. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. E. Etym. chaable. Finn. overwhelm. surripere. From It. Castr. Mid. a tunic. whence Fr. calabre. disgust cac. Item habeat vocant. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. — the ON. form kactal. an engine for casting stones. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. It. disgust. Due. dirty. capo. Gaggle. — Kil. OFr. heady. Du. Fr. properly windfalls. Tugurium. capuccio. Fr. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. to crush.. headed or cabbage lettuce. to hurl down. originally an Gael. as an expression of Gr. band. ckaable. 'habl. and Or.. &c. capanna. a cabbage . Cappa in OSp. string. . ! — . The double a in the OFr. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled.Lat. Sp. OFr. chaable. cabbage. it would seem fundain children's language. to keep or Du. cadabalum. caqueter. Capstan. aak! tandi like Fr. a frail. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. from trabocco. a booth or hut. and as we find stones Mid. cables. in which sense are explained The the OFr. headed. Choux cabus.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum.). havyar to caviare. Mid. caboche. stercus. kabas. aeggi. To steal or pocket.ticula. maim.. cabulus.Gr. It. signifying properly a rope's end. aakkat'a. head. gatsch. a rope. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. a rope. dirt and the Fr. the Prov. — . ceach / exclamation of guages. caable. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. nasty. agge machen (in nurses' language).

Sw. Calc-. . whence Lat. The Lat. kakulla.— Cot. ben- kalf. calx. a fever. when they are said to poor. kolo. Calamity. one unduly indulged by. kolo. a lump or large piece. Sp. kdfich. prate. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. its mother. hot. KaKKat. gabberen is identical with E. Lat. An open travelling chariot. cadere. cavea. Dan. cha'cmie cadence. or smooth Hnen cloth. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. cauldron. the pith or soft part of wood. to . is probably delusive. cattivo (from Lat. master. gabble. Cauldron. Fr. to throw themselves into the sea. kaad. capCalenture. KxiKivh^o^. Lat. chattering. calidus. It. kukje. a wheel . It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. pen Mod. Calash. caioler. cykevie. Mrs B. kail. chetif. to prate much to little purpose. Cadge*. Lat. caldaria. pith. kaka. roller. for green fields. 124 prattle . Du. bad . an ugly waggon kolaska. Cot. the bore of a cannon. calibre. so gabble corresponds with Fr. Sp. Caldron. calendrer. It is another form of the E. Cadaverous. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. caliche. From lerie. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. caldarius. cabdillo. Lat. — in a kiln. a reed. Perhaps from w. a calesh. the lump and the increase. reed-pen. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. Pol. Gael. of which. calculo.— . without loss. coll. of oxen and similar animals. limestone. form) calderone. gabbia. kuchen. &c. kauwe. a small stone. calessa. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). Calandre. kolyasochka. Du. Calp is riadh. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. kat. principal and interest. To Calender. a corpse. It. a roller. Fr. kolyaska. a wheel . dial. a vessel for heating water. Caitiff. . lindrus. calba. capitetum. little chief. * Cade. Sw. incolumis. from the Chinese catty. marrow. gaggle. Lat. Calocli. To Cajole. a tea-chest. just falling. to compute. collop. . kalb. from Gr. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. It. Sp. Turk. lord. ever and anon. Flo. ON. The young G. Cot. from the ink-bag which it contains. a wheel . gavia. pet lamb. rattaat (wheels). Fr. colibro. A cuttle-fish.uv. and troublesomely attached to. the pi. Turk. G. a hollow place. Lat. N. calibre. Cadence. a wheel. dead body. Cot. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. The Calf. cadence. javioler. calidus. a low note. cuttle-fish. (in the augm. koeck. cadet. disease of sailors from tivus). loss. Due. wanton. a wretch. Lat. A — fall. misfortune. Serv. captive. kolasa. an inkstand . gabbia. G. Cadet. * Calibre. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. Lat. calf of leg. Sw. En kaka br'od. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. Dan. kolo. frolicsome kaad mund. gaggia.warmth . Fr. to cage. ' . Du. especially of something soft. —Atkinson. babbhng. chaudron. cake. Tea-caddy. It. signifies a waggon. See Kiddier. A hooded carriage. Fr. to gabble. calpa. to heat. Lat. Russ. wretched. safe. a dence. As Du. ratas. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. kola. — — — Dan. coop. Gascon capdet. from calculus. a calash . unruly . calesa. Calf of the Leg. or prattle. to cackle . Caddy. a common cart. frisky. Originally from a Slavonic source. a cake or loaf. kalfi. calendarium. boy. to — Fr. a waggon . directly representing the chattering cries of birds. desire of land. Cake. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. lime whence calcareous. the calf of the leg. Cage. A . calentar. chaudiere. a car. pi. a mischievous dial. from calendcE. B. cadenza. to sleek hence a den. kalem. on. naXaiidpi. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. a circle. Lat. hence musical rhythm. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. cage.— Calliper. taking it Sp. Calcialate. calamus. Fr. kolesb. Calendar. to treat like lime. hot . of the nature of lime to calcine. Fr. cageoler. whence calash. the younger son of a family said to be from . . a caFr. Calamary. Lat. cadaver. calentura. calcis. Du. . joyous . a falling. It. kaeckelenj Gr. a cylinder. Cajol. a loaf of bread. kolesnitza. or colpa na coise. a counter used in casting accounts. calamitas. loss. Fr. In the same way Fin. kalfvan hout. Arab. kdtr. kage. Roman reckoning. It. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. cage. jabber.Gr.

calicot. Calico. given. hollaing. but is only a jda-kallo. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. from Calicut in the E. — Fl. Call. dragonder. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. Diez. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). to calk. drive. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. alta voce ploro. tittle-tattle. a feathers. whehce it was first brought. Caliph. the heat of Now these Du. serpentina.position is much less common than the geschut. calibre. Ptg. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). form. chatter. prattle. to prattle. Dief. Calm.' But it is hard Du. trull. on. sestus. Antiq. to hear. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. To call. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. overscalmaccio. The reference to heat is preserved in. Mahn derives it from Lat. Lat. calma. to be of a good or bad quality. voice. AS. bald. khalif. hot. kol. skin hardened by labour. scold. gossiping. the latter of chamber. and sometimes a handgun. * Callet. bombarda Cauma incendium. a last. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . caluw.en~ kinds of firearms. coluber also. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. to cram. Kavfia. kind heat of the sun. Sp. So It. chatter kallen. the scalp or skull. B. caillette. hallottaa. calca. sclopus. cahna. sence of wind. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. and heat. couleuvre. 'A callet of boundless tongue. a successor. To drive tow or oakham. Kil. serpens. Ca. Callow. To century was Squalibre. by many that the weapon Callous. Diet.— . callum. Mid. Bi. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. The word was also written cawme in OE. kahcwe. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. of the bore of a firearm met. Fin.(jaa= ice). saucy. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. piece of bigger circuite. Unfledged. Fr.Lat. i. brawny. Lat. whereas in troth it is not. calcaich.. form in the kalib. scalmato. femme frivole et babillarde. dragoon. Fr. . Probably from the sound of one hallooing. Due. to affirm. calat of leude demeaning. to call. to burn. Kil. having a thick skin. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. try. Du. calare. calgua. word of mouth . It. calvus. moist. calma. overheated. kael. Indies. a round of abuse. of a column. . To Calk. colubrina. oldire from audire. E. to callet. Sup. faint. an adder. ' rine. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre.' Slange. to call. to tread. CALM to press or stuff. kal. Hard. u to an I in such a colubrum. — — — — — . or languishing drought is . 125 Prov. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. colubraria canna. can be distinct from ODu. calo. CALICO Calliper-compasses. heat. people's remarks. a drab. or caliever. kal. fistula. depreciatory term for a woman. ram. harquebus or handgun. Sp. harden by pressure. kalla. Gael. quiet. the hard surface of the ground. Derived by some from Arab. licht stuk The change from a. — — — — — . Fr. which has its memory preserved in Du. abto suppose that E. tapulta. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. push violently. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. heat. culverin. moso. them &c.meaning of the word. and E. calor. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where.from Ka'tm. cauma. glotton. cauque.' Whitby Gl. * Caliver. or mould. koluvre. Among these were the turn. done with heat Alt. Ibid. the day. kallo. to say. longior. Gr. faint. klover. which is as much as to say.' Chaucer. According to Jal (Gl. calk. sound. cotton cloth. kil-u-kal. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound.piicede Lat. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. Turk. however. Fin. calleting. dial. to rail or scold . Lang. vulgo Coluvrine. calcare. calc. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. donderbuchs Sp. quality. callus. Sc. Sir John Smith in Grose. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. a soldier who the It. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. a. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . Heb. calclover. coluber. quA librd. ululo Turk. qAlab. Fr. caliver.' Winter's Tale. Mil. to proclaim. the Fr. whence couleuv. calme. coulevrine. diameter of a ball. the Fr. ' pert. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. The origin is Gr. KaXka. to abuse . water-tight. NE. nautique). calibre. a good calling. The primitive colubrina bombarda. and dragon.

unwater chamelot . campren. ckaouma. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. Kakoycpos. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. brought from Fr. a dog. KafivTu. the bed of a stream. An eater of human flesh. crook. cancer. Cancer. KafitjUe. having an aquiline nose. co7nbar.— Hackluyt in R. camisa. canalis. cAouma. Calyx. Lat. Camel. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. nia. toile some of whom. Lat._ kamm. good. a piece. Calumny. spot for cattle. aspirant. chommer. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. frank and sincandidatus. Cambrav—Cam. the type of a hollow pipe. arch. whence the noun signifying an applicant. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. Candid. crooked. From fluting or furrow in a column . camiscia. fair. ko/utuXoc. Caloyer. — Lat. the calix. Cann. a' Sc. Peter Martyr. whence the Fr. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. a basket. cambren. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. Cambray. It. Fr. callar. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. .' Forme of Cury in Way. the salmondis faillis thair loup. a field Greek monk. A — the Cannibals. campo. Cambric. sugar in pieces or lumps khand.—Candidate. aged. It. Fr. at the ends. lie level. calj'x. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. the space of false imputation. icaSoytipoe. bis.who their language. Cameo. a caught. se cameloter. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. the heat. Properly calver in the field during a war. to warp. campagna. chandelle. Mid. camahutus. would plenier. cambr^. kanna. Campaign. is Candle. callour. cere : Lat. Canal Channel. died in 1526. It. when its substance appears inter. or Caribs. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. E. campagne. samon. paign. Gr. champ. crooked-stick. Fr. camafeo. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. — Cancel. Sanson khanda. salmon. a. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. camaien. to bow. or hollow of a flower. mg Canister. from candere. is Cambering. the spersed with white flakes like curd. properly good country. a. Camlet. cup. an eating. campus. chaitcre. — B. Sp. candela. also an eatmg sore. It. field . Or the word Lat. Candy. to the force of the wind. to avoid enemy in their shirts. calutmiia.. sore. Ptg. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. open and level ground. Canibal. lattice. Fr. Palsgr. arched. camber-nosed.conduit-pipe. Fr. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. Turk. It. different sections of the like the Chinese. See Canker. .—Jam. slander. campagna. Camisade. clothed in white. had no r in de bric— Cot. In a different application It. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. camp. ation. camisade. a goblet bud. chamold man. — — — A — — escume de saumon. hooked. From campus was formed Lat. campaign. to bend. water chamlet . catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. a may have acquired that signification from plain. catmneo.Lat. Arab. Fr. Lat. crooked. canna. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. to bend. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. w. Sp. fresh. Sp.— Chandelier.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. white. to break. across — Bellenden in Jam. on. monk. cambre. cam^e. Gr. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. Pers. candidus. Bret. Calver of cane. and yspiuv. B. lame.— B. Mod. Canker. from xaXbg. champagne. Lat. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. cambrer. E. Fr.' ' Quhen a lattice. B. cainahelus. It.Gr. a crab. India Islands. whence Fr. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. cancello. camelot. cup. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon.—Cambrel. camelus. canistrum. Camp. canis. sugar. Cambrel. Lat. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. camiscieia. higher in the middle than Fr. Lat. Canine. Fr. arched. Cot. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. a large drinking . Lat. to jut. It was distinfrom work. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. to glow. crooked. The Grisons cauina. campo. E.

ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. a drinking glass. and met. . Probably only the augmentative of canto. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. to contain. canteau. From Gr.Gr. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. from . cainnt. kaput. a reed. kynnel. a — A — Cannel Coal. cane. name. a division of a country. as. cantle then is a corner of a thing. a cover Turk. Fr. a small boat. contain. Diez. Palsgr. canvas. regular. and tref. . It. N. The — . from a Canter. side. haitt. KCLvva. gnat. Cannoii. . properly a large Prov. It. Mod. the tried list of saints. Jonson. was formed Kavtiiv. has kahn. cantred. a cane. Hence Lat. Cot. schlappen. canoa. and hence a gobbet. Schwab. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. schlapp. cape. speech. a side. coarse hemp. hirnschlapple. Capable. But it may be different source. tain. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. is found languages of very different stocks. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. KaTTiram. Canton. canapaccia. to put upon sacred writers. margo panis diffracta. It. chanteau. Gugel. See Chape. to shut. say. able to receive. Cope. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. a corner. root cap. Sp. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. &c. a ship canot. kandt-broodts. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. cannevo. chape. corner. call. a reed. canonicus. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders.^on. Gael. Goldast — in in Schmid. capa. a cloak. canto.Gr. cannone. a hunch of bread. Coal burning with bright flame. cappa. kq. a cantle of bread.. quarter. Du. Capacious. hood. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. clqse. cantref. W. a cap. Swab. quito curtain. or hold. hemp. kand. shut. a rule or standard of excellence. The word seems to be taken from Gael. Sp. A slow gallop. Canvas. Alamannis. edge. A . carcase . Prov. a hundred. cheese. Wtb. capax. Canoe. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. Germanis kdppen. Mod. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. chantel. quarter . a wine-cellar or vault. Again we have Lat. a Fr. kwvwxIi. or cantell of bread. Fin. cope. a door . the quartile. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. The meserseum and the mesentericum. trine.— Cot. hamlet. from cant. which is not the case. capevole. pipe.n. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. A piece of anything. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. cannevaccia. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. To canvas — . canon. From Lat. Cape. region. a horn of the moon . the heel. cannabis. a tube. Fr. canapa. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. part. It. he discourseth of dissection. Canopy. Picard. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. Esthon. canevas. the part easiest broken off. territorial hundred. Canon. coarse hempen cloth Fr. cantone. to sing. covered. signifying cover. leiwan kanta. a boat. Canteen. cappe. language. cane. it would have been found in the continental languages. being a yard or thereabouts . Sp. like a torch or candle. OFr. the heel. can. kyndel. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. Of vena cava and of vena porta. that the G. . from canna. a pipe. kapamak. border Dan. cane. To Canonise. It. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. capello Italis. canton. cappe. B. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. hemp. ON. cover . rumme. It. Fr. as a cantle of bread. To his judicial And trowl the tile.CANNEL vessel. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. coat. See Capt-. canonici. to con- rummer. and the sex- &c. astrology. &c. capace. Capari. If the word had been from cantherius. from Dan. cannu. also a measure. a cloak kapali. a ruler. kanta. Kil. kantr. a straight rod. It. Cantle. Cant. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. a scull- — here. caparazon. a gelding. cane. cover kapi. Kavt\. cantina. a torch. lump. Lat. border. measure for cloth.

gricciare. greziller. brissle. It. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. capitulare. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. w. a little head. brezilia. A headland. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. to broil. ziki. as Fr. as Fr. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. upon terms Sp. capillus. cApre. capparis. rihrczzoso. to twitter as birds. fansuddenly angry. wriggle. or. to ruffle the surface of water. frort^Lat. for which he cites the Comask nucia. prickly husk of chestnut. <I>pi'?oe. a capriol. grisser. to desire earnestly. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. frissoner. airoKOTrrw. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. frisser {frissement d'un trait. a yearning through sudden fear. curl. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . a . So from Sw. capro. Unexpected pleasure. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. of a fowl. or Lat. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. herissonnement. grillcr. as in Lat. birsle. Caper. according to the Hindoos. ericius. eruca compared with It.) grezille marid. abridge amKoTroq. It. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. cappriccio. to . capriole. algabr. It. See Chief. Lat. to parch. hair. curly. bristling. arricciarsi. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. belonging to From caput. Fr. Hal. Griller d'im' patience. greziller. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. humorous. and 7tucc.impressions on the ear. Lang. And similarly to yearn. castrated cock. to crackle. then find the symptoms of shivering. cover of a saddle. Acad. capriola. then to shiver or shudder. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. a caper in dancing. sault. a buck. or other things. gricciare. Fr. chief. II bresole (Gl. frisson- ner . heath. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. ticchio. Caprice. It is probable that Gr. brisciare. or goat's leap (done by a horse). I have shivered with love. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. cut. then to be in a state of vibration. knis. and with an initial gr instead of br. a ch illness. brisciare. caprice It. of a coach. cut off. p. brisciare. the head. arricciarsi. capriol or caper in dancing. bristling. Genevese bresoler. the singing'bone). to broil. as Fr. It. the whizzing of an arrow Cot.— 128 CAPE a rustling. A . end. Lat. a head. G^' Many words — ' ndv. gives rise to Sc. to shudder. The same imitation of Capon. Fr. capitalis. a caterpillar. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . shrub. of a tremtdoiis sound.Gr. s'hdrisser. caprice. It. capar. and OHG. also the capriole.). horror. Capillary. with joy' Vikram. the hair to stand on end. It. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. Lat.'— Trev. brug. To treat Capitulate. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . grisser. principal. the principal part of the debt. grug. the hair to stand on end. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. gives rise to brezza. as the means of earning profit. compared with Bret. The true derivation lies in a different direction. Capers. to fry. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. knis-hujwud . erica. caj)o. a kid. roughening of the skin. CAPRICE twittering. Mod. explained by Diez from capra. frizzle. Hair-like. to crackle. toy. a goat. rissoler. Lat. a separate division of a matter. Fr. Torriano. hi. castrated. to shiver for cold. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. brisoler. a hedge-hog. It. . Hence capitalis the sum lent. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir.' Cot. riccio. ^piKos. ribrezzo. aggricciare. or represented by the syllable e. kid. Capital. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. h^risser. they longed extremely to see it.) d'etre The It. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses.standing on end. the head. the initial mute of forms like Gr. hedge-hog. horripilation. Cot.' — (Supp. chattering of the teeth. a young kid met. curling. — to yearne. crackling sound Cape. is either wholly lost. It. shivering. Fl.— Fl. bruco. Arab. where Burton adds in a note. shivering. alcaparra. Sp. 75. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. a chevret. to shiver. caper j caprio. — — A a hair. and his body bristled We to castrate. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. to from capitulum.

It. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. fancy. where it forms a very large class of compounds. oisr. and has accordingly been lost in E. Carabine. a reception. contain. In cases. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. Capriole. char. Passing on into E. verbs gives rise to the element . -cept. intercept. cabreia. seize. to receive receptio. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. Fin. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. a she-goat. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. caprice. i The meaning Car. was converted into -ceb. chirrion. a hooded friar. Cot. as in accipio. and has thus descended unaltered to English. It. to take baclc. Sp. from head. recipere. conception.). a sawing-block or trestles. Carabin. a. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. Thus the musket. Carbine. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. to load . and of captus to an e. Derivatives are Fr. Lat. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. dim. recepte. recevoir. a sudden will. captive. to creak. concept. calabrin. conceive. Lat. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. concevoir. precept. Capuchin. cabestan. to creak. cams. &c. It. Nordfoss. however. capp%tccio. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. capra. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. G. a sudden fear apprehended. sels. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. a kind of torture. Etym.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. trestle. karista. 129 — receive. capitis. a hood (dim. Cot. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. recipio. crepo. Cart.. crab s. di cappa. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. The It. charret. as in OFr.of these compound verbs. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. Lat. caricare. &c. . to take to. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. captivate. It. a cloke) capuccino. cabestrantej Fr. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. was originally a missile . It is a standing crab. a fantastical humour. one odd. as the dragoons (Du. cabrestante (whence e. also a kind of rack. It. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. of capsa. also tresFl. Captain. or the (capo-riccio). deceit. an engine for throwing stones. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. a creaking waggon. bock. carro. Fl. desire. concebir. -cept. capuccio. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. to carry . Kiittner. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. carabin. a capuchin. It. Sp. commander. and tropically. Fr.). it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. tnoschetta. the -cevofthe Fr. Lat. caput. also to carry on a car . CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. chirriar. Neumann. Crab. Fr. strideo. Du. Fr. except. cabra. to accept. acceptus. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. to this is It. case. — — Capstan. carretta. a taking back. of the Sp. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. accept. to please. karren. to take. a head man. at least. capitano. Fr. See Caper. a windlass. Caseneuve in Diet. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. Castr. conceit. captus. capsula. deception. Capsule. was a kind of horse soldier. de- price. perceive.s. capio. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. OSp. calabrino. box. decepte. shivering fit (Altieri). fantastic. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . Capt-. caThe hrestante. whence capture.. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. — —Diet. Carry. a. In the S. a cart. karra. karrende waegen. chevre. a coffer. -ceive.or -cib-. hold. &c. kerren. Capstern. charger. It. Fr. Du. charrier. Fr. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. krul. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. latterly. recibir. receptus. concipere. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. Fr.

&c. carta. caraffa. . the .Gr. silique. turning. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . Fr. It. to turn. Cat. mural attack. a twist. a machine for casting large darts. Gr. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. to hiss (as gee^e). Card. KtpaTwv.applied to a battering-ram (G. cdrlag. card. or framework. Gr. Lat. ON. Carboy. winding. decanter. a goat. Gael. coming to four grains. a he-goat. cardo. tcapKaai. Carrob. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. properly a siege machine. eit. Pers. vitriol. to comb wool . confining. It. caravela. Caraool. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. carch. an engine for hurling stones. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. to card wool. It. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. carabba. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. the shell of a torcarcasso. carquan. Parmesan cassiron. Lat. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. carquois. Fr. cabra. a small weight. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . carbunculus (dim. Gael. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. curry-comb. OHG. a prison. Exot. «capa'|8i. See Carpenter. military engines made for hurling stones. a card or comb . Arab. burning coal.. Sp. winding carach. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. Fr. p. skeleton toise. word is only an adoption of the Turk. Gael. I. the dead body of any creature. carbo. Ptg. a lock of wool . and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. Bohem. — seems to be something holding together.' From the same source are SicU. caraffe. karszti. carcanada. carduus. carcanet. the husk or cod of beans. Mod.charcoal . It. . a dead carcase. The radical meaning . the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. skeleton. carcasa. car. a ripple for flax. an ulcer. carmiiiarc. a crane. Caravel. contract. carcaij. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. cabrita. shell. a collar or chain for the neck. kirat.. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. It. karri. to card wool. Sp. designated in the case of G. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. the name might naturally Mod. a gem resembling a live coal. the carcase of a fowl. to ripple flax. a skeleton. the core of fruit . cabreia. Comp. carbh. Cot. bock and Fr. and catapulta. caracal. . carere. Lith. From the battering-ram. quilato. cerran. Carbuncle. matter. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first .— — — . cassa.. to curry horses karsztuwas.Gr. to creak. a quiver. is the word used in modern Lat. in the same way that the Sp. kerwan. of the same Caravan. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. seed of carob. kard boyd.. carcame. to comb. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. ancient springald. AS. eitar. Carbonaceous. garafa. carabe. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). a ship.z. copperas.. wool card. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. Venet. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. a case or chest . espi7igarda. An implement for dressing wool. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. quse vocant karabd. skeleton. a battering-ram). for a gun. the case of the flesh. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. turn of a horse. the carob bean. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. Sp. poison eiz. to draw in. carate. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. &c. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. krciti. cramp. the trunk or chest of the body . casso. alia sunt majora. a quiver. chevre by the name of the goat. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. &c. a thistle. Cot. is the chine. a kind of ship. bend. fire . also (as Gr. black dye. W. . Derived in the first edition from Mod. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. a quiver . ' Vasa vitrea. also a small weight. avSpaS. The Trjg xeXwwac. a quiver . karra. a firelock. case. Carat. . But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. a wool card. a coffer. Gael. Carcase. Sp. Sp. boch. constraining . Fr. restraint . of carbo). whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. wine- bottle. a winding staircase. a snail. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. a thistle. Carcax. carquasse.

Carlings. — — — Caress. carminare. sorrow. to distress growl.— Charter. a card. — — — : Cardinal. sensual. Chart. male person. croller. ON. meet at a head. beans. carriire. Cargo.. weyes. Fl. ON. Carnal. to fry or broil. It. Dan. Roquef. murahtaa. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. one of those ac- 9 * . — Carfax. sorrow. Sept. karrig. and sum. parched or carled. karout. 1S66. kummer. crawl. combing them out like the knots in wool. carnavale. AS. careless take care of. the time during which to Rom. a hinge. Cartel. cearian. Farewell flesh. cardo. Carnage. to growl. Fr. carnis. From. charnage. a deed. Sp. W. carnalis. msstus. fleshy . intrasset caro. AS. W. carian. tuorfurcm (Burguy). kribina. tenax. Fr. — — . scharren. caru. carch. appertaining to the flesh. from the keel to the water . It. and compare Bret. & Q. zanken . Care. Fr. what is felt as grievous. . For the root of carminare. Translated in MS. the keel of a vessel. It. from caricare. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. a highway. murista. 8. from carus. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. carcare. . caritia. car. kara. Ptg. 273. karantez. to comb wool. essere in carena. Probably the origin of the word is the . It. Fin. cura may be ror. crowl. Cot. as peas. or street. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. Caricature. karl. and murhet. and thin. carnal. . quadrifurcum from quameet. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. Fr. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. winding. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. caresse. crosier. caMid. A quirito ut infans. AS. is This however Shrove tide. dear. Fr. as carminare. to rumble. four. in St Jerome. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. Bret. Gael. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. karry. to shake. carriera. kargr. is to say. fundamental. as quadrivium from Carnaval. Properly a car-road. hoed. Peas steeped and fried. Coll. carFrom carrus. mutter. to load. strideo.Lat. carezza. whence carricare. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. stridere. . carrefourg. ress. 2. to eat flesh. an endearment. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. charag. Fr. the old theory of humours. charie. — To Careen. care. from carrus. Venet. G. to scrape . graller. like connection may be seen between Fin. grolU. to care unkarja. to lie on its side. Carled peas. cardinis. asper. in N. OHG. moeThe Lat. surrata. It. carener. carcus. the flesh of animals . to load. cdrle. Cark. a man. Trin. voce strepo stridente. also a career on horseback. x'»P'"^s)) paper.. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. in Carp. E. principal. charnel. It. to scratch. . G. caricare. Mur. sgritudo animi. immediately before the long fast of Lent. the hull of a ship. charger. affection. — — Diez. camovale. Cot. Groler. to love. tremble. A medical term from line —Boerio. to clean the bottom of the ship. niggardly . an overloaded representation of anything. the load of a ship. Charnel. karista. OFr. care on. A mod-carag. de Parthenay. Carl. karg. &c. . It. place for exercise on horseback. quarreG. gakaran. soUicitus OSax. bottom. Properly.' Slceat. to take Goth. Fr. cearig. rixosus. to load. at murmuring. clown or churl. to card wool. carena. carina. carena. Lat. ignarus. act of moaning. record. Cath. Bret. a turn. w. charta (Gr. see Garble. Sp. cura intenta. caricatura. W.Lat. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. charneux. carnasciale. ceorl. Fr. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. p. giierlir. morosus. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. the keel. stingy. piger. from Lat. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. Card. to fry. Cot. chartre. regar. the several meanings of the words above Rom. charg. that on wliich the matter hinges. No ' place there had. astutus. that Fl. be anxious. . Champ. Carminative. grief. road. Fin. kumra. and G. cargar. love. compared with Fin. quaver a lazar's clack. A place where four roads Mid. . kroU-erbser. solicitous. or grumbling —Due. cargo. to parch. Carenare.— CARD karr-kambar. murren. morosus sum. wool cards. Bois crolant d'un ladre. kurista. to whirr (schnurren). Lat. to comb flax or hemp.

Dief. 2. or a carouse fully drunk up. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. was formed Mid. A. bier. a wheelwright. charpie. chatter skra/a. carpita. gonna. On this. whence the form carnasciale. ' ' — . gar aus / all out is correct. qui sacco. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. tattle. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. Carnelevale. Pm. ON. carduz. on that. CarTo quaff carouse do use.— Neum.: . to pull asunder. Carnevale. 2. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. cxciv. Carpyn or talkyn. ship. From Lat. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. Shrove Tuesday. Other names of the sea. in Due. carpetam (a quilt?). lint.— Patriarchi. I drink all out. a song accompanying a dance then. in Nat. Palsgr. Mid. Pref. All out B. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words.— R. 216.gonnella. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. Here's to you still my captains friend. peta. to reel. act of drinking a full Eq. Carpet. of Guiana. garrulo. charpentier. and F. . To pledge them thou refuse. cardos. Pr. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. carpo. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. i.Why give's some wine then. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. 760. ! Carouse. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. all aus). Sup. in Carp. zimmer. . Olr. chariot carbad. Ant. to rustle.' Raleigh. Gower in Way. pluck. chirp. Templariorum — ' — Due. Mid. to pluck. Carpenter. ballare.' Reg. zimmerspan. chatter. fabulor. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. Analogous R.' Ordo Eccles. Properly a round dance. balade from It. vel coopertorio carebit. differing To Carp.— Drant in R. The custom.]e bois Carnelevale.' says Motley (United Neth. a carder. as carnaval from carnelevamen. krapanj. quoted by Carpentier. pluck at.D. Teut. 1 1 30. to talk. i. — — ' ' — — — I — — . The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. The karole of the stones behelde. carpia. used for stuffing mattresses. Bret. Carole. a drinking cup. Mediol. skraf. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. a plank. to gather. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. .' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. carpenta.Lat. carpenticre. In Dominica d'autant. Sp. Chanson de carole. sense. querole. carbh. Beggars Bush. Cot. as the Lat. Nomin. krapati. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. as E. carpat (Stokes). corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. tymmer. carnelascid).' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. yede tham about. The word seems of Celtic origin. a dance. e. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. Alluz (G. Fr. maker of waggons It. W. Lat. The tippling sots. at midnight which derivation from kroes. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. carpenter only in the latter sense. is erroneous.Lat. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. The ' ' a chariot. On the other hand bumper to one's health.Lat. Ein we find the signification transferred from . course. Gael. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. carpetrix. carpere. or loose as a couch without further preparation. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. as Fr. 94). QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. to dance. So gone they forthe.'— Stat. Lat. biheld without. carpentum. Carpitam habeat in lecto. and Carnem laxare (It. Bohem. a wheelwright. I quaught. a car carpentarius. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. Biheld within. Fr. garrire. culcitra. — . permitted in anticipation of the long fast. linteamen. worker in timber Fr. In a MS. koroll. litter. carpende fast Carol. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. to find fault with. Discov. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. to chatter coroli. cited by Marsh. Lat. to dance.

charrette. tion from Sp. Cash. like all the names of tendon. case. to notch. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. to — — also casse. Hence casket. coffin of paper for groceries. It. augmentatives of carro. cassa. discharge It. cartilage. cascade. Case. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. Lat. the charge of — — Fr. shell or carcase of a house. and the OE. from Lat. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. cascata. The carrying of anything. See Gristle. cartoccio. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. — — nul the proceeding. kerben. cassus. mord-keller. Fr.' Fl. Cot. See Case. something that actually occurs. packing ' cloth. Fr. to bear or carry. helmet. It. carroccio. Cask. kerven. a chest. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. capsa (Diez). To duash. pasteboard. case-maiej Sp. Lat. paper. one who reasons on cases put. subject for a picture. Preparatory drawing of a It. caroche. Walach. It. mord-grube. crown of a hat. casacca. charogne. It. cartouche. mata. and that apparently from capio. ignominiously exposed. Cartel. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. gristle. carogna. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. abrogate. Cassock. Lith. a of water. — Cartridge. CartOTicli. to crack. card. of carta. To Cashier. cartella. for the security of the defenders. Carrot. where Fr. quasser. casitiste. an augmentative from Lat. Case. As defence from shells became more important. Fr. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. from It. a loopscale the wall. Fl. empty. OE. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. and matar. Rouchi caroche. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. Cot.' Cot. To quash an indictment. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. AS. Case-mate. void cassare. an act of falling. as we . hollow. cia. Flor. Casual. It. to convey in a cart. casso. cascare. Probably. Rouchi carone. — FI. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . casus. To Carry. hung up in some place and to be removed. to fall. casuelj Fr.— Fl. caro. Carrion. to dash. caisse. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. Fr. See Card. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. It. Rouchi carpHe. corresponding to the G. G. fall It. Cascade. AS. Fr. made void. cascar. Fr. to hold. house. Casuist. a canonry or slaughterhouse. dim. carreaggio. turn out of service. cancelled. — Cartoose. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. — — . a hut. a car. bag and baggage of a camp. cancel. kirpti. It. Fr. to cut or carve . a car. from the sound it makes when Alban. the money chest. hull of a ship. augm. carretta. also the carriage. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. Sp. Fr. to fire on the enemy. ceorfan. properly to convey in a car. caisse. a paper case. Sp. to slay. caxa. annul. carroc- carrozza . and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. break to pieces. cut with scissors. Lat. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. carretto. a fall. cashiered. Cartoon. not reaching to the height of the ditch. discharge. Carriage. blotted out. cassere. casser. kasseren. To Carve. Rouchi carter. Fl. crush. caisse. a chance or accident. The Sp. Fr.' — Hdcart. a merchant's cash or counter. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. luggage. a coffer or small case for jewels. quash. a long coat. long man's gown with a close body. casa.to annul. gristle. Fr. kerpu. Du. from It. cartone. Gael.. des rideaux A'carp^ie. Cart. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. Fr. to an- — Kil. casualis. Hence a challenge openly hung up. to shear. afterwards any written challenge. from casa. krat. coffer. casa-maita. cassa. vault hole in a fortified wall.' Bailey. Ready money. Casket. to break. bitten. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. ' Casa-matta. Lat. caroach. It. casaque. Du. casco signifies a skull. cassette. carota. Casque. casag. carriaggio. carrosse. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. of carro. fortuitous. slaughter-house. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. charrier. Fr. It. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp.

OFr. was introduced. casser. to look at. while kiss / Pol. fall. to break. KarapaKrr]g. cacciarc. kotas. stilts. Hence castaneta. to Fl. squash. or comba. the earlier sense of catch. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. Pic. — We a cavity. sue.Rouchi Scaches. to crack. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. by the loss of with several pitched cords. . squash. So also from It. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. Pm. KaraXoyog. katze. race. to fall as over a precipice. ichasses. heat . and tomba. arpi^m. a little house or hut. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. bot-kotis. torture. KaTappaKTrjQ. away. of sarabands does Gr. B. a whip on the other into latch. follow after.' ' Catchyn or The Fin.. kotas. &c.Lat. ON. It. a vault. mino.'— Pr. accastiare. Castanets. dim. chat. cacciuolo. V. punch. a cat koshki. Gr. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. an enumerlist. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. crush . casupola. perhaps from which we have E. Cot. of castrum (castra).— Fl. dashing it out of the window. . making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. however. to is Essentially the Sp. Thus we have Caste. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. is not satisfactory. to scourge. signifying breed. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. dashing it to pieces. a cat . passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. to torture. 134 CAST Catacomb. ecrevisse. Fr. catch. to dash. Chase. Yz. chasuble. cat-o'-nine. kakka. Isidore — in Diez. to close. Brunne. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. to hurl See Awgrim. puras E. V Lith. Fr. To It. ' Catchyn away abigo. cascar. handle of an axe. a chesnut . Lat. Etym. koshka.. Lang. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. Fr. a fortified place. which has been retained in E.out cacciare . a Cataract. in the fire. casulla. being Fin. It. Gael. represented by the syllable quash. It. Roukind. from water Karappaaaiii. castro. 120. name. klakka. down.the / or c respectively. Sp. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. . . Castle. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. cash. fer toTa. drive away. castanetazo. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. to end. rack. probably from an imita. In the dialect of Picardy. speak of dashing a thing down. shaft of a 1 push. Fr. a thump. the ground . like that of It. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. Fr. dash. to drive Cat o' nine tails. and KviilSog. KaTaarpifm. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. Catastrophe. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. to bring to an crack given by the joints. coming to us through different dialects of French. down. chasser. to clack. or Rouchi cat. to drive away.to drive out. castellum. cast. kissa. same word with break. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. to make clean or chaste. to cast or beat to tioner . Sp. cojz^/a. The E. Gr. which. 'Vaaaw. kasi. the stalk of plants. to hunt. a garment for performing the mass in. Others explain it from Kara. Catalogue. kic' kicil are used chasser. Mid. kottr. under chi caleur. ating. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. kaJoivad. cat. the castanets for or implement . tails. The Diet. chasser. _G. kat. To Catch. cacciare fuora. lance. burst cascare. Fr. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. from the first of Castrate. force j Rouchi equerviche. Fr. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. casule. kasta. first made ordinary Fr. Pol. cassa / cry for the same purpose. catar. puss / for calling them. Fr. Cat. R. image accasciare. . The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. and from the castus. Hal. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. or bruise together. Fr. chaleur. to turn overturn. to lash. on. casipola. Cast. castello. castana. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . to crackle. Lat. n. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. execu. second chase.

. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. formerly called cliket. fragor kletsoore. as of the latch of a As ! — . and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. a cornIn the s. apprehend a person. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. Cot. flap klatsche. to A bailiff. bicho. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. a — gatta. Gael. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. caucht. pedes. insect. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. woodlice. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. klatsch. klatscherei. chatter . — . a. P. klinke. snatching it with a any one. icarrix'Ki^. * Cates. Kil. Sp. is said that he got a claucht of it. gattola. to the crack.from Bard and ayopsw. chase. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. KaTtix'so. . chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. millecaterpillars. Guernsey pilleure. silkworm. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. dainties. which all . ' Fr. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. Guernsey chafer. Sc.j. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. weevils. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). verberare kUts. ecachoire. Fr. claquer. seize. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. chachara. Claucht. * Caterpillar. devouring mite or weevil. cat is not apparent. . — explained. Gael.' ^Jam. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. children's name for cat . in order).' CATCH Fr. to kythe D. clatter. . such a sound or the stroke which produces it. Ptg. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . the distance to which the ball is struck. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. chink. Grandg. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . catch-flesh. caker. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. companaige. Cot. a whip. 135 — Aasen. Caterer. ' ' word catch. a whip. head. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. catch. Chate peleuse. dainty vic- a form lash. E. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s.V. clap with the hand. the elements of a science.s. cache. ketsoore. E. Du. resound. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. to take. kaetse. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. resono ictu lash. glcu. Fr. called dog or Galla catchamza. or any kind of relishing food tuals. c or ^. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. a pill. chasse. de Bray. blow. gliong. a smack. smack. snatching. happe-chair. e. bichano (pussy). in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. Kil. Cates. door when it is shut. Wal.V. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. kletse. predicament. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. G. — Catcli-poll. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. Diez. Fr. 'Bxn. chenille {canicula. — tinman. a. — B. to chat. called in Fr. with and without an / after the c. wild-beast. whip. the OE. i. kletsen. to teach by oral instruction. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. Rouchi clincailleux. compare G. latch of. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. e. instruction in forms. and answer. a caterpillar Milanese can. a little dog). a whip or Kuttner. chatter. from Gr. to snatch (said of dogs). an accusing. quincailler. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. from shutting with a click. clap. Du. a clap. a carter's Pat. Swiss Lombard G. ArbaUte de courte chasse. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. chassoire. to crack GATES cache. . to chatter with the teeth cake. Tutschek. On Catechism. Kartiyopta (/cari. In the XV'e. ictus resonans. klatsche and Norm. a whip Rouchi cachoire. GaUa catchiza. the the same principle he was Fr.yopl(. to harangue. catc?u. 'Horxa. to snap. s. Metivier. has both or of charming by sound. E.P. . catch. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. — Kiittner. to clap hands. Gr. — with a whip. Du. klatschen. worm. OFr. gingle. cagnon (a dog). snatched. latch. to catch strength. sound. chacepol.) . an officer of taxes.

kobyla. It.—— — 136 correct. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. Manciple's Tale. CATHARTIC sense. kautsije. dumpf tonen. Cave. Provider.p. little cap is . On the other hand. calqada. cal^ar. Fr. is Prologue. — — cavallo. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. 4. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. G. Jonson in R. Cattle. Du. flue. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. a horse . quire. kassije. from KaSaipio.. Lat.^Hal. a road calceata. Fr. Lat. is used in the sense of cat-skin. a horseman. hollow. to shoe. walnut with the husk on challer. catons..Lat. having the property of cleansing. cabbage). — Cauterise. Fin. KiwariKog.Lat. chausser. catkin mitz. choufleur {choii. to purge. cavaliere. a kind of skull-cap. fur. lamb. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo.Y\\Xea. to ac- — Fr. Diez). . to shale or peel. cavus. Pol. KaHSpa. Richly she feeds. Cavern. It. causa. The word — . Fr. chair. and at the rich man's cost By sea. cabbage. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. a horse. katteken. chauderon. mutz. a horse . puss. the. Boethius.willow. Mid. Cavalier. acater. Cavity. also to pave . make clean. deyntie meates. Caudle. to burn. Rete. primitive is meaning a shale or off. 2. It. hot. Lat. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. Caustic. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. koparet. Russ. Cause. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. kopista. Gr. Bessie of Bednall. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. hot. kitten kotki. from caveo (p. puss.' B. little cat. and hence a skull-cap. to sound like a blow . a mare. It. . a seat. fur in general. Fr. caldo. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. cale. macska. . Lat. mudet. klopfend knallen. net or caul-work. Du. achepter. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. Fr. Pr.' Elyot in Way. a branding from koiio. Dryden in R rete. Gael. otherwise written kell. despencier. Caballus. Lat. rete A — Prov. kobuiV. chatideau. cautus). &c. a The peel. Cauldron. from delf^gato. kopano. calidus. Fr. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. w. caballus.^ acheter (Lat. Lat. any Fl. catkin Pol. a kettle for heating water. Fr. chaussJe. to shoe . cale. Kavrijp. a stalk. That he was ay before in his estate. Palsgr. kocianki. what . kaussijde. cat maczoka. Cathedral. flock. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. by land. Kavrfipiov. kin. apt to burn iron. Fr. Delycates. the caul of the liver. calotte. OE. Cavalry. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. Catkin. . to buy. cauHs. Causeway. whence cathedralis. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. Palsgr. chaudiire. Cathartic. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. Chaud. Port. Fr. catkins . but the acates that are sent him. Ka^afriKOQ. Thus Bav. Gr. Gr. katte. minon. chevalier. Wyatt in R. . a pulpit. via strata. Sx. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. reticella. cheval. ce^l. adcaptare. KaPaWrii. acaptar. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. Kil. caudex . calceta. a paved road. green husk of a calon. It. challe was ther of a temple. A warm comforting drink. accapitare Rouchi acater. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. cautis. kocie. . kdtzchen. a pavement. a receptacle for small things. Jaubert. ' Gr. CAVE Caul. shaled or picked Fr. hazel. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. Cavalcade. from chaud. the stones of a street. • — — See Chattel. Fr. puss. accattare. — . and spareth for no perell. to beware. . in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. B. catkin Magy. Mid. Caution. capull. calceata. cabbage-stalk. chaudroii. caple. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web.

a boarded floor. dil. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. B. a severe bridle. the deck of a ship at thilja. p. The line of descent from Fr. heaven. rafter. 32. flooring E. hollow. Lat. — . quibble. ciel is so unbroken. board . a hut. In the same way G. Sherwood. . curved. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa.' Rutland papers. that. Plancher. pp. selure. to plank or floor with planks. nailes will begin to cling. in Jam. The importation of Fr. to cut. See -cede. &c. komo. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. tester of a bed. and Gol. Hence concede. cielo. in Jam. or of a bed. -cede. &c. . Soc. were met. In the N. ciel de lit. The It. koppeli. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. a log. a board. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. cabegon. a plank. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. Cam. Lat. a fir-plank. cedo. in Hal. a log. little house. step away. and that from Sp. Cavil. hivtmel. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold.. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. -ceed. to seele or close with boards plancher. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. door-sill J Sc.' Ordinances and Reg. Cot. with their substantives concession. Cease. hung.' del. the roof of a coach. lambris. Sp.' Hall. To seele a room. is applied to a canopy. recede. Sir 137 pit . syle. Lat. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. Cede. cavillor. hollow ice . give place. komista. cavezzone. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. thiling. . seele.' Marriage of James IV. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. of cavezza. also a seeling of boards. cessum. sill. p. kapp-zaum. -cease. H. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. — . . a planking or boarding tkilian. cyling (W. wainscot thiljar (in pi. ceiling. — — — toyour soverane.' Cot. cesso. &c. crooked kopio. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. succeed. to argue capto tiously. applied to a canopy. as. sill in window-sill. and then to gape. . From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. a canopy. It. cellar.' — Gawan . proceed. Fr. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over.'— Z.). And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. cease. syl. dayntily diglit. a beam. And seik — Cessation. semely on syll. a log. caveqon. 43. departure. Wore. departure from this life. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. . sus-lambris. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. kommata. Lat. wall. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. The sense of roofing. thil. post. IV. column E. dille. Gawaine & Sir Gol. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. a head. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. to go forth. hollow. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. plank. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. to plank ON. 7. E. sky. thel. thili. Fr. an aquiline nose. . the testern of a bed.j have come from this source. jaa. of E . selar. thelu. . anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. ceiling. excess. a canopy. -cess. plank. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. . &c. the inner roof of a room of state. empty. A — A false accommodation produced G. Fr. . coffer. Boyd in Jam. CAVESON kopera or kowera. sybire. wuoren komo. thil. as if from happen. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. So from Fin. dScis. deal. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. death. bridle. menuiserie. del into English without ' translation gave cele. thilja. decessus. a halter. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. canopied. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. 5. to panel or wainscot MHG. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. Hal.). . Ceiling. augm. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. to canopy siled.. beam. heaven. VIII. lambrisser une chambre seeling. cabega. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. but hang around at the sides. exceed. yield. — komo tain). —Decease. . and zaum. Fr. . And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa.

K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. appertain.). family. a religious observance. The term cilium. rough from the quarry. his office. It. Fr. Chafe. criticism. and thence censer. renown be embodied with. observe. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. festive. Prov. eyelid. Sherwood. swift. then to rub without reference Cement. confounded ist from It. and so of that other. . with transposition hence (of a day). In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. To chafe is for wine. Censer. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. concernor. — — Cenotapli. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. to take. the place where the de. deceipt. — . -cipio. sting. cilibat. -cebre ifoncebre. calefacere. /ctj/rsw. -ceit. with the eyes. to burn incendo. sacred show. a hundred of what- — . chaufferette. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. Cot. to twinkle darkness. also grave opinion. to sepap rate. cencer. . to think. materials It. judge. assess.' Celebritas. Gr. -civer {conciver— Roquef. -cense. of heating. a numerous con. pick out. -cepere. rubble. to incense. single or unwedded life. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. in Marsh. become heated with anger. Assize. &c. a valuation of every man's estate. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. In Celebrate. to concern. census. oil. — A . to blindfold. Gr. ciglio. -cess. parted sleep. To Incense. quarters for slaves. as entering largely into the derivative certo. the talk of men. to distinguish. concerner. Celebrity. Cell.. mortar. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. being taken from Fr. Take the nedyll and threde. tax. -i^oivre. much frequented. Lat. It. see. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. — . Fr. OFr. to course of people. concetto. Assess. to seal a pigeon's eye. Fr. riscaldarsi. encens. age. and met.unmarried. to rub for the purpose a hut. Gr. Lat. Cereal. Lat. Lat. irot\oe. -ceptjun. S. for building. Ceremony. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. ' . from Saa-rw. distinIt. See Cede. conceipt. make angry. — . ciller. Lat. cigliare. Fr. -cevoir. Fr. a solemnity. to -sum. ceremonia. in comp. what to set in a chafe. receipt. Censure. cillier. and thence to conceal. to be regarded as one celebro. calefare. K^'ivut. Lat.' Book of St Albans. hollow. Lat. chauffer. Census Censor.of the r. to set on fire. keep in It. See Celibacy. contend. sift. the officer appointed to take such returns . a storehouse Chafe. to seele or sew up the eyelids . to rate. Lat. solemn (of per. abundance. and put it through the over eyelydde. -ceive. -oept. Lat. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse.cern.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. guish. is the opposite of disora virum. as in some places burnt.j 138 thill. Cess. we have a modified form of (of a place). KsvTpov. incense. Century. capturn. censura. thence belonging to or connected with corn.). Celerity. a hundred centuria. the point round which a circle is drawn. capio. estimate. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. and — — — possessions. celeber certus.. to celebrate. deceit. stones to the production of heat. candeo. dchauffer. tax. point. goad. Accelerate. zens according to their property. cot. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. a solemnity. Censor. but was gradually lost in conceit. Cot. — . cerealis. eschattffer.— Cellar. &c. Centre. oil. a Cemetery. -CEIVE a shaft. Cij(fe5j. heaven. Centurion. is totally distinct from the foregoing. sure. Coehim. (and thence also) to hoodwink. judge Lat. or any bird's. Sc.ing a room where there is not fire. Certain. — . Lat. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. to prick. to warm. cenio. celer. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. syll. decide. a prick. Fr. siller les yeux. -cern.— Chafing-dish. Lat. To seel or close the eyes. a registration of one's self. cceremonia. -cepire. — . camentum. to bury). to attend on object with. to heat. 1. in accordance with the Fr. thronged the participle cretus. or expression of Ennius. a shaft horse. a tomb. to sleep). an eyelash. Incensum. value. from censeo. to take. -ciper. census. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. Gr. to glow. to contend. Fr. to chafe. to visit in numbers. empty. {cori)cipere. Lat. Fr. decebre) . caber. Ta^oe. crevi. For sess from assess. judge. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. to separate. Fl. cretum. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. Lat. blind. cella. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. centum. the hollow the Lat. sile. in comp.

hiss. far lima-lima. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. — . in a cana. now a chair. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. breathe hard. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. have a mind to parley. catena. sborfare. Due. ceafer. Du. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. kedja. fume. Gr. vel susurro. idle words. p. chayire. Lat. Chair.nium. . tattle. &c. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. Cheffern. Cot. or puff with snorting. sagri. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. from Swiss kafeln. signal by drum or P. Lat. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. Lat. call in question for an ley). Cot.. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. taubes korn oder hafer. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. So from dominio. and signifies to consume with anger. rustle Challenge. OFr. ON. to action arose. preise. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. Chain. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. Piedm. . a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. to puff and blow. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. cathedra. to tattle. talkative. Lat. to bark. cauvette. to fret inwardtronfo. to chatter or talk lightly. hght Chalk. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . with a:n arched roof. a pulpit Cot.' Rayn. — — — . leviter crepo Then. In like manto huff. thick and short. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. also to prattle. chagrin. chamar. kiamta. . . Lat. Fr. vis. Chalice. from of the G. The jaw chafty. a vault or arched roof. (ca'e'ra) to chair. to call. hordeum vel let. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. chaps Chamber. kever. limare. rustling corn. Prov. difficulty . Probably from According to Diez. khah. Fr. calice. a chough. yap. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. cadena. puff. crooked.— — . snuff. a double operation * Chafer. kuhista. 35. Pr.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. jaw. Fr. quisquilise offence. a pulpit. care. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. that leneth e per I'autra. songe. chaise. Bouffard. — — ' — — — A . chaulx. B. fern-chafer. great chafe. rustling motion challenge. Hal. kuhuja. kdfer. Kaiiapa. a goba rustling . P. to caw chawer. refuse barley . Gr. often puffing. chafing. Adelung. baras of ants. Lat. care. chaene. snort. ing rapidly repeated cries. chambre. . the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). of. chaffare. Wall. G. camera. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. G. ple^.. any insect of the beetle kind. clamare. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. From Port.sure carriage. tronfio. — — — — — — . trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. Chayire. shaIt. de Brai. much more Genoese sagrind. kuhina. Fr. to file. chalanger. Fr. a rustling noise. kuhata. a prattling woaction. kahu. much blowing. Halma. Prov. calix. false accusation. puffed or ruffled with ly. bargain. From to go to law. havOFr. KoBiSpa. to babble. To buy and sell. Fr. Du. on. Fr. chaine. chafeter. Chagrin. ing a hard case to their wings. kiqfta. cathedra. Pat. place See Cheek. Fr. matter by combat. calumnia. lime . Fr. chaire. chicane. kauchen. chatter. ckapfare. to a seat. to sit. Prov. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. 11. — — — . calonjar. as. calx. kaff. to pant. and as this was the beginning of man. to buzz. haggle. as a carriage is a moveable seat. kdfelen. Fin. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. in a monstrous fume. Fr. chawe. grief. kaff. from the shark-skin. dongio. to Latin calumniare. cup. to ner It. Lat. charge with. sagrindse. to gnaw. green sagrin. avena vilior. fa sagramen de calompnia. Bav. to move the jaws. to dispute. In vulgar language. lime. From the To Chaff. without chap/are makiinde. cadena gives chain. a chain. cadera. E. Kuttn. dispute. Perhaps Pm. Fl. to institute anforensic action. grief. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. refuse. keuchen. cadieira. calonja. swelling with anger. Ayenbite. muzzle. ^Altieri. kahuja. a jackdaw. tattle cheep. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. cam. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. kiaftr. De Ir4. gewolb. ceaf. breathe KaOa^oiiat. rally one. contestation. Camera. to gnaw. Came. keffen. Pers. to calumpnjamen. kahista. to claim.

origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . a feat. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . move the jaws. chdance.' SherI'altro ' ' . Fr. fight. kempen. chamfrain. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. The E. . the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. gewolbt. kippo. to fasten oneself to another . boys speak of capping verses. campear.edley. a bundle. Lat. When the to quarrel. dricka i kapp. To cope or contend with. campus partitus . a warrior. The word is preserved in E. escazenza. Chancellor. rare. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. chance. to quarrel (comp. Champion. champ parti. to flute as a column. to chew. to fasten oneself on to another . Prov. bickering. to paw the ground E. kabintis. to be eminent. Fr. Chance-n3. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. to stick to. act of falling. wood. Campar. kampen. Dief. chain. tsammogni. to strive at games . to bevel. keiiipe. kempa. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. CHANCEL It. chanfrein. campar. Fr. cample). surpassing. chance. dial. — Hal. Partnership. kiammi. caer. therewithal. to happen {ad and cadere. fray. Prov. termediaries between them and the judge. M. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. kabMe.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. Champarty.' melleia. broil. kibti. kappd). So in e. E. pedilusor. from chaud. to . chanfreindre. Lat. received the petitions of the suitors. the chafldn. ON. compound. Du. from cheoir. .Lat. e. chaude mesUe. who stood ad cancellos. to hollow out. champ. to Hal. ON. ing. from Fr. Sup. to hold . The G. . contention kappi. kimpUma. and acted as inofficers of . E. to debate. — Ch-amberlain. . a court of justice. Fr. camp. divided game. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. is explained by serrarsi. Commonly derived from campus. a jaw kianisa. a hook . reusement — fight in single combat. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. to fasten on. campus. champ. . an athlete.' ' Pr. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . head armour. chajnbellan . a field of battle. to to chew champ. camerlengo. or player at football. chamble. as swine. fight. — KiL . at the railings. fighting place. contend or argue G. Chamfron.—Charfron E. dial. Carpentier. or less ignorant. . djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). Gall. camp. kapp. jocus partitus. Lat. kampeln. kimppu (Lap. hero Sw. to move the jaws kiamt. to tread The sound heavily. kabe. dial. . to wrestle. kiinp. excellent. top of a borehole. Pm. cancelli. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. kinipen. To Chamfer. dispute Hal. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. Champ.—Tutschek. Fr. Fr. to hang. which seems another form of the root. champ. Sp. to cample. calidameya. contest. game campio. chanfrein. luctare. Hence (with the nasal) w. schmatzen s. a scufSe. Get campers a ball To camf . to fall. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. hamper. to talk. dial. kampa. Meleare. mesleiare. See Camp. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. Lat. to smack the lips in eating. hot. to slope out the . champ. zs jeopardy. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. tsamtsogni. Lith. champion Du. combat. to wrestle. G. prize-fighter. gekrUmmt. to excel. a hollow chanfreiner. It will. cadere. certare. giving rise to the as. nels. dial. s. ciamberlano. — ^Tusser. cahir. — masterly Sp. kanip. slope of a bevelled angle. kriimmen gebogen. pinch. . to fall). Sp. i. Chancel. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. hng. zampettare. Champaign. cazer. kimpustella. to groove bevel off a right angle. kimbu. calida et sans aguet. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. kablys. chanfrar. accidere. ciambellano. ON. camp. kampeln. Fin. difficulty . accident. a game at football. athlete. cempa. jeu parti. a horse-race. Chancery. —Chamfrain.140 CHAMBERLAIN . it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. Ptg. cameratus. to slope. Magy. and mesUe. to — — champ. To hollow out in chanPtg. sukibti. bundle. kabinti. as in It. The happening of things Chance.

Prov. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. . Lat. to truck. To Change. Commonly derived from capella. or the like chapar. . chapeta. exchange schimbatoriu. to paw like a horse . from clap. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. a dealer in candles then. debeant conjurare. gab. chancery. Da. chapilla. kiceft as well as kjakje. muzzle. Aasen. to deal. That wide were sentin their spicery. a small metal plate Port. . but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. Compare chark. to — cut. kiceft. to peck. Chape. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. Fr. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. as to chap hands. kennel. cambium. flat . Da. And N. Fr. wood. chop. to strike. Chapel. — : Lat. to cut. See Chant. may be compared with ON. a reed. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. as It. Walach. and the modern canal. Cheek. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. Probably from chap. a small plate of flat metal. while the broader vowels a. or the cracking of one. Chop. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. Hence chantry. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. chanter. . AS. leather. chancellerie. and also to chap or crack. jaw. to chap at a door. properly in a hard body. chop. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. cobio. chap. camjar. 2. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. as corn-chandChandry. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. a chap is a crack or fissure. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. the chaps . and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. jaw. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. a money-changer. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. surfaces striking together. the mouth. also a clap. Molbech. skipta. the clappers of the scupper holes. —Ordericus Vitalis. a strip of metal plate. to coat. Du. schimbu. Bret. to strike. cambiare. ON. from canna. Lang. chap. exchange. chiappa. lips of an animal. to break . Sp. to put on fresh clothes. to apply one flat thing to another. A fellow. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. to swap. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. W. to spht a chip. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block.^. the place where candles ler. kaupa. the gutter that runs along a street. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. a jaw. Chaps or chops. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. to cut up into small pieces. Lith. 140. Channel. chapa. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. In like manner Walach.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. ceaplas. as skin chapped hands. cambiar. like the knocking of hard things together. — . — — —Marculfus in Due. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. Chandler. hard bodies. chaps. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. kjaakaa. cantare. chapelete de una bomba. See Chop. as those on a trunk. klepan. changer. Chap. Sp. clapet. as chancery . cheek. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. to hack. Man of Law's Tale. esclapo. shift. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. schimbd. a pipe. Sc. exchange. canalis. to peck. ^Jam. are kept. to cut off . kemma. chapear. I. Chap. kvar kjceften. to plate. not a soul. E. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. Hence It. ceaflas. kapoti. from chandler. to change. kappen. to plate. Hal. to sing. waterconduit. chapeletas de imbornales. any hollow for conveying water. It is also used in the sense of the E. Fr. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. Chip. Russ. Hal. hack . The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. extended to other trades. to strike with a sharp edge. throat of an animal. Fr. prune. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. is used in the same sense . the cape or little cloke of St Martin. cangiare. —Chantry. Chap. esclapa. . the loose flesh of the cheeks. chandelier. to creak.

keeren. chirlar. babdistinction. a mark of a mountebank. creak. Chapter. cerran. It. gnash. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. wood to coal. czurliwoti. charger. Deutsch. Sp. It. from capa. to charcoal. charlar. Sp. w. corona. to chirp. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . Inst. tegere. creak. hadka. twitter. ceap-man. to chirp. jabber. Fr. Macduff. Lith. grave or make incised marks on an ob. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. Chirk. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. that turned decken . which was incantation. In that work the verb is written caire. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. canne. ghirlanda seor garland. Cot. Gr. to love. ciarlatore. it is my turn. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. — a car. a hood. capellare. Lat. a verse. It. OE. cearcian. cedeleac. Mid. — — — turned to coal. a merchant. a riddle. affection. for the same reason rosario. charge an enemy is to lay on. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. beloved. charlatan. siarad (pronounced — sharad). babbling. burning without consuming the substance. talking. —— . carmo. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. . bler. to croak as a frog . chapelet. chatter. turn. Chaplet. Du. Lang. twist. gaggle . char. . rightly explained by Tooke from AS. czirbti. charitas. The crash. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. to turn.). chirriar. Swiss. to creak.' Boccaccio in Diez. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. to load . . turn about. cluck. pohadka. Sp. w.. seems to be derived charade. chatter. AS. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. from Charade. chapel. Charlatan. dim. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. See Cheap. — spell. clack. condo il volgar francese. caricare. Charlock. from carrus. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. tattler. Yx. from capitulum. Hence carminare. kurkti. and in It. properly to place — . * Charcoal. a head or division of a book. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. to turn Gael. An enchantment. cher um cher. schreien. Fr. called in Sp. return. dear. karout. czurksti. to prattle. prattling quacksalver. The G. From Norm. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. caritas. krachzen).charme. in To ness Charity. from cape or cope. charcoal burners. to . kurkelis. Justin. eapitulo. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. Mundart. Prov. be- e. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. carricare. to chirp as sparrows. to of the governing body. capital. wreath for the head. carmen. as Pol. hiss Lith. car.czirksti. Ptg. a garland of roses. Charge. Fr. gadka. . See Charlatan. eyre. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. to converse. &c. Fr. to prattle. It. Sup. decken. chat. carus. go. Character. Charade. enough. a rhyme. es ist mi cheer. colliers that charred coal. to tattle. Lat. charer. And damned be he who first cries Hold. to talk . And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. . ject). the turtle pitre. a riddle. dear(in both senses). Chapman. Lay on. Lat. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. to dove . chara. cam. from gadai. A weed among com AS. a turn cerran. cabildo. used in the sense of magic Fl. a charm.whirr. charade. a cricket karkti (schnarren. Boh. a dispute . To Char. 2. the nature of a thing. in turns. Bret. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. as. 370.Lat. Chark. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. as a beetle. Chare. a mark made on a thing. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . carregar. cha. to sing or chirp as birds. (eucharistie. cluck kirklys. AS. kirkti. capitolo. called kedlock. Charcoal was ciarlare. surris seu Lat. capella. a The OFr. Fr. chapitre. occasional turn. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. chirk. of chapel.

to chatter or prattle . from pure. gallan or ogan.). Lat. To work plate as silversmiths do. . as purgare Fr. shivers. scraps of for fuel. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. carmen is presented in AS. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. Chart. Hal. to chirp. a flock of those birds. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. Kil. chick. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. kastaa. chykkyn (Pr. flesh. warble. little sticks cudere. chip. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. ch). Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. an enchantress. czysty. to crack. gazzettare. gazzogliare. magpie. karg. tenax. Chasm. as. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2.— Chit. clap. csaterdzni. chat. to enchase it .). See Cistern. talk much . To chip is then to crack. The egg is chipped. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. or equivalent forms. the bird is iiown. g. Du. . Chaste. Cot. csatora (Magy. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). whence a charm of goldfinches. to separate in morsels. Pol. To chitter or chipper. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. chair. germinate . discourse. Fr. kata. castus. charm. also to hatch. Pol. It. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. eclats. OE. —Chastise. Gr. pure. chits. Kil. Fl. crackle. knatiern.a. charmer. be wide open. careful. to care). gazeuiller. clatter. a branch and a young female. in Jam. clack. speak . noise. See Catch. letters p. knacken. castus. limpid. talk. carnisj bones kept. Malay. So in Gael. or suckers on rough borders. from purus. a yawning. karigh. niggardly. a word. la chasse d'une rose. nome and . a young man . — Palsgrave. Fl. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. To Chase. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. blackthorn-chats. To Chasten. csacsogni. — = Chats. a gap. — We ornamental work the to signify E. Fr. To chit. gazzerare. An imitative word. chaste. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. also to germinate or spring forth. to make a noise. Chat-wood. occasionally Forby. chary. B. gadu-gadu. D. geug. pure. noise. make a noise as birds do. cyrm. Cot. to baptize. clean. as we speak of olive branches. kata-kata. as in the E. or a bird out of the egg. a shrine for a relic. Pm. chisf. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. sordidus. Chamel. Chat. —Jam. — Fr. kippen. parcus.ppen. — Hal. from xoAn. incassare. to cut and faggoted. to set a jewel. to wet. Russ. a chatter-box. a twig Suffolk chaits. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. — Yorkshire chat.— Chatter. the handle of a razor . — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. V. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. to chirp. s. used to represent a sharp note. tittle-tattle. the cry of the bat. Lat castigare. to talk. It. gazzolare. a plate of metal. From carinen was formed It. chip. caro. snap. the calix of a rose. ch&tier. a churchyard or charnel-house. the noise of birds. To Chase. root of the Lat. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. to chirp as a bird to cheep. cs E. chaste. To talk. clear. xi'i-'^vui. the young shoots . G. prate. enchasser. to which it bears the same relation as chape. jackdaw . to crack. — sharp sound of a crack. chip. cassa s. or pop. chit-chat. —Charter. See Card. i. —Bailey. chit. converse. a crack or a flaw . or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. chikat'. as from nomen It. chick. Parallel with E. kna. carme and Fr. Diez. csacsogany. %aafi. Fr. schioppare. It. nommer. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. warble. — — . chit in the latter sense Du. shout OE. whistle. to gape. gaddc. chatter. It. to cry as a chicken . clean. CHATS fit 143 to name. to clap. or the cry of a bird or the like. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. a branch. splinters. pure. clean. Magy. It t. Fr.house. ferire. racket . also a youth.. — The . Chary. cearig (from cearian. is to represent the chamier. as turnip-chaits. to burst open. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. prattle. fragments or leavings of food. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. In like manner Russ. fragments.

kaufen. frown.. to — . where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. a cheater. . s. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. favour. gagkern.— Cattle. Hence to cheat. entertain kindly. the countenance Fr. to laugh. exAS. chapman. to deal ON.— Chaps. cita. ceaflas. in widely separated languages by the Lat. hawkmann. kak. to act as a rogue. dchec. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. which is the word in ceap.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. OFr. teeth . 'li^'opa jord i jord. NE. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. cattle. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. a piece of moveable property. force of the word. Pm. Cheat. The gutGoth. to chop and change. Cam. changing. chaptel. lead to OE. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. Slav. retching. from Lat. KaviiXog. kik. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. cachinnari. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. with Dief. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. to . upon a checked cloth. cattle.' to exchange to gasp. snout. a canting knave. kaupiti. . to negotiate. &c. the Lat. equiva.. Modern Slang. goods. a dealer. . Faire bonne chire. and hence the E. — We ' . to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. to nauseate (to retch). agreeing upon. chire. Lat. syllables ^ag-. — To check an account. gig. kok. Fl. kaupon. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. a repulse.kakot.—Choke. Bav. the tongue. capitale. kikottaa. It. truffa. It — Brompton in Due. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. Sc. stuttering. cattle. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. tradesman. jaws. lower. to make inarticulate sounds in . It. visage. Cheek. Soc. countenance. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. chop. to fetch the breath with difficulty. kauf. ceahhetan. whence captale. gagkezen.' kezen. chatel. See Cheek. entertainment. Bohem. sob E. a rogue or person who used the canting language. koopen. look. to swap goods . caupo. goods. Pr. Sp. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. Cot. a willing look and unwilling heart. which is used in the to stutter. giggling. giving or taking in exchange. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. bon marche. kek. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. kichen. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. 144 the It. — — —Chowl. Ek dry and hard.— .of the throat in coughing. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. the face. Gr. mandibula. farm for farm. in Fr. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. et juxta catalla sua. horse-couper. chatal. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. citello. e. . and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. stuttering. cheeks. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough.. See Chess. chiere. prattlingchete. Hal. while it Bret. Chew. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. Du. catalliim. kakaista. a dealer in horses. Pro v. Then. the Confessor. cara. chuckle.— Chole. to cough and hence either buying or selling. cera. sense of bargaining. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . and. cozener. from AS. to clear the throat . Chattels. price. kakkaset. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. thers. society. a tavern-keeper. Fr. kaupa. ceafl. OFr. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. any cheating. sale. Fr. to vomit. CHATTELS has ciio. a young boy or girl. ku. to cluck like a hen. keck. welcome heartily. to coff—Yisi. sum in a loan. with the exception of land. chear in the sense of victuals. to coup s. Chear. to buy. G. Ingulphus. us. Check.ing. jaw. to stutter gigken. the principal ' colloquial E. . in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. chavylbone or chawlbone. to buy. CHEEK zitella. ceap.-^. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. laughing. Fin. choule. aspect of a man. are represented piti.

clear the throat. to geahl. E. nish source. gabe. kces. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. jaws. ceac. by laying up in a covered heap. /Ji2^/(W. Chess. — — . kjcebe. kastr. acquisition. cabiron. the hke. E. cufd. chasi. cese. jaw. to swallow.their struggle for independence. Cherish. whence czypulas. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. Du. to love. Jam. achever. Fin. kjceve. food.D. Cher. a cricket. subjected to this process with that which the throat . whence kasa-leipa. like a young chicken. kapen. Prov. Achievement. by laying it in come to an agreement with. the final guttural is retained in writing. czypti. X'C&s. gapen. Hence kikna is identical with OE. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. To Cheep. w. G. Sp. caseus. quok. cerise j G. cyse.EP CHEVRON 145 on. as meat and butter. scacco. Chevisance. rafters in heraldry. kasiiUPr. To make a shrill noise Chest. Cherry. the loose the game of checks. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. It. gill of fish AS. In these latter forms we see the transIt. for cheese itself. schach.peep in the same sense. takes place in the formation of cheese. practice seems to have been communiChevron. skratt. the palate Chequer. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. kastanie. Sc. rennet. to choke with laughter. veluti piscium. . the mouth or so marked are called chequered. Fr. dear. chesten. Fris. Hence chesten-nut. Thus "we are brought din. w. kistej Lat. kopen. caws. dersen . cheek. ceaflas. throat. rupted into chess. Lat. to heap up such things for the purchoke. — 10 . cegio. Fr. kdke. CHE. The Sw.pose of acidifying them kasadr. Analo. cisty G. Chef. things Da.. . chops. frame by which the exertion is made. Fr. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. prevail with. jaws Sw. See Case. jouffle. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. ation. Chemistry. the The use of the word kcesir.Xo belch. ceg. chiffe. Pl. king). condition of being taken. Du. a rafter . subsequently corflesh about the jaws . OHG. suffo. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. F*-. Lat. to boken. cheek. Lith. quoka. See Alchemy. to prevent the attack of cavalry. jowl. caru. xaque. Lat. E. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. An imitative word. Tutschek. cabrio. cheeks. AS. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. a chicken. cerasus. See Chess. G. mollium congeries. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion..cirieggia. kikna of dorum coacervatio. ost. the mouth. chaps. — — . Fr. make an end. to make a noise different word. chevir. mouth kek. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable.' to w. as.). e. cheken. ca' — . kok. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. cista. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. Sw. to kep. . to gasp. ceocian. ON. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. cams. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. chests in OE. Da. to belch. kdkel. the neck. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. From them the plish. accomplishment cayed. a heap. Fr. Chevaux de frise. Sc. geagl.D. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. AS. gap. to choke.perly head. rattle in the throat. incaseatus. (Kil. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. chevron. squeak as a mouse. to year. throat. kjakje. chAtaigne. jaw. The name of creak as shoes. Lith. hasten. to hold dear. old bread. ichec. Lat. to gape gab. schach. gullet. to accomThis they call hdrsk. Chekenyd or querkenyd. . — — . Prothroat of an animal . treat with affection. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. cireggia. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. Sw. AS. Sp. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. equal squares of opposite colours. E. carnium. cheek. the throat. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. . made rancid koka. giffle. kirsche. w.G. kasa. kaecke. Kil. ceaplas. cough. &c. castaneusj Fr. cherir. chops. to kasa. gous forms are G. subacidus. kikna. gaghel. N. kesten. jaw . As the board to gasp i. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. Pm.koppen. then end. geafl. It would Cheese. to bring to an end.

Chief. kauwe. chaps. to pettifog. a little bit. — Du.— Gattel. k'imm s. or chick. and from the third E. caput. Pr. to chime. . Probably from Fr. killen.. a head. a cup. the head. cabar beinne.^ Hal. cidan. chiquei. grelot). . kippa. CHJME the radical form is unusual. from the first of which is Lith. chef. the young of animals in general. captain. . Fl. alter. kibr. kaw. Halm. to chirp or peep like a chicken. creak. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. capu. Fin. a chicken. to gasp for breath (Hal. For the see word Doit. chavel. — — Mother Hubbard. tiukka. kuwe. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. gills of a fish. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. also the horizon. Pm. klagend tonen. strideo. chol. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. Chaw. tintelen van koude. sonorous. to raise the rim. pole. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. to contest about trifles. stake. — Fin. Gattel. Swiss kiden. cica cica. capo. Fr. Fr. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. a hen. ]). E. Sp. Imitative of a loud clear sound. the same principle I regard On birds. kinderen. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. Gael. chimb. to go. Walach. the jole. kilderkin. The loss of the syllable it in Du. Chitter. 146 brial. to the brim. cabarach. horn wood.peep. kimme. cabar. cebr. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. ultimate origin of the Mite. capete.' my finger tingles with cold. kieken. cib. Child. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. Chimb. tremble with cold. a finch. 'Among these the G. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. chin. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. chillrar. caferu. a cup. signifying properly shivering. keichen. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. and not vice versd. pipe. the throat. cild. or the broken noise of birds. aner. to contest. Payer chiguet A chiguet. chew or chaw. then as G. knarren. w. a young bird. kaau•wen. Kil. chiler.D. kime. kitista. pip. knit the brow cib-led. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. antler.D. quivering sound which passes. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. Fl. to use the jaws. ach. the cry of young . Bret. De chic en chic. Pm. while didder is to shiver or citteren. Pl. kauchen. G. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. Du. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. : — a lump. chavel. cap. to titter is Du. pipio. Palsgr. Magy. chillar. from little to little. kopf Du. kouwe. Tintillo. a jaw. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. See Chimmer. kind. Chick. W. machouere. And hence. czypulas. Chigue. beam. The Pl. Prov. tiukkata.— Cot. chawbone. deer's horn.. De finger killet mi for kalte. E. the least imaginable jot. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. a small cask OFr. head. chic. tremble. rafter . chill. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions.). It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. ' . as. a chicken. to crackle. Da. To chitter. crepo. G. or qf people talking rapidly. from the second Lat. the rim or edge of a vase. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. s.-ill. lead through the synonymous E. Brezza. acute. chicoter.^ to resound as a bell. — . tiuk. chikat'. hiss as meat on the gridiron. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . pi. then cold. tyuk. Fin. Lat. horns of the house. AS. kimista^ . as pointing out the origin of the E. tiukkua. when the vibrations become very rapid. kidata. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. has probably the same origin. kindeken. a chicken. in Walach. Fr. Du. zitterti. twitter. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. chicken. chieftain. queror. killen. chillness or shivering. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. to Du. Fin. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. Chill. by driblets. rafter. branchy. pululo. kop. jaw. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. E. jaws . It. Russ. the Ptg. while the Magy. caprioru. are formed Du. choule. term is ssaru fu.. knirschen. gosling. jaw. to scold.. Chime. Now gan some courage unto him to take. rafter . A To Chew.— . chicaner. mountain top . cabriones. into a continuous shriU sound. to smart. CHEW . a cup cibaw. kimia. or as E. to twitter. greloter is to shiver for cold. mouth. Pr. cheek. to chew. — It. kauen. a quid of tobacco. To Chide. pipio.

as birds the mouth. j^lf. Chitterling. to chink. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. to gape. to prattle czirpti. pork) . Chimney. hiss Pm.. do. then of a fabulous monster part goat. — . cheminde. clangor tinniens kummata. as a large bell . but or cry as a parrot. companied. a szemrcU.to divide or Du. Chine. The change from the sound ter \s.sharp. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. — . . ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. caminata. Kil. gena. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. chink. to squeak in It. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. cisaille. Fr. and chim-mer. fissure. . originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. to sound. Gascoigne in Todd. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. It. sound on beginning to boil. name Then. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. which differ from each other only as Chirk. chatter . and the Du. hollow. or chyFrigutus. the jaw. tremulous motion. schina. shiver and the chyver of Pr. clipping of coin. KinneGr. to chine. i. ciseau (for cisel). skina. to murmur. kink hoest. the whooping cough. spina. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. to prattle . Pr. tinnire. esquena. disCot. Chip. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. killed by Bellerophon. yivtiov. Fr. Sp. sparkle. representing connected together. zirpen. See Chark. Bret. Sp. as the chink of money.). backBut she withal no worde may soune. and bodily movement in shimm. chhint. See Chats. to creak. Chyrme or chur. to chink with laugh2. are In like manner E. the chine. the mouth (jaws) . kumista. The small entrails of a hog. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. vincially used in the sense of a crack. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . to simmer. sonants. have been used to designate the spine. It. applied to tremulous motion. the cheek. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. Chymerynge. crepare. zirken.czirbti. A . schiena. part lion.er. Gower in Hal. a surkik hosta. It. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. as a bell kommata. also vibrans. the cheek (jaw) . all these imitative terms being minata. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. squittire. Chitter. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. komista. Chin-coug^h. sounding deep. schetteren. as the/ is preserved tering. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. gen. the jaw. Fr. Gloss. tschirpen. Huloet. Primarily a shrill sound. sound. kumina. cinne. from Lat. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . tsengeni. — — — — — . ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. Diez de. AS. a Kuttn.to chirp. Chit. See Bright. resonance . plodere. genawi. eschiner. in Hal. cheek. Du. to sizel. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. et garrire . clashing of weapons. . Chintz. ciarlare. schetteringe. schrick. To Chimmer.Huloet in Hal. See Chap. Hindost. a fire-place.Lat. czirszkti. Lat. Sp. — . to tremble. In the same sense. to sound deep or the Gr. a thorn. from the geon's lancet. cleft. to chirp. hus. E. to chirp . quavering of the voice.iron. 147 kimina. E. tsongeni. komia. to open chirriar. . and light. then to any narrow crack or AS. caperd. Fr. chirp. Chat. to creak. Ptg. Chink. up and down. Cot. . G. It. bone . stridere. Lith. kinne. ter. a crowing sound in recovering breath. Du. Chisel. To chink with laughter. verynge or dyderinge. a chink or fissure. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. to chirre. cisello. The desig. G. — . Chimera. and from a similar sound to boil gently. a chap. caminsects. keich husten. ykvvQ. bx-eak the back of schena. To chirp or twitter. Sw. kieck hoest. spina.' Phaer's Virg. chits. To Chitter. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. flaw Hal. twitter caminus. backe. eschin^e (de pore). dial. quivering or shakyng for colde. in the same crack. chin . is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. klincken. Chink-cough. Sp. a thorn. the chin . epine. to tattle. cincel. rustle. from 10 * ' Chia.. a hall Mid. Caminatum. hiss chirlar. Pm. fyr. esquina. twinkling light. chick. simmer. Fr. It. pare also Walach. Prov.schricken. Magy. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. sonus the backbone Lat. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. Bav. cinan. eschine. genou (pi.

also calPs. by the vibrations of sound or motion. Goth. schoch. Yr. are used in the same sense.— B jag E. scheve. caperd. ^S. fresure. krussyi. pieces . and It. — Cholera. g'schochet voll. a twittering. chawdron. kruszki. kaup. skifa. Fr.ceosan. fine threads of flowers. cut up into — See Chats. prove. Choleric. wkusit' prikushat. Lat. coup. •- Russ. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. — — — . chock full. xiv. . all seem slate . an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. chippe. chife. taste. The I go to prove them.D. word is more likely to be from Lat. or original meaning is preserved in G. to break off in small shive. Swab. kustigen.' Verie coinme Cot. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. to taste. try. seallion or unset leek. to taste.ffrill. OHG. . . also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. from chevalier. to taste . full to overflowing. a knight. G. chimp. Boh. experience valerie. to clap up Hal. to try. Chivalry. haslets. To Chop. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. to turn. arkiusan.' At last he dwelt .yEuffM. approve. crammed Choir. specially with an application to theatrical performances. a young . a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. then to try. chibble. a calf's pluck or chaldron .. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting.freze. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. See try. gekrose. a ruff or frill. a small slice or slip of anything . okusyti. 2. * To Choose. — See Cheek. Chives are also a kind of small onion. it is probable that the root kus. to stop geschoppt voll. chceur. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. a calf's chaldern of E. ruffs. and in this sense the * small pieces. ent quarter. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. G. to choose. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. kbhren. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. a scale or fragment P1. to try. a fragment. wein didder for cold. from %u\i). kiezen. Prov. Serv. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. kor6n. to palpitate . Gr. a ruff. to try . cape. Gr. kiusan. pluck. to exchange horses. schevel-steen. disposition. to Compare also Pol. Chap. Chuck-full. i. to shiver. anger. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. Choice. developments of the same radical image. G. as with a blow. — Chock-full. to wrinkle. Choice is probably direct from Fr. koren. whence Lat. &c. to strike hands . schiefer. as green as leeks. chap hands. the ridges prove. cke. heaped measure. to hack. curly . In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. a chive. shoot . to taste. the small parts of the roots of plants. to prove. chattering. to taste. kausjan. friller. kalbs gekrose. As kushnuti. wrath. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . &c. Chives. ON. The Sc. choix. by which they are Fr. propagated. Enn Sigridur sem ' . Body and Soul. to taste. Jam. a company of singers or dancers. a blow. lead us on to Lat. chaup. to chap. civette.gust. Luc. gustare. and in kosten. keypa. kushati. chiffe. ON. kieser. cepa. chatter. signify to kiss. in the same language. gdnse gekrose. kusid. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. The manners and senti.' who shall not taste death. x^poc. causir. to ing is doubtless to taste. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. to chap at a door . From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. rare. a rag. kiesen. Fr. coro. to ^cleave . I. of an angry — — — ' ' — . whence choleric. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. Gr. a goose's giblets. %o\ifa. Fr. CHOP kros. taste. . Schmid. gusten. To Choke. bile. Swiss kust. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. to tempt. —Chorus.V)^x. a heap. shiver. . . a wine taster. cive. kiusan. keuren. then to shiver. try. Walach. 19. ments of the knightly class. Cavalry. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. chives. to try. . choppe. chorus. and N. Warwickshire coff. The .vonic languages are Pol. Equivalents in the SlaFr. an onion. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. to experience. full. called cMtters in the N.. from kraus. of E. select. ^euw. the inwards of an animal. and Vf. kushevati.

fat.). Nominale in Nat. Fr. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. A fish with a thick snout and head. dealing. bearand aits.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. Confounded with the bullhead. ley in Giiford. cheviniau. as Du. kaulhaupt (club-head. to chatter. to clack. Chough. Jam. traffic. clat. What do you think of me. peace. Sw. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. Chopino. E. to turn over. chub. Gr. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. whence — E. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. because she would not endure this husband chopping. merchant. P. time ra . cavena. soul-couper. cambiare. gull. caker. If I discover. a messenger or envoy. monedula. cob.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. gull. -chron-. Chub.). Marin. In Sc. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. quappe.' Jam. Wall. chevane. p. OE. kowej Sax. chrysalis (Plin. 49. kubbr. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. to speak thieves' slang. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. —Shakespeare. kauwe. and we actually find champman for chapman. whence apparently the Sup.povucd. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. chouquette. . whence e. to strike in the hand. chroniques. the teeth to chatter . chapma?i. Gr. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. a trafficker in souls. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. equivalent to the E.— Landnamabok. choucas. Lat. plump. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. which was written 27. noble Doctor. caphatenus. the intestine of an animal. thumb Fl. G. Sp. dial. e. kubb. xop5>}. the string of a musical instrument originally. &c. Picard. Fr. — — — . to overturn. A jackdaw. a stump. capito. Chord. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . To Chop logick.— Chevin. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. chrisme. chronicles.• — . high clog. connected with G. kobe. xpi'^lia. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby.. Fr. in Chaucer. in i6io. whence the Fr. The Turk was here As one should say.\^s. . applied to an owl in that language. chatter . kaw. to knock. clogs. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. sent before him a Chiaus. XpvaaXic. chuet. Gr. — Dief. — . Peace. the same word with the It. civetta. claquer. ' ' What's that? Dap. Chuck. Anachronism. as in Fr. chapin. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. Borgoens happen. capita. for to defraud. or miller's kaycke . prattle . to cant. Fr. xftovoq. chevane. I bring you the Cloughs.—Chuokstone. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. kolbe (club). Cot. cangiare. e. Madam. Chronicle. Du. klopper. kaufen. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. a bullhead. ceo. from kloppen. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. slipper . klompe. From the Turkish Chiaus. short piece kubbug. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. E. In the Alchemist. To Chouse. Come. Alchemist. capitone. an offence against the fitness of times. one who buys and sells horses or cows.(. overset. a thick piece. who took in the Turk- clack. syllables chat. i. See Chaff. Ant. chapineria. Chrysalis. gobio capitatus. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. yiSA. chevin. Kil. chop. a The What dhy ^. cresmeau.' They are forebuyers of quheit. ON. by the Robert Shirley. E. 4. kowe. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. thick-set. Fr. gold. cauvette j Fr. forms are Chrism. See Change. cheap. To coup. of which such strings are made. chouette. kaej Lith. koppe. AS.sohola. E. Gr. dial. chack. caqueter. Du. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak.X. — Chrisom. cauc. that will thank chiaus — you richly. capitanus. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. That Face. a small fish with a large head.. cow-couper. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. we find the following passage Dap. a lump or piece chump. — Quabbe.

chaps. Church. a man. whence church. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. ceorl. . Du. log of wood. kaerle. kirna. sintel. KaxXij?. ceffore. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. ceffo. that the word is an adoption of Fr. Lat. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything.— . have given rise. AS. to form grains of butter. calx. sindra.' he adds. kakka.for the residue of stone coal. pith. It is certain. jaws. set kerti. To chuck in the fall from. — — A — ' ' — . from Lat. In Sc. Aasen. Chunk.^. Chuff. cinders used disjunctively. karl. Churn. to him a sudden blow. Cider. the snout of an animal. a man.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. swollen or puffed up Cot. sive piratiam facere sciant. tie about). to make a aiKipa. klakka. a girding on.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. kiorne. however. with It the Lord's house. residue of burnt coals. See Ceiling.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. as a board. G. domhnach. thence a belt. Wall. to make a rippling noise. e. Sicerawry face ceffata. as in E. e. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. OFr. to separate the kernel of the milk. to throw out sparks. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. chofu. spuma metalli. . a cutting an old chuff. dust. sindel. a douse on the tores.D. Fr. geaflas. ladre from Lazare. Diss. a man. to cause the milk to grain. . cinctura {cingo. chife. calculus. dial. Lat. -cise. Lat. ON. cado. marrow. to gird. but by way of explan. a cutting round. sinter. Ka-^aiva. x^^i?. — . AS. As AS. i. Cob. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. . joufflu. to fall at or on. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. -eris. kern.V//a'6'?. cut off. to jaw chack or snap. an old man. has been impugned which it has really no connection. to determine incision. . a pebble. surly. Jennings. chack-stone. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. ceaflas. in the face.— Chu%. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. whence ON. -cido. so as to make the happen .' And cold. Fris. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. blow on the I io6 in Mur. chofe (Grandgagnage). and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). ON. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. casum (in comp. a pebble . &c. kerl. Sc. joffu. The derivation from Kvpiasov. kjami. lamak. ON. cinctus. flower. — of the two words. i. ashes. ciuffo. as Fr. cinis. from Lat. KvptaKolg. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. G. chack or stane-chacker. whence deciduous (of trees). to To Chuckle. to sparkle.. Hence -cid-. ceaplas. as Epkema explains it. to fall. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). Sw. to fall upon decide. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. Probably from It.rendered by Kil. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. to Newsp. gffe. chops. sindr. a rustic . fat-cheeked. cheeks Cincture. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. a lump. the kernel. a miser. pp. tindra. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. See Cheek. comp. Da. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . -cisuiri). scoria. in Sc. ccedo. Wall. cidre. or choice part of a thing . incido. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. Cieling. countryman. to churn. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. Cleland in Jam. The origin ation. Du. to strike clatter. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. C^z^j^ churHsh.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. See Cheek. to cut decide. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. 24. sicera. chuffy. or. The spelling of chider has Chump. then the on oh StX iv roXt. -cide-. to turn from blossom to fruit. * Cinder. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. a fellow. as water running over rocks or stones. Gr. Du. we have to chack. Gothic nations. male person. Gr. Lat.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. Ir. a resounding object. ChurL husbandman. kernjen. Fr. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. a husband. accido. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . &c. -cis-. giffle. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. cendre. in circumcision. . cheek. chakil.

. clambar. empty Golius. cry out . Lat. bunch . lucerna. klacke-busse. a. clatCot. a kind of pipe. to cleanse. lump. Fr. stimulate. in the frequentative form. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. a Lat. . a circle. Dan. chijfre. a ball. clamare. around. to chatter . or quill to draw waier through Fl. to call. lash . &c. Du. excite. It. lump. crack. a judgment cern. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. compared with It. cisterna. a mass. . . sip. klammer. a lump Du. fall. Mack. to cry out. creak les dents. clack. kringr. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. a split. clap. forms — — — parent plant. log. cittadella. Excite. a shoot. kringla. cit^. circum. sindri. See Circle. klemte. sphere gleba. babble . . cry. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. a young and tender plant. . ern. circa. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. crack. See -cid-. Du. a clod. clack. Gael. radical identity of the Fr. circle. clamp. Fr. Du. to bawl. It. chest. The syllables clap. Clam. claquer. to summon or call on. Gr. noise — — a cistern. a ring. to knock. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . The Gr. may cite w. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. to call by name. Citron. with an initial s instead of c. klompe. to mention. sifr. a city. cittd. hringr.— . klump. G. E. ON. Sw. clot ON. . klubb. sound. We . and Sp. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. a ball. Sp. Lat. To Claim. chupon. globus. a citizen . either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. domern. CION See Tinder. or clap-dish. Lat. a kind of rattle. lump. clamer. glam. and. a loud uksa slamketi. a'upiav. klak. the tongue. -cis-. klopati. Clamp. the door was slammed J slamem. as caverna from cavus. biw. Fr. a block. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). of citta. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. civitas. suck). See Crankle. To Clack. . Circum-. kluV. Clump. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. wasserkasten (water chest). from chupar. ter. cifra. cion. a place See place hiddern. citujn. sound- — hands figures. * Ciplier. —Civil. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. Gael. Lat. citrus. a for water. KpiKoe. a pop-gun. klekotati. prattle. a city. belonging to cities or social life . a whirlwind. klacken. scion or sucker. a cistern. dob. claquer. to make to go. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. chupon. a knob. -cite. claquer crash. Hence Incite. a lemon tree. —Circuit. klambr. a hiding-place. clapping of klacke. a reservoir Probably from Lat. and clash. twig. . cista. ball kloben. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. clat. clobyn. chatter . E. slam. castus). lump of wood or with the nasal. klqb. clog. bunch. Bohem. klater-busse. whence cistiti. as. sajira. — (Dozy) ing blow. clangor avium . area. the place of . Lat. cluster. clamras. around. klamp. Comp. ON. a cleansing place. lump. Lat. clump. klappe. From Arab. cisterna. rattle . accordingly find the roots dab. to cluck. klimp. Dan. Cot. a whip. clack-box. Circle. to go. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . to clatter. Fr. or split with noise. cito. crack. to call. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. and E. ring.to suck. claquet de moulin. clap. mass . ruin. city. W. smack. . Recite. cittade. a circle. to chatter. klabb. gutter. to toll . vociferation. cion. sound of blow. civis. scion. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. clapper. circum. to strike. Lap. outcry. klepati. It. klumbr. a rattle Fr. 'mass. to gnash the teeth. parallel root is slam. Scion. as in Sp. klappen. a block. G. klap. uproar. noise. City. glamm. civilis. a clod Russ. Alt. Arab. to set in motion by means of the voice. a Pol. circ2tlus. to be empty. ciste. about. a rattle . trunk. is traced by Gr. sprig. clasp. cieo. a lump Lat. to clack. to clap at a theatre. claim. lump . glambar. . Chaste. to appeal. Gr. prattle.' sione. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. clack-dish. The notion of a lump. So a light.. ON. tinnitus . rattle. * Cistern. klateren. to chatter. a boss . for Cion. dim. Sw. In Fr. Hal. Lat. Citadel. a circle. clamp. We . Cite. KipKog.

to patronus. of the children. Du. as the clapping of hands. dial. dang. klampen. Sw. dial. clapper of conies. to hook things together. a bird of prey. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. a rattle . kleppen.. strait. — Cot. to climb. to climb. a sound made by a still . gripe. klammer. to clutch or cling oneself up. — — . klammern. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. Gael. to cleave or stick. kleben. The E. Bav. ney. a place underground where rabbits breed. . to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. Lat. klippe. to beat. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. cluster. hook. Du. These are imitations of a loud. klynge. dandestinus. buckle klamp. sound object . klopfen. To Clamber. a hawk. cramp-iron. scendants. to stick or glue. coagulated cream. klappre. klibber. klamm. Dan. and that from celo. to knock. stick. Clamp. or klamp-vogel. dapi^. dem. Russ. Clap. clink. who occuG. a trap. accent. salafa. a claw . sticky Hal. dambar. celo produces Fin. dam. a noose . In like manner Du. klappen. viscosity . bond. clear sound. &c. daver. Fr. B. G. — Lat. G. rumour. compress. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. take hold of. to daub pinch. brawl. cling. and hence to pinch . dren. hold. chatter. to hold to pinch. kloben. G. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. grimper. klettern. to stick conceal. to clamp. Lang. prison. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. dia. klebern. rattle. To clap in E. klobber-saen. solid. clap. klepanie. dapier. G. tinkle. gliong. a heap of stones.1. club . run to lumps Clandestine. children. to Sw^. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. klappen. viscous. . to knock. glambar. Clapper. clann. clamber. beat. diver. cleave. bandage. to climb. c). kluppel. resonance klingen. crowd . E. See Clam. gum. dienklebber. Clamour. klemmen. klavre. a sound made by a lighter clink. compression. massy. . klimmeii. Bohem. nature . a stick. from the w. ring as metal. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. kleppe. chatter. uproar. tone. to. closely analogous to that of the fast. dapier. sound. — with hunger. klynge sig op. a stone See Claim. yf. a sound. OE. to climb. grasp. and hence moist. B. descendants . These words To are closely connected with damp. pressed close or hard together. offspring.' to take coals to Newcastle. to starve. klemmen. dam. klepati. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. Swiss kldbem. to dame. dam. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . to cling. as the Lat. to glue. G. to seize. originally a heap of large stones. AS. beating. dee. dam immediate modifications — . sound . To sticky. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. privately.' klibba. klemmen. dink Du. a heap of stones or other things piled up . hands or claws to grasp. dap up. Du. pinching. Clank. a whip. The equivalent of Lat. klang. cream Manx doan. children. klamme. A i. dientes. seize. clasp. contraction. chief. also to clog up. kleppe. ancestor.p correspond- ' without order. Mampe. clap. clandestine. to pinch. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. to do anything with a clap. to hide.er. of money Gael. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. Dan. E. E. to clap. clibby. clang. clapas. to hold fast with the . G. a loud tingle. klem-vogel. klamre. klette. to clap on. klam. damras. to climb . knocking. to gingle. to glue. klubber. Hence the Fr. where- A — unto they retire themselves. damor. sound. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. for tame conies. E. the in many languages. tattle. anything hidden. to Hal. narrow. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. adopted Lat. klatten. salaan. Dan. whence sala. a burr. clajnmy. . with cramp-irons. is a nasalised form of gripper. clav\f. Du. to climb. Clan. tremble . clangor. tingle. but perhaps not directly from it. conceal. to claw oneself up. klank. a craCmp. from birdlime. in a hidSen place. klam7n. Clink. klepel. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. — . . The root which gives rise to klibb. — Climb. Clang. dank. apprehend . tenacious. is used in the sense of secretly. strain . tight. . Salainen. a claw. substances of a stickydam. Dan. The Fr. holdfast. cramp. of which the locative case. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. clammy brace. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. Swiss kletten. G. sound of the trumpet . Halma.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael.

In E. applied in their harness. nawith stanis. to ring in such a manner for the dead. whence kleuer. or as G. clairon of a trumpet— It. Clash. klouwe (Kil. the primary origin clapa. waU. klamme.oi. a nail.. 269. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. fibula. klos. clopa. a key origmally a crooked nail. . an on the one hand. Du. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. biichse. The b readily passes into gleba. a little hook . somewhat clear. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. The collar-bone. fragor . forms are the Du. a buckle.to cra. — tells us. chiarino. to draw it up into a bunch. chiaro clear. the collar-bone.Gr. clatter. insularum nexus . contraction. to patter. Kil. straight-mouthed. compression. nail. thence a definite head of an edict or law. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. ansa. clamp. klaequivalent to clack or clap. Eau clairette. to fasten. clavis. Fr. and clavis. &c. a kind of small. clew or fasten upon a thing. G.). assembly. noise. Clew. dap. a claw. vin clairet. a water made of aquavitse. kletse. vin claret. globus. is preserved in Lang. clausula. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. chiarello. Du. which signifies a ball in E. to knock. syrtium junctura. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. globus. a lump. sphaera. locket of a door. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. sauna de classes. Clavicle. Thus from clamp. Lat. a bunch.\x\xvn. It. from the resemblance to a key. a complete sentence. buckle. Pol. Gr. Nawith stavis. clausum. flap. klatscha pop-gun. kluczka. Clause. row aii/iaTos.ck a whip. is used in Sc. Fr. klampvoghel. Identical with ON. Owl and that by which cleave to. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. to shut. klijven. Du. a clod. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du.It. with a reddish tint. clew. . to snap. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. clair. Commonly made. pellet . Klatsch- a pop-gun . Thus from Lat. kiosk bicza. gaspe. crying. Dan. same class with w. and through v into a. to rattle . a ball. klaskad. schnalle. clump. bawling. E. klaeret. fracas. — Kiittner. cloi. From clairet. clairon. Lat. It. Originally clasis. to end. we pass to the E. hawk. teren. under three modifications dava. in the sense of a claw. Rayn. the cracking of a whip. —Kil. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. Clasp. ivy. klatschen. klase. Serv . a. Du. To clew. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. kleuen. a lump . mass. it is called clamming. Clatter. diver. Class. to fasten together . ictus resonans. he of white and red grapes mingled together. In the same way is formed the OE. a claFr. clavus. vinum helvolum.Z. Du. claret win e. Lat. klucz. thwack . of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. Prov. pet. puUs. clarin. from its use in fastening things together.w or u on the other. hook. rubellum. sound of the foregoing description. as it is written by Chaucer. blab. cluster. klc^i. an ending. seizes) . chiizjj-o. from scknallen. klouwe. also a knell for the dead. a clasp. a club or massy stick. to cleave. Sp. klot. Nightingale. biichse. kleeven. a distribution of things into groups. a heap. — Clarion. — Clarinet. e. uproar. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. Wyutoun in Jam. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. klauw. to clap . From claudo. klampe. a. K\a. Claret. chatter. a sphere . climp. i. glcis. stop of an organ. and shrill-sounding trumpet. in the sense of a mass or lump. klauwe. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. and old red rose-water. a key. Du. subrubidum. to clash as arms. mass. rion. cinnamon. The form clew. ghespe. skeria-klasi. &c. klatschen. to do anything with a . Fr. Russ. klaterbusse. as G. Lat. claw (what fastens together. clas. klatsche.— CLARET clamp. as Mod. KXeiSi. clarinado. from clinging to the tree which supports it. Cot. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. Lang. Eya-klasi. a bird with powerful talons. Mask ! plask ! thwick. a key KKtitid. Analogous Jam. So Pol. Sw. to animals Sp. chasguear. But clasp or elapse. classis. Claw. a lash.

to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . kleg. kluft. pure . E. gleit. calm. a latch. Axletree clouts. klank. is fast and sure. geklonken. — : A rivet. G. clean. neat. as Lat. to dag ox dog. Mar. and. klouen. a bunch of When flax). clear. cloven wood. polish . klafwa. shine. cleave. seem formed dial. opposite senses. Dan. Du. from the clinking of the latch.' was nailed to a rock. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. Sc. Die zaak is zS. provinciaUy termed dout. to cleave. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. a claw or talon. the To Cleave. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. from diquer. lump. clean. loam. sticky. klinken. to shine. a noose. kloben. deot. hook. Da. words applicable sight. klov. klove The Dan. together . radiant. 154 CLAY dutch. klinken. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. a fissure. to clinch a nail. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. pellet. cliquet. as the Du. voice. glitnir. klinka. klinke. a plate. bend in a stream. to separate into parts. glan. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. give a shrill sound Jr. The Dan. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. glitta. door-latch. vice. A — A Clement. the original . Fr. from nitere. holding together. bright. Du. an object is simply cleft. . The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. to fasten. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. Sw. glbr. AS. G. Clear. klag. dial. kleg. klirren. glan. split. Du. Clean. kloben. Lat. i. From dob. that was a striking proof. river. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. kluit. Kil. dench.). glorious. to Brilliant. as Fr. pretty. E. the latch of a door. kloue. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. clout. the two parts of Du. Sc. Sw. glan. a — — . See Clog. G. smooth. . glindse. ON. mud. a one end. a fissure or division See Cleave. To Clench. Thus from G. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. to stick to. daggy. diquetcr. klouen.— Clag. to clinch GB. W. a clincher. The proper meaning of the word is shining. clean. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. klieuen. that was Torriano. in two ways. to tear or cleave asunder. kloben. danche. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. From clap. klyft. tongs. to shine . sleek. dedgy. See Clam. The word is . it cleave together. dinquet kleeven. kleverig. either by the coherence To Clepe. kluyte. klinken. kldnkelein. The word may be — . E.— . a lump. and Celtic glan. kleevig. Du. a noise. klutsch. clibby. clay . kluftholz. bogs cous. splendid pohshed. glatt. a cleft. a mass. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. doggy. to 2. dags. gentle. clink. to chink. Probably a modification of the word doitt. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. explained from the klinken. klinke. Du. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . Gael. sticky . dut. polished. to fasten E. . Cleat. rive. . Da. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. (Cot. to be composed. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. klincke. klinke. Clay. famous. pure. This is probably one of the clean. to fasten. B. as explained under G. klor. to sound or make a noise . a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . of iron worn on shoes by country people.— Claggy. Da. or from being divided into two parts. kleben. merciful. celebrated . clean. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. pure. clemens. 2. a in that of sphtting. glance . bears nearly the same relation to both senses. or of a tree. This word is used in two business is finished off. glbram. nitidus. Lat. and Dan. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. chaps in the skin. a flash. G. rivet. G. viz.Q. clash. gingle. found in other cases. to stick or adhere . Halma. glor-mhor. a key. . a cleft. the fork of the body. . vissticky . rift. kla:g. To call. Clemency. klceg. to glitter. speech . probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. dams. Sw. Bav. klijveii. Clinch. Wilbraham. date is AS. Omklinken. a lump. conserere antklankjan. glandse. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. clear. as ON. ON. Cleft. to clench. a mass. viz. glent. klieben. klirre. gaklankjan. dag. ON. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. to clink or sound. Du. doff. clear. a cleft or fissure. glint. neat. sticky earth. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. and E. klink.

to move. clyf. clatter. deuck. dergi. IS5 Du. prattle. a claw or clutch. nimble. klok klep- crepitare. G. Client. Rouchi cliche. Clever. . gleg. crepare. to tattle. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. one of the clergy. rapidus from rapio. clever. to talk as a parrot. declivity. CLINCH De . say. derjon. has also deik. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. click. to confess . scar. dough. diquette. a clerk . to catch. has kl'dver. a mill-clack . Lat. on. Du. Cliff. the clergy clericus. . rock. corresponding to Fr. duke. — — A . slope . frap- per rudement une personne. a hook. lively. cleke. derigo. clypian. would have been derida. pen. icXi/ja?. diver. Climax. Klover i munden. skard. clever. crack. Du.Lat. Clew. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. on. dial. de ripa. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. cleopian. OE. and (with the nasal) — clincher. Claw. highest is attained. from clifian. what so men clappe or crie. Dunbar in Jam. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. name. Cot. in the sense of active. deudi. a lazar's clicket or clapper. /cXi'fia. abrupta rupes . clack. deik. Sc.' ii. Det er en Mover kerl. dial. derecia. Jam. klever. Lat. See Clench. dob.. whence Fr. is NE. klouwe. a figure mentioned. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. a latch. a trigger. click. neither as having lordship in the. —Vocab. The Sc. rupes . crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. to cleave. region not observe it. See AS. light-fingered. ravine. a tumbril. a hold. Sp. as from derido. deuch. rock. clap. a lump. AS. KkrifoQ. Clerk. Gr. Now the OE. klikker. expeditious. Du. kleppe. as a click with the tongue. dever. an inclination. a precipice. deik. click it. verge). a cleft in a rock . CLERK sound of a blow. cliquet. dicher. that is a clever feUow. as Lat. one admitted to the tonsure. ized . and hence deik. kleppen. dutch). kliket. speak. clif- stanas. klikklakken. cliquer. d See Clan. klippe. sonare. click. dial. Chaucer. agile. dook (identical with E. clerus. But the Dan. clep. a latch .— Clicket. in precisely the same sense as the E. snatch.dergie! Wiclif in R. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . Clergy. cliff. klippe. Boh. derigon. to cry. cliof. kloof. to wink. the clergy. to stir. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. clif. Somner. klev. klinge. Commonly derived from deliver. hamraklif. duik. to catch. catching. which is used in Scotch and N. ready of speech. exactly Gr. to tattle. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. to teU tales. 3. Da. to snatch. dichet. or Sc. Norm. klaiv. precipices. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). klaffen. . 3. quick of perception. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. climate. ginally from dob (extant in W. above the pole. Hence Lat. dink. a lot. to bend. kliv. klinket. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. to prate. or an object character- Clerical. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. a baU of yarn. a clew. quick in motion. -Toe (from KXivm. glomus. See Clamber. precipice. a ladder. In I Peter v. klif. call. syn. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. the dick of a latch or a trigger. a clicket or clapper. from Gael glac. score7i clif. We movement catch. cleft of a hill. cave . as Sc. call. The origin is the Gr. to rattle. diofian. temperature. with hamarskard. Fr. cleft in a rock. cleugh. the knocker of a door. — have the notion of a short quick in E. rugged ascent. a latch. Click. stein- kluppen.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. Bav. a ball of twine. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. corresponding to the Sc. G. cleft. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. cautes. crackle. klinke. globus. had a form. babble. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. sink. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. which in Mid. Climb. chatter. dexterous. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. to clack. cart that tilts over. chatter. . dek. seize (Hal. a hump. to sound an alarm to clap. a cliff. a child's or clack . cligner. pulsare. and hence climate. to seize. chatter. &c. in rhetoric. Lat. it must be observed. claw or talon to dek or deik. Happen.) Brai. a sphere. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . klika. Sw. e. clima. littus.— Clue. Climate. chat.). Clam.

klocke. Sw. Bohem. E. at first probably on a wooden board. Lat. Serv. knippen. Een kliks bolter. dag. or bagging clothes. clino. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. klippen. sticky. met. To cut with shears. a faction. a hood. to knock. klepalo. a beU. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. gang. to shrink up. glungelin. clique. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. related to clock. Bohem. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. as G. declivis. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. verklungeln. Flem. a separate portion. Du.' for a dry stick. E. to clunge. outcry. to clap or clack. brett-glocke. toga muliebris. globulus' (Gl. recline. Fr. klunker. Clock. especially of something soft or clammy. a bell. to snap kneipen. to pinch klupe. to make a loud noise. . Cliofue. clato make a noise. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. klo^gen. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. G. to AS. klocke. klippur. N orman clincailler. klik. parva ruptura. to snap or fillip schnippen.. knippe. slant. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. pallium. G. klinken. G. difficulty . kluben. bow. G. as thick or curdled liquids. Fr. Hal. kliks. ON. gUong. klungeln. clips. G. To Clip. kluppe. . kleppe. * Clod. 'Till famine cling thee. pinch. a woman's mantle . Swiss k