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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


when we is represent to our children of the cow. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. when neither name for the object to be designated. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. and mully or mully cow is the . or. or Mollein. but nothing she herself knows the animals. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. in language of the present day. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. is given to a cow or calf. come Moolls. muK) and mae (rfie. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. the present day. the closer we shall approach to the . and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. the baaing of the sheep. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. and where we are seeking. with an initial m or I. Molli. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. name of the cow. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. in other words. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. The syllables moo (mu. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. to the syllables which are significant to the child. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). mind of the of the animal. by whom the be understood. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. and.NURSERY IMITATIONS. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. persons of different tongues at the present day. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking.

nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. A member of my own new sfop. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. to For instance. his nurse adopting the word with him. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. he called to to drink. by the natural humming sound.). and which we might express thus. &c. nineteen years old. to work over with the mouth. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal.' In ordinary speech mump. family. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. became more perfect. as well as the mind of the utterer. Gr. for everything fit to eat. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute.' he says. and some were very clear and distinct. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. fiafifi&v (Hesych. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. On one occasion he said^e nim. hm.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. repulsive to eat. mumm. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. when hungry. to eat. analogous to Magyar mammogni. He would now say good. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. Finally an n was placed before it. Heinicke. . had nim. for bad. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. First. schipp. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. We have. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. 72). . and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. Gradually. I had watched the growth of this word.. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. for things. nim. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. p. in children's language. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. then. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. partly from sounds which the child caught. and nim came to signify everything edible.

Galla djam djeda.' says Quintilian. lita. to smack in eat. make djamdjam). to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen).). to eat mampfen. 1 86). mujnpa. Primitive Culture. as well as the Sw. Swedish dialect gamsa. to eat. nobis vix permittitur. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. dial. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. Soosoo (W. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. (in chil- dren's language).' And Diomedes. tidbits nama . memmexen. A negro proOr. namnam. food (Tylor. mumble. and the fizzing (and Series. greedy . mumpfen. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). buckra man's language the white man. nyam nyam. ' id est. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. ut tinnitus aeris. jumla. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . Vei (W. or word-making. crab nam buckra man. and thence to be tasteful. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. p. voracious. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. palatable. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. to Sw.' — Lersch. to chew laboriously.minis. on. Africa) nimnim. jammla. nvrnma. eating. . aptantes adfectibus vocem. to move the lips in continued chewing. i8o. to be pleamind . Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). Nimm'd up. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. yamming.' says the author of Modern Slang. clangorqae tubarum. to taste . to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. jamsa (yamsa). we can call them so. oves lalare.ONOMATOPCEIA. to mump. j ing . to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). stolen. and the crab — p. savory. at hiamske i sig. taken up hastily on the sly.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. and some of them . i. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . agreeing with Ein. delicacies. South Jutland hiamsk. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. snatched (Whitby Gl. iii. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. Wolof nahenahe. the Scotch poet. mumpfeln. Africa) nimi. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. ' Motherwell. nam. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. to fill the mouth. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. Gothic niman. as to . aves tinnire. to take. 130-1. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. sweet (Koelle).

'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. twittering of swallows. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. not of a moo of Lect.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. dove and cooing.' And elsevs^here (p. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . snarling. hooting of owls. yelping. chattering of pies or monkeys. barking. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. neighing or whinnying of horses. not of a baa. yelping. sparrow and chirping. howling. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. Yet we ing. or thoughts of our hearer. but of a dog. gobbling of a turkey-cock. do not speak of a bowwow. before the in other words. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. a lamb. 89) with less hesitation. p. or. grunting or squealing of hogs. might be used as the designation of it. baaing or maeing of lambs. bleating of sheep. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. bellowing of bulls. purring or mewing of cats. whether it deserves the name of language. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. bumping of bitterns. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. chirping of sparrows or crickets. Indeed. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. might be used. that there is When Man.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. ^6^.' — We speak of a cow. snarling of dogs. croaking of frogs or ravens. intended in the instance to represent the cry. cackling or gaggling of geese. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. when circumstances required. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. between dog and harking. anything connected with it. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. for the purpose of bringing the animal. We .' he says. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. 'I doubt. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. und growling. lowing of oxen. cooing or crooing of doves.

a crow. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. Hungary.). In Basque. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. Sometimes the hoarse i . obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. He to is therefore derives kdka. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. in is Gr. crow. and Bavaria respectively. having a general predicative power. a bird that is be driven away. and means a shouter.). an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. In Lat. and gaggele or gagkelein. coccolare. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. ghak. Malay gdgak. ist ed. Picard cau. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. Manchu The kaha. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. Kdrava.' kd). Barabra koka. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. kdka. and the sound of that direction.. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. gackem. whose sound (Pictet. it announces (Salaberry). sound). when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. 349. KOKKvi. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. according to Durga). is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. is kuM) for the cuckoo. birds. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. Columbia kahkah. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. kauwe. caw kuhii-rava (rava. a a crier (p. 4th ed. layitavya . and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. fi-om apakd- i. Georgian quaki. 'Kdka.IMITATIVE NAMES. Sauscr. 380. Bav. or quawk. Arabic kdk. kae. Origines Indo-Europeennes). most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. in g. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. a daw. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. crow. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. We imitate the sound with a modulated. lion. Aoo-Aoo. a crow (Pictet). e. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. kuho. caller. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us).' common sense. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka.

to crow. ghughu. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. hibou. and e. great variety of oKokv^uv. turtle) as the Lat. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare.. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. So we have Polish krukac. Scotch peeweip. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. name of its is the bird. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. Yoruba koklo. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. German kielitz.Gr. to crow. tortbla. libufs. gugu. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. k. Ibo akoka. another. korren. coccovaec. "Welsh hwan from hwa. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. Dutch kievit. p. kraeye. kukko. German and Eng- krahen. Hindi. coucouva. teewhoop. to hoot. Mod. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. giving turtur (and thence It. krauklys. to cry loudly. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. reduplicate form. by the verbs gurren or girren. Arabic tdtwit. kukhuta. to howl or Lat. Du. Walachian coucouveike. girre. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. tuquheit. Magy. tur. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . Zulu kuku. to croak. t. synonymous forms of similar structure). Heb. Esthonian kikkas. and sometimes both together. Fr. name. The crowing of cot in Fr. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. to croak. either in the same or in related dialects.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. yell. Pers. German luhu. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. French dishuit. tor. gufo. lUyrian kukurekati.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. Da. kurre. koeren. The consonants p. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . or Gr. kraeyen. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. tbrtola. kruk. 219. kirren. lulo. are represented. cock. kuku. xi. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. while crouk. a crow. Sp. a crow lish Lith. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. Malay kukuk. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. Swedish kowipa. lilits. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. It. Lettish kiekuts. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. wood-pigeon. coqueri- Languedoc. Du. the name for a crow. as well as of Sanscr. Albacuculi a dove. tbrtora. uhu. krahe. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. a crow .. kraukti. and e. 6. in the North of England. the name of an animal will gen- .

there are infinite varieties. to be compared with Sanscr. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. Australian bumberoo. grillen. Naturalist on the tocano. g. from the humming. succeeding each other — with noise. The Welsh chwyrnu. skirl. sirkka. g. resound. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. grille. schrecke. knetta. Danish dron. flight its sting considered as a horn. to rustle. 'The natives call it tanand. horniss and from the buzzing The. growling. The Arabic sarsor. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. zirken. German dronen. Albanian tsentsir. bamba. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. booming.IMITATIVE NAMES. humming. to shrill sound sharp. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. i. with or Fr. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. ta-na-nd. North of England. g. In the N. resounding of musical instruments. schirke. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. skril with n. to hum. a fly (Tylor) . Sc. Sanscr. or a gnat fly. schwirren. ' — Pictet . the humble. (Jieuschrecke) . bambhara. 337. a beetle druna.' — i. Danish gnaddre. a drone. to creak Bret. of England it is to the b 2 . and probably indicates that g.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. in allusion to its music. Speaking of a cricket he says. e. representing a short sharp sound. schrickel. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. a small as hawk is . and yelping cry. to sound. a sharp sound as of a 6. which they make in their flight very . common. sound. buzzing. give a faint sound. swirplys with 6. skryle. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. Lat. Corean sirsor. glass cracking (Schmeller). We may cite Gr. bee. and not from E. to chirp . droning is . PofijivXwg. grylhis. ' Sanscr. German hummel. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. din. to grumble.' Amazons. pip-pi-ta. oE. Lith. thunder.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. The drone peal. hollow noise. shrill. from schrick. The name of the cricket indeed. dhran. as . of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. to chirp J may be compared with . loud rumour.or bumble-bee. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu .' —Tennyson. buzzing. Arabic tantanat. little intermission. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. Lithuanian tranas. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. ajo. and he kong-ko-rong. German drohne. chirk. Gaelic dranndan. Fin. whirr). the drone or non-working bee . kong-kong. — Catafogo. a bee. a hornet. cricket is from crick. Northern Farmer. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. words imitative of humming .vf3. gives rise to chwymores.

(iove. or a z to the imitative syllable. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. a bull. to ba-L-are. Fr. bugle. bu. as that of the cow by boo. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. Da. representmake bow. bue. bae. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. to beat hard. Hottentot bou (Dapper). whence baula. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. verbal form given to the say. Illyr. bucula. are (with a subsidiary k). forms a. baula. bukati. mugler. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. to shout. cattle. bullock. grumble as distant thunder . miau-l-er. verb is evidently identical with our shout. representing the mew of a cat. as the Illyr. bauli. buculus. a bullock. a buffalo. to low. bubenti. in a imitation of a ringing sound. Cult. to make. w. and djeda. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. to . to bump as a bittern Illyr. Manx booa. Fr. to bow- own bawl. boo. or formed Lat. bugler. bubati. from the imitative moo instead of boo. Zulu lulula. On the same principle. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). OFr. mugire. make to it laugh. From the same lioao). mae. The Piedm. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. biibnas. From baa. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. Thus from miau. mamoo-heeheek. or with on. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. or bau-l-i. is inadmissible. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. fivKaofiai. to make. loge. lulauti (to hoo-loo). the Fr. bo. Galla boa. bovis. a heifer. muJiati. ox. bullus and e. and from to ring. to shout. Norse bu. to low or bellow. make poo. and in Hottentot baa was the . to from bau. Lat. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. k or g. to make a loud deep sound. or moo. 167. shoot . Gael. maukati. amuse. bolt. has bilbilgoda. to mew. The Galla lilbil. bull. to weep. Piedmontese fi bau. It. be-l-er. bos. to boohoo. in same way. bae. and thence Lat. a drum . a cow. to low . and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. to sound. to make a noise. to or bark. a Geiger. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. p. to bellow like a bull. agreeing exactly with Lith. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. His analysis leads cow. — ^Tylor. bwla. that the imitative syllable are Lith. Lat. Lat. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. say. With these analogies. w.XX called booing. to the uses goda. btibleti. the animal.

In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. houch. to bleat . . to bleat. mekegni. Illyr. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. the designations of a dog the term cur. ' In driving. curmurring. kurre. / The same Gr. — . Hence Breton hoc ha. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. grunlike a pig in eating. may be identical with Esthon. in Wolof bae. a dog. to bleat. grugno. in v. to growl. it and e. meckern. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. name of the animal itself. groin. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. a pig. from hundama. hadg- Magy. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. to howl. or in any ! way ! persuading. hound. a sheep (Lowe). /xj/caScj. It. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. sus-sus. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. lek-eg-ni. a sow. a goat. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. to themselves. The g. to grunt. from knurre. nire. meil. ^. Idgge (Rietz). but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. mecati. and grumphie. a pig Fin. for the voice of the ox). growl. karra.). leg-et-ni. a grunt. guttural tone. corresponding to ohg. a goat firixal^ta. . Gr. a sheep or ewe. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. goats. And it is true there between hog and grunt. grumbhng. a sow. sheep or goat. and hoc'h. Illyr. leknuti. to grunt. menAda (ndda. hwch. kurren. lambs. . signifying a snarling. Fr. grumble. he would hardly. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. naskia. purr). undoubtedly imitative. From the imitative mae. lekavica. and with the subsidiary k or g. knurfisk. a wolf. mutter. hundi). Fr. and Circassian maylley. 6. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. this obstinate race. It is probable also that e. a sheep or a goat. With gen. hunon. and of (maelon). grunt. Among dog. and thence groin. meigeal. lecco. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). does not produce a e. as the proper name of a tame sheep. as lou of an ox.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. meketati. the snout of a pig. G. /xijeao/iat. oe. to rumble. Africa laa. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. a. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. Kurren und murren. a hog. grogner. by which the shingle gives rise to It. and snorke. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. with the root ypaipm. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. Manx meilee. hund. meugler. Gr. a (Hesych. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. rumbling. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. a goat. grumble. cite as by grunt. a sheep. name. Gr. smack and naski. may with to snarl. Da.' Moor's Suffolk words. Magy. grunny. grumpf. although the imitation embodied in Lat. we have Sanscr. (iriKov of forms like Sw. name of a sheep. Welsh and Breton). cry). Illyr. Gael. Moreover. sound. hunt (gen.

a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. humma. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. of the character in question. (Craven Gloss. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. as in Yorkshire highly right. a mare. turn a horse to the is In Finland. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. hobby. cockade. M). hoppe. e. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. Thus we are led to the Fr. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. a horse.' 2nd Series. to go backwards. But words of this kind are. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. from the cry animal. without a — we root. If onomatopoeias can . which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. Esthonian hoibo. coquette. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. g. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. So Sanscr. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. hiine.root. . but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. Sc. hottihuh. p. like artificial flowers. the cry to stop or back a horse.). p. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt.). ^6<. animal. to whine.' — ist Series. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. such as cuckoo. houpy in Craven. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound.. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). to the left. 91.' ticular bird. coquelicot. hobin.. hobben. There are of course some names. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. a little am- bling horse. . The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. when he found peculiarity. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse.

nitrire. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. giggle. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. Irieschen. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. . Lettish sweegt. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . hukkup. titter. Sanscr. form corresponding hresh. hikkd. woodpecker. horse. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. Du. creeper. command of language was attained. to neigh. to Sanscr. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. rinchar. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. hennir. swift. than to the sounds represented. xxiii ginal object. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. wrena. diver. Pl. signified It. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. Fr. ance or habits of the animal. as sigh. goatsucker. little speak for themselves. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so.D. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. nounced with a guttural). wiehern. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. hresh. redpole. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. Sp. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. moan. e. hresh. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. Sw. ginniken. sol. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. Bohem. cough. animals or certain kinds of sound. fehtati. lapwing. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. runniken. groan. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. whitename in in- throat. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. hross. g. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. but whether there kind between them and other words. wagtail. wrenska.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. frenschen.

for the for the sound of . the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. to beat. beat of a clock child . a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. heaven). scream. for the sound of a fall. ping came the bullets about their ears. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. fitsche-falsche. root kshu. plitsch-platsch. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. pump. to sneeze. lumm. —Brem. for the creaking of a wheel. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. a kind of drum. the God of thunder . to drive on. oren : Klapp. clap ! A smack Puff. dong Read. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . atchini.' 'Haw. debhes-lungotais (deifies. tisio (tisho). The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. to knock.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. Vei gbangba. atchian. DingBang. bangas. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. — Sanders. banke. pit-a-pat. mer. wheeze. Da. hoo. for in such sound of blows. snore. a more expressive than the e. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . haitshu. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. for a small one. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. Mei gbengben. beat. tlirob. to ham.' it both sides went. aritischane. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. heart tick-tack. the dashing of the sea . thunder (Tylor) . or tliat is accomit. . or the w. on the chops is represented also by pratx. klatsch. 1865. Wtb. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. ding. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. hoo ping ping. knarr.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. White Lies. &c.' ! ! ! ! — dong. for blows with a rod. to hammer . knack. shriek. for that of breaking. ting-ting. in a nail Let.' So imac. strippstrapp-stroll. are familiar in ' to every one. banga. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. It is represented in e. for the sound of a blow. hang. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. snukkup). snort. &c. Zulu bongo. an attempt would be made to by the voice. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. Australian bungbung ween. for the sound of milking. to throw violently down. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . Of a like forma- drum . went the cannon. bang. a large bell. bang ' ! trenches. haw.

Florio. a (young) pigeon. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. and their relations. to cheep like a bird or a young It. piauler. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. scream.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. as the simplest implement for proFr. is of expression. calls S. pipe. has been un- employed to designate fixity. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. or the uneducated different consonants are man. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. Magyar pip. pule. to cry like imrli^u). peep. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. Gr. . cry of young birds . bleat. child. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. pipelni. as in other subjects of study. as k. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. a chicken or gosling. pigolare. the voice of chickens (Cot. e. to cry pi. Lat. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. or a piailler. and so forth. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. pigiolare. pu. a whelp. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. Mantuan pipiare. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. is pfeife. cry. pippione. piou. part of the What consciousness has the child. De Brosses. had been used laugh ? two. and whimper. young bird. a fowler's bird call is lost. mobility excavation and hollow ^. piou. to designate cavity and hollow. G. young child . pipio. He Yet asks. peep. which he added to intensify the expression. chickens (Tylor). to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. pipegni. not- . To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. pipio. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. — . far pipi. piccione. The pi. —Lyndsay. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. pipe. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. to squeak. to peep It. It seems to him that the teeth t. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. Lat.' instead.sc. ducing the sound. used as a call to . pi. a or cheep.) a chick. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. doubtless. pipare. In cases such as these. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. a fife or musical pipe. pipilo. laugh. pigione. of a word will appear supposed to represent. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. Fr.

to bubble. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). as representing the sound made when something breaks. coo. to clack. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. Zulu raraza. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . pi . a drum W. to creak knirren. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. to cluck. the side of g. Indian chack-chack. borrelen. to cry pi. Pacific aka-aka. to grate the teeth . crash. to gargle . Hindustani karak is rendered. karkarana. &c. Pefuxela. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. the clucking of a j hen . to gurgle. along with tinnio. is very common.. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. loud laughter. as the click of a latch or a trigger. u. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. tonare. to thunder. knuks. chack. a prolonged sharp sound. some small vowel or consonantal sound. cluck. to hawhaw or laugh loud. preserved by Kilian. to fizz like fat in frying. knaks. crack. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. thunder oil . to growl. tontonare. sound). Hindoo tomtom. to pant bejii- zela. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. to jar. knurren. creak. to be compared with Sc. like the noise of a glass breaking . . cricli. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. grumble. when it force than biscuit. make wood a clinking noise. garren. rumble. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. or kaka-faka. gurren. in German. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . kuruk. to rattle. kirkirdnd.) Mod. be cate to go on laughing loud . murmur (by . Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. lachen. kniks. kniks. to crackle like in boiling . vaake gorgor) .' We te he ! quoth Tyb. girren. and lugh. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . rumble. a closed or obscure sound. to pant violently (Colenso). yapyapii^to (to make gargar). of a loud strong sound. a sharp short one. to grumble). is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. turtur. of something fine and thin. i. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. to gorgogHare rattle. to laugh. sound of dry breaking. {to It. It. a short sharp sound.Gr. a. along with Du. Poppopvi^to. to grumble. bubble. or springing back.. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. Manchu kaka-kiki. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. rumble (Fl. laqfF. tintino. lachachen. murren. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . ioriogliare (to make borbor). to ring pipio. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. where the variation. .

of keys or tinkling of bells. rain (Tylor. caca and Finnish adkkd. croaking of frogs. or the bubbling up of to a spring. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . are applied to the is excrements of children. a nightingale. sound. clango. 192). to beat. to be compared with g. Manchu kaka. correspond to e. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. to giggle. klirren. corresponding in e. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. muro and e. wail. Newman). to say chut. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). is Manchu tang-tang. Maori pata. a drum . answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. Turk. and her heart went thump. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. identical with g. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. awater* ' The Mme P. and Gr. a boy's whistle. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. simmer. shout. to the purling of a brook. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. indicating the origin of Gr. koXiw. the sound of a stringed instrument. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. a nightingale. thump. is based on the same imitation as the e. jangle. clash of arms. Calt. drops of i. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. while cacd / used in e. noise. to whisper. coughing or clearing the throat. borrelen. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. fumtu. tumult. chuchoter. tubh. Fr. E. Scotch sough or sooch. e. Galla tuma. for chut-chiit-er.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. uproar. spring of water in the a bell. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. clink. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. and bilhila. the tingling Ming-Hang. call. chinking of coin. Prim. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. and Gr. jingle. rifiirayov. tumwata. for a tTviror). to knock. or of bells ringing. quarren.' Member for Paris. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. to strike. 1871. box on the ear imitation of the . . for the clinking Lat. chut. cry. bad. for the sound of privy whispering. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . at an accelerated note. and the imitative nature of tivgle. . or to Du. bulbiil.* the heart. word. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. disturbance (F. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. KaKog. clank. djeda (to say tub). The whispering of the wind I. a workman. for the ringing of illustrate bells. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. especially one who beats. kl'mg-kling. kiling-kalang. and e. Sanscr.and e. bent her head. as of Tamil muromurmur. a smith. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. bubble up. rvir (in tvittio. ding-dong. 368). Magyar csamm-ogni. sound). make djamdjam). and the same may be said of Zulu kala. champ. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. Tiie Galla gigiteka. hala-hald-faMa (falda. compared with Gr. The syllables lil-bil. csam-csogni. brings us to Fr. tup. as Fr. agrees with g. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. the gingling of glasses. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. halaidlac'h. to ring or jingle.

jingle. puff. clink. crack. clash. mutter. rattle. pop. paddle. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. for (Sanders). chink. smack.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. the Germans puff. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. bubble. according to the strictest phonetic rules. crash. murmur. rap. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. din. parapatapan. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. whack. dash. and the French pouf. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. chatter. blow. clack. rataplan or rantanplan. souse. and Grimm. clang. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. So in Fr. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. thump. ring. clank. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. w. squeal. whine. hiss. and soufflet. gurgle. rumble. Fr. it is fallj AS. boom. The use of g. thump. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. douse. creak. tinkle. flop. tymmesll. blubber. tingle. at a door tarapatan.' — Nohden. brumberum. while e. hum. lash. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. squeak. twang.. report of a gun. craunch. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. bang. to dance. plump. Humboldt. flap. squall. whirr. answering to g. gargle. 'pat. to fall. to is blow. patter. thwack. tap. splash. Nevertheless. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. disturbance. whizz. in e. swash. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . But although and also found in Lat. we have buffet or cuff. a applied as well to the force of the bang. thump. fizz. ' Der puff. tomber. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. by rubadub. tumbian (to beat the ground). The beating of drum is represented in e. clatter. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. guggle. sputter. It. clap. crunch. tum-ultus. dabble. smash. slash. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. snap. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. or v^hether jectional. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. without the intervention of orthodox roots. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. splutter. and Fr.

but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. formerly cited. and uttering plaintive sounds. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. xxix on the contrary. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. but if we must not complain on the beach. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. the interj. of horror. hay. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. or stubble is meaner name. grief. and found in the building of be burnt up. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. in the rushing waters.' . —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. and thus they become signs of despair. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. Henceforth rational beings may produce them.' If chaos. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. Crying. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. by the nature of the cry. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. Grimm or Bopp. in the case of the animal or of the infant. p. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. If. or any unsatisfied want. are made known by an instinctive cry. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. or of any if wood. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. knows them. At the first beginning of life. is Thus ah!. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. that he has taken the step in rational speech. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. wringing the hands. the inteij. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. an imitation of a sigh . ugh . and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. the kind of action that is desired of them. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them.'. every little pain. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. little who has time to want of her nurseling. stractions. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. 94. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. without a thought of symbolising to them. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. because they are spontaneous.

and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. shrieking. them to exercise it. and some of them the composition of words.. groaning. 344. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. the lowing of a cow. they are involuntary interjections. One short interjec- tion may fact. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. to solve the I shall call first. may become traditional. ^6g And to the same effect 371. should be remem- .' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. as who them spontaneous utterances. more to the point. 32. of all the mouth. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. Language begins where interjections end. he cites from Home Tooke. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . more eloquent than a long speech. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. be more powerful.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia.' — ist Series. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. interjections. coughing. and the eye. And again. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. p. If I wish to make a person of an . There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. which are frequently so toned down cance. sneezing. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. p. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion.' p. He says. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. or which is of me as suffering pain.

Koxafw. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. speaking. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. and others from interjections. hohottaa. I am not hearer. for example. Kayxa^u). cachinno. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. and more or less limited . And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. then speech begins. Gr. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. when I arp humming and hawing. he says. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. in Magy. bered. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. hahottaa. interjections. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. loud laughter. it them. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. Tooke in truth. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. and thus. Lat. in Fin. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. hahota. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. kahkahah. but the less am at a loss what to say. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. some kind of language might have been formed. demolishing here. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history .

which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. The following account is given by Kruse. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. if taken as a whole. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. have understand them studying as claim to consideration.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. . It as has ing their most striking features. a Picture-language. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. makes them stand and walk upon the table. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. Though. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. What strikes him . signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. of the world. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. dumb is the language of signs. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. of the nature of this great movement. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. And so in the case of language.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. But here nature soon conies to his help. words receiving the meanings they now bear.' he says. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. and not. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. and go where we now say stand. a deaf-mute himself. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. like peewit and cuckoo. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. the critical question should be. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident.

To seize the is the principal movement of an action.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. push it towards the person addressed for thou. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. many when or but these. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. The same sign stands and the act itself. and with his thought. and fully serves to j . and And thus he makes himself a language. and to taste. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . To speak is to move the lips as in speaking.' In the Institutions. the sorecalling them to his memory. walkest. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. the whole secret. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. letter To hold the two fingers apart. for the agent. it seems. to name. signs are taught for yet. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. his action. walked. And is. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. such as than the educated man. or the verb to be. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. and gestures. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. for child. he. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. xxxiii him between one thing and another. particular sense in properly so called. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. can do better and more easily abstract terms. as it now opens out. for walk. and it is flesh or meat. that air. becomes roast meat. that signifies great . thou. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. and we have roast goose. walker. thought is already broken. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. such objects. like a V. it means little. nay. called Gesture-language. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. that. what more. and forms further and further. The of sign for left hand. the lan- guage cultivates itself. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. most striking outline of an object. for single objects. or To pull and flap with the arms. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. he. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers.GESTURE most. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. but if I depress it instead. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. among themselves.

and the as. in other instances sentence. in fact. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. according to the circumstances of the case. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. as But when it is meant door. when I say. the garden. The same word . and thus performs the part of an adjective. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. the ture of white term pink is and red. whether by additions or otherwise. When a verb. would be simply beginning of speech. or action. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran.' dener's knife. or a passive scene of existence. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. When I say. a number of alternatives are suggested. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. and so is an adverb. I say. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. or something of the kind. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. to indicate the action of a certain person. as in die it is a noun. it called an interjection. or an act. Who is has beaten you ? would be. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood.xxxiv asking. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. a colour red. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. putting it into his pocket. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. You beaten . or a quality. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. might be the knife. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. substantive or adjective. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. He gave door a bang. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. depend entirely upon the use. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. as when Bang ! went the gun. qualifies the against the wall. Do not bang the it is a verb. .

or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. commencement of speech. Thus tafu signifies a great man. greatness. that is. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. as kuo cung. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. inside.. wherehy. wonder. and to be great. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. and may be used language. a noun. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. whereto. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. coalesces with the personal pronouns. wherewith. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. Latin. that admits itself in of audible representation. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. or with elements expressing relations of time. but often self-evident. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. in the is indicated by the syllable y. inquiry. contempt. or some relation between it and another object. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. whereof.^ — Miiller I. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. verb nor noun has yet been developed. a groan. with a stick. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. in the sense of great. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. the man is great. pain. 255. some outward display of the affection. a sigh of oppression and . Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. Jii ta. wherefore. which is an old y ting (use stick). middle. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. grie^ horror. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. . as cung. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. or nei. &c.

guaj- or cry out pitifully. seen in Gr. to lament. the pangs of childbirth. al. oval. Gr. vaj. representing Illyr. Let. ace. ai. . waiidt. oh. are ol-ire. ahi. g. vce. ochan. Illyrian vaj. to chirp. wai. Gael. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. is Ay di me I Gr. weh schreien. to hurt Let. &. djamdjam goda (goda. lament from oimi. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). 6. weinen. Thus from springs otjucifw. oh. ah. grief. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. miau-l-is. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. Such are g. probably a deeper groan. w. e. to weep. e. pain. xxxvi grief. or r. to cause pain. as.ez. w^wa. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. wAwa. ah. wai-l. on. headache. die wehen. to ache. to cry at. misfortune. miau-n-is. gwe-l-a. mew. to yell formed e. gwae. to make). to do woe. It. and to bark . DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. hei. to lament. to ache. . It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. ing action I. Gr. and cacak djeda (to say crack. at the close of the radical syllable. axofiai. I oi[iot. woe. achen.-l-are. form. ochan. ach. grief. suffering. as. In this way from the root guai. . woe. wd. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. ochain. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. Gr. to injure. to wail. misery. a groan or lamentation vir. has more kopfweh. to groan. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. The form corresponding to Lat. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. ui. representing a cry of pain. cece. first person. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. mostly a ! %. oi. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. ach. however. g. j. och. on. och. It. wehen (Schmeller). Jar lau-lau. to wail or cry alas . the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. aiai^to. to bewail oneself.. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. guajo. . on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. ! ! Goth. lau-l-e. to gargle. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. Fr. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. wai. to make bow-wow. Lat. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. weh. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. guai. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . pain.'). pain. gwae. ohi. w. to weep. Lat. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. 6. is w. miau-l-er. A widespread It. It. Illyr. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. o'i. howl. to cry n. to . jao. dchzen. ache. . la. n. oimare. jaoh. tirr-djeda. vce. guaj-ire. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. och. grief] affliction. lament. It. found in g. vei-a. in Gr. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. ach. to sound yapyap. to rriourn. ohg. e. Bret. ocAJ. wehthun.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. for instance. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. says da-da-da. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. Diet. da. case. Sie. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. his trowsers' pocket. nurseries. when 1859. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made.' person. or give me it. . ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. or carry me thither. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing.' then points to his wife. 'nay. this here. In the expression Da. But. to here . Please. Phil. a specified were by pointing him out. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. der da-ige. when he wants something.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. and by a variety of expressions besides. as to express. as it Dieser da (as Lat. ToSe (or in Attic E. we may translate this by there (it is). When we pointing. that. or wants to name something. that gratifies me. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it).' this. well as Goth. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. Thank you. child. is we I believe. but the truth is. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. or that it is. according to Menage. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. Dr Lottner observes. saying : there the ad- Trans. thata (ta-ta). a word of many applications in g. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. and may be rendered. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate.' all is is — their consent. that is it. Sanders (Germ. more emphatically roSj)j that. the nursery da-da. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. The Fr. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. ' sees an object. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. implying the direction of its good will towards them. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. • The child. give me that cheese. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. da. as. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. I add) . the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. is-te). give. indeed. Bav. and so on.

or metaphor. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. thinking. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. takes it — as When the soul. moving. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. to knock. Thus Gr. tasting. and shapes it into an . sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. beat. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. to say to oneself. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. — Cot. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. stutter. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. to tion to another.^ its ' utters : a cry. the original is that which he places first. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. speech.' • liv ANALOGY. make dadada). idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. sounds.' says Lottner interior. meanings. sinking. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. or dalliance. The da is dodem. reality. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand.' says Muller. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. to chatter. in every mode of expressing the idea. to move step by step. its desire. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. of which any one may. childish toying. dadee. to beat. . strike. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. and one in particular must. tattle. then instinctively interest. p. standing. to walk. which thus exertion. pay. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da.

snotor. as. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. we have and the and beorht. to ring. to sniff out. Bavarian bracht. ghsten. In the case of sparkle. Lith. — 1. firom the Gael. esclat). kiimottaa. to 5 ghtter. make a loud noise. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. extended to the exercise of the understanding. In the same way the Goth. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. Heo Du. wamara. Again. to crackle gnistre. The 6. sprageti. to glisten Dan. to tinkle. to flash. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. Du. outcry. discreet. prudent. to glitter e. and schmecker. on. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. knistre. schiteren. suspect Bav. kimistd. to glitter. rattle. to glitter. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. man of nice taste. while sapere itself. a dis- cernment. bilbil). to resound. then to sparkle.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. to shriek with laughter . also wise. a ringing . air. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. sapere (which signifies the nose. to crackle. to have Sapiens. wilahtaa. savour. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. snot. splendour. chime). and thence e. from the . to sound clear In Galla. signified a clear sound. to snilF. tinkling. for example. to quiver. may be quoted gUt. is used in the origin. to glitter. beorhtian. So firom Lat. knittre. taste. wilistd. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. beam. It is The word bright had a similar In as. spraka. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. brilliancy. gnittre. to be wise. snutrs. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. unlella. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. scheteren. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. pracht. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. tumult. to sniff. tintelen. the equivalent of g. snudra. Finnish. search . . noise. clang. to smack or taste. splendour. and. 1654. to . —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. sound. magnificence. Fr. a rustling sound Gr. sense of brightness. which in ohg. snuff the sniiten. and figuratively. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. smell. schmecken. a brilliant light kilid. in the domain of movement. judicious. (parallel bilbila. bright. as kilind. properly a clap or explosion. wise. scTiateren. bilbilgoda (to make . may be it explained . smell. think. iclat (in Old Fr. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. a with kimmaltaa. . &c. to ring as a glass willata. to sparkle. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . same imitative root with Sw. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. fiapfiaipw. to shine. in popular language. to shine.

crux. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. accordance with the way in which by touch. of dressing loud. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. the clank (stridorem) of chains. roughness. pleasure soft to the ear . Kpovtiv. as soft by the ear. is felt Lana. Kep^arl'ieiv. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. Tpa)(yg. rough both ways.' he says. or . 6\tadaveii'.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. inside. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. oily. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. soft. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. shatter. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. And observing that n kept the voice within. wool. rough to the ear. tremour. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. in of his works. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. and vepres. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. Much of the same has been often quoted. rough. discusses the tone of a picture. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. . so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. the neighing of horses. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. break. kvTOQ. then in rpd/xoe. sharp. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. the cross. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. extremely loose. flow and flux. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. within. fitting the letters to the sense. he says. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. KoWiiSije. 1. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. eo ut res vol. strike. The BpavEiv. we hear of screaming colours. which The Stoics. mel. v. power of the letter-sounds. rend. &c. itself letters are felt as sofl. to slide. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. Acre. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. \nrap6e. ipuKuv. whirl. rough. briars. in truth. pvfi^Civ. the bleating of sheep. smooth. gluey. he framed the words ivSov.

p. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. and in the utterance of a high or or low. d. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. cular effort Again. ii. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. dig. a rough and sudden . sag-oter. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. corresponding to the ineor. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. or checks as they are called by Muller. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. to reel abruptly from side to side). p. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. jag. t. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. k. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. the case of the voice. shag. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. Fr. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. g. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. tug. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. degree of roughness sound. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. shog. jog. to jogj sac-cade.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. stab. for exis ample. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. dag. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. rug. A greater felt. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. as when. stag (in stagger. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. joli. jig. to signify varieties of movement. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. 138). in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. jih. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. 'and consequently form. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat.

a . to winkj micati is Lat. is made to signify movement. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. to move rapidly to and fro. (mitsati). The Mipen or pencil. a playiug-marble. tecche-tocche. The syllable suk is jerk. Fr. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. to beat or play on a musical instrument. schuckeln. to ring a bell. and It. to strike It. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. an infant . tech-tech. used interjectionally to represent a . to tickle. sound barely audible. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. tock. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. to touch. rough horse. foot.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. figuratively. to take a thing on tick. S-panish miga. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. and analogous movements. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. The production of sound. &c. motion. a quid of tobacco. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. it produces Dutch micken. movement. a small bodily object. zigzag. a stroke with a French toucher. as tot. kik. for the sound of knocking at a door. to mark it with a touch of the pen . Welsh cicio. lead to Spanish tocar. a crum. micare. to incite by light touches. mot. Mucken. in cases like the foregoing. tack. however. e. chic. that we never can be sure. Fr. an old worthless horse or carriage. schockeln. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. cica. to glitter. Dutch kicken. chiquet. sound Fr. g. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. Bolognese tocc. a piece or bit of anything. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. To tick a thing off. toch-toch. Accordingly the g.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. properly a small lump'of . to stir. mie. zack. The analogy then carried a step further. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. is lanese toch. then. chicoter. to utter a slight kick. Brescian toch. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. It. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . a cracker. like English tick. passing to the signification of motion. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. Thus we have B. Sukkeln. The train of . and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . a jog. then. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. mica. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. is so frequent a consequence of movement. and e. a good piece of road . not to utter a syllable. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. kuk. to On the same principle j we have g.. or check. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. Ene olde suksuk. to say a word . Illyrian migati. chique. to mutter. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. as Italian tocco. to pulses being knock. Then. also to stir. a little bit. to have it ticked or marked on the score . so to Italian toccare. mik. Hence Lat. marked by the change of vowel from i to a.

this. . The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. tiny. lump of earth. there '(at a short distance). to dot. a small lump or pat. a. totle. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. citto. and he. small titlark. tot. syllable mot. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). little j to that of a small bodily object. to e. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. not to utter a syllable. a lad citta. The following table from Tylor (Prim. and toddle like a child titter. not an atom . The vowel changes from to tick-tack. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. here (close hand). to jog. at where the order is inverted. tit.) . seesaw. to movement of the pen . the least visible insect. this . motta. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. a whisper. mossche. ri that. . for the three personal pronouns. tot. or o toi. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. This kind. the vowel sound. a morsel girl . 0. tit. . a small kind of lark. that. a sparrow). sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. . jot. eo. . gno. is shown in murmur. and out there. mote. small of kind. tottle. a small bird. Halliwell. corresponding to the personal pronouns. Du. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. bunch or flock of wool. tittle. n. Pm. e. gnu. Cult. . titilh. there. you. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . iki. 48) cites from the African Tumale. tozzo. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. tot. not because the pendulum makes a different left. to tremble. 199). little. a tot . in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. lix Sp. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. and mite. a bit. to make a slight mark. often entirely arbitrary. of movement in totter.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. a small quantity. Then. mot. a girl. or the converse. e. Fr. . a certain conception. zitella. i. a e. or the like its It. move slightly to . Malagasy to. mut. motte. a small horse. anything small flax. I. that iku. . But the same is language has re Javan. further off. a little titty. tot. mutter. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . anything . (Halliwell) Da. and a small lump of something. as in e. a bit. zitio. taut. to touch. we have e. a morsel. a light quick blow. chico. neither moit nor an atom. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. the same organ touched with the man. and dot.- a jot or little It. fragments It. titmouse (Du. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. clay . here. there (further of!) ao. to whisper (Pr. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. to touch lightly with a pen. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. for the beating of a clock. to jot down or note with a fro. ticktack. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. So. ika. To jot. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. In a similar the relations of place. gni. fait. mutter j dust.n. subdued manner. titter.

that. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he.. ni. uta. Abchasian aSn. here j abe. . ofj. an old woman chacha.e^. /e«. that. here j ka. he. father. is father. thou ni. . it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. here 5 Yoruba na. and a for the female. there. . Zulu ajoa. for the male.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. as in Italian Fin. no constant rule is observed. mas cheche. young one. child. Dhimas isho. Chilian tva. that. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. there. biii. there. j Canarese ivanu. little. km. Fernandian az. this . by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. Gr. ita. is Here. that in the distance. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. Lat. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. olo. here . here . child. thou . Tarahumara ibe. Sahaptin (America) kina. an old . and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. there. here feraa. tiiio. minution further. ni. ulri. Carib ne. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. respectively.. Guarani nde. mother. this . ndi. that (intermediate) j wana. . /wo. Botocudo ati. to. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. Ossetic am. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-.) pronunciation of i or e.) nna. Magyar ez. probably initial of distinction that the k.araM. Then. loo). ukko. that. this . that. ne. that. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. that.. there. It Carib lala. (tt). ^. usho. w. there. as Mr Tylor remarks. qu. mother. Japan ko. ojOo. . is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. this fi. you. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). man erne. femina ama. that. small (Pott. bi. that. . thou. /mya. akha. there. I . mother. It seems to (fen. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. here this . Tamul i. Mutsun ne. this ole. me probable that • Vei also little. 6. this <t. ta to ka. he. . .. this . as the act of pointing was ta. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. father k . Mm. nne. and origin.

weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. for instance. And perhaps the E. to leap. knob.' — Merrv Wives. a step. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. as j money. lift 8. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. nab. whence Fr. the principle of reduplication. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. barking of a dog. Thus we have Wolof sopa. analogous to winy-piny. for the . for a succession of light blows low-wow. in old e. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi.' making the voice as small as possible. i Sw. stairs. just beginning to appear. trSpigner. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. to make its way through the bursting envelope.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. at pippe frem is to spring forth. or even. trappen. looking through between obstacles. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse.) . — Douglas Virgil. as ding-dong. or chink. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. little. The Sw. the nursery few j Sc. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. nipple. repetition It. dance (Kil. to peep through. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. sound of bells . &c. of smaller things. . titta. the idea is called. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. and in the Pacific dialects. to feet. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. the simplest mode by the g. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. to teet. wenig. From cases like the foregoing. the pip or pippin.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. keeh. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. trap. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. has tittafrem. Fr. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. nil. a little yellow beard. trippelen. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. tion. to tread. A little weeny thing. Da. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. little To sup up. trippen. trappa. to begin to appear . A little wee face with little. wean. to peep. murmur. fretful. din-din. 401. don-don. is to express simple continuance of action. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. Clank represents the sound of something large. pepin. a child. Top. The sound trapp . while the special nature of the action intended syllable. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general.

ratsi-ratsi. 97). as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. a grasshopper. repetition or continsignify long. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. and Fr. (to use a to speak. to or rub. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. very bad. to treat with contempt. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. racket. smallness. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). or in Fr. to vi^alk about for flax. the agent in panting . to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. to skip. kendagenda. Again. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. kenda. puka- puka. to to call. ayunayunan.. to cover e. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. random . ding-ding. rapidity and strength. loloa. serves to show and in this way. clash of weapons. to pant. . the comparative degrees of greatness. properly speaking. sopasopa. child . but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. child . tach-et-er. The same principle of 196. kamha-gamla. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. . acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. or very very great. And generally. 99). So from clamo. to talk at to walk. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. i. mpolu is uttered. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. the lungs. click.Ixii REPETITION. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. Malay ayun. calling. Thus in E. tache. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. didi. to say pooh It is ! to. could readily be conceived. to love. clamito. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. from Maori muka. a spot. puka. cliqu-et-is. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. &c. very long (Pott. to rock. little child (p. in familiar use with ourselves.' expression is — ^Tylor. Mandingo ding. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. is language. or el. instead of being actually repeated. mawhiti. Cult. and the words express a continued sound of rack. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. very great. a cradle. if very young. keep spots. the and clique. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . a clattering noise. bad . mawhitiwhiti. rack click. amusement. rack. hardness. lololoa. are echoed by the rudimentary et. to call frequently from Fr. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. or a little tee--ny thing. er. or rdtchi. Thus in the Pacific loa. Susa di. or imitative syllables.

the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. wagas ging. or by association. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. and in as. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. it. to make gug. by the side of wanken. bubble. a succession of cracks to rattle. itself. to hand-le. a from ayun. Ihre remarks under gncella. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. to continue dragging. draggle. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. such asjlap. to make a succession of grabs . to rock. to move to and fro. or Maori puka-puka. shuffle. wankeln. crack. as mAS. to crackle. to puff. which. miauler andpiauler. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. jogging. miauler and beler correspond to E. to bark like a dog. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. to make a succession of shoves. are to cry mew and pew . in some applications. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. bub. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . or in e. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. is In e.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. or omitted. others. from puka. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. dabble. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. dab. the knie-en to E. the lungs (the puffers of the body). has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. to rock or wag. syllable clat . guggle. compared with g. Piedmontese bau-l-S. to make bau-bau. without the intervention of the frequentative element. he who rubs. In cases like these. as to handle. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. kneel. wancol. or fi bau. to hand. in used for dealing with an object by the hand.Jicol. joggle. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. smack. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. Jickfacken. fickle. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. wavering. The contrivance with any particular noise. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. mew and baa . rubber. to wail woe . waggle. in Fr. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . The Fr. wankel. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. where all direct connection with sound is lost. rynel. g.

no sort of difference either in outward appearance. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. on a moment's reflection. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. by a hard body breaking. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. which. it is obviously a mere chance how long. will continue to be felt in daily speech. A gull or a dupe same sense. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). to the separation between the broken parts. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. known in Italian. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. which is the origin of the word.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. moreover. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. and comparatively few easily deceived. Breton. Polish. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. the breach. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. or how generally. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. or in mode of use. or in aptness to combine with other elements. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. Dupe comes to us from the French. at was more familiarly known. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. deceit. although it is not difficult. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. to cry ugh at. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. There is. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast.

the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. Hitl^erto. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. language is . it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. and the word is used in a secondary sense. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. founded in manifest blunder. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. is. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. . it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. life. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. however. nor any limited of ideas. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle.

! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. and vescovo. I think it very probable. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. circle perpetrates a new slang term. hearing. compared with the duration of man. episcopus. and 'Russian. Naturalist on the Amazons. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. unintelligible to other hordes. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. Welsh. of material things. If English. French. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. i. 330. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. in the course of many years' isolation. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . out. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. change. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. evique.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. therefore. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. guages in South America. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who.

6. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. i. 9. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. as shown in the subjoined illustration. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. . it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. ancient Greek M . ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. 7. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. Cijlt. The combination of the symbols I and 2. it will leave figures 3 and 4. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. A key must unlock more doors than this. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. to be taken (Prim. and . which are idenr Figures 5. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. Nor is there one of the letters. ao8). as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. the actual it which would to represent. is MN. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. 8. or whatever the proportion may be. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day.

And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. what comes to the same thing. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. leading him to utterances. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races.' should be discovered. known to us as yet. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. had its origin in imitation of sound. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. and the only safe beneficent Creator. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. for instance. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed." the use of a change of vowel in as. his fellows. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. in the shape either of direct inspiration. which either by direct resemblance of sound. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. or. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us.

or of their own reflected thoughts . as elephants. race were speaking men or not. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. or beavers. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. or not. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. and rose towards a higher state of being. the conduct of Ixix life. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. and when we look back as far as history will reach. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. by animal without a trace name of Man. of using imitative conduct . live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . and sooner or later. in the course of generations. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events.COMPLETION OF MAN. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. until the progeny. that he started from the lowest grade. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. for instance. or else. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives.

. Cimbr.-Eng. 1766. Cotgrave. Castr. Bavarian. Douglas' Virgil. Gothischen 1851. Gr. Catalan.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Diet. dial. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Teutonico-Lat. Diet. E. 1857. 1737. Bav. 1768. Finnish. Esthonian. Supplement to Dueange. Dief. AS. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Esth. Diefenbaeh. B. Wtb. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Carp. Diet. Romano - Cas- traise. Bremisch. English. Bigl. Sup. Cimbrisch. Dueange. Dn. Fr. Dutch.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. or Dan. Brem. Elfric's Fl. Grammar Boh. dialect of the Sette Commune. . Infimse Latini- D.Nieder. Baile/sEngl. Dief. Dueange. 1654. Couzinid. Diefeiibach. Bohemian or Czech. Da. 1850. at the end of Somner's Diet. Biglotton seu Diet. Danish. Fin. de la langue Cat. Provincial dialect. Carpentier. Supplement to Bret. Anglo-Saxon. Due.V. Cot. ^Ifr.



i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . cti. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. yjnaifia r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. buque 118 brodiquin r.5 ERRATA. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. Blob plowied r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. r.>. word allagerr. alUger ahaverie r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . Askance woud r. kilistaa bugiie r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. (/ijtf r. katowai perairrantr. puHti r. r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. plowied budowaer." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. woman r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. sveritet Asknace r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. willekom Blab r.. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r.percurrunt kimista^x.nokkutama willekem. baltresca nokkutomax. ^i?^i2! r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. cruccio deyrie. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. haverie crtOT r.


it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. to awake. Again. on. er. .he Goth. to subdue. abaft. ir. OHG. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. plesyt him. from a is to wake to abide. 244. a/tan. away from. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. ibandonner. AS. to arise. command. Dent posture. a. his. have entire dominion over. Passing tongues. Jvery man shewid baft. o/j of or . As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . state of sleep . this word beand Spanish. into the Romance ftrseg . and secondarily in that of command. To abuse is to use iway. "rom a height. ur. compounds. particular 1 . on-lic. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. Abandon. an edict or proclamation. in the same sense. Lat. dominion.t G. to sauff the king or spill. implying a completion of J. whatever he be. orders. rule. as. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. said. Thou spelds of mychty iction. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. K . is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. onis aback. in. power : Than Wallace thing. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. dominion. ar. behind. in a manner other than it should be ablution. alike. out of. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. iway from. announcement. literally. Thus ip N3S. Abs-. away. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. to hold . 843. us. The word Ban is common orders. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. from. ifter. Parson's Tale. on-bsec . Ab-. among. but now )bsolete). as. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. be-ceftan. of-dune. vs. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. a washing off to abstain. off. A. on. downwards. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. Abaft. the er. baftan. Hence on-bceftan. ab. —Bruce. abs. and — Chaucer. until the event jlace . sion of 'an abandoned character. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. erwachen. In Lat. bandon in French. AS.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. Immediately from Fr.

A. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. And he thereof was all abashed. with or without a final sh. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. shame. merely the terminations ons. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say.' the surrender of a ' K. esbahissais. to take possession of an estate. to strike sail . bandon. to light upon. On the other in use as well as hand. to diminish the force of any. impetuously. and the verb was written in Eng. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. abaundunem-ent. abbattre. abandonly. depress. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. — Neccham. astonish. 364s. to astonish. Fr. d. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. Originally. More correctly written abbat. or society of abbots or monks. Abbot. ne more vermeille. father. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. bawi. . R. Beat. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. of wonder. confound. an abbey. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. person. baer. In or. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. Bate. his mouth. Custom. or admiration. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. adverbial expressions at abandon.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. drink. iv. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose.fournir. by Wall.polir. betrash. may be explained. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. R. Abbess. Castrais. astony. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. effect of shame. to bate something of the price abbatersi. Wall.Prov. to make lower. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. ant. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. beer. abbatia.— — . at his own the lips. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. law term abatement. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. Hart in Jamieson. esbahir. I was abawid for merveille. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba.— R. See . from Lat. and grooms besmeared with gold. his eyen shene.esbawi. c. polish. and that from Syrian abba. in the active form. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. esba. abbatere. uncontroUedly. other. Cotgr. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. to abaw or astonish. Milton. to The . lish to abaisse orabaish. to strike Froiss. . See Abide. — — . abbas. faire tomber. of the Fr.down. esbahissant. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. abbatere dal prezzo. from ravir. to gape. burny was formerly burnish .) . to excite admiration. 1520. castle. weaken. terminedly. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. to put to con. so common in the found in the OFr. ais. Hence the OE. to overthrow. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . R. vol. 1 1 8. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. abbatis. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. de.On princes. Baba ! Mod. abate. and it that that it — . to hit. burny. as ravish. Abbey. overthrow. to beat furnish. of fear. son bandon. where custom (Grandg. To Abate. impulse.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. down. It. to happen. et prirent terre. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. Hence Lat. and sets them all agape. to ruin. baba. thing abbatere le vela. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish.

listen. Abele. abetter. which is certainly related to It. delay. gola badada. . . bouche b^ante. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. compared with (Bosworth). baer. to suffer death in Du. in Dan. bie compared with Dan. beidan. to yawn. songer. syllable ba. endurArt thou he that should come.Fr. or do we AS. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. bialodrze-w. attendre avec en^pressement. abet. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. in Fr. abet. to be intent upon. baier compared with It. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. guardare. b^er. tenere a bada. abayer. beidan. Thus G.— ^richer. ' ' . suspense.) abayer. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. to wait. Guernsey beth. ne chastised them. In We . othres abidan' The effacement expect. deceit. to remain or endure. pense. to expect gabeidan. and in E. regarder. inciter. to open bader. with badia. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. literally white tree. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. badigliare. bide of the d endure. to wait. lingering. See Abide. to deceive. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. beijen. delay. From abahier. wait To Abide. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. badare. ne wist what way to chuse. look for another. ceive. (Vocab. —Raynouard. take notice.— Chaucer. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia.to wait. OFr. usbeisnei. the verb of abeyance. tempting. abeter. Quant voit le serpent. to abide . attendre See Bait. expectfamily. — . abiiance. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. to deanimer. trick abetar. to desire earnestly. on the one hand. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. baier. — ABELE Epiphanius. qui iaaille. to wait. have seen abide. deceiving. abSiance. warten. delay. open the mouth. verbeijen Sw. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. which the mind to an object. suffer b. incite . were called Brothers. forbearance. de Champ. listening. The verb atwaiting. also to OFr. Corant sens lui. to gape . to mind. Goth. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. badare. bder. Ni engigner ni abiter. signifies the direction of tend. abie. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish .. with open mouth . abie. Gloss. bada. gridare. E. speaking of the Holy places. aspirer. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. to hook. 366. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. white. beguiling on the other. m Abeyance. we sceolon ON. tical with It. to tarry. bie. Q. bocca badata. us. from Halo. — II. to desire. Pol. take care. bhr. abbadare. Cat. baier. expectation. expectation. badar. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. and E. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. Cat. Boethius. abidan. waiting. de Berri) Prov. K. beijden. . F. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. bouche bdante. a bay or opening in the coast. . to In great amaze. Abie. to attend on . says. and Prov. bidan. house. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. to be intent upon. endurance. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. to ance. To Abet. John. ^couter avec dtonnement. abeyance. desirer (Roquef. Du. Thus we have It. to It. beguile. and alluring to his own destruction. intent observation.— Roquef. to stay. beijen. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. to open the mouth. abaier. to attend to. Corresponding to keep in suspense. Gloss. Fabl. to stay. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. bida. aspire to. Ducange. or in Fr. to look. bida. Prov.was formerly used in the sense of look. Norm. a right in suspense . with the frequentative gueiile b^e. tarrying . The white poplar. 1 • . forms with the d effaced are OFr. wait. is idenwait. to expect. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. desire. inciting. Norm. covet.' is in AS. beter. or absorption watching. watch. badare. tity of E. bana. . — signifies to suspend action. while the monks under his control ing. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). exciter.

N. in for any special purpose. — P. a board. to have . was often used in the same sense. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. i. abolir. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . abidge. the Sir Tristrem. power. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. Cassar.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. powerful.ynes. ON. and Cr. Prol. Fr. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. O If tion. expert. She shall abie that trespass dere. within the ship. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. the Fr. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. abilej Prov. abie. Spenser. Abie. the Pardoner In the original. God. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. to . Chaucer. bord. fault being simply clothing. at kasta fyri bord. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. In this to erase or annul. to perish. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. abilh. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. —Bacon in R. Mids. is the verb abie. as habiller du chanvre. bide. 2nd Tale. Lat. fit. though sometimes confounded with it. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. to redeem. sufficient. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. atling hem to her proper offices. and the simple buy. F. Tr. . Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. properly abuy. must suffer for it. without special reference to the notion of retribution. to pay the purchasemoney. P. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. Wickliff in Richardson. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. at hand). Boucher. — Able. to wear away. being disabled in the highest degree. abie to Goth. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. bidan. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. Q. abicgan. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. have-like. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. the side of a ship. and death for handsel pay. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. beidan. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. abycgan. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. L. Dr. God — dear. as E. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. Fr. suffer the Jul. R. while in later examples As I . and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. to draw fowls. It. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. strong. able. to dress hemp. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. habile. from Lat. use. purpose.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. on board . from AS. Innan bords. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. forbid for mother's children should abye. If it badare. willing to schewe his wrathe. abide. al- be found so some will dear abide it. &c. habilis (from habeo. — e. convenient. For on board. consequences of anything . doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. de la volatile. durance in both applications. when compared with Aboard.^and to make his power knowne. 2. to pay the penalty. P. ! ! Cotgr. adapted . Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. AS. The —Boucher. him with che. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. Milton. abeye. aboleo. within the walls of a ship. abigg. habilis is closely preserved. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. or bie. R. Merch. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it.

See To Bray. alan. Abundant. as the duty of nourdisposition. Sc. Virg. al is growth. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. gravity. Abrdger itself. the idea of breaking about . his contemporaries. alan. as withotityn and without. is a ively. to grow up. gravis. The primitive idea seems that of beget. abracan. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. abbreviare. Of these synonymous adolescere. or young forth. Thonne Abroach. agredge. to main. above. alUger. and in-d-oles. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). pedigree from brevis. progeny. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. af-oolden. boven. literally. nourish. ol. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. snatch In English we speak of away. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. adolere. that greatly agredge their sin. to fatten. to produce. to progress. ufan. seems aras. parent. around on the out. bufan. So in Lat. OE. disastrous portent in some passing oc. to break off.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. on high. d. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge.' Parson's rence. abbrechen. ABOMINABLE adolesco. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur.. full ofte his words for to Fr. The radical idea is to feed the flame. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. to feed. Then. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. the man dwindles away. to cut short. break out. to bring up. D. explains soboles Lat. onbutan. AS. to aggravate. without. outward. OE. Quod abominor. OSw. en. breaking out in language. heavy. becomes leu in Prov. s —Casdmon. from Fr. Gael alaich. AS. Severe the threatened evil. below.the older form. Goth. agreujar. which passed into English under Abominate. ala. to grow together. Kiittner. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. and bidden him abregge. Du. or cut short. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. levis to the Romance languages. while the sense of beget. natural ed direct from the latter language. of any kind . life. motion. kindling. for ligeth butan. to awake. to start. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. brood. nurse Lat. . alere capillos. the OSw. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. be-utan.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. Above. For on broach. Prov.ger. to turn. To abray or abraid. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. while the verb alleThe root el. as AS. to light a fire the Abraid.ymbutan. ala is made to signify to rear. abominor (from ab and omen. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. a portent). Finnish stock. side. nurse.1. hard. whence the Fr. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. Thence to regard greugetat. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. and also to abridge. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. Tale.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. the form a&^^. abredan. abrdger. the hair grow.foda signifies to beget. awaking.aboon. to let sleep. AS. abowen. to beget or give birth to children. and also. giving birth to. from .) . vital PI. be-ufan. currence. to feed. butan. af-oleii. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. oil. — ' — — preceding verb. and alere flammain. In the same brevis . way Sw. To Abound. which may God avert. Melibaeus. is not from G. . about cockcrow. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate.— Abbreviate. abufan. coalesco. to nourish. abutan. the vital spark. sec seftre — Chaucer. to AS. but from Lat.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. abbrechen. to snatch. Fr. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. abrcBgdan. titan. by the to bring up. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. draw out. to rear. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. the identity of which with ting. to rear.' Ymb hancred utan. and to do something to avert abbreviate. — . Abray. Lat.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. See -und-. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. common in Chaucer and Abominable. leading immediately to Fr.. greu. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


Apart.th centuries the recognised models of antic. Lat. So Lat.— . burnished. in Shakespear. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. left as the . surimitation of the ancient models. bread. af. verberas. Fr. to have. As the browcalled antiques. vex. Anvil. d<popi(xnbs. d. Fr. apanage. were chiefly of the former class. Jorioc. from avTiipoiuia). Gr. from. three antike pillers. on. a definite . to strike G. a preventative . In like manner. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. or in a ridiculous dress. to bring forth. Apartment. —Spencer.D. See Cover. from ango. younger child. as we call it. anapoz. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. Aphorism. were andouiller the second. transferred to the grotesque characters. before. as the Italians. E. rich. : . as posticus. set aside. one at the least. part. plenteously with red. villan Gloss. Gr. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. amboltj Du. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. white. AS. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. AS. ReApe. anfilts Pl. and devils. from in and cudere. cenig. trouble. some one. something ler in R. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. Antique. G. to go in strange disguises. i. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. swaged.legacy of given against. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. one having wealth. separate. from ante. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. inAgain from the same author cudis. to support. post. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. which by anvild. whence anthem. antifena. whence Prov. and ig. a few. anxius. the anticks — behind. apatiar. as from as. should be received.—Aperture. such as savages. eigs. Ful- Apanage. to sound in answer. to display pario. a gift. Fr. incus. avri^ava. AS. to strike. ambeld. Mannequin. work. from. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. Antler. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. to open. Prov. antefn. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. To ape. Anxious. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. or antique single chamber. one. . Any. fauns. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. from eigan. Antick. finally applied to a whether grotesca. To go antiquely. from an. Antidote. a block to hammer on.made out. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. Gr. aperio.. Hence the applica. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. a termination equivalent to Goth. what Roman civilisation. all of gold. separate purpose. a puppet or an anti^hona. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. andouillers. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. Percutere. Lat. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. Thus from gabe. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. from the imitative habits of monkeys. like a jack-pudding. — — — . panis. ab. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. Apartment. anxi. apertum. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. Otfried. to nourish. a small quantity. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals.is to be given. Ilvtwotov. and claret wine. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. Lat. Aperient. before. Hall's Chron. press. but the expresent day. wealth. to imitate gestures. panar. strangle. aside. gabeigs. Lat. to strain. from an and — - . Pezron fiUist. stem. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. of. anticus. choke. from Stephanus.

make a composition between parties. apprise. and appoinder (to find fitting. away. To Appraise. allow. and metaphorically to take the meaning. agreeing with "LtA. near. to Lat. S^. . seiden of the stones. whence the e. e. H. diroTrXriaatii. oVooroXof.prix. order. from paix. — Appurtenance. corresp.— . From Gr. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. peler. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. to — . Parson's Tale. appareo. value apprdder. w. quoth the frere. plight. purpose. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. to which it is often referred. to understand. to call. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. the good. find Then like Fr. avail. From Lat. to suit. an epistle or letter. apprentis. from. The Fr. to deaden. or the like. opportunity. poind. iwKjToKri. Apoplexy. one for his defence. apparecchiare.parejo. Appareil. to make a thing Apparel. in fact. A — . in commendation. Ir. of. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. equal. probare. one the MLat. Cotgr. pronounce good. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. to approve. a price. — Approve. cepl. (cited by Diez from a late author). Fr. apin R. to commend. apar. become dizzy . array. to announce. N. D. to set a price on. approcher. off. when the . in good season prendre son d. horror. — Apprise. preparation. a'^opi'Jw. to disable oftat. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. properly to join like to like. appartenir. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. Fr. kind of action. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. Approach. a crime. Cotgr. appaiser.parecchio. Hence appoind. case. Fr. habiliments. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. one sent out. prope (comp. taking. They were considered To Appoint. to approach. to take away or lose the vital powers. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. Pliny. It. Apple. apropchar. aparelhar. —^Apparent. manner. Fr. known. Hence It. to call for judgment. and also as appraise. Yr. peace. — prehendere. piteux poind. proper time came. Cent Nouv. ciously than nede is. to come near. to fit. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. to dress in this fashion. to deter- to strike. Apo- good time. 'L-zX. to rate. to strike down. To cause to pall (see Pall). Lith. appareiller. Apprehend.probare. From Lat. ON. to learn. Yr. En peach. to — — . set a price on. diroBrjKr}. appellare. APRICOT off. ^wss. after his mind .were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. to deem good. apprehendere. . that it outfit. Fr. To praise. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. —Diez. poind. a thing for one's purpose.—Apprentice. Gr. mine. Fr. Gr. pronounce fitting). Nouv. Apostle. were formed appropiare ejar. to assign or grant over unto. 5w. Prov. diminutive pariculus. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. good. AS. Fr. Appease. appris. Fr. landmark. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. And whanne sum men Lat.propius). apprendre. and in the sense of condition. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. in Chaucer. Lat. OFr. whether through age or sudden teiTor. apal. Palsgr. rise to \t. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. from aTroorlXXu. And among other of his famous deeds. ap. xv. Mod. 11. irpaiKOKiaov. to mark to define a bound. prize. pretium. lAfiaam. decree. to lose one's senses. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. par. like. despatch on some service. prover. to catch hold of. pragigua or prixcoda. For their acquaintance was not come of new . obolys. ar. apropid. to learn. d-n-o. esteem. approcdare. dress. one is in. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. . The PI. Epistle. Wholly unconnected with/a/^.pareil. apal. jabloko. Formerly apricock. habilUr. Sp. agree. Gr. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour.t. approver. Prov. I prise ware. Friar's Tale. to finish a controversy. APO sentence opoQ. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d.his giving evidence against his principal. — dirondtfiu. in data. consent unto. 23 . trim. : — — speak 'Lz. Walach. to send off. They werin his approvirs privily. Cotgr. An old appalled wight. word was specially applied to clothing. to be open to view. a learner. like. to store or put Appal. laven is used both as E. pertain or belong to. prohts. Fabian in R. aptly. to send to. or E. fit- — ness. praise. to seize. 'LaX. i. To Appear. Apotliecary. to accord. ai. Gr.

for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. or eft. Prol. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. ughe. suitable. It is certain that the apricot oracle. a lot. Marsh. nawl and awl. conjicio. aqua. derived. Freshly turnid Arable. delon. aha. wata. . A. Lat. as an eye-witness. Aquatic. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. nected. and the one who gives oracles. or barm-cloth. Roquefort. hariolus arpelen. a lot. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. sorcerer. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. Albanian. . whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. man. found in Fin. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. properly the arwella. aptus. symbol. herbere. as ihe diminutive. to preserve it from stains. ear. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. aestimo. however. Arbour.' —About. to decide by lot. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. pracoqua was not an adapt. and a protection of the clothes.) E. 2. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. Gr. arpa. auguror. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. As is a pretty parlour. of of divination arpa-mies. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. is taken in is a soothsayer. Maan initial . con. Now we find in Fin. P. naperon. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. OHG. a river. quod he. scr. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. divining rod. rofe and all. the spelland umpire.o. OE. opinio. From OFr. aa. and sortilegus ation. — napkin is Naperon. From OE. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. arwelo. 31. ahva. proper. Arbitrate. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. 331. . Lat. doubtless is the origin of E. intensitive of nape. arbitror arwaaja. a soothsayer. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. be That it inne groweth. a pleasure-ground. {mies ^=ia3. sestimatio arbitraria. arbiter in re censendS. It may be doubted. Pr. la nappe. tion under trial. P. a cloth.shrubs {arbor). — . It will be observed in how large a proportion of . however. . Pm. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian.] in the N. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. to plough. Now one of the points — — — .gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. Beryn. arwaus. account for either of these significations. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. C. conjectura conjec^ra. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. most conspicuous situation in the garden . aro. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. and with turfis new Goth. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. shortdr. The loss or addition of n very common.meaning at Shrewsbury. This path Aqueous. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. Lat. words derived from arpa. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. sortium ductor. Thus we have natiger and auger. fastened close. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. garden. water Which that benchid was. arbitrium. Alban. arbiter. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. grande nappe. short. a lot. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash.sors. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. Naprun. Hall. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. and taken away before dessert. ap. J. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. She made. and thence fit.. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. Flower and Leaf.

The . W. timid. stuff. gwyrek. D. to dry. aj-f.is the natural weapon of offence. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. Cot. the a brute. . It. fainthearted.In E. fabricate). which is derived from it. Gr. as in E. apxh.. erz-bischof. — Wtb. make clear or prove. Lat. kpxi- beginning. which has been referred to W. adjective. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. arduus. a rule (princiruler. G. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. Brem. Langobard. . Lat. Du. Lat. apxtipfve. And thou as arwe coward. to rule. ramo (pi. Arduous. the court of a magistrate. a chief builder. a burning or setting on fire. wanton. There can be no doubt that E. vocaveris. to demonstrate. an extent of flat surface. apxtlov. taxed with cowardice. earm. curved line. Arch in composition. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. Ardent. Du. a. et vulgari verbo. This particle takes the form of arcz in It.' Lex. a branch. Arcadia in R. arcus. * ArchjAiTaxit. . archangel. Fr. bad. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. from areo. Lat. . aridus. erz in G. arson. A construct. shoulder Boh. to arm. arrig. man. difficult to reach. Gr. Arid. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. Lat. as the arch of a bridge. Applied in modern E. the terminaGael. exercise lordship). high. by Russ. a bare plot of ground. is essentially the same word. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. Ardour. i. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. earg. Arm. an arrant rogue. wretched OE. sly. a court yard. whence the body of the nobles collectively. Gr. Sax. to burn . and must be identified with Dan. Fr. a bow. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. raineno. Arson. armee. forearm . AS. sluggish.. arg. ruling by the nobles. bad. apxri. arm'ee. and our army. ardIn G.' the Gr. Fr. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. and not with apx. det arrigste snavs. arrant Arms. Lat. and Kpurka. sly. arga. government. to be on fire. morally bad. gwyro to bend. ' — Argue. malicious. 2. receptacle where the public acts were kept. area. Lat. patus). earh. From the verb armare. G. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. ein arger knabe. it signifies roguish. Area. ardeo.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. burning heat. arwe. ars. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. erg. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. Lat. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. Aristocracy. to be in comp. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. arguo. contemptible. ramend). Perhaps erz-wticherer. een erg kind. Gr. Alisaunder. the most arrant trash. From apxeiov was formed Lat. — Architect. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. vescovo. arch-bishop. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil .4 rir/. ill-tempered. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. are formed the participial nouns. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. the best. shoulder. arcA in e. Sp. ers-betriiger. argr. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. weapon may be simply an application of annus. an arch-deceiver . ^Argument. while the Fr. ON. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). a threshing-floor. a noble. un malin enfant. from nixa. troublesome. mischievous. arma. ancient. weapon. argvitugr. arm.— Army. lofty. Dan. arm. armata. ardre. ardor. apx^iv. signifies chief or principal. . rame. Uo^a^. 3340. especially shoulder-joint. faint-hearted. un petit rusd. curved. mischievous. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. bravest. in Due. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. it is posculine inflection en of the PI.aioj. an arch boy. Arcliives. TiKToiv. armada. bad of its kind. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. first. to Arch. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. arsum. worker.' Paul Warnefrid. branch. an arrant usurer.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

— 42 BALE to BALL heap . Grief. calamity. ballotta. Boll. balk. weak liquor. hooting. to cause another to miss pustule. . pallo. ing. similar connection is seen in Sp. on. taich. and the dim. bola. (Hesych. TtaKKa a pail or tub . and evil in general.— Ballet. a partition. balle. sorrow. balle. separaison. . to dance. Bale. See Gall. Sp. vcdra bdlkr. a together in the form of a ball. Sw. a scene acted in dancmg. ball. bolyaf. a bubble. a dance. i. bolker. chapurrar. are applied to a From the same analogy. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. ballo. Hence Dan. a continued noise of waves gently beating . bielke. Goth. on. ballare. 3. balk. * Balk. Fr. bal. package of goods. It. to speak an un. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. a pestilence. grieve . that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. vacillare. from the more general notion of moving up and down. sick.). Fr. It. a clod of earth water. whether of wood or stone. bjdlki. Perhaps on. balva-vesei. torment. a clapping or flapping of wings. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. dial. ON. to roll. pila. balka. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. as we say. balken. may exhibit the original development of the signification. AS. ill. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. bacgtteter. with the perhaps from balg. to shake or jog. to bale out. dial. ballone. It. a boil. globule. bala. Pol. a great ball. maleficium. the beam of a ship. a division of the old laws. a skin. To Bale out water. balka hopar. a ball. Ballot.Fr. w. Du. Ballata. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. hue et illuc inclinare. Ugutio in Due. to be balker. . bal-daed. to see-saw. afbalka. OSw. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr.of men . We have then separate dial. Sw. balk. roof. pilula. to rock. bbllr bulla J. to stir. ache. E. dial. a ballad. to ail. to plough for a boundary between lands. to paddle in water . palloilla. ban. balare. to wave. other while. Bowl. misery Du.ing. To baulke the Sir H. a dance. boleii. balk. a ball. It. uveirs bolk. to plank. OFr. . Gael.—Ballad. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. bol. Sw. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. Q. The primary sense seems as in G. the ballet of the theatres. says Ray. baalien. In like manner Fr. baloier. a clump . a ball balla. . a beam. malefacGower in R. bolyatchka. heap up. the breadth from side to side . Sw. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. a water-skin dim. baler. bolawy.' speak gibberish champurrar. ballare. a balk of foul weather. to be ill. bdlkr. N. a washing-tub. a globe. Sw. plague. beaten road. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. on. 2. Sw.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. a ball. to move. Venet. balja. Bohem. Fin. to Not sparing wight. to ache. Sw. Mid. Du. — A — — . sickness. Russ. wickedtorment ON. pain. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. ne leaving any balke. a wooden partition . to dance. a ball or pack. balle. Da. to signify washy drink. OHG. cka. pallo. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). Ball. ' is a piece or confused talking. Bret. bal. balla (with the augm. a separate portion. to grieve . to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. wickedness ness . blister. ballan. a pail. gen. Rouchi ban. pallukka. Ball. at giore en balk. ballet. F. bol. dial. probably Lat. I. a ballot). G. on the shore. a ball. baalie. balge. palla. to partition off . G. Balloon. a pill. Sw. . balkr. Fr. balka bunge. from bacquet. Gr. Baulke of land. to avoid it. Da. floor. the object of his expectation. balle. to by beams. a beam. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. boll. bealwes. Dan. to on Holmedon's plain. shouting. as in a barn or cow-house. lealo. bollr.Lat. to pack Da. tum. e. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . bal. ballare. trouble. a. ballar). ball. destruction. balken. A balk. stage or scaffold. It. pallikka. ball. Hence. maan pallikka. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. . which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. bold. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. Wotton. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. balloon. ball. a But making way for death at large to walke. mass. balveins. palcare.

balconies. inutilis sarcina. bam. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. inutile onus. bambocciolo. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. baUa. Sept. age. to walk. Fr. To Bamboozle. ballast. Bamour. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. a young babe. more serious objection is . railing around altars. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. Venet. Bret. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. lastre.). urtica. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. bumbazed. a false tale or jeer. more frequently than outward-bound. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. Baltic. Dan. Fr. it is forced to take in stones or sand. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. Bret. explains ballast. is in Sweden and Norway. lastagium signified not only ballast. &c. mare Balticun. 1. Balluster. lestage. a duty on goods last. objects to the foregoing derivation. paid for the right of carriage. bambolo. ^a\Ba\iov. bag-lest. Mr Marsh whether the a load. forbid. The Baltic sea. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. and Mid. analogous to what is seen in It. . a battlement . 1854. It is explained back by Adelung. astonished. because. balustrade barandilla. ballustres. a rod. the act of walking. baltresac. or movement of one who walks. the backload. To deceive. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. for a load or goods (Roquef. terraces. in the first place. an Old dotard or imbambolare. Report Pennsylv. curse. enchanter. a useless load. It. the flower of the pomegranate. to enchant. . as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. baranda. but loadage.Lat. dial. ranked on the outside of cloisters. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. Lest. a fragrant gum. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. In OSw. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. bamein. When a ship discharges. seems the original form of the word. sorcerer.' And Kil. barauste. Balsam. 43 — Cot. little round and short pillars. a nettle. &c. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. bag-las. also with flatteries and . make fun of a person. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. Said to be from balaustia. deceiver. from bara or vara. denounce. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. as he says. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. to preserve equilibrium. A — — . Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. lastra. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. Lat. bamboccio. It. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. for want of other freight. balsamum. Balm. Gr. endormir par des contes. from Lat. barandado. baU. But Fr. or ballast of a ship. If bambocciolare were child of one.. This is the backload. command. lest. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. — — oltriga. ^Arbuthnot in R. back of the ship. a small balustrade. last. of balusters. R. Ballast. The Sp. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. To Bam. To proclaim. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks.that the going vessels. To make fun of a person. bertesca. baume. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. like Fr. deceive. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast.000 tons. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. Du. Sc. puzzled. fonts. small railing. ballustre) is a corruption. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. To Ban. by met. Cotgr. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. Sp. galleries. i860. called Bait.

E. band. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. to ban. biddal. and It. Sp. faction. bandon somewhat party. Cot. bundun. — To partito d'alcuno. Fr. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. banns pany of footmen serve. 'A son bandon.is further developed. he bannede his ferde. Les saiges avait et les fols d. Sp. bando. Assises de Jerusalem. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. &c. to side or to bandy (Florio). Capitul. bande. Diss. &c. bannum or bandum. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. to publish) banna. we constantly find the expression. to excommunicate {lysa. fahne. side. It. whether by way of injunction or for- command.—John Villani in Due. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. authority. Bandear. bannire in exercitum. — excommunication bann-lysa. Mag. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. a company. i. It. tener da alcuno. Spebifid. In a special sense the term company itself. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. R- He Translated by Chaucer. eiiseigne. curse. to follow a faction. — R. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno.Lat.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. OE. 19. power. to reprove. v. in Fr. —R. to bring corn to be fahne. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. admolendinum. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. in hostem convocare. Car. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. says Muratori. region. bandon was used in the same sense. From the verb to banda. bande. Leg. those who side together (bande. parti. 26. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. The to . change to the feminine gender in banda. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. In Fr. at his own discretion. Band.^ bandy. Thus the word is also used in both senses. a coast. G. Sw. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. acquired the sense of proclamation. Ripuar. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. D. See Abandon. banda. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. bann. passing on from proclamation to command. To Bandy. There is some doubt how Fr. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. ligue Taboada). 15. and thence to any proclamation. Wyntoun. bound. side. Bandus. etc. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. from at the Lord's courts. summoning to serve So in Swiss. banner marked the place of assembly. banda the colour or material. ex. is That with which anything AS. theodscipe ut abannan. flag. A. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. R. 2. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . permission. Commun^ment son bandon. also the band or of marriage. band. to unite with a band. and in E. to . bande. It seems this signification has arisen. margin. populum. Goth. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. sostener Torriano. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. bannire exercitum. ba?idare. hoc est vexillo. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. It.. banda. to form parties. to ctide. bandera ground at his mill. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. he assembled his host.e. Goth. . the ensign or banner. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. bindan. 813. to take one to task. . then the signification w. Fr. 1. Se il — Romance languages. border. bandi. Baud.

in the sense of a pirate. dorsum was applied to ject. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. counter. a blow. Bandy legs are crooked legs. Bandy. benk. bander. Diaconus in Due. bankruptcy. eminence. panca. a sand-bank. Roquefort. To Bandy. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. and OFr. was formed the OFr. bannire.^ knock. Ripuar. Goth. in the same way that E. the slope of a hill. back of a knife. — Paulus drive in a nail. Lingua. Banister. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. beating. seat . —^Vocab. tumult bangas. Lat. bang. ON. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . Dan. See Banish. Benchi. to hammer in a nail. Your stool. band-hond. bench. follow a party. to foment factions. Fr. Fl. banke. It. a bank. of bandying words. se reunir. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. distinguishes bekkr. put under the ban of the law. E. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. bane. Bacon in R. a counter. bana. &c. The child cries bang! fire. banco. Banditti. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. desk. — — whence E. de sable. . Bank. The word is in E. When a man fails Lat. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. and bakki. But natheless wife at I bank. . pastoralis. A Shipman's Tale. ruptus. from banc. standard. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. &c. outlam came to signify a robber. de- party. a bankrupt merchant. bank of a river. to make a stir banke. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. ON. Fr. to proclaim. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. bow. Bang. murderer. From a desk . disturbance banga. a rising bank. in R. at canis peciiarius. death-sickness. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. a wound OHG. Africa. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. Bankrupt. bana-sdr. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. . bance. Hudibras. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. whence the mod. banka. for shame. s'associer. shoal. language of W. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. to slay. — . banca his creditors. Brewer. a i. 2. Sw. The ridge of a hill is AS. to publicly order one out of the realm. a table. banqueroute. banish. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. hricg.z. banditti acquired the like signification. Draw. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. bandi. a bench. bana. Bane. beat. to beat. From Mid. to work in wood. AS. bandire. Tibalt. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). clouds. Fr. bana-sott. canis vinculis assuetus. Mercutio. bander tin arc. AS. hammering. a bench. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. bana. See Band. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. banc. . Milton in R. Bantze. among rotta. The ing. Du. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. It. destruction . for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy.: . forbear this outrage. — Fr. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. to bend a. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. bank of river. N. bander. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. banc G. banja. bandear. to join in league with others against Cotgn. bent as a bow. that the word is used by Romeo. the former Fr. — Kil. Benvoglio. roupt. banca fallita. Mid. large dog kept for a guatd. . to cabal. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. With many a stiff thwack. See Balluster. and hence. as of an explosion or a blow. many a bang. bank of Dan. ON. band-dog. home — Bandog. Banner. It. and poise Their lighter wings. a long raised seat.HG. eminence. to knock. a de Vaud. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. in the sense of place of business. Diez. death-blow . bench. has bang-bang. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. bakke. g. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. and therefore tied up. a bench. It is in this sense nounce. death-wound. the same verb the It. rap hatike et som The Susu. b'ang. bank. stir. bank. to knock. se joindre. the back. 45 — — Bandit. broken.

Gr. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. In a similar manner are formed yearling. banniire. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. Fr. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. banneret. banneret was a higher class of knights. and it was accord. 2. of wind. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. such as the Roman Eagle. Leduchat. and even of calling it banter. nestling. barre. A It. rarii. It. It. barde. to wrap. out of a wound. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. by a repetition of the syllable bar. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. a bench or table . OFr. Lat. —Cot. to bend. merki. to wash. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. as they call it. men. bannereti. remarked. bandva. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. a bantling. bandiera. &c. branches of a tree {gwezen. from reifa. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. barbarus. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes.. bar. top.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. privileged to raise Barbarous. to having that signification. ^oTrriKio. jSdirTO). a tree). To mock or jeer one. Thus Ovid. uncivilised.— Swift in R.the analogous syllable viur. Fr. Flesche barbeUe. a. knight Bardd. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. sign. G. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. ing term appears in other languages. 3. hence a repast. Lat. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. manu anto make signs nuere. . to beckon . Banneret. says. ON. Fr. sparre. Celtic bar. Fr. It. brushwood. period vexillarii. — We A . The spar. According to Diez the It. speaking of battle. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. barbed or trapped as a great horse. would rupted from Fr. senheira. inur. wrapped. rod of any rigid substance. Bret. and he would seem to derive Goth. Fr. ingly very generally known by a name branches. banne.8ap6^o)voe. barriire. barrou-gwez. sbarra. iandvo. dim. a sign. Barbar. E. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. It may be thing. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. probably corSymbol. of banco. i. Sw. which is surely in barbed arrow. barbe. milites bannarii. then fell among the foot. barba. then branches. a barrier or stoppage. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. himself in Pontus. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. to dip. a which the barrister addresses the court. Gael. chan. banchetto. token. jSa'pjSapoc. a bearded or Cot. and the work is done. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. The original import of their own banner in the field. arineXov. senhal. and with an initial s. banda hendi. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. Barbe.46 BANNERET . barra. in Gr. Hence Fr. sparro. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. Duo. banda. To Banter. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. signuin. heri-pau. E.cruel. Fr. either in the Gr. Barb. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. Banquet. from the same source. that the noise of voices Bantling. Barb. Gr. inferior to a baron. The origin is in all probability Goth. BARBAROUS reiflingr. OHG. a beam or long pole of wood. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. and from ensign or banner Prov. barrer. indeed. ON. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. of a sign in general. &c. summit. senh. a ban.aTa Kul nest. OHG. barreau. or of this bantering. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand.. an animal a year old. ban- Baptise. benda. the word came to signify rude. E. banner. Lat. The barb of an arrow is the sign . barrack. senhal.hinder. Bap. branch. Hence ner. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. a war-beacon or war-signal.

Sp. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. to grunt. Lith.— Fl. . Lucan. border of a garden bed. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. A shrub bearing acid Diet. Barberry. border. barda. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. on. borborinha. bare baskojis. mutter. Bare. barbel.) . Port. bhasad. murmur . Hatt-bard. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. barbeter. berries. Fr. barbaris. A7 to the and warlike. baares geld. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. to wash. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. the nakedness of a woman. skirmish. also to wallow like a seething pot. to plash or dabble. to stammer. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. dial. bardes. haggle. barbacane. a tumultuous assembly. barbier. barboter. and Sc. — . in Fr. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. Hall in R. speak confusedly. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. borbulhar. Barder. scouthouse. a bardelle. Bret. Hindost. jargon. coping. or more properly (says fer. boil. stutter. used 2. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. borbotar. Etym. axilla. to boil or bubble up . to bubble or boil. w. Barbican. barbeum. barefooted Sanscr. barbugliare. bar. guaszare. barz. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. muttering. . bardd. Fr. as well as the modern twaddle. to prattle. ala. is lb. Cot. Fr. such as houses are covered Bardelle. quarrel . back. Sp. Etym. unqualified. barbeau. uncovered. skialldar-bard. Mod. skola. skirt. a jetty or outnook in a building. saddle-cloth. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. the flap of a hat. guazzolare. Bargain. Applied in E. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. horse armour covering the front. and in Flanders to vociferate. grumble (Lowndes. barbar. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. — — — men. name Fr. bdsas. brim. to mumble or mutter words. which was of talking. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. Festus in Diet. a long saddle for an ass or mule. a shingle or small board. Port. to make an outcry . the edge of a shield hval-barct.' Cot. twattle. to stammer. powdered all over. It. open. Sp. Fr. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. Mod. twcEtta. a pack-saddle. tree. An outwork for the defence of a gate.— — Pm. Cotgr. and foolishly. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. to gurgle. Fl. to It. But Sp. i. berj G. Bardeau. waschen. tattle. /3£pjSepi^w. Barde. to barbe or trap horses. borbollar. G. Cotgr. the quilted with. to bubble or spring up. upper chamber. It.— BARBEL merit of water. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. baar. Gr. Bard. and the word was used in OE. barS. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . Russ. barbarkama. g. fortia —Strabo. also to bind or tie across. Arab. OFr. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. brabble in the making of a bargain. The Pers. /3opj3opwJu. bdsiis. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. albardilla. Barbel. borboglio. ready money. in the sense of fight. barbelin. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. as well as thwcEtta. — . barda. Lex. baragouin. Diez. Pr. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. barbulla. — Cot. and flanks. to chafbargain. to rumble. bds. a rumbling. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. Barber. lb. albarda.) to wrangle. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. the beard. — — Hence. albarda'ah. in poetic language Bard for poet. Thus the on. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. small pack-saddle. bdla-khaneh. barguigner. gibberish. formerly used in the sense of tattle. Gr. Exposed to view. uproar.

It. bcerme. barizeins indicates a noun baris. a stack. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. Camus. prasepe . baralhar. ThS man was not created for the woman. confusion. to all the barca. The Goth. a place. Dan. quarrel. strife. quarrel Port. Romance barsie. baratta. then the bows pectus navis. berem. barmr. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. baragouin. as well as Scandinavian tongues. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. dregs of oil. as. baarm. dispute . Leg. bern. limpets. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. Sp. to wrangle. Leg. Sp. To Bark. Baron. a cap . also to exchange. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. barn. Swab. bosom. husband. hlaSa. hladi. tumult. dial. From Fr. to strive. quant a perdu sa barja. the G. and 1. So ON. a baking place or oven. Isidore in Rayn. Sw.^Voc^. 2. a lap. Rayn. was barlic. W. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. meta foeni. The older form in e. and ern. barahunda. ON. barlich. barn. berm. brenig. spectacles. The origin may be throat. Barbour in Jam. skuta. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. we pass to the vert) barguigner. Cornub. OFr. Garlick. trouble.. as in the case of Lat. . lap. struggle.Barum vel feminam. and llysiaw. . berm. prominent part of a thing. AS. dispute. skutr. barley. — Barnacle. but the woman for the man. the A — Ihre. and is probably a true bartig. fray. — battle. i. Manx bayrn. bcern. OFr. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. charlock. squabble. barnis. dispute barattare. to scold. contest. bern. to rout. barafunda. baron)^ Fr. baniffa. hemlock. barja. barlys {bara. limpets . barnacles. altercation. 2. ON. a heap . barley. * Barnacles. Alam. baaring. at barka. barms. name being given to spectacles. the slimy substance brewing of beer. hay-loft. entangle. — Zeuss. barone. Barge. put to confusion. also a boat . adj. Antiq. barlys. a barn. herbs. Barn. beer. baratta.' bardagi. commonly explained from bere. barajar. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. berma. Ripuar. mhg. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. to chop. Bailey. See Barm. is simply the Bret. edge. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. . am. ON. Kil. baralha. bark . dispute. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. Lith. strife. (Ihre. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. On the other hand. baarn. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. Vocab. Bret. a lantern. It. E. Acervus. houbartij fsnile. bard). and the word. Du. to cheat. the or prow of a ship. As Goth. Bemiques. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. plants). Of these meanings the second is probably the original. bread-corn. a beak. —Bark. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. w. berm hoys. a heap. limpet. Uzen. varen. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. Tarn baronem quam feminam. corn-shed. strife. contest. aheap. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. from an imita- Barley. to shufSe. bernac. baaren. v. barafustar. beorcan. to skin over barkandi. See formed Yeast. in Nat. . a boat. dispute . the rack or manger. astringent. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. Spectacles. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. Dan. as baces-ern. borkr. in the Brim. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. bere. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. Gl. barn. then honoured man. Provj bar (ace. ber (ace. bosom . conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. beornt.) lihtes-ern. bread. baimeach. So also ON. Port. Gael. baerm. chaffer. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . and may therefore be an Eastern word. wine. barki. tion of the sound. Sp. as. bargain. barii. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. barretor. and hence probably (by a metaphor. barley. bamagh. a load. AS. ON. kani. Bark. border. — de Berri. the fore or after end of a boat . baron. Prov. barge. Du. one who stirs up strife. giving rise to It.. disorder. OSw. Ibid. a receptacle for barley or corn. Originally man. a. Port. louzou.

a horse. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. A. a word is always used in the plural number. borov'. The Sp. mound. facture. Antiq. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. w. Gael. cover. seem to be radically the same with Lat. the braw. See Barter. It. barri..' that Barrier. sepulchre. fallow. ^Vocab. 2. fear. from beran. This word introduced into Fr. barile. AS. a man. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. bark&n. to * Barragan. AS. a bier. Bern. rolls of Parliament. man. OFr. It was not until the time of James I. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. dispute. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. Fr. vair. a bar. calico. strife. especially those killed in battle. as cavalcade.' Op. It. S. from a tree to which a man is hanged. See Bar. Barrel.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. — Kil.— Gibbon. Formed from Fr. Sp. implement for carryAS. beorg. were sometimes confounded. An ing. and not from Fr. — — 15th Cent. a castrated hog . The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. change of goods seems. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. G. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. Bohem. bara. to shelter. beorgan. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. Barricade. man and wife. Goth. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. beorh. composed of dry branches ofer. shed. sterilis. bearg . bier. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. a kind of coarse camlet. from cavallo. nobles.have been named from the haggling and gant. barrier. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. bredhan. barrack. Bret. Gael. also termed bannerets. became bidre. cise formation of the word. a. barrique. barBombicinus. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. StiU he shows conclusively. in Nat. Nominale of the from braeckland. signifying. — A . baracca. G. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. fortification. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. uncultivated. 1. alongside of barrow. booth. hut. a barrel. Barren. boar. MHG. an obstruction. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. baroncelli. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. ^Barrator. whenever Barrow-hog. Barrack. baraignej Picard. baronetti. barrique. (Schmeller). and in several instances.. which would barragdn. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. todtenbahre. vel pretiosos burellos. Bargus or moreland. On chet — We — — their resemblance. Barrister. Sp. a. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. OE. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. branches. baronuU. semen non accipiens landiEL. E. brushwood. barre. staves. like bargain. garment still used in Morocco. tomb. litter. a barrow. baragan. over him. ibid. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. as. Baron andfemme. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. Sp. whence Barrow.parchanttuech. Barratry. gravis et authenticus vir. a hiU. D. barril. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. It. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. Russ. braeck. Joshua vii. berwen. The feudal tenants next Fr. iver. heap. vir.root signifying confused noise. bara. or simply bahre. qui have not much light on the pre. a hut or booth. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. baronculi. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. barague. berewe. bahre. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. perhaps through Prov. Bamnculus a baronet. habeant. bera. barrila. the two names. barraca. then traffick4 Barrow. squabble. in the first instance. Fr. gwr. breinej Du. It should be observed that. 26.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. barchent. to carry. bouracan. by early examples.

). would be. the manorhousfe itself. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. foist in bargaining. pdrdt. Sw. more noble in blood than notable in learning. basta. back. BassuS. bast. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). G. to truck. It is mentioned as . To stitch. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. lust. unrighteous gain. It. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. stitch. cog. baxoj w. Gr. OFr. bassin. basso. partieren. bdtir. Halliwell. imbastire. crassus. netting. Apparently of Celtic origin. Kil. There is not one that. humilis. fraud. baraand especially teria. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. HaU in HaUiwell. bast. Sp. truck. the thin skin Dan. Bast. fhe outhouses and yards. to Diez. Sylvester's Dubartas. which covers the grain Ger. Barton. found in Turkish . Al is dai. to stitch . Isidore. curtus. PaaiKhms. over-reaching. hoops of a cask. But according And Dan. Sw. to bind. a ftiesh. flat. Dan. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. God it wot. . ing for profit. baste. dwelling. from /3aR. piiiguis. ' Bosworth. exchange. to baste piece of cloth. bark. Pl. to bind hand and foot. a bass rope. come near. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. fornication. basta. Fris. low part of the Hickes in Rich. Dan. mavult dicere Roma suam.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. a ipgli So Turk. bas. fornication. the a wide open vessel. at basta og binda. ibid. corn-farm. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. barley. to deceive. lift me above Parnassus. See Bath. husk bast van koren. barter. Lap. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. as the diadem of the basilisk.' Papias. beortun. baos. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. tierer. plaiting of splinters basged. thick. To Baste.looketh upon his eyes. The like property hath the iasilisk. beretun. Fr. he. a bastard. besst. chasa. It. barter. ' He was begetin o bast. mock not. bast-reb. Bass. low. bareter. bestan. him. fits de bas. and Bret. bestcn. a court-yard. commonly A joined with the word binda.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. Newman. — Bassoon. mean . MHG. bran. Du. discourse Nay. Lend me your hands. binding. from bere. MS. inclosure. baratar. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. Sicamb. shallow. 516. i. rope for — . also the demesne lands of a manor. leviter consuere. according from Gael. cheating. /«r<fSp. low. to cheat. low note. of the same sense. aiKcig. but born in baste. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. The original meaning. said Base. . It. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . Du. MHG. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. AS. OFr. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). by imbezzling their goods Bailey. Barbara de pictis veni patch. chasa ogli a bastard. a halter. to baste. basgod. a deceiver. to long — a British word by Martial. basso. exchange. to bargain. a king. It. which sets up its hood when angry. bast-maatte. Fr. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. as It. or wic. bass-matting. Bassus. ohg. baste. bastear. oe. Basket. bast. also to Cotgr. bds. descended of an honorable lineage. peel.' Gl. Sp. A fabulous serpent. beguile. ^Is de bast. n' is n' is bacino. the — — to kill those that look upon it. baste. but he dreth presently. to bind. Basilisk.D. Fr. HaUiweU. baratear. a basket masg. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . imbastire. Bartizan. or running away with the ship. besst-u-b£nd&t. preparatory stitching. and tun. baraet (from Fr. HoUinshed. — hanging. It. embastir. court-yard. Swed. It. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. — in Rich. to cheat. scale in music. pressed down. w. submovet omne Lucan. on a. Arthur and Merlini. berewic. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. To Bask. basg. F. See Brattice. then cheating. . a tying. Bastard. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. lattice-work. Sp. Bass.

whence ledrblaka. R. a bird which. blakra. cudgelling. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. I. in the Romance languages. stryka. bdion. and Cot. worth (Nat. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. to build. back. ari instruineht for beating. To beat or bang soundly. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. has bastine. 2. bastonnir. 2. ment. to beat. and ditches bastion. Mid. Sc. bladier. beating. Dan. Sw. a. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. frame. It. erect.— . BAT neither. a pad or packsaddle. iastir. baston. Sp. to pack a saddle i. Antiq. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. but this is hardly satisfactory. p. Perhaps baska.stick. guerra bastir. a blockhouse. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. beysta. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. Bastinado. To donjon. baston. bastida. a packsaddle. translation to a bat. blatta. the E. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. basta. victuals. bat. blacta. boste. Cot. a bastion. Supp. All from bastir. bastille. bastine. to belabour. to rub. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. or implement for 4 * A . Prov. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. bastimento. Sw. like the owl and the bat. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde.'CaB. stryk. to whip. a with a stick. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. liiake. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . niammal. pre. * Bat. . also to cudgel. provisions.— Bailey. — Bakke. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose.fortress or castle furnished with towers. basa. to devise or begin. Derived by Diez from iasi. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. to drub. the clapper of a bell. Sp. the winged . R. bastilde. contrive.-^ Chaucer. That yche blak y dar wel telle. to stroke. military term of a bat-horse). Rayn. to give him a sound bastingi 3. e.Lat. a stick. to quilt or stitch wool into it. raise. nade. 'iJipistreUo. 2. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head.stitching in general. iinbastire. the night-jar or goat-sticker. disposer.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. Pr. quelqu'un son roulet. — — Fl. devise. Dieiif. bastione. put it together. 164). For the loss of the / in back. frotter. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. to flap. is explained by Cot. to rub gently. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. a barSp. bak. also the ricado. staff. bastia. from Fr. It. To baste one's hide . ON. — — — . settiilg up. a pad. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. compared with blakka. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. vespertilio. batta lucifuga. dial. as weU as besteau. E. Florio.baste or knock soundly. bastir. bast. blows. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. night-bat. vespertilio. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . Fr. dial. to cudgel. basto. Fr. set up. It. 11864. . set up. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. to build. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. blakka. comp.. which to rest the load. flyinge best. blakta. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. For the origin of baston see Baste. Sw. to set on foot a war Bastion. club. which in the E. bakie-bird . to thrash . badger. to beat. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . bastir. blaka. contriving. Sw. Pm. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. a blow cloth for dinner. to Due. passage Imbasto. aftonbakke. Fr. to lay the Sp. the original has corneille. bastonada. to teach one before. Fr. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. and Arabs. bastonFr. to spread bread and butter. in the use of the E. packsaddle. business (Altieri). bastear. a things prepared for future use. Dan. the bat . Cot. a sconce. explains Sp. natt-blakka. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. vledermus. blatta.

I. G. wet linen in washing. also a sun badfish. Goth. as E. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . as E. baquetazo. in the case of a wall. beat. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. fashes basking in the sun squadron.Hence in the augmentative form It. allay . is in falling. Du. to toast bread. Battalion. Plkkis. Pm. as signifying warm baths. a blow. an arrangement for giving blows. solen baddar. The bat with which a brot bdhen. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. a washing beetle. to bathe. Batten. to bathe oneself. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp.' Palsgr. Sw. a battle. Sp. 2. lessen. to warm. a battalion. better. buask made like a fortress. bat-en. A batch as wood. Sw. bludgeon. made of — A made by one Batcii. Fr.— To Bask. To Batten. cudgel. fortress or castle. Battlement. bastille. a beating. remit. was formed bastilU. batna. battions. to cudgel. . to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. batir. Bret. batte sig. makebate. Eggs. water whether warm or cold. to refresh oneself in language. beat. Pr. tagUone. howis. bake. to beat. From bat in the sense of rod . gabatnan. In OE. bada. tradire. oneself at the A into faggots. badda. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. Holz bdhen. To thrive. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. to get better. batador. Battery. Hal. to become fat. by projections or in any licoure. Pr. E. bdda vidjor. w. to fire or in the sun. to beak. baden. Flem. a staff. In some parts of England it is striking. solbase. baz. a stick. badask. more. and with staffslyng. Bat. altercation. batacazo. — To . certain bend. then to warm by the application of hot water. Mgy. G. Batyn. signifying to give repeated blows. bat. Slav. betten. baka. or a dry stick. Jurgor. perhaps first used adjectivally. Fr. to warm oneself. on. battere. Fr. — — — ' — . Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. to feed. to beat. ON. dial. debat. whence the sun burns . from battre. Ayenst the sunne. a blow with a light instrument. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. strife. to warm oneself at the fire. dial. battere. abattre.Bathe. gebdck. It. for biia sik. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. bdda. To Bate. a main battle. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. batterie. flour. a band of armed men arranged basa. term in falconry . a great seems related to baden as Fr. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. to fell. hot. to foment. Batter. Strife. or make debate. quell. battre. — Cot. busk. to for fighting. Chaucer. dial. I baske. battaglia. also. basa. bdhen. Fr. to thrive. is a simple adoption of Fr. I bathe in water viz. to betake oneself. a from ON. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. Battle. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. and as a verb. battle was used beath wood. to be profited. to foment. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. to foment with hot applica. From OFr. It. to beath wood Battledoor. to dial. heat. made of bats. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. squadron. quhar he suld assaill. and milk beaten up together. to beat. to fight. bdt.— . e. or break down. Hence pro. bet. Sp. as wood-en. in the sun. to flutter with the wings. A Bath. and about an inch thick. to heat . gebdcke. . badda. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. . Bailey. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . from on. Gael. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. dial. a stirrer-up of strife. trahtr to It. Barbour in Jam.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. Pm. the root of e. pak. Baka sik vid elld. dispute. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. battre las ailes. battre. Battery. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. beat down. See Better. a Baiffi. to heat. adapted for defence. on the fire. Jeddris and covering. PLD. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. abate. sich bakern. G. of bread is so much baked zX one time. baeddu. Bate. to become convalescent. Fr. bataille. Fr. to beat se battre. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. the heat of the It. Florio.

expressive of disgust. Batylment of a wall. fe bau. scarf. whence pouacre. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. whimwham. filth. An analogous noisily. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. sword-belt. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. nastiness. ballach. E. because made of cloth of white. bausan. collar. ON. W.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. dirty. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. to cry. Bawson. pie- .' The origin of the word is tab or bob. dial. balderich. baudrat. ish baubles. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. the Swiss baben. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. to trifle away ment. as Fr. spot. exactly corresponds Fr. i. dung. bobine.— P. fagot. propugnaculum. Jam. baw. It. dacchino. — — ' Lydgate. the white of his leg or foot. and authorities in note. balGael. Irel. bauU. s. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. to the same origin. Lat. P. A name of the badger. R. javelle. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). a tassel or hanging bunch . filth. fields. Pr. Pr. a horse marked with a procession. Piedm. disgusting. to bark. rotten. Fr. babsmall toy to play withal. OFr. to 53 manure the To baw. 8. toys. a tassel. bau. cluster. an object. E. Descript. It. Fr. having a white streak down Bagdad. Filthy. lewd . a zan. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. or Cot. from Baldacca. was simply a field gold. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. to talk Lacombe.guage). form with an initial seen in Fr. is Bagdad stuff. Hal. From Bret. Beaus^ent. pegma. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. bad. BAWSON Swiss. to bark . a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. Bagdad. a belt. tille. to play the babby. It is all bawdy. baugant. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. mew. Swiss Rom. miauler. brush faggot. a white mark Bawdy. Gael.. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. ball. bal.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. bobbin or cluster of thread. or the animal so marked. excrement. Formed from baw. From ! an interjection of disgust. a spot. from Fr. to make the noise Baudrick. —R. E. a dog). b \% bouala. Baw — . Sc. babiole. baubare. trifle. fooleries or fond To Bawl. zano. speckled. In like manner Grisons filthy. to void the bowels. a lump or cluster babhaid. Prov. an embattled wall. The It. to me-wl. Baldrick. librillo. child.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. bauch. c. guigaw. baffe. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. E. balbob. It. Cot.' ' Pegma. the face. babbole. an — — — A — g — — — . in OE. Bavin. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. or toys. bow-wow. represented by the syllable miau. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. dente. baban. horse. Cloth of gold. P. a horse with white legs. Zalli. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. Ball-seirc. bow (as in our nursery Diez. a lump. faisceau. The word may perhaps be sticks. spotted. bal.. vacillo. 2. baula. to low or bellow as corn. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. also the canopy carried part of his body. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. — Pm. is used for a sented by bau. bouaila. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. divided between black and white. also more Bawdekin. Ball. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. OFr. and Sp. s. Cot. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. a gavel. Cotgr. instead oi s. tab. to vociferate. a plot of Chaucer. ! Bauble. and to-tore also. whence the E. bablyn or waveryn. Fr. obstrepere. or sheaf of Bridel. P. trifles. Fl. Pm. sorry. baue. on the face of animals. dirt. baudrdj OHG. ground. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars.

would give but a partial explanation of the expression. stood watching him stoop. barn of two bays. large window in a handsome . stare. to iiitent nected PoL white. laurel of the ancients. —F. husk. Swab. life. baga. dehiscere . royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. bahia. Cot. badarse. hddhe-dhonn. put to his last shifts. Sp. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. bahia. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. to keep one waiting. Gr. to be Bohem. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. See Bawl. buidhe. badia to Sp. when. watching intently. bate. tradire to Fr. a mark. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. baca. BauSfi)/. badarc. beonj Gael. berry.c. —Diez. The word bay. white. to mark. a cluster of bacon. baionette. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. to betray. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. in order to keep the enemy in check. the cod of peas. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. as gazing. living thing . abbabayer. bilyega. a dagger. Lat. by the term rendre les abpis. weary of running. like a pie. Holland's Pliny in R. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. corrupted into Bow-window. waiting . Fr. ing-floor. A hollow in the 'line of coast. AS. bioth. —Bay-windo'W. Drayton in R. trahir.—Journal Soc. window . the laurel-bay. bde. and zndly. Gael. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. Mod. Swiss beie. Sp. It. It has been shown under Abie. Feb. or berries. or at bay. See Bald. |8i'os. beo. overture. ist. baier. baca.. — A At Bay. siege of Bayonne in 1665. bajo. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. living Ir. bialo. — Schmid. bilyejiti. dividere. beothach. Such Antaeus seemed to me. Gael. alive. It. baja. the cod or husk of beans or the like. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. or recess in an apartment in modern times. the step is the same as from It. Q. baiare. bagaid. baher. expresr sion tenere a bada. bay./^ bau. 25. from badar. 1859. From Cat. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. bayo. to gape. or to have been first used at the Cot. 1. BE Probably conRuss. w. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. is perhaps not directly from Lat. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. that from ba. Catalan hadia. It. from an imitation of the sound. as if to signify a window of curved outline. baccello. &c. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. F. to split. See At Bay. Lat. Fr. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. and keeps them in check for a while. S. BAY marked with bjly. A stag is said to stand at bay. which however. Vielp. Abide. * To Be. grapes or nuts. to open. Earth — By Nature made to till. Bayonet. bayen-stein. Sp. gate. . to on anything. Said to have been invented at Bayonne.' Bailey. bai. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. Q. to open as a blossom.' — — 54 bald. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. at his last gasp. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. a berry. especially beans. baie. baya. bijel. &. to stand watching one. OSp. so called from its bearing bays. Serv. a'uno. a beast. open the mouth. yellow . The — Fr. Fr. &c. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. Bay. buidhe- The ruadh. the world Gr. Fr. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. baer. berries.— Stalder. badius. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. batibari. To Bay. desiring. to amuse stare a bada. bay. to keep at a bay. a hole. or window ' (in Fortification). house . life. It. baye.. he turns and faces his pursuers. Piedm. Prov. . Arts. arose two forms of the verb. bdcr. window-sill. Bay-tree. Bay. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. Fr. Fr. From the former verb is the It. aux dehniers abois. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. . and the To bark as a dog. . bacca. It.

a prayer. See To Bid. tale of prayers or doxologies. beugler. to carry. fromthe danger. becco. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. fero. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. ohg. Thus the final en. bearti. Pardoner's Tale. ffci. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. The nutu significare. Bret. bek. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. gebed. It forms a. to nod . Bean. a curtsey. Bear. ON. Sw. l^ax. according to of Sanscr. a sign. Moreover the name. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. or breathing. bM. beic. Gael.. pig. bairan. badmr. Catalan becar. Q wait upon him. bakke. Slavon. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. backe.fui. OSax. Lat. — to bow or nod . scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. Beadle. —F. baum. was introduced from England sea. to wait-. Du. It. bydel.' adheres to the root. G. Beach. He says. which is. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. AS. AS. — bedeau. — : Beam. Farrar. Netherlands or North Germany. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. N. ON. It is BEAR SI court. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. bokan. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. bean. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. boom. g. Miss Gurney in Philolog. faba. Beck. bank. prodigy bauhnjan. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. baun. bidan. a single bean. a single bean. nokkima. ffaen. beacnian. G. E. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. or however. Trans. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. an attendant. vol. pierced for hanging on a string. and Lat. Gr. bee. 54. or beic. faba is Kvavoq. salve his hurts. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. W. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. as well as f& or fav. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. Gael. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking.' Hall's Chron. beck. to wait. to produce young. would say. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. Hackluyt in R. Bret. as. rising ground. Beacon. a hill. a nod OHG. fora-bauhan. to nod the head. The wild beast. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. bauhan. A two-year old nephew of mine p. «va\ioQ. bakkje. bedm. Beak. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. on. . and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. be. bohne. A Esthon. bidello. It. a tree. Gael. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. To Bear. bar. signifying a point. . and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. support. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. Boom. atUndre. not applied to the yelping of dogs. Goth. bohnej ON. Fr. to beckon. the part overflowed by the tide. The immediate shore of the Menage. as.' Suetonius in Diez. .fer-re j Gr. bob. Beckon. * Beagle. fd or faVf beans. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. beans.to have a French origin. -phxr. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. bdkna. vii. Goth. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. bead. Be. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. to bellow.fuis5e. beacen. beic. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. into a snjall river. or any action done with a pointed thing. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. Chapters on Lang. signifying individuality. Fr. like most nautical terms. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. a presage. however. — Bellenden in Jam. W. a beak. a tree. into France. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. bagms. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. stock. post.ad. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach.from AS. The origin seems preserved in E.

From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. venient. place to lie down. brook. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. babrad. receive. Lat. Lat. G.' ' He became very angry. Slav. den. bedr. nothing to thy name make. limpian. AS. ON. talkative. to those goods which endure for ever. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. a lip. burdr is used in the sense of a car. That thou mayest attain Goth. when up. to the good hapHalbard. Thus OY.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. and also in that of birth. to happen.' every way suited to a prince. OSw. rying. beo.we call the arrangement becoming. Beckon. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. duty. living. slobber. Russ. bring forth.— Kiittner. gabaurths. bib or slobbering cloth. Beck. judgment. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. The fitting or suitable. G. happening as it ought. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. behkr. battere. to be a part of his to. it is probable that here also the to become. to happen. decent. befall. nod or sign. bobrowai. to be fulfilled. limplice. or a feeling to be gratified. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. becuman. agreeable. or special purpose. Beck. bavec. to appertain. badi. bekkr. e. to attain to the lot of any one. ON. con. G. Perhaps from Pol. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. Bosworth. decorous. tidig. godum with ON. He becom on sceathan. comely. E. biivre. limpan. befit. produce. bebrus. gelimplic. bearing. to be incumbent upon him. our taste. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. byrcti. covered the face. fiber. Diez. bave i. Beaver.S6 fero. bellus. riviire. the latter are derived It. tidy. seemly. opportune. edge. beauts. to fall mode of being. birth. handsome. a bank. suitable. taste. bekommen. to bear children. to wade through the water like a beaver. perhaps a living thing. whence baveux. to get. ziemen. Lat. bcek. Fr. i. baba. while from Shep. to fall. from the same in the sense of bear2. e. get J ' He got very angry. Chaucer. the beard. and on. the ece thurhwuniath. gebank. It. In like manner condition. from baver. The OFr.' are equivalent expressions.to clothe to slobber. pretty. to shore. beatanj It.AS. W. Bedizen. Prick of Conscience. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. if sound of a sharp blow. to live. gefallen. Lat. AS. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. fitly . Secondarily applied to a hat. bestiaj Gael. Fr.getiman. Boeth. Do no To It fallith favour. See Beacon. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. but now a river only. a brook. 2. On the same principle. byw. because made of the fur of the beaver. brada. As rivus. to arrive at. See becymth anfeald yvel. formerly a happen. to sleep on. and Fr. convenient. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. bur. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. to assume a certain form or Turk. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. bett. Prov. R. bave. bart. which. baviire. fitanimal. suitable. biber. to carry. iida. brook . to happen. Sp. See Bat. g. from beau. bobr. connected with ripa. Goth. Now the Beast. to happen. to please. Beauty. as the babble of the child. . to come to or upon. blast. Dan. i. barba. name applied originally to the bank then proper . chin. — . barf. Fr. E. a bank. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. bard. Lith. to the brook itself. an notion of being convenient. to hem. and to acquire. ON. border. Cal. proper. boroda. proper .fair semblant where thou mayest blame. I do thee pray. dize or dtzen. bach. or river. fallinn. dress with unbecoming richness . bello. G. See Bank. Fr. obtain. It. to fall in with our bavard. Fr. baurthei. to happen.fit. pleasing. to dabble . imitative of the case happen as we would have them. fit. R. ting. pens unmixed evU. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. agreeable. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. The moveable part of a helmet. G. now confined To Become. dushmak. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. timan. becuman. riviera. ON. E. o.of being very angry. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. — A — A — . bequem. a. to G. 1. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. Bo. The quadruped. Thcem. bava. bel. as. Beat. To load with ornament.

to rough- cast. whence familiar. Lat. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. But possibly bedizen 2. biene. and in driving piles. . Fr. crespir. Rom.^ drink. prisons Venet. bedskiissen-bUren. may be from K. a mallet. also bienst. boytle. de Fierabras in Diez. Fin. qui de lecto surgere non potest . Cot.ing of the word is curdled. a pillow-case. an inhabitant of the desert. bitel. to coagulate. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. ^. from Lat. GaeL bior. a agulatum in the original Latin. g. Gr.' So Gr. pude-vaar. 1. beutel.' the last word corresponds to cofly . woman that is newly delivered. . It. bytl. a wandering Prov. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. and lebermer in G. bukva. garden-herb. bedde-redirj ohg. clog for a dog b'oteln. bbtel. waarin. Beef. bedawi. briest. P1. batAfter mete in sale. by the analogy of bedaivb. betel. Arab. 'La Gl. drink.'— GL ^Ifr. ir'm. case. Gael. the biter.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. extant in Bohem. Bed-ridden. as. comb. . thick. a Properly a cover that biiren. piwo.ON. taglio. kivih. buche. cow has calved. may be shpped on and off. to beat bossel. cugino. Dan.cz//aj. a bed-tick. Pl. I A pillow-beer.— B. the ox. calleBedlam. Slav. . pettiriso. Bernese. Beetle. ProBeer. Grimm. sela que environna la terra. Ant. which also 2. an Beetle. i. In a passage of an Old Fr. beach-each. Fr. beach. of beatmg. a bee. ' MordiThe Lat. the meat of spinach. beer. 57 — Palsgr. prigione. AS. as the milk of a that purpose in London. The meanpainting. cousin. G. cogionare. Horn. a clapper.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. bove. Bedouia. mars betada. a stinging bieUe. The honey-producing insect. Bav. boeuf. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. fall. to knock. The first milk after a dizen. Originally. an ox. comprehending both wine let for beating flax.). Bethlehem. For that was law of lend. PI. 1 to drink. /SXirov. Beet.possible. a pad or cushion). biest-milch. beyki. G. on. to change . duplicated form of the root. to turn. It. from the hos. doubtless. to colour with lime-wash. beta. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. a cover. used for boull. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. to flatten In OE. translation beOj. by-flugaj G. to become Beech.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. kiissen-biere. * Beestings. desert. whose face is clotty. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. AS. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. to twist poorma. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale.D. a horse-fly . 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. KXlvoTTiT^e. bos. bletumj Gr. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. blow or thrust. from blood. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. Esthon. speach. beest. to parget or rough-cast . drink. a wasp. E. bette or blettej Lat. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. as in It. G. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. erroneously modified in form. red curdled Arab . cited by Diez. from risan. Fr.(paddi. pital of St Mary. Confined to bed. stakes. turn. knock. to and ale. cozen. Fr. bably named from the destructive quali| T. from leberen. Let. sang vermeilh betatz. . Cot. D. E. a pillow case. to curdle or lopper. The beer al for te shenche bate. ris.— JI14. . close together as teeth in a venomous creature. Lat. buk. water. thick. Pett. buka. badigeonner. bibere is a re. door. the loppered sea. a paviour's beetle batail. a wasp. I put the flax upon it to spin. 1156. biiren. paralyticus. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. trees in a forest . also the bite or sting of a bees. vaar. It. 1. AS. Fr. imperative pi. a malsense of drink. beost. to poordma. curded or beesty. in Schmeller. bossen. bet. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. beetle also signified the impiti. from jtst-. bitela. turn (a garment). &c. Bee. to drink. cushion-cover . briesch-milch. to fall. Fr. byst. tree. wedges. a drink potus. fagus. madhouse._t from the root pi. in Nat. bovis. I dysyn a dystaffe. poculum. a cup or implement for AS.D. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor.. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be.

literally. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. Du. onginnan. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . In Luc vi. to get children . to be able. viii. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. cans. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. Bruce. but in the same language from poc. signifying to conceive. 'Aboutin undern monly. in Lat. So from Gael. Cold-begone. P. Gr. P. to take. beitel. one after that other. The tother seand the dint cum. Si'Xa/coc. pose-pilte. ykvog. in D. ip AS. V. Mundart. yivwajcw. ysgrepanu. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find .pose. &c. to begin. a beggar . to be acquire. to know.n. P. Fr. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. y/yvo/iat. is formed pocair.' A. 58 BEG BEGONE G. P. a wedge for cleaving wood. it is both to acquire and to beget. bag {baigean. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. covered with gold D. Deutsch. Of brede full ycrammed. begger. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE.bag full of the G. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. 'Dz. To Begin. ' . which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. oppressed with woe. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. Barbour. 168. woe-begone. P. ornamented phoc. to beg. a little bag). whence the E. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. can. 40. chisel. krapszas. ' Begone. OHG. Mod.D. above quoted to get beaten ON. Du. steinbosil. a wallet. a stone-cutter's chisel. Into the are D. sel. Nov. & go a begging. Goth. affected. Vocab. Du. to bear young. Lith. P. Political Songs. on the tramp. as alighting is a momentary operation. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. incipere. hags. a scrip. a chisel. V. P. a beggar. on further examination. P. tale. ken. It will . vir mendi. lapidicinus. gan. a — wedge. image is cleft out of the trunk. yiyvo/uat. 25.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. Lollards. beissel.' for ye shall lament and weep. baigeir.— . That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. but probably erroneously. ytyvwfT'Kw. Schm. to cleve. ' ' . referred gan this Erie alight. to go a begging. to be born. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. in E. can. the fundamental notion of attaining to. 1867. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. also called Bigots. 142. Florio. to reduce him to beggary. It. origin. of Gr. be^nnan. yivtrri. aginnan. chap. To produce children is to acquire. 2. AS. at geta talad. beginning. Creed. Skinner's derivation from bag. — Stillingfleet. ken. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. P. &c. a bag . It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. and Lat.3.' about undern he got down. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. capere. duginnan. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. word. a bag or poke. anfangen. a beggar-boy. not began to alight. seizing. iv. V. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. gigno. on the bag. taking up.quently used in OE. He did alight. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. beriolare. beitel. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. bertola. When Q. is com. although it ' the future. beutel. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. a bag. fangen and Lat. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. genus. giving in Gr. P. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . From w. begging. to begaan. yivofiai. touched with emotion — . 1430. a scrip euXaiciJoi. beis- plement driven by blows. kind.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. or Of a pure poor man. ysgrepan. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. air a . Ancren Riwle. 'ex quo. to arise. two betels —a grete oke. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. Beghardus. appears improbable at first. from whete G. gen. — yivsaiQ. su with gold. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. To Beg.

promise. G. as in the case of E. Paladino. the name adapt. to bers of the body. behces. is also found in the sense of looking. —Hest. to vow. betragen. gehalten seyn. observe. keeping.). to raise. hantyri. beholden to him. to hit the mark. behaviour. the equivalent of E. to be suitable or becoming . to be obliged to do a thing. to vow. or purpose. behete. what is so required. promise . The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. have the sense of calling or naming. G. Thus in Finnish the heave. hafjan. promise or a command. The seyn. and the E. ifl fact. from tragen. to be obliged to one. to carry. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. or necessary. The Lat. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. us-hafjan. ge' hatan. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . to keep. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. AS. to halten. adjust. to carry.to vow. G. ward. To Behold. exhort. or the hence advantage. gehaben. Sw. commonly expressed. behefe. to keep.the figure of throwing at a mark. 17. taking notice or care of (Gloss. according as the * To Behove. tion. is on the top of or opposite to. portarsi. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. to bring forwards. behatan. to tend. gehat. invoke. hafwa. hovast. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. Goth. on. furtherance. to look upon it as true . behoof. fixed upon any object). hove. to command. habban. to take away. But. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. R. to have. AS. keeping. to lift. name of the head is used to express what hbva. hevja. take yourself off. to hold. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. hces. G. to turn one out . to behave. to cast or throw. hcefwa in seed. hevja. to lead. to fit. holding is originally derived from that of looking. Robert in Warton. Aan iemand bid one welcome. To look steadily upon. to be be named. healdan. — Behest. to the equivalent of Du. to regard. To be expedient. use. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . to feed. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. to promise. heeten. han- — js Kil. to be named.' Richardson. laborare. guardare. right. hafwa bort.for throwing it. to be fit.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. hofwa. heeten willekem.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid.— . to call. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. AS. habere. and their senses intermingle. a follower. zu etwas gehalten haitan. To place are most naturally ex. the distance of anything. the two verbs seem radically the same. zijn. hafwa ram. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. to carry. behind. Command. to hold. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. AS. The It. ufhaban. hcef tig bort. to gehouden. obliged. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. tail. to call. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. and (as Fr. when the verb will hoof. to heave. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. G. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. K. heave. to name. seeing to. to carry corn into the barn . And so from hania. advantage. gecall. beperson addressed. to R. behat. what he wishes another to do . to keen or hold. premi curi alicujus rei. Plautus. hatan. Kiittn. to be well pleased out. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. se porter) to fare well or ill. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. behold. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. AS. at the tail of. heita. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. Sw. vow. nittaa. is supported by many analogies. to lift. to follow. At the back of The re. gehouden. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. solicitum esse. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. Sw. by the compound observare. to meet. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. hafwa. garder. take heed of. To Behave. vow. N. servare. to command. injunccommand. It. OE. to look. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. bound. G.

Fr. . To praise is essentially Xo prise. erlauben. a watch tower. fitness. and E. praising. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. Another application of the same word is in Pl. laubjan. ornament. or house. To Belay. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. From AS. beau sire and bel dame. The word be- Belfry. ON. are innate . Det er ofwer er hofwa. bealcettanj OE. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. to a loud noise. filu-galaubs. stand. Fr. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. In Mid. esteemed . orloven. are other modifications of the same imitative root. true. battefredum. bellow. appearing in Mid. — Diicange. Then. giving leave or permission. bercvrit. measure.Lat. locus securitatis Schilter. b'ola. OHG. to promise or engage. laven. tain a certain end. loben. boare. a tower. promiser. to promise. for purposes of low estimation .. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. galaubjan. to bolk. to roar. to make it fast. G. on. to sound loudly . loven. Du. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. bellan. ON. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. from mhG. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. — . —F. to be required for a certain purpose. bertefredum. bervrit. range. a little shed. distance to which a piece will carry. certain rate. Fair sir and Fair lady. ungalaub kas. a tower for defence . Doubtless an imitation of the sound. turris. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. to resound. See Gain. . to bellow. overspread. to give leave. and bergan. Du. to express approval. met. Northamptonshire. To Belch. and Du. Du. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . AS. to estimate them at a To believe. bealcan. to put a high price or value on. lyfan. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. beffroit. — mankind.. to belay. under the forms belfredum. reputation. to praise. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. we have Goth. leave . Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. in nautical language. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. to cry out bell. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. properly belonging to the church tower. to give leave Dan. to befit. is used in the sense of approving. OFr.alyfan. Sw. permission. were civil terms of address. to believe. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. belja. reach. bylja. a vessel made for dishonour. resonare. bounds. is (Sternberg). is an easy progress. loven. consent. mark ON.Lat. It. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. beffroi. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. gelyfan. and E. with the consent of the heirs. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . P1. to fix a price upon one's wares. to praise. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to .D. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. lofa. lov. bettifredo. a. bolken. and. border. 6o BELAY BELL loven. promising. permitting or giving leave. Goth. praise. AS. bell. aim. garnish. to to make A Templorum campana boant. belief . satisfaction. Hence to simple approbation. leaf geleafa. to lay be- around. laven. . glauben. honoured. hesfa. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. bialla. cela est audessus de votre portde. Q. or high estimation. pro3. Pl. to protect. In the middle voice hofwas. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. fringe. to lay the cable round the bits. allow. to believe. bulken. berfroi. portion. or a sconce. ley/a. verloben. to extol the worth of anything. to der swaren lave. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. on. to praise. frid.D. to sanction an arrangement. behove. galaubs. beset. beleggen. then. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. to hit hafi. moderation. then. precious. Du. to believe. an implement for making a loud noise. Bell. if a promise..D. to give leave. if a narration. to permit. To Believe. peal. which has been shown to be derived from laudare.D. esteeming good and valid. legsel. Pl. to boke.

Commentary on Neccham in Nat.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. to use words of good omen. a leather bag. because bcelg. w. incense of Java. To Belong'. attinere. ' .' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. belgr." — — . skin. bendaj as. balg. balg.Fr. from benedictio. to arrive at. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. to come to the crown belangen. . poX^ri. benedicere. See Bind. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). to belong. binssen. — See Numb. G. bless. se bander. pouch. a bellows . Bench. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. cod or husk of pulse. G. Benefice. benehusk. . belliJ Lat. Benedico. bag. bellows. vulgarly the belly. hence with ashes. generous. Benign. from which is also bulbus. a bellows.videtur.' The term had been previously planation. a benefit. a accusative. to reach. vulva. or fyle with myre. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. — root consisting of concentric skins. as. bellows. G.. . border. to bless. bcelg. See I . pervenire. by itself. Javanese perfume. dirt. to stretch it on a frame. Quoth. benignus (opposed to malignus). bellows. fens et hie liraus. Lat. wallet Benefit. a blessing. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. bimpsen. belly. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. balteus . langen. beneison. attinere. Benediction. to bend a bow . to make bilbil. bendan. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. Dozy.— Belly. pod. Gum benjamin. belt. needs no ex. bienfait. to concern. Bret. In E. attingere. or a It is times the to signify services. the womb. from cwcsthan. From OFr. Benignant. is a kindred form. from another modification of the word for bubble. bimaissen. or sometimes louban. belch. I araye. to do good to one . ray. to ring. from Arab. to hallow. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. bolg. loubdn djawt. rushes. . bander un arc. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . Fr. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. bilbil-goda. Benefactor. blister balgan-snamha. Lat. OFr. . G. pertinere. benjoim. Lat. benaigon. bandoir. to touch. I soyle it or araye it. Belt. Gael. fyle To dirty. Lat. has assumed a plural form. benefacere. to concern. to attain belangen. rise against external force . . benjoin. binsen. Eenison. wallet. to hold to one. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. to. the word. becwathan. on. a round or bubble-shaped root. a speaking well of one. welt of a shoe gwald. kind. well. To Benum. a good deed. Bav. ON. Gael. gelangen. to touch one. an inflated Lat. pertinere. OUG. J'emboue. a blow. or simply djawt. was in Mid. means seeds of plants. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. bolch. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. I say). benejicium. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. hem. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. Lat. a kindness. ' I beraye. leather sack. the skin of those animals that factor. to attain to. Beneath. welt of a shoe. ON. Benzoin. one who does good.' — Hie fimus. is The word balg. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. ^To Beray. are stripped off whole blase-balg. taken absolutely. — Ducange. belly. volva. Fr. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. Lat. bilbila. as concerning that. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr.' Palsgr. Kil. To Bend. Sw. See Nether. bell. gwaldas. To belong is thus to reach up to. disposed to oblige. Bent. to exert force. bags or bellows. — ray. blast-bcelg. Fr. est matris in lucem editus. to say. Du. benir. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. Was das belanget. a spring. a water-bubble builge. bolg. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. The ing-skin. Ptg. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. I marre a thyng. ball. skin.pinuz. To Bequeath. bene/actum. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. a border.polch. See Bank. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. . to become one's property . benedictio {bene^ and dico. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. pino3.

to the place boarded off in a. supporting on the one side Lat. peto. To Beseech. what does it boot. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. To Bet. small eatable fruit. to seek. the side bhakshya. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. To Gl. betan. to amend.irova. Du.bhaksh. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. to be-place. Goth. rods. fall with sound. reparation. sheltered from the wind. Grose. a berry. * To Bete. So too Yorkshire arf. bota. noise. a fire. berwham. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. making better. roe. Ihre. as in growth. The dry. Beit. compared with bargham. to fall with roisto. p. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter.• 62 Antiq. profit. eld up- On is to be placed A — . Best. roju. Du. stede. hva mannan. or. BEREAVE Wall. besje^ Sanscr.X. to exercise on a definite object. Fin. as Du. scopse spartis. . Beere. ^akka. from grow. — Biglotton. barth may be for barf. from It. 3. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. ariierf to 113. amendment. G. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. Devon. boteith Goth. put. bet. think more probable. BETE dirty'. and also to entreat. and on which the wager is laid. botesward.— Hal. Beet. to thrust. beseech. Besom. better. jnore. a place . in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. barthless. to supply a want. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. because used for making besoms. Zeitschr. roju. bouter. Hfence backing. beorgan. boeten. Tha het he micel fyr betan.ot-i. boeten. besnij Pl. to cast.—^fake. to mend. to put on the saddle. an incendiary. berry. arwe. in the sense ctf beria. dirt . ship for a make amend. Du.— VixHsm. bestow. as. dust rojahtaa. to defend. So roto rattle down. the origin of which is to be found in ON. Sw. fyrbotare.iooA. or the space kept clear betan. dial. — Chaucer. Fr. from AS. — . barfham. mud. ropahtaa. stealth from steal. bdt. earg. R. protect . dung . reafian. basya. Bestead. broom twigs. Du. To bete his Jam. besIn sen. an incendiary. It is the restore fyr betan. — amendment. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. encouraging. p. besmas. as. Tusser. and Du. * Berth. bdt. AS. ^•n. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. rubbish. From abet. R. besen. person to lie in. To seek something from a person. Esthon. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. — bota. When men of mekeness him baet. put forth. basjaj Du. E. to kindle the fire. to light the fire . stow. boeten. betan. baete.D. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. buttafuoco. to word is shelter. besein. improve. sweepings. advantage. as. repair. So Lat. preferably. as conversely a besom is called broom. vi. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. to on the other Goth. To Bestow. The origin is AS. houseless. supply. same word with the provincial barth. . Kil. to make better. to fire a funeral pile of . G. to give a place to. lewth. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. bal oppbota. The proper meaning of the bale. sets fire to. E. to to deprive of. as bouter selle. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. is to perform a serviceable office to him. might have been . AS. earh. of ffeed a fire. it seems hard to separate as. place. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON.fish the other hand. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . solicit. het vuur The serise of Boeten. or to bestead one. to thrust. Fr. To help. burrow. a horse collar. make better . but in practice. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. but it is specially applied mister. See Better. to make it. vol. position. buttare. as. bur-we. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. berwe. AS. lay out. Sw. what does it better a man. one who shelter. boutefeu. brem-bessen. seems twigs or rods. I from lew. bacca. baete. dirt. OE. to entreat. to strip. bereafian. fearful. to stand one in good stead. reparation. bat. Berry. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire.t. advantage. the guardian . to To Bereave. On the other hand. Rob. See Reave.

To boot in coursing (i. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. a drinking . Goth. progress. bet. betray. . A — drink. To Beteem. of quails. gatiman. — that schickiich. BETEfiM translated. bet. — See To Bete. gezimet eines dinges. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. From the former of these are AS. E. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. his eyen sheen. The as. better. a brood. and thence twegen. fallinn. taemen. proficere. a different form of twa. suitable. find in one's heart. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. beva. *Ah. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. polish. betriigen. deign. in the same way Lat. to deliver tip. Dii. larks. by two. order. traitre. trahison. — Betwixt. betera. G. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. Du.' Dialogue on Witches. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. Fr. AS. as trahissons. betst. Fr. traditor. what does It is forward him. -to appoint. x. make manifest. It. E. taemen. his mouth. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. Det sig sjelft. bedriegen. find it good: Goth. which may be compared as to form with amid. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. from Fr. in the middle of two. not to have the heart to give up a thing. ruogia. betaemen. Cot. In like manner from twain is fothied between. suitable. thence applied to a company of ladies especially.D. bibere. Between. ON. obeish. to fall. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. tradere. kein leben mehrin no signs . To Bewray. against. beverage. fate. to accuse. moveable and compass branches. Fr. Goth. Fris. verbs in ir with a double ss. betweoh. R. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. wreia. batista. i. by a final sh. bevere. bouter davantaige. gesiemen. Pl. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. to drink . riigen. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. Sahissais. trakir. spritigs from schicken. tradire. to Hence It. batizo. of pheasants. Fr. Mich self a good glass of wine. Dit tungomal rendered in E. fitting. Thus from dbahir. Chaucer. On the same principle ON. to happen. trahissais. Bav. said he. Best. dir. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. ON. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. AS. wrogia. betweohs. from. afford. as envahir. is used for the — R. Lat. trahir. or with again. for measuring angles. G. treachery. become. bat. G. betest. two. regen. to discover. betwuh. advance. R. Car son umbre si le trahit. more. to deliver up in breach of trust. are there Regt R. e. /alia. zemen. awry. Hence last G. Better. tweoh. tima. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. ziemen. The inflections of Fr. Now the stirring of an object. beuvrage. in the middle of twain. some attention. amiddes. a bevy. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. Bevy. as tlock. better. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. — of the authorities. twain. lot). Golding's Ovid in R. pair of compasses. betwuxt. roja. are commonly to one's lot. In like manner folissais. has — In a like sense tanie>i. To vouchsafe. e. G. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. I approve of beveau. Buveau. obdissais. to Teem. to cheat. Ik tame mi dat nig. vrohjan. 88. abash j from polir. thy speech bewrayeth thee. Pl. roebucks. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde.— . From It. baet. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. i. to make forwards. betweox. an instrument opening like a a thing. Sw.D. from Lat. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. To Betray. sloped off. &c. In the water anon was seen His nose. E. Ober D. Tinia eigi at lata eit. better. Friar's Prol. as from obdir. is treason. dispose (whence schicksal. r'ojer dig. to fall Some call it a bevel. to stir. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. R. zimet. be fitting or suitable. e. Slant. deem suitable. to happen. it bewrays itself. Percy Soc. springs from ON. whence beveraggio Fr. from invadere. a traitor. Fl. bevde. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. the being pushed to the frbnt. as one would have it fall. OE. best. tima. amidst. to deceive. It. evidence of life.

babbefore the eyes. which good bibbeler. Ci^. . biascia. Sardin. roggle. to stir. sliding. Oh when shall I bizzle. wraggeln.s bellum for duellum. bis. . the papyrus. to make tongue Du. snout. biberen. winding or crawling in and out. has a singular stone-picker. expelling or preserving against.to drink much. Diet. babbi.D. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). whence Du. Sard. to it evident to sense. stock still. slanting . to Jam. biaiser.two. To Bicker. pible. kwijl-bab. presence. edge of a plate of looking-glass. to cut in two. liwell. it becomes (Jz-. kwijlen. baviere. to tipple. aslope. Piedm. pddzahr. biax. to well up with Cot. Pl. Hal. or kwijl-slab. though such a change of form would be very unusual.a. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. like guzzle. To Bibble. Dan. bavon. dial. bisdare. lips. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. Bibelsworth in Nat. bark of which paper was first made. . Probably. whey count . specially in a bottle. It is especially applied in Sc. In Arab. biberon. foul weather. . Jamieson. Prov. To Bib. The It. bihais. Schiitze. Piedm. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. to give signs of life. 172. /3i/3Xof a book originally. a sloping edge. OE. Bice. one who drinks in excess. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. Yes. —Dozy. a fragment bieco. convicts thee of being drink. 78). ice . he is Wtb. bring under ' Thy accuse. to stir up . its clothes. sbias. biais. Fr. Bezel. Misc. (according to the Fr. it were the mouth. to the stirring of their conscience. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. reveal.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. to tipple. rogt un bogt sik nig. See Wriggle. a stone-hewer . bescompte. misFr. oblique. a Galilean. bending. baverole. sbiscio. sbrisciare. Fr. to dispute.or from obliquus. To skirmish. Bezoar. sbiagio. b&zahr. Du. To bicker in NE. Sp. the word became bddizahr. to shake. in him. or in and out. aslope sbisciare. — Bi-. biberer. used in precisely stone . to a fight with stones. the basil Sc. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. biascio. sbrisso. sbiesso.{ioin dua. I Wallon. sbriscio. bezling or skueing. — crooked. Fr. inferiority. It. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. per\'erted belief. love first begins to life signs of him. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. Fris. Uprogen. to be a paring. to move. beslei. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). as an eel or a snake. Lat. petit-lait. Hal- — do something aslant. The train of thought is then. to stir. a bezle. shows the P1. sbrissare. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. —Bickering'.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. to sip. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. tailU en biseau. sik beregen. him. bickel. Mantuan.' bibble. E. Bisect. poison. by throwing of stones. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. ber-laita (for bes-laita). To Bezzle. asure-bice (Early E. discover. bickai. to glide or slip as upon. sbiescio. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. of the sliced off. twice. to purl. kwijllap. bisel. sbieco. wrangle. bias-wise. Pers. bickel-sieenken. wrogen. Cat. and zahr. beregen. in Fr. To drink hard. a slabbering-bib. dial. bickelen. crooked. bibaculus. bickeler. sbiasciai. or by any rapid motion.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. Fr. makes ble. Bias. bebble. a bibber. notice. Biseau. to slaver . . Lat. rogge. evident. in two ways for duis. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. sloped. bestemps. to slaver or drivel. Bible. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. two- footed. bibo. Fr. An inferior blue. Fr. In comp. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . Ant. When the edge of a joiner's trickle.D. to stir. An excellent Basil. besanca. slippery. Bib. bible. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. Gr. to creep or crawl sideling. from pdd-. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. bes-azur. Cat. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. is explained to clatter.as in Biped. metaphor). le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. It.

or bad. — — — Halliwell. as. balg. bend of a shore or of a rope. bigan. bieten. bugan. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. ON. swaggering. The 'La. to bend. to build G. swoln. to move quickly. who. AS. bulge. by seek and beseech. bolgna). cultivate.' Addison. bugne (answering to ON. Bigamy. a chip. beidast. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. inhabit Du. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. bo. bidill. forwards. BID of stone. iiQ. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. pray. in the sense of ask for. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick." buque with E. bis and in comp. bua. biegen. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. and yajiBui. It must be observed that the word bidja. biddan. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. ON. bugt. To Bid ' Big . beadle. anleta. bow. bag. G. from belgia. gebodenj G. bat . To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. be bug. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. — To Bid. the meaning of bid. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. swelling. bidan. from bidan. BIGOT beidan. spelling seems to used in the N. or third order of penitence. ' Bug as a Lord. bidel. From Gr. has leta. bit- bidja. to forbid . belly. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. proud. bath. AS. bolginn. ten. of More ' in Richardson. bug. to bicker. to swell. to ask.Leta). as G. The . The original Swollen. Bigot. To Big. to inhabit. form.uddered len heart. to forbid . 1. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. W. OSw. to cultivate. to start out. from seek. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. to solicit. explaining the Sc. called the tertiary order. OSw. boa. qucero. bulge. G. praebere.. and Gael. to offer one the wish of a good day. A bjudan in anabjudan. to ask. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. to inflate E. The loss of the / gives Dan. may plausibly be derived from Goth. to dwell. an entire skin. to look for. praestare. are also used in the sense of asking for. verbieten. offerre. ON. gebeden j G. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. to marry. to bend. bidan. Wallace in Jam. bog. and the Sw. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. bulk. to offer. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. to bid one good day. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. twice. With respect to logical pedigree. to pro- command. byggia. porrigere. bouwen. Bight or Bought. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. bauen to cultivate. The ON. ON. to have one called before him. einen vor Gericht bieten. as tears from the eyes. related to big or bug. Bickelen. bilge or bulge. bieden. to presimpler pare. quiring something to be done.peto. bolga. which is stiU. bedun. consisting both of men and women. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. to offer it to public notice.' Pope in R. To bid the banns. Einem einen guten tag bieten. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. to look for. bi-.t. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. Palsgrave in Halliwell. to bulge. Hence Sc. byggan. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. G. England for swollen. bidjan. bend. a flexure. Compare also Sp. repair. faurbjudan. R. to belly. buga. a swelling. P. Two verbs are here confounded. Big-swol- . Du. to abide or wait on. AS. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. beodan. inhabit. athird class. Big. and consequently ordering or reGoth. to pray one to dinner. to build. becoming in Lat. bulky. The ON. a suitor. bead. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. — prepare. 2. Kil. . pressing on one's notice. to arrange. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. Jam. build. besides the professedmonks and nuns. the belly of a ship. bygga. A pose to one to come to dinner. to curve. bced. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. ewes. to E. Analogous expressions are G. to build. abidan. belly. rising up. or. .

a dunce. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. a blockhead. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio.D. 1243. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. Beguttce. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita.— BIGOT bigardo. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. as well as bizocco. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. the nobles to Rienzi. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS.' Chart.' Matthew Paris. 560. bighiotto. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. signifying bagmen or beggars.. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. probably from biso. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. author quoted in N. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii.D.' translated by Muratori. Bighini. and also unlearned common men. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. beghart. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. In a similar manner from bigello. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . and Q. absque votorum religionis emissione. was formed bigello. face VIII. vocati Fraticelli. all apparently derived from Ital. to adopt a similar course of life. perch^ i Terziari di S. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans.D. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. honesti plebeii amictus. In the same way Fr. bigio. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. alii Apostolici. Francisci communiter appellabant. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. dark-coloured cloth. sed maxim^ in muliebri. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. grey. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. Bizoccki. D. &c. They wore a similar dress. Bighiotti). fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. rustical. A. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. both men and women. borel. A. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. alii de paupere viti. beghino. Bizocco. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool.' says an Venet.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. corruption would easily creep in. grey. ac labores manuum detestantes. Hence the OE. ix. biso. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. S. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. Augustini dotarint. aliqui Begardi. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. bighellone. 15 18. 1499. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. coarse woollen cloth. and hence the variations bigutta. From bigio. homespun cloth. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. G. says. the other form Per te Tribune. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. vol. begutta.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. with reference to A. natural grey or sheep's russet. which must not be confounded with begardo. A. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured.a. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. xx.' says one of of bigio. clownish.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. bigotta.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. Flor.— Ducange. and underwent much obloquy and persecution.

now A Bilboa blade. however. in the sense of a writing. Du. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . irons or set in a kind of stocks. fluctus maris. buie. used in legal proceedings. an ingot.' mariners. bulghe. Prov. Bilberry. Mundart. Lat. from the dark colour.— — — . Bille. buoy [i. So in Gr. bulgja. crowberry. 3. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. bille. Fr. The Du. whortle-berries. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. bile. Sw. an ingot of gold or silver. Sw. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. Roquef. buail. Bilge. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. boeye. a bigot or hypocrite. bigardo. a sword. A lorum tam in — Diez. false pretender to reUgious feeling. the bill of a bird. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. w. Gascoigne in R. of E. bla-berry. person of religion leading a loose life. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. Dan. inscriptum. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . belgan. Lat. horn of an animal. an adze . to be angry (i. and a billard. a man who rests on a stick in walking. Du. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. blaa. Dan. beil. a floating log to mark the place of some. belghen. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. bill. a seal. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. to swell with rage). on. seems to be rather the unda. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. bigotto. topor. bwyell. as a bill of indictment. e. AS. I. bigot. — bigardia. a hatchet. AS. symbolum. weapon . 2. bolghe. Kil. and in Lat. axe.. deceit. blue . NFris. an axe. fetters. a of the sea. gleischner (Frisch). from OSw. An instrument for hewing. Billette. boja. an axe. the beak of a bird. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. dziobad.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. See Bulk. bulla. bisoch. Johansen. from Mid. is properly a sealed instrument. the swelling G. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. to peck. In English the meaning has received a further development. Bohem. Sp. tepati. as craneberry. . This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. bullet. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. Sw. p. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. billard also signified at billyards. bila. . billet. a seal. Kil. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. G. abelthe fetter itself. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. a short note. a name given to a. 2. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. Bilbo. and dziobas. a hypocrite. AS. Ludwig. The proper meaning bylgia. the o changing to an i to express diminution. 5 * . Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. top. Billow. genus vincu- Bilboes. bui. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. Piedmontese bigot. bigot. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. to pick a millstone. See Bull. to strike. Thus we find in It. e. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. BILBERRY nated.' bilio. obsolete. a negro. bill in parliament. that of swell. billard or billart. ^Billiard. clog to a fetter. Du. ferrese quam ligneae. gan. bull-berries. Deutsch. — — ' . Bill. of boja. at sea Billet.' in Richardson. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. Bigin. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. OFr. Bojce. procella Kil. an axe. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. boia. 'tumidi fluctus. loi. To defraud one of expected sinking. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. the trunk of a tree. a beak. bill of exchange. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. — Cot. In the same way are related Pol. b'olja. The origin of the term is probably from bole. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. a devotee. To Bilk. blamand. Tartuffe. dissimulation . A slang term for a sword. beghart. billet is the diminutive of this. an axe . to job. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. billot. Fr. Langued. names bill-berries. to strike. plog-bill. Billet. Fr. Bill. Aurelles. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). Gael. might be taken to express a hypocrite. a shackle. in the same sense. biilge. dziob. bil. bizocco. . a stick to tighten the cord of a package.

Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. bund. binda nat. pittjo. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. i. a weight. brid. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. viz. Du. fowl. . an eagle's young G. EpisETTiTOOTToe. bunki. bundle. E. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. To — — —D. beran. Lap. berkas (z=:Fr. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. band. bhurja. Birch. and of Fr. j). bita. IV. binge. episcopus. or baked. to bear. to cook). to bulge. bunt. bitacora. . hith. The term ON. biccej ON. Fr. bundun. terial. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. in Swabia. Lat. v. a female stag. life. biscotto. to bind together. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. Bin. Thus I suppose the Gr. I would derive the verb to knit. Dan. AS. Sp. copus. Lith. G. When compared with Fr. evesgue. is in Scotland applied to ivy. bitill. 'tumens sequor. sc. bord. a truss. and especially to a small poor horse. Goth. evegue. lusciosus et myops. an overseer. properly a young pigeon. Bailey. — — . a corn. Gr. evigue. Fr. a bitch applied also to other animals. Sw. forth. See Breed. Bisom. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. bij sien. qui nisi propius Blind. beitan. Bizened. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. than vice versi. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. bij sienigh. beitsl. AS. ON. a brood or hatch of young. Lith. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. to twine. In like manner from knot. poule. or petze. We — A Birth. admota non Bit. pinnii. burt. G. bikkia. G. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. by binda. to plait. It. The bitol. BITTACLE /Siof. hiindiiin. pundas. brut. Sw. to be derived from Ibfiaq. a habit- Binnacle. bunga. wine. bindan. ge- from AS. overlooker. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. a bitch. bin-wood. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. AS. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. Bittacle or Binnacle. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. twice cooked. to bring Biscuit. See To Bear. Bindweed. a weight of 48 pounds. expressed by Sw. Fr. ON. a heap. piccione. Lat. are commonplaces. i. — Kil.68 BIN Bio-. See Belly. to net.' and the like. . — See Bittacle. a gallinaceous bird. is rendered in ON. bundt. bindan. — properly near-sighted. Lat. piiiti. e. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. the young of birds . Sanscr. doubtless a stone. It. The proper meaning is a heap. To Bite. biclie. Bitch. betsel. pullus. AS. habitacle. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race.. a hind or female stag. while bind-wood. which is expressed in E. isfiw. a female dog hindinn. beisseii. bjork. truss. a bear. to build. Goth. also a stone weight. Fr. by the verb knit or net. a heap. where the compass stands. AS.. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. Bine. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. a pig petz. bund. beorth. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. to bind at . propius videre bij sicndc. vescovo. . pin-ti. to knot nets for fish. or bin. AS. bunch. Bind. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. to form a knotted structure. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. Bisen./«idere. a house. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. to fasten it together. nodus. bircej Sw. Fr. Lat. bundt. a bitch. or ben-wood. G. bundle. biscuit. Bird. — Surrey in R. from Lat. Then added division in a granary. to wreathe. to hang. beize. bigne. Bing. a knob. to swell. videt. &c. pinnu. pippione. Bisson. Habitacle. V. from pondus. from \t3\. earnes brid. . H. poultry. the young of an animal. .. from Gr. a bunch. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. a little dog. a bump or knob.

to bivouac. maculS. bleich. blac-hleor ides. pale brown . his blacan light. blabaran. Goth. babbe. dark. blob. quoted by Ihre. 't huisje. The bitas. to watch. bleikr. discoloured . baboyer. Why presumest And laam's asse. shining. Se bleek. bitor. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. night guard. bitones. — cheeked maid. blob. Bivouac. Gael. babbling. fallow . Sp. AS. bird of the heron tribe. even humour seemed and beuin. blakki.plab is used to . Du. fallow fawn-coloured. Sp. baitrs.' by Haldorsen. iroxafealo. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. blesmer. to babble. brunblakk. v. light-coloured. whitish. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. an edge is sharpest sword. obscurus. a babbler. thoughtlessly . as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. to the sharpness of a weapon. cut. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. beitr. term. bitr. a shelter for the steersman. Je N. whiteness (candor sine It. butorj OE. corrupted in Fr. Alex. gabble. beuni. an additional watch. G. to let out whai should have been concealed. Sw. blab. — Hollyband. Pl. a stammerer. biacca. . x. bittore. Mag. Black. blanc. pale yellow. I blaber. It. blank.D. a fluttering noise. out the tongue. first. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. blobach. as is seen in sputter and splutter. quick. a large coarse lip . Hal. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte.— Blabber-lip. a continued soft sound. in contempt. pale. leohte . mouth. bittour. is apprehension of danger. on. ^chops. Bleak. NE. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. apparently from its biting the tongue. faded. small guard-house. chatter babbler . blabbre. a large lip. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. In like manner E. a* mast . blakk. a flapping. Fr. gulblakk. Hist. to wax pale or bleaked. on the one side. Fieldfare. Again.. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. white lead. Bohem. blebberis. Cot. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. 156. Applied in Hin ON. ON. black. In a similar manner Gael. Cotgr. faded. Mund. To or he can speake. Mantuan babbi.. bitter. a beam in a house or ship. AS. indistinctly. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. Bav. ON. ' plabraich. 332. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . a tati. Blabber-lip. bites. to babble. beiwache. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. blob. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. ON. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. Deutsch. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. "uivac. blunt we say it will not bite. garrulous. as in that of pale and white on the other. bihovac. 't kompas huis. things —Palsgr. pale. whitish. . to chops. biti. is placed. blubber-lipped. pale yellow . Gael. pins of the capstern. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). BITTER dwelling or abiding place. blake. ' Biovac. ON. pale. Bittern. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. Lydgate. white. dusky. to loll it out. Fr. G.' G. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. ^aj'/^r. Sp. stutterer. yellowish. Fr. Fr. Wit hung her mourn. So Fr. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. To Blab the anchor. bitts of Bitts. Percy Soc. plappem.' It would thus acle. to To blabber blabber with the lips. 'fuscus. —Neumann.' by Gudmund. yellow . mouth. the palebleff. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. unintelligible talk plabair. Ai-mstrong. synonymous with baber-lip. to talk much. confusedly. — Collins in Hal. The Gz. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. mona mid Dan. plabartaich. Nagt huis. as of wings . round which the cable is made fast. . as of water gently beating the shore. bleg. or water beating gently on the beach . Sp. In Legrand's Fr. white. blabhdach. buft". A a rail. from wachen. to speak Dan.). shine. from whence we have adopted the. Hald. blepLith. viz.. /ealo-/or. as of a body falling into water. a childe dothe gasouille. blabbern. It is in fact radically identical with Fr.€i.

variable than the signification of words designating colour. to vocifer- — Cot. blather. blanchet. and he shall be sure to have O. blank. dripping-pans. a boil. bladder. on. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. with all other loose idle masterless men. speak impiously. — rura. — — — to jabber. Dan. blatter. imbrunire. chatter. blad. shining. contracted from bladeren. Blank "verse. to glow. Play in Nares. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. commonly called the Black-guard. polished. vagabonds. which we . bladder . blactra. Bav. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. name originally given Blackguard. . pladdern. pimple. Dan. To blank. foolish talk. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683.—Blatant. Blain. revile. boys. Besides the examples of this connection given above.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. blanchir. coat. Fr. Perhaps from blegen. Sc. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. blame. smore. Du. or blafich. mus-blackt. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. to shine. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. plate. Dan. e. Eadmer. and G. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. blister. plat. Reliqu. dial. vagrants. and the agitation of liquids. livido . bladdra. leaves. slush. piatto. waschen. a bubble. G. Cot. or a mass of bubbles. from candere. Du. Hist. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. and Q. to dabble in water. Wott. blanqne. blegne. leafy. Lat. and E. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. to blanch. blister.. leaf. irXariQ. to omit. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. blaeren. whitish. chatter. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. blether. roar. blister. to disappoint. a pustule . Sw. Fr. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. a leaf. pluddre. a blank ticket. linkboys. skola and thwatta. blanc. to purl. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. Du. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. bladder. To Blare. Jan. a bladder or pustule. most complete example of leafy structure. 86. . concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. as. defame. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. sheet of paper. the leaf of a tree. bladeren. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. gabble. a blanket a bed. Sir. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. Fr. whitish. also white woollen cloth . to To bellow. blister. biastner. Sw. as Lat. to blow. Blanket. plat. reproach. The present forms then should be classed with blether. pass over. probably ate. Blank. Du. Now. — Sw. G. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. on. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. Bacon in R. to glitter. blena. a white or unwritten ticket. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. the ON. blather. The radical bubble. bladra. Blame. bladre. tattle. flap of a Du. G.—Blatter. 1854. blanchet. branches . a. in R. to Hence Ital. to make or become white blanc. Torriano. — . 5/^a/^ of colour. candidus. cited in N. . blinken. p. biasimare. rogues and wanderers. as blader. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. mud. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. or as E. It.. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. white. blad. and others engaged in dirty work. &c. also jabber. as. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. as scullions. Blade. moere. D. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. and thence to babble. to shine. tree. 7. —We Bladder. I am degraded from a cook. smother. a bubble. Gr. the origin of . image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. blatter. is identical with Flanders borlen. blaere. blahen. also tanned by the sun. madder. Du. blegen. black. a buible. mud. PI. white. or of an oar G. Blancli. mire. blatt. broad. leaf of a. borrelen. to —Blaspheme. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. bladder.— Kil. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. his meat burnt. But perhaps a more Gr. Fr. board. and wandering men and women.— ^o thehotsun. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. blein. to bubble. blasphemare. —^Webster. to bleak in the sun. pXaatpiiiiHv. pallido. See Blubber.

noisy blor. blazen. embraser. Du. and. See Blare. to cut off prematurely. Du. as a verb. But now. Kil. proclaim the virtues of. a lamp blasere. splendour. bliEsan. Sw. blason. ON. blus. to de. Sw. blateroon. blaterare. Du. beast. magnilo. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. much plausibility. a blast. whence Blazonry. a shout. blis. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . blase. also only pains and excellent endurance. — Elazen. A strong flame. proflare tues. oron-blasare. . coloured prints. besides blesse. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans.' painted or figured . was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. Golden Book in R. an conium. blorach. G. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. To Blaze. blcEsan. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. blezo. might And sain. gloriosus. blason. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. is from AS. a loud noise. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. — — ' : bless. in the same way as we 2. Du. blcEsan. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. to publish the praises. pale. blasa. Fr. to blaze Sp. is the imme. Fr. laudes (Kil.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. bles. the noisy. each of boaster. live coal . — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. also blazon or the blazSpenser. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. First from the E. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. used. blaeteren. e. oured. Dan. OE. Blatant. to proclaim. thraso. a torch. redness . blass.— . a coat of arms.). The origin of this exSp. A blaze is so intimately Then. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. G. — ^Jam. magniloquus. a whisperer. bldsse. and which. kept up. to extol. to spread news. clamorous. a torch . If armour. blcese. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. Gael. also praeblczse. and to make him word blaze. blasonner. . blaodhrach. 2. the matter incendiary . AS. to blow. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. bawling. has also blencke. As Kilian. a flame. brasa. baladrar. senses. or to the sound which it produces. i. Dan. bleis. a shield. how. to set on fire. AS. Blanches illuminies. a shining spot. to blow . an empty and two theories are proposed. — ' — stroy. blaesen. commendation blason funebre. among other . g. of an animal. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. ON. a MS. declaratio. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. ill-speaMng their proper colours . A gust of wind. a flame . somewhat different train of thought. ventosus. She roade at peace through his heraldry. Du. indeed. biter. blesse. a funeral oration . Troilus and Cressida. brasa. blast. abroad. blatero.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. stultd loqui. shield or surcoat. blose. To blast. fire. blase. by stripping off a portion of the bark. might spring from the same origin by a . Du. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. With inversion of the liquid. a voice Jr. Blast. or blazening. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. Blaze. Cot. in that of praise. friend Cornelius. like the in English. blys. ing of arms. on whose behalf the herald appeared. braise. blysa. Prov. boasting. quus. 'op een trompet blaazen. I. to publish. Cot. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. blaze. to trumpet forth. The other derivation.' to fastum . To blow AS. Gudmund. blcesett. visui patet. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. it is manifest.sound a trumpet. loud . a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. . blesse. abroad. to blow. baladron. Sc. a flame.whence the Fr. Fr. blasoen. is used in the sense of manifestatio. to bellow. blossi. light-coli. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. blaodh. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. blcest. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. blaser vid. ther it was erst not knowe. Lye. The AS.

wanness. paleness. Fr. inflamed eyes. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. Bleb.v. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. light-coloured. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats.'he cried till the tears ran down. Bailey. Blear-eyed j having sore i. tacher. tutnan is a cloud. See Black. a fault. to wink at it. To Bleat. Sir J. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie.' God in his wordes. to blare been weeping. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. pale .D. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. . blemissemeiit. to soil. As AS. Blear. I chaunge colour. exposed. So in Sw. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. (faith or creaunce) Be war. sinen langen tranen. See Blood. or blemish. To salir. — blink the question is to shrink from it. to cry or weep. bleikr. to disgrace one's name. a spot. to spot . or to low as oxen. a stain. Bejaune. to stain one's honour or reputation. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. . From the OFr. boggle at something. Palsgr. — — R. Mac. avoid looking it in the face. Gower in R. pier vor den augen eyes. blesmir. tumanid. geplerr. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. from on. spSt. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. is Blench. to humbug. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. Richardson. blakna. the formal equivalent of English wink. 115.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. blot. plama. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. splamii!. ' He blarrede or roar. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. c. See Black. confound him. a been distinct. sugillatio. A Blab. BLENCH obfusco. Ancren Riwle. a disgrace. from the than schal I go. blesmissure. a red watery eye. blema. ' — — eye.P. or blemysshen — blaken. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. to blear one's eye. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. wheal. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. pale Du. souiller. Blemisli. B. livid. Bleed. a boil. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . bloken. pimple . to spot. a spot. Pol. blench came to be used for a trick. blister. blarren. a blot or smear blanking one. to make him feel blank. Blancher. as of dust or mist .' the devil makes a vain back. spla7nU sie. bldmi. ' — — ' : — — . 419. while the agent ac- From . guenchir. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. to become livid. like one that has long P1. wan. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. novice. start vor den augen. to start away from. p. a spot. And By a similar metaphor Pol. and thence to a bruise. . blur before their eyes. 242. whitish.filerren. . N. a spot. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. ^Blencher. flack. Schmel. A stain in a man's reputation. drop of water. to wink the eye. Manuel de Pecch&. blink. Bleak. livor. a blotch plerr. Gr. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. To totally different from the foregoing. goda nainn. color plumbeus bldma. on. ^Xiixaoftai. to cast a mist before the eyes. dead-coloured Cotgr. G.' to deceive one. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. darkness of vices. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. The term blear. what blenched him therwith. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. And now are these but mansbond (i. the livid colour of a bruise. which are blurred with the have shewed you. bleakness. blcecan. . to bleat as sheep. ' . from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. to bleach. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. a blemish in one's 2. in the expression reputation. AS. blot. Sw.

— . joyful. Nares. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. G. the G. j). blessed. to dazzle . to dilute too much . happy . blinde fenster. bluiter.D. lightning sweet blago. Bliss. Biglotton. blaziti. Paradises blidnissu. blanssen. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. blicken. glance. to bluiter up with water. a flash. to bluiter. to shine. joy . a nounce happy. blicksem. blahoslaviti to twinkle. make these hands 3. to make happy. lightning. to be blind.wink . weaklaveny.' To — blunge clay. joy. blissian. a dead nettle. blich-fiur. seems the simple netel. blinzdugig. blahos. blincken. to glitter . graceful. Serv. as in the case of blaze. lovely Bohem. an entry which leads to nothing . dazzle . the verb to bless is some. Swab.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. tative source of the word is wholly lost. to act like a — . joy. blink. . to glance. to glitter. Sc. AS. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. blink-eyed. blick. as in Du. blitz. is I shall Gurt. III. blidu. well blagaya. to merry. Du. to make a rumbling noise. De Sonne ' verblekken. Sc. to lighten. lighten.blinze. blinzler. livid. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. pockets. glad. blet. ON. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. —Brera. blag. cascultare. glitter. to bless . Deprived of sight. wink of sleep . to twinkle. liquid filth to bluther. burn up. to shine. well blahy blick and blink. F. sweet.blunda. . To blunder water. blatida. Swiss (obsolete). The inblissful. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. . a. — Goth. with or without the nasal. happy . Blind. a wink. blessed. and joys of Paradise bliden. blendian.. Thence apblinds. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited.corn. goods. G. Sw. good. wink. tless —Gamm. tire. a look. Du. riches .blinken. Wtb. but by no means therefore a pre. to bless. .nasal. happily. blindr. readily passes into a /. gladness. blund. sung. plotzen. blogi. mixing in general. Kiittner. to churn. . to — make it thick and muddy. glitter. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. To Bless. bludder. as a blind entry. blotzen. Owl and Nightingale. blitzen. 375. From the action of the hand making Sw. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. to shut the eyes G.not sting thiiren. ' Pl. to rejoice. blac. blithe. bleg. ^Jam. to rejoice. . to stir or puddle. Du.blinkard . as a vatn i vin. blend. blazeny. to plunge. Russ. happy . a. or nettle which does form. blithe blis. to dabble in water. false windows. blago. lightning. bliss look . Pol. thou knave. . although in the in the next article. Needle. Tany. blicken. pearance of the blighted . to shut the eyes. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. mix from blekken. csecubrandish. to blithsian. blind- ON. plonsen. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. a wink With the bletsian. blican. a blessing. — A A — . whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. the Slavonic languages. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. also to wink. shine. A .Q. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. . be glad flash. blent. glitter. blindselen. to glitter ful . (=bene dicere). a gleam. the sign of the cross while blessing one. blind. to shine. vious one in the order of formation. blide. Blazena Bea. a blick-ooghen. fortunately. flash of light . . Du. — when he — Bailey. riches blajennii blicksem. gives blinzen. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . blinzeln. G. Du. . A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. AS. trix. OHG. . as taschen. sertion of the nasal. pale. Blink. Dan. a glance. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. AS. The sound of k before an s.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. doors. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. AS. Blight. G. window-blind. in potters' language. To Blend. moment. glimpse. to dash wine with water.eyed. to mix. to pro. blende. to flash. . The term then self or others. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. to consecrate . as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. OHG. to fall into water with a sudden noise. a glance Swiss blenden. I hold thee a grote thee. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. giving (Fr. money.

G. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. to dash liquid. blijde. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. like clot. and inarticulately. kostia. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. a bubble. Gael. a dirty blister. To a smoking or drying by the fire. gentle OHG. Thus we have blab and babble. and F. lagga i blot. as in E. G. ON. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. stone. an unformed mass.— Bailey. a blister . blaustem. or blinde-kiih. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. to desire the male. having an unsound swollen look. a bubble. blindsehn. fish blind person. — . Dan. B. blot. blobbes or droppes of water. blindman's-buff. blouca and Fr. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. Dan. blotfisk. puff. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. W. while Lat. The roots /. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. A under this name was imported into England. Langued. any lump or mass of things. plub. Kil. viscid. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. blinzel-maus. Sw. to blissom. merciful ON. cooking. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. bloc. like manner the coloured. To Blissom. blide. is formed squad. to close it with a solid mass. in Nares. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. Ibid. or bleb. must be classed with forms like Gr. fiustula. blister blasan. Blob. biota. Sc. shells. ON. a See Blot. ^Jam. signifying in the first instance to soak. bubble and blubber. bloc. A solid blouquette blisters. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. orbicular. buckle. Bleb. The blow E. must be referred to AS. inde humiditate tumidus. a drop of water. Sw. bluster. bluyster. Egillson. blithe. blister. or the like. blot. and bouclette. to block up the way. soak in water cured fish. to soak. —Bailey. pustula. speaking rapidly any . blesme. It may be formed Blithe. bleiths. bloated. — Blob. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. . — — — — — From blabber. husks. blad. ^vaaa. a blister. — Sw. To Bloat. N. boucler. is also used in the sense of swelling . and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. to blow. busten. soft. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. expressed by cognate roots. Blond. blaud. repre- pusula. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. pusula. . or is inserted or omitted. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. a blain. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. pods. blond. in gusts. For this. to blow. to breathe hard. frequentative. round. a bubble. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. swell. a . In Fin. the unhewn bole of a tree. See Blot. blcesma. joyful. mass. soaked. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. separate portion. I believe. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything.pusta. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. taken altogether. blod. Du. to cure by smoke. Fr. mild. a blot or spot. a ram. And so from squatter. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. Boyd in Jam. to to puff and be noisy. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. Svt. buclde. formed spot. and easily changes its place. Gael.—Bloated. a block or log en bloc. a small lump of anything thick. as a blab of ink. soft. to swell. Cotgr. Fr. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. in the sense of a soft tint. . or the mark which it makes. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. also to set See Bless.— Hal. pimple. blidr. blubber. to bubble. The stem or trunk of a tree.. to blow. Mod. blot. Lat. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. a little blisg. a lumpish head plubach. pausten. Blister. Du. blobber. Hence. mild. senting the dashing of water. Hence E. blautr. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. Goth.—Bloater. in bulk. it is must be observed. light yellow. . sloppy dirt. in the lump or mass of wood. soft. Jonson. to steep. strawclod. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. as if soaked in water. Bav. as blinzeln.plisg. blab. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. Blob. blote. and pisg. from blcsr. Block. Of sheep. whence blast. bausen. weak. B. kostua.

Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. blawels. in v. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. a blot or spot. brilliancy. to spot or blot. to From . It should be of filth blak-blatte. glister . tions of sound similar representaare formed G. a water ploutsche. blois.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. Du. blond is used in blatt. Du. dial. whence plader. proto shine with bright colours . plotterwis. bliise. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. Schmid. yellow. shine . blue . 2. a flower. bloi. to strike with something soft or flat. . to flame. Sw. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. to scribble. . gfyssa. to glow. blotting-paper. platsch-voll. to be red. parallel form with ON. Florio). blysa. blus. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . to strike with such these objects exhibit. a black eye Du. G. Fris. the bright colour of the cheeks . Bloom. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. blotter. PI. skam. Sc. Blow. Du. See Blow. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried.D. blosma. Lat. It. bloeme. mud. D. pladern. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. blond. plet. blase. Erploten. to be red with blot. fall to overflowing. Russ. a Schmid. Blood. . soft or flat. bletister. blose. plottra. splashing full. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. colour of the cheeks. to dash down Du. redness. Sw. E. blauwel. glasi. a blow. to squat or lie close. to dirty. sbiadare. livid .platter. Blad.properly to scatter liquid . G. blowen. .— . The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. platt-voll. blodelsa and blawelsa. blond en blaauw slaan. platz-voll. a Halm a. splendour . a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). glus. E. pale biavo. Sc. Fr. a flower. — Blotch-paper. yellowish It's G. pale. to blot the land was in a leme. to exists in biadetto.' the rain is driving and blue . let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. fall down . of a blow with something lios. bliithe. wan. glossi. blue. plot of land is a spot or small rage. blue. blooth. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. blaeuwen. bldts. to glisten . to squander. j^ blottir. a blaze. ])erly Du. blust. a torch blusse. from the bright colour which 7'vci. blosen. Du. biado (of which the evidence plattern. as the skin or hair. blat. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. Harmar in R. blatte. Plots. spot pletter i solen. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. Wflz<^«. dirty spot on the cheek. a cow-dung. The G. bloutre. E. light. bfys. bldmi. a. bluish. Pl. straw. blue. en blau ach. E. pale tint. gammon. blostma. bloi. Schwenck. to blush . bloto. a beater. bloemen. blad. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits.blauschlagen. bloed. to patter. kuh-plader. — Cot. cow-dung. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. See Blow. Fris. S-wiss pladern. glose. probably connected with Pol. a The form platschefz. Dan. pladdern. platz-regen. a lump. to splash. clod. — gush. a Usaae. spots in the sun. Dan. AS. blotte. blistaf. leme. to dabble in water. dial. fair in en blat vand. livid marks. (of cattle) to dung. lustre. to grow pale). Prov. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. flower. Dan. lump flower. Jios. bloi. ^Bleed. bliihen. a pelting shower). on. . couleur livide. ON. a spot or blot. lump of anything soft to blad. . Schilter. the bright to blot paper morsels. great leaf of cabbage. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. blondheid. blosa.^ Kil. a flower. to shine . ' — . coloured (Diaz. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. to blaze. bleustern. Stalder. a nature. blou. to dabble in water . bleistern. Blotcli. ^lys. to blaze . to slap. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. AS. to strike . OFr. —Barbour. . to sparkle. a deli. plattata. kobladde. blaeuwe ooghe. blue. ON. Sw. platschern. blosem. Ir. from G. — — . E. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. Blossom. bloetnsel. E. Blot. blady. to dash down. Ein platsch milch. blomstr. lidmr. Wendish blodo. a drop of water or colour. blut. ON. gleam. white blatte. — Stalder . gloss. a gush of milk . to slap. or the sound of it . . blaeuw. bit by bit. Hatch. bloedsd. plants which prepares the seed.

— — Mundart. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. to guggle.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. a herb Gr. a flower. like manner Lat. Sik upplustem. bliihen. to show flower. OHG. The radical sense is shown in Gael. a Blossom.' — Palsgr. to blow. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. sponds with Sw. grug. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. grey. — . In agitation of water. blduen. a fat. disordered. is confined to the — . to'disorder. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. to fade. foam. closely difference in of blabber. y\r)yi»v. AS. bliihen. These are — Bludder. w. We . to inflate.to blossom. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. to blow. to breathe G. is very frequent. into flower. Bret. Gael. br. bluther. fiubbem. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. fqded. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water.' Hamburgh Archives. bledniai. glansj Ir. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. blava. to make bubbles in drinking. gloeden. It. blass. blosen. grow pale. heath. . bloi. blois. a gurgling . bludder. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. Tumbled. Blowzy. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. Kil. ' BLUE or guggling.— . glow. P1. to bubble up. bl. little apparent resemblance.D. The aUied forms. to gabble. v. to spot. where the word may be compared bliggman. . |8A)'. to fade.D. vi^ound. To Blow. blezir. may cite for example G. — To blubber. pale . to glow. /idXavoc. a blow. pale. blady. bloeyen. toused. E. piusen. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. glas. Gr. a continued noise of agitated water. blut. a. green. flower OHG. a blast. pludern. To Blow. G. And.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. to flap like loose clothes. wan. Her sweet bloderit face. blubbern. a bruise. and thence. blau. It is howbliuwen. to hard. jabber. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. gloeyen. Pludern. plodern. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. blubbern. in rapid or indistinct utterance. fem. meurtrissure Roquefort. —SchmelIt. Chaucer. the red fluid of the body . gliihen. blodelsa. and closely allied with Du. sense. corre. boil. ^Jam. Blowze. blebber. to puff up. E. blue. to flourish. to Plodern. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying.. florere. . — Bluther. blubonciti. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. blow. MHG. bruised Prov. bruk. . fied vowel.xo'»'. B. Chaucer. bloemen.Jlasa. 51. red-faced bloted wench. Pl. to with Bohem. bluod. plubartaich. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. to blow. puff. gUd. Pl. plubraich. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . bloeden. Notwithstanding the We . to fade. blawan. plustrig. to shine with bright From colours. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. bliuwan. blodern. G. — To Blubber. blahen. pale. G. to exhibit bright colours. marking some application from that bladder. withered. plubair. tache. . Bav. bluh. in E. Mund. Jla-re. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. glas. bloom. to beat with a mallet. gliihen.D. Deutsch. -ii. coup. boasting. flower w. glaodh and blaodh. to breathe bouteiUis. blazir. dirty.nify bubble. blue . to beat. OFr. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. Blue. cheeks bedabbled with tears. ler. chatter. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. bliithe. bloes. blaw j biavo. plusig. to gush. wan. to make blue. pale OFr. The interchange of an initial gl. 1292. OHG. blodyn. Lat. d in Sc.D. blao. blazi. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. and the forms mentioned under Swab. 2. blau. — . ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). Danneil. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. 92. to glow. . Deutsch. Langued. Raynouard. Prov. or gr. A. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. Du. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. a paddling in wate r. blust. to bruise Roquef. glowing coal . disordered in head-dress. especially with respect to the hair. 1. glede. Wtb. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. to blurt out. G. sound like water. The primary sense is to shine. bldt. Du.

Bluff. mix It. Kiittner. abrupt. plomp. . asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. to work To blunder out a fronto. ploffen. a plain coin herausplatzeu. .in mud or water. Flor. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. bUich. earth and water mixed together. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. Pl. See Blunt. - reddish yellow. or an abrupt manner. a blunderbuss. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . bullern.. rustic. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. buller-bak. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. blue. find accordingly It. G. flav-us. polterer. The Du. The word is here synonymous with amplus. segetes virentes. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. blandum. biada. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. blunderhead. to plump into the water. Bladum.D.//aay. Dan. It is remarkable however that the E. Hal. To blunder is then. his business with much noise. to fall suddenly on the ground. and metaphorically. pale yellow. in plur. Kil. all representing the — . to become pale or livid. a shore abruptly rising. and bustle . The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. OFr. — Pr. blaf. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. originally growing up turf and water. Then with the nasal. bluish. planus. tradire to Fr. Bodge. a fore. Palsgr. sense of yeUow. G. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. biavo. blave is moreover. devenir vert blavoie. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. fawn-coloured. je perturbe. superficie plani. Lat. We Blunder. from an imitation of the sound. Blaffart. polter-hans. contrasted with the dle. like Du. mistake. to fade). blond. blavus. and biavo (Diez). bawling. like the Celtic glas. dial. Du. and Du. Blunderer or blunt worker. Supp. Analogous forms are Du. Roquefort. to dabble Biglotton E. Dryden in R. From G. pale straw-coloured. from the Lat. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. biava. The Du. blac. blunt. blue. Pol. And blunders on and staggers every pace. Ditton in R. Du. blutter. Romance bluiter. blue. herauspoltem or sloping shore. and sbiadare. bleu et blanc. as well as biado. Blunt. to mix it up with water. is. E. blunder. a boisterous violent man. which is rendered by Florio. applied to green as well as blue. to blunder water. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . to blunge clay. to confound. Roquefort. trahir. — — — . fallow. discoloured {plowiee. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre.make a noise. flodderen (Weiland). without image or superscription. speech. G. liebefactor.' trouble. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. used for the work of an unskilful performer. herbe. Halma. It then signifies something done at once. glundra. corn. blunder. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. and then generally idle talk. confusion. Pm. to dabble in the mud. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. to agitation of liquids. buller-bas. bloi. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. having a bluff forehead. glundr. in the same way as from It'. as well as sbiadafe. falb. pludder. G. Blavoyer. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. Kil. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. Sw. to puddle. a flounder. — . something. See Blurt. corn.• BLUFF biado. sbiavare. Altieri. yellowish red. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. 't — —Hal. Biada. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. from the brilliant green of the young E. yellow. verdure. has donder-bus. Hence a Slcelton in R. tutte le semente ancora in erba. blake (identical with AS. verdoyer. puddle. blanssen. pale. an ill-done job. in water dobbelen. Bohem. disturb. non rotunda. to become pale or wan. Dief. A bluff manner. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. poltern. pale) is provincially used in the. I blonder. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. Hence we pass to Prov. jaune. bulmanner.— . blahir. plo-wy. sloppy drink. to lose colour. to become pale. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla.

Probably radically hlekit. The blait body. to make foliage. plotsen. blunt. sheepish. The syllables blot. stupid fellow. a thick and will person. Halma. fooUsh. in Richardson. thick. F. as in E. . blout. dull. hebes. blunt. blunt. figuratively. rough. Dan. pressions. raw. —D. plutz T)\i. V. Dan. plump. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. Swab. and an unintelligent. plump. unceremonious manner. blotta sanningen. it will be observed. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. dull. seems to be derived. platz-regen. bleak. a simpleton. Blunt. rude. plump. blat. and the like. heavy. naked. is The word dull. obtusus. bare. bald. heavy. to blunt a thing out. blutten. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. bare or blunt. platzen. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. bloss. pale. Won by degrees. as Sw. good plump person. azure. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. Du. blunt. nis. Sw. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. It will be seen that the G.—D. blait. plotz. Plontp. blatte. blait. ang. Kiittner. bus. the absence of sharpness. from the loud report a fire-arm. identical with E. blunder. naked. unwrought. or heraus plumpen. homo stolidus. fling down . bluntschen. but of something soft thrown on the ground. with or without the nasal. to plump down. is thrown. without the nasal. edgeless. awkward. naked. Woddis. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. Blaitie-bum. that it not easy to discover the connection. a blot. Kiittner. wan.plompen. Pol. V. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. V. and. . a bluntie. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. united in Gael. naked. Bare and blunt. and hath swiche languor in his soul. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. exactly corresponding to the G. Sc. A modification of the same root. plumbeus. dial. — — pidus. inaKil. unpolished. like a thing thrown down with a noise. G. unfledged Sw. as cow-dung. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. to blurt. maol. down. Bluntet. nature. Plump mit etwas umgehen. Stalder. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. biotto. used in both senses. without horns. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . Ford in R. Sir T. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. plonsen. Now the Swiss bluntsch. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. It is from this notion of suddenness. a portion To inquire for slaves. bare. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. plump. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. to make a noise of such a Stalder. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. to plump into the water. to handle a thing bluntly. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account.to fall into the water. blott. and in the same sense. Plump. viz. blue. forestis. silly. ineffectual reason. viz. inactive Swiss bluntschi. heavy. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. — Kil. Molof something wet. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. mit etwas heraus-platzen. of a knife which not cut. A light blue colour. awkwardly. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. duU. Sc. clownish. biosso. blockish. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. G. Q. pointless. poor Sc. blunsch. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. without preparation. plump J to plump out with it. plains The large bech. obtusus. void. that the sense of bare. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used.— — — . Then cometh indevotion. It. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. it will be well to point out a sense. Chaucer. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. More in Richardson.pludse. clumsy. to bring it suddenly out. without Maolaich. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. —D. or blab out a thing Kiittner . rudely. absence of preparation. — blunt. through which a man is so blont. insensible. massive.

Fl. to brag grande loqui. boistous. margin. bluter.—Bobbin. puddle. to blur. &c. bobbin. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. Du. bliise. Bav. to blush. bustuous. to dabble. gabble. Lat. 1. blaste?i. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. or backwards and forwards. ader. flat. to jabber. bur. Comp. Board. bobine. bord. a Jam. To tinct. AS. an end or stump. then applied to indistinct vision . bladdra.plerr. imitated by has also In like .plodem. a short thick body.D. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. De Boat. bluther. . eafor. P. a blotch. To splirt. as splurt to splutter. Pl. The elision of the d is very to chatter. and E. planks raised up outside the roofs. beer. the Brem.— . margin. to endeavour to terrify. blarra. the sound of a blow poffen. literally edge-wood. a border. boccheggiare. to give a crack. boot. 274. to make a noise in boiling. Du. geplerr. blur. w. — From mouth. to make mouths. or bog also thread. 9396. fringe. To move quickly up and down. baiag. blast. OE. Boa. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. stellio. of the word seems . is formed Du. to crying. hot. See Blossom. and boisterous. and Du. will fly up. primarily signify loud noise. boord. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. plump. It. Explained by Jam. voce intonare. to be out of temper. blasen and See Burr.pusten. Related to blutter. a. Sverris Saga. Boost is used for the boast. to threaten. or blurt with one's mouth. large. aper. blaere. bhis. BLUR Boar. bord. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. to blaze. a mist before the eyes plerren. a flurt with one's fingers. Bluster. G. an ear of corn. cheeks glow. ever-swin. to render indisbhir. lacerta. Boa. swagger. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. to blurt out. Gael. Du. blot. bleuster. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. boa. an edge. bdtr. G. Du. 156. borrar. a small lump. bit. Wright's ed. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. blirt of greeting. a grows to a great bigness. outward edge. bdd. . rude. skin. bateau. gabble Sw. blosken. As the as. a bladder . stupid. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G.y. To blow in puffs. a blot. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. to make a noise with the mouth. table. The to radical meaning D. Hal. pludern. to dirty. dial. pluddre. board. and when applied to vaunting language. to say bluntly. Halma. blusse i ansigtet. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. blodern. AS. . Dan. properly noisy. to puff. to breke. to blubber. to sound like water boiling.' — Red Riding-hood. Fr. bakke bleustern. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. Wallace. E. pfludern. puffen. be a crack or loud sound. Blush. margin. V. pof. violent. — — . — To Bob. and swimmeth very well. acre. common. my dear. to roar. on. a tassel. Du. brett. See Boisterous. lindwurm. pustern. to smear. c. It. a board or plank. to dangle. baban. whence bob. edge. 29. a torch blusse. bludder. Hal. a burst of tears. to blore. a dangling object. a baU of thread the mud. — ' Dief. botte. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. blader. blot. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly.the syllable bot. this root are formed Sc. violent G. a tassel. both used in the sense of boasting. Swiss blodern. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. Wtb. whence bordvidr. Schmeller. blotch and botch. rude. to disfigure with E. 'Ba. ground. Du. burra. bausen. — a blaze. It. strong. blaffen and baffen. blaustem. . chicchere. Gael. bora.v. to puff. a smear. mire. ON. to glow . like the parapets (viggyrdil. to bark. cluster. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. — — — * Boast. beacon fire. Bot zeggen. E. planks or boards. to chatter. it implies that it is empty sound. to blow. blubber. border. dial. To Blurt. eber. edge. to spurt out. splurt and spirt. a club foot . Slur. bar. blose. Fl. batello. as in Du. table. sudden. coarse. pausten. Pull the bobbin. G. short pieces of any filthy mud. cocodrUlus. crack made by bursting open. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. Kil. and the latch . to bounce. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. Fr. BOB 79 — To Blur. To brag and to crack. to rumble. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. Supp. a mistiness. berd. to guggle. bot. i. a blow . blurra. dull. to puff. Sc. Sc. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. . to snuff. bludder. bot-voet. bdta. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. A large snake. Du. e. to talk quick and indistinctly . bord. AS. blunt.

rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. VI. gebod. — H. dies. AS. to bob. rounded. Ir. The signification of the root bot. corpses pot. to thrust. to fail. to start start and back as from a bugbear. to dabble or paddle. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. a prick. precept. anything protuberant. to blurt a thing out. to bodge.hollow. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. It introduced from Ireland. — Grandg. shaking . We . gagei. of which the E. * To Boggle. Schmel. In like manner E. Crist. a cask. then from the yielding. potacha. bodene. a round body both. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. a puddle. to make a mow at. To portend good or bad. 3. and the word is well explained by Bailey. bot.! . See Bid. patsche. expression hogglin an bogglin. bod. wavering. a dagger. bodat.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. unsteady. corset from corps. To Bodge. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. a body. bodig. boll. Bodice. or bag. Lith. ^Jam. as signifying anything spherical or round. boftich. And waves. or a pair of bodies. gogach. a ghost . shake. as a horn. Banff. biodag. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. biodeachan. point. stuttering. formerly bodies. bogach. baboyer. by the syllable patsch. waving. . Body. Bog. bodian. bod. to stick. AS. the boss of a buckler. To mock. Bret. exhibit another modification of the root. bodak. a sting . Reliq Antiq. or stem of a tree. corpset. the body of a shift gaguejar. BOGGLE trunk and G. body of a shirt bol. stumpy. to stir. is a lump. To make bad work. badyti. Ptg. to butt. butt. mud. Gael. palleg. stitch. gagoula. barrique. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. as I bootless labour swim against the tide.rabodi. bodnu. . . bodhag. to push with the horns. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. 43. to be uncertain what to do. a messenger . stutter gogmire. swelling. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. bagges. round. a quagsoft. See To Botch. To Bode. potahha. . bog (equivalent to E. quagmire). busti.\\i\c\iset. potacha. to deliver a message. gog. woman's stays. Commonly explained as if from Sc. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. Gl. to waver. bodilo. a spur. an announcement. nodding. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. to make. and E.gmh:t. gago.' Bogglie. corset. Gael. Bohem. — 2. to smack. to scruple. from fitting close to the body. bodetz. to prick. bayonet. bothog. bo tich. . move. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. bogle. to fail. bottich are derivatives. bogadaich. the belly. bolr. speak of the barrel of a horse. bottig. bodi. goggle.. meaning the round part of his body. to roll. to stammer. Russ. Ptg. an awl. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . whence paUchen. So BOB To Bob. agitate. Shakespear has badged with blood. quakmg. bodies. unsteady nature of a soft substance. Bodkin. arise E. bogadh. as in stammering or staggering. . thrust with something pointed. Miracle-plays. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. cask bottich. bole.' A — Sherwood's Diet. bogan. W. ON. Now unskilful action is conmire. bob. . stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. a prickle. bodi. '£. pall. bayonet . a cask. unsteady. French bouter. anything soft. . to commit a blunder. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. nave of a wheel. Thy i. Cot. ' boggle at every unusual appearance.a (i\ia. gog in gog-mire. a bog or morass. daubed or dabbled with blood. e. a . body and G. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. gag. the trunk of the animal body. where bogs form Gael. bog. strike with the horns. . toss. needle. See Baber-lipped. Gael. belly. to be unsteady tich. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. potig. Wall. — as well as the body of an animal. a command. The Sp. bog. Supp. barriga. the stem of a tree . whence Fr. With With this we charged again We bodged again. the body. is identical with Fr. so large a feature in the country. the thick part of anything. message boda. Lap. fickle . calf of the leg. moist mire. moving backwards and forwards.

brave. bog. the gurgling sound of water rush. in the sense of handsome . . bog. styffe or rude . Lat. gerade signifies straight to the mark. bolt upright. Lat. Wall. boystousnesse. Goth. in speaking. Fr. noise. capiing into a cavity. bout is explained by Kil. The bob. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. b^gayer. perpendicular. a head . Properly noisy. Du. roydeur. as. bag or bog are derived Piedm.w. Daring. excellent. . and manace for to de. courageous. boss. bolster. bolt. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. shake. Du.— — . trunk of a tree . tar. whence bulla. stutSw. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. the. boll. tulum. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. strong. ON. flax-boU.). pillow. bold. to be at a loss a shirt. ^Boistous. * Bolster. bulla. boil . impetuosity. stramenta. ballr. biiilen. Boystous. furfures. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. Sc. E. bok. bolzBold. To Bolter.. bagaji. from the branches. which are not used for a similar purpose. A. balder. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. prince. scruple. bola. 45. poppy (Bailey). glass phial. bolzen. notes. Pm. round the first instance to the materials with . to give a hoUow sound. stud. — 6 . strong. the body . animal as distinguished from the limbs. Bustuous. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. a quaking mire. bul. sels of flax. wag. Stalder. free. capitellum. properly represent belly. bolla. Chaucer seems Dan. bolster. hero. chaff of corn siliqua. hollow. 1430 in Deutsch. a bubble. a bubble. as E. Da. bolleken. bulla. hakogni. stameln vel bochken. Test. buller. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. bolr. to puff. bout. Du. to stumble. Boll. caput scapulse. chatter. treated under Bowl. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). Fr. merry. then violent. to the belly as the or dislike. coarse. tomentum. also a blister. 374. bolle. to stammer. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. balldr. used. may be identified with It. The round stem of a tree. quick. bald. bouil. a boil or swelling Du. from Du. a bakazikni. boutpijl. G. Mund. bolc'h. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. bal. huge. . the lir. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. and then applied to other husks. This iv. boggle. Sp. Kit. up of bubbles. bola. Chaucer. The term applies in — — impressed . To Boil. Magy. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. the husk of nuts. w. a fastening for a door. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. polc'h. to hesitate from doubt. the body of a man or of ter. Cot. cheerful. See Bulk. see Boast. folliculus grani. a bump. Westerwald bollern. V. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . warlike. bollen (Kil. bolstar. belc'hj. to stagger. tartajear. dint in a metal vessel. he will speak out. ON. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. insolent baude. buile. swelling. bol. G.' Mrs Baker. pustule. is probably a modification of boll. but that Bolt. as. or the like. In the same way Sc. E.D. as those of nuts. OHG. — — which the cushion is stuffed. G. ohg. to waver or hesitate. bald. confident. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. It. bold. intrepid. bealder. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. Boil. Me doth awate. beule. Bole. bulr. bold. . proud. bSlstr. Love. Pr. Du. bhster. bald. ^Vocab. pusten. (of Mons) b^guer. bula. bochken (titubare. Gael. bullire. blow. bul. pall. * Boisterous. G. Bret. Sw. — ' — tagliare. by which it is moved to and fro. OG. a swelling in ice. cows the people from speaking. Fr. 304). tartle. gluma. bol. as baltha. repagulum. a bubble. haughty. sile hurled in a clap of thunder.rounded part of the body. Lap. globular bod)'. Swab. boly. tartalear. courageous. to tattle. puile. bol. to swell. rough.Du. Kil. fiausten. to stammer.— D. to boil. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . ON. swelling. ON. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. baud. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. pimple ON. puilen. i. strong. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. a cushion. to be prominent. obex.palleg.

buletel. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. blotttre. as above explained.as the essential element signifying the talum. Here the radical image is the violent O. buUire. buletare. It. bulio. Champagne burtcau. to spring forth E. Wtb.agitation of the meal in the bolter. barutela. : ' — — . to start out. crash. . Fr. abolter. The ment and the operation. hole. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. Prov. bolt-foot. in S'W plotter. Pm. ' — — ! ! : — . bolzen. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. barutare. Dauphiny a sudden movement. buideln. brattle.. to bolter. staff which sounds tar. zen. projecting eyes pul. taratantarum. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. to make a knocking. to start with palpitate. Sanders. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated.). representing a rat. on the one hand. Bulte-pook or bulstar. die treppe pressed. a millpoltzet augen. loud and fast. Sw. bolt head is a retort. . lumpy. or a racer from the course. Bav. a clump of turf. bolzauget) Sp. crotlar. btilt. and the Thus from So. grasbulten. to significance of the term was overlooked. racket gepolter. Mid. So also we pass from Lat. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. . bultred.i5a//^«. . hump-backed (to be compared A ' . clump. cruddle. fied bot. rugged. hump. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. agitari (Kil. vessel with narrow opening. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. a clod cloth. budeln daz mele . to bolt meal barutel. a bolter or implement for bolting. a clap of thunnences.Lat. one after the other. from G. baruta. pultare. mole-hill.D. to knock. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. pattern. a clod. ler. Du.D. MHG. a rattling carriage. burclct. as a rabbit from its baritel. ' Holler poller / bulter. Schiitze. as snow balling on a horse's foot. to coagulate. je bulte. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. I boulte meale in a boulter. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. taratarrum. hulter de bulter. gebolder. bortelen. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. a sod (Schiitze). to E. we der Brocket). boss. a bunch. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. uneven. tantara. OFr. P1. with E. hulch. barutela. holier poller. the wheels groaned. a bolter Prov. poltern. In the next place.noise {brattle of thunner. rugged. to bolt flour burato. a round glass ending — bultig.). or the like. The ulti. as of a trumpet. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief.. Lat. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. / is transposed in Fr.) E. — — — . uneven. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. to become lumpy.On the same principle. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. OFr. Pl. to clack. have Lat. we see that the one consists of a words. a crashing or racketing noise. bulstrig. to agitate. 2. bulk. Lang. zare. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. ex•wagen. bullern. sestuare. beliitea.clack. tar. to form lumps. a .through a cloth of loose texture.u. bolt. to come rattling downstairs. poll.fe/2?. On this account Mid. Brem. beluter.— .protuberance. pull. Pl.nature of the operation. cro. by the representation of a racketing sound. taraabout. Dan. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. bulk or quantity . bolting to that of form. jolting. poltern. curdle. tling or crashing noise. a club-foot. we have Du. protuberance. also to curdle. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. a rattle. buretter{CQ\. to shake. Hence.thump or blow. Supp. . polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. Hence Palsgr. projections.D. hammer. then to knock. hammer. bultig. knob. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. . G. a small portion. . swelling. croler. Pr. or ill. crod.by forms like G. we pass to Du. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. tumultuari. And as the agitation of cream in .D. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. Du. and to crash. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. bulla. bluter. small heap. OFr. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. the sense of right on end. to talk pulzen. . to bolt meal barutel. kloteren. tuft. bolzaugen. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. as Fr.

properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. a boulter of meal. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. burato. Bomb. produced the Pl. a bone in general. bomba. to boult meal. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. bonds. sijde. buidelen. i. tie. E. baum-bast. It. bein. G. Du. and Du.Lat. e. tiffany. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn.^Altieri. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country.D. the contracted form of Du. ODu. a ligature. ^o/j. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. silk. Bibelesworth in Nat. Moreover. bombe. the leg. — having a stem or stalk. iuttern. 83 Gr. a stem or base. bambagioj whence It. the shank the shoulder-bone. In legal language. . bombarda. bombasin. Butterglas. to beat a drum.) . Need you any ink and bonibase. the silk-worm. from teu. to shake. or trunk word in W. to cast to and fro. bunden. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. brust-bein. silk-worm. cotton. Dan. bombast. Kil. tie. stump. raw silk. a word of which we have traces in several English names. as Banbury. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. we speak of a gun to resound. band pi. It. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. Fr. ties. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. Du. Bonfire. coarse. . band. buidelen. banitola (Fl. When ture. d. and in fact we find the and Du. and Bond. — Bombard. baun. a stock.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter.bast. booming over the water. bopin. to bind G. bombicina. bommer. a drum bombammen. butteln. G. has repeatedly varied. and called in Mid. the murmuring of the sea. to shake down fruit from a tree. crook-shanked bondew. bolting-cloth. borel. bulter from It. buttel trueb (of liquids). gunpowder. thick-legged. beuteln. achsel bein. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. bras. boulenger. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. a thundering noise bomre. rimbombare. breast-bone. band. It. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. bwmbwry mar. . . The material called by this name. and also the leg. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. bongam. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. bombdra. a string.Su?. Gascoi^e in R. whence bomme. HoUybandin R. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. tree. Fr. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . bauniwolle. Fl. Castrais barato. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. bonog. to thunder. bande. and that from Fr. been. bambacium. Bone. gossipium. to which the leg. a beacon. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. Banstead. sye. sericum arboreum. to ring bells. Du. agreement. bombice. It. bonfras. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. again. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. It. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. term is appropriated in G. Dan. It. Antiq. As cotton was used for padding clothes. to resound. biire. butteln. however. assuming the of leg : special signification W. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. to shake (as to shake the head. 155. beil'n. bindan. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. bond. In E. Schm. an implement of binding. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. . any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. PoUitriduare. — bombast came guage. basin. must be explained Fr. is supported by the analogy of G. Mid. — AS. . derivation. q. and Mod. the Fr. bombasine. bureau. Near 6 * . to bolt meal. builen. also thick-shanked. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. bambagino. &c. bwmbwr. a baker. thick from shaking. bommen. cotton stuff. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . . from boom. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. as in . accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. bombase. From builen. G. to thump W. bureau. bon.). barate. sije. a —Bombasine. lana lignea. bone of the . a churn for butter. a hollow sound. beuteln. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. stuff. OE. thick.

— From the participle present. a vessel for holding liquids. bosig. boutig. bauer. Boot. babau. to aid. boia. boa. till. as a lying-place for cattle. gaping hoyden — Cot. But bosg. feu de behourdis. dolt. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. help. wondering signifies not only straw. Boom. boo. dial. of wonder On the same principle Sp. in w. a dry stalk. Swab. Bootless. G. N. but stall. Bun. prayer. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. blockhead. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. Basa. prayer. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. Sp. A stall for cattle.Boos. petition. where a cross (or a gun. b'ukvdry. master of the house. desire. busu. remedy of evil. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. A peasant. from beida (E. set in order. Mrs Baker. AS. to gape. bid). . reparation. a tree. is Du. quest. Trans. beam. buch-stab. bds. boom. dress. a head-dress. gehyred. Gael. whence ban-ffagl. pero. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . ON. * Boose. bossen. nachbar. also called Brecknock Beacons. relief from sorrow. Jr. Binau Brychyniog. bommen. Du. OSlav. biikui. letter. . a stall. — . bonaid. and from AS. betere thing werse. the cultivator. succour Bailey. tall. however. Book. hu?idbusa. netis stall. booby. bauen. bdn. a. boer. a letter . 232. Hal.—Bootless. Fr. Kil. . Kil. bowwen. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. and Gael. dog-kennel. Hal. badaud. boten-shoen. p. a simpleton. dial. It is commonly explained as identical with It. till. bonad. one who dwells nigh. to set in order. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. and thence Rouchi baia. . . which one gaping and staring about. bolt. the scriptures bokareis. . pole. Du. Mrs Baker explains bun. bote. babb^o. the stubble of beans. the name of the letter b. w. bAkva. Hufwud-bonad. From bo. bota. the alphabet. to dress. a bonfire. to gape. Pm. bobo ! interj. The character of folly is i860. The latter is the original AS. buandi. been. are formed Fr. — — . bose. and Ban in w. AS. E. lofty. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. The origin of the word is probably the W. . a. Pr. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. build. Boor. a silly fellow. boubi^. . Palsgr. to cultivate. at everything. bos. swinbusa. the possessor of the farm. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. Boon. although in the OG. Prov. Du. Perhaps. to strew with straw. In nautical language. a letter Russ. Goth. Boot of bale. pig-sty. ben. a scribe G. and fig. botte. writing bokos. bd. often cut for burning and lighting fires. Bonnefyre. Schm. Booby.^ —P. build.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. bosih. — Bailey. boandi. botte. tapestry. to cultivate. or Vanns. . countryman. Gl. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. babin. as the Brecknockshire Banns. See Bown. The i. baier. bonnet. high. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. literally cow-house. remnants of hay or straw. to litter bosu. Wall. by itself for head-dress. Fr. short boots. litter. to yawn. Ox. beiSne. E. A favour. bene.n. boutig. To Boot. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. from gape. fool. ON. clown. to ask. a hollow skin. a lying-place for dogs or swine. inhabit. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. ty Gael. in Phil. b^er. bas. without ad- . It. comes bondi. b&ber. Thin ben Luke i. chaff. Thus from the syllable ba. head-dress wai^g. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. to prepare. bua. petition. Fr. Fr. stabulum. — To boot. botta. bonad.. a bag of skin or leather. Busk. Bonnet. from Du. OW. ass. tigh. simpleton. boubair. wall hangings. signifying beech. G. Build. bua. foolish. the first consonant of the alphabet. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. ganian. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. gawney. — e. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. . by arbitours sholde bote the P. See Bomb. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. from badare. house. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. a lofty blaze. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. ON. the mouth. G. \ais-band. 13. gaby. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. inhabit. ON. See Butt. a good turn or re- meaning. dress. bobo.

a shelter of branches. to bite. and E. Sp. wine-skin. cellar. See Bower. Mag. Compare Manx birrag. bite. to . purro. a. It. to The Sw. a word. scsdes-bod. betan fyr. to profit Goth. Lat. remedy. to stick unto as a bur. Pol. furd. to swell. are parret. hem or gard of a garment. a great bur. It. to pierce. a wave. limbus. lappalare. bauda. budka.par. amendment boeten. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. a bladder. better. to patch. bdt. boete. differs only in termination. to build. terebra sculptoria purastoa. to foam. boeten het vier. puras. an engraver's chisel. as afford a satisfactory explanation. rof. butin is explained by Flor. Another derivation from Fin. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. fimbria. 266. admovere titiones. dens mordens vel caninus. See Burgeon. welt. from borra. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. edge. barn. and hence to fine. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. a granary . . Fin. to profit. Bete. And so in ON. Kil. sharp. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. burin. amendment. To Bore. to repair. piercer. uzboro. a bothy. to bite. bothan. puras. Fin. See To We speak in E. baara. N. Bohem. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. aid. to divide. OSw. pointed. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. chewed food for infants. or anything pointed. nor E. pi. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . from deila and skipta. The cor. — ON. both. . cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. to bete the properly to mend the fire. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. a borer. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. reparation. and thence to eat build. scalpo. bothag. . BOOTH vantage. bora. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. Esthon. Fin. OHG. to boot. chisel. Fl. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. Alexand. abode. which are probably from the same root. a borer. to expiate boeten den dorst. borracha. to hut. AS. budowai. a hut or tent. baete. sawroot. exchange or divide. . batr. botjan. 3. in Lap. puru. to bore. bata. borino. hut. making good again . . beute. limbus. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. puru. butin. yfirbdt. &c. on. pu purro (saha =: saw . boede. to to . borracha. Fr. tent. forare. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. Magy. a border. struere ignem. Border. bower. make . extremitas Bore. Gael. comminuted by either kind of action. BoracMo. a sharp-pointed tooth. It is admitted that Fr. and parrets. ON. . gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. The Fin. boards. cup- awl. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. . recovery bata. a hut. . to mend. a tusk. Burke in R. bdra. Esthon.—Burin. in Ihre. a booth or shed.. fire. bauen. biorag.. 1. p. of an edge that will not bite. is purin. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. bolino. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. a cupboard. byte points to the verb byta. purra. purra. boeye. ora. swell bara.por. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. a shop. Gael. mat-bod. G. terebro. bord.. to surge. But probably the E. Palsgr. margin. sculpo 05\xiik. cure Sw. Gael. a leather bag or bottle for wine.— Return from Parnassus I inR. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. to anything Neither G. drillen. to importune. Booth. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. Du. bohren. wave. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. bardure. dust. are derived from G. from bord. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. Booty. a chisel. a shed. bottino. ON. to restore. cottage. to build buda. • — To Bore. A phorically a drunkard. or the gradual working a hole in anything. bud. a responding forms . a shop budowati. Du. urboro. In the Fin. repair. furni. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. The ON. lappolone. ON. . a borer . kvit-bara. and meta- Fr. bordi. to quench one's thirst . The as G. the . Fr.

a knob. useCanterbury. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. boschen. Fr. Bosh. Boreal. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. pego. Du. /3oraMK6f. cob. I. AS. brown cloth. the must have arisen burgensis. gum vocant. bourgeois. borough or chief constable. Fr. cnag signifies both a clergy. an eminence. vain. the hollow between the Borsholder. clownish. knock and a knob . secure. and borough in the sense of a town. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. pitch.' or system of bail. poor. basse. ^o^^flj. borealis. tuft. bump is used in lump or piece. bergen. a boor. empty. bourg. a bouncing baby . ^ma. was origin of the term is the OFr. Sc. bunch. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. connected. to become is emitted by a hollow body. as if from the verb to hold. (Bridel). botch. empty. Turk. a city . empty. &c. . into borsholder. 106. that which biirge. bttssel. boss sound. the N. a boss. to contain. borgo. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. of bail throughout the country.any round sweUing. whence the burg. Russ. Bailey. to pick or cull plants. to strike . knur. busse. in contradistinction to the more polished knock.' Vegetius in Diez. plain rude fellow. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur.' the chief of the ' borh. blow on a hollow object. bos. . to knock or strike. tempest. rude. formerly used in the sense of knocking. Swiss Rom. unpolished. bom. as we speak of a thumping potato. to keep. butse. Jam. to protect. in the body struck. whether from the fact preserve G. bussi. Lang. knob. bundle. bosseu. loan. less. V.. Newbury. a tower. borei. a citizen. a herb. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. or head-borough. to strike so as to Bureau. byrig. the Sc. AS. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. a. storm. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. without. Bos a surety. a little blow. huschen. boss or knob of a buckler . both senses of a blow and a protuberance. a wen. primarily signifying coarse sound . or perhaps it may be See Bury. by which of or belonging to plants. Goth. ON. destitute. — ' wind burya. pegou. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report.mass. So Du. gesylle. and thus could not shake off the old burr. Borowholder. And that unsittynge is to here degre. It. The primi.' every man be under bail. the North Wind. borough-holder. beorgan. Hence borhes ealdor. rustic. bump. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. a giving rise to It. bail biirgen. which now signifies a knob. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. E. in instead of without. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. ' pledge. borh. bos. botse. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. or because a blow berga. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. is probably radically Boss. G. borgese. borel. Du. knocking. See found in Bav. bussa coarse. ' — — . projection. Gr. or perhaps also To Borrow. a bunch or hump. The other.ribs and the side. undyed wool of brown sheep. is used in the sense of bussare. burgess.bucklers. AS. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. a blow. Bunch. borg. cnap. burel. to take in. northern. from AS. Borrow. cnoc. surety. beorgan. Hal. to protect. one who sticks to you like a bore. the ordinary a swelling. to give bail or answer for an. butsen. cormpted. f graauw. bierge. boss of the side. bosh. while Gael. poor. i. from their grey clothing. It. — — — A — . when that system was forgotten. head. .' if thou give money on loan. Cot. to conceal. boss. grey). boss. . viipyoc.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. D. In like manner It. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. hollow. (1867). to save. bosse. a pushing or striking out. Jam. botch. Hence knot. to give a hollow bizo. bossen. to save Sw. baurgs. Borough.vr\. boussi. to save. tive idea seems to bring under cover. Fr. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. Lat. plant. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. burh. the sun sets. a surety. Altieri. striking. hollow bucklers. nonsense. agrees with E. The origin seems to be the Goth. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . botsen. coarse cloth made of the Du. borg. a citizen. Botany.

Bouteille. noise. puddle. • Bott. — Jidwi. AS. bundle. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. Lith. Jtidu.— . Stalder. To Botch. a root. BOTCH understood). bethia. Canut. dabble). a bottle of hay. House-bote. as Fr. Fyre to botme. was called a push. maggots in barley. Bouds. a bunch. fundus. to stir and mix together . — Bottom. knock. to mend (kettles. bodem. to simmer. Boa two. boiteag. a bump or swelling. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. thing soft batsch. putra. N. — — A 2. we two.foundation. bozza. the science or knowledge of plants. Lat. Judwi. A bottom depth. bots. &c.— Hal. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. On the other hand. a waterfall. boccia. round lump. mess. stroke. Wedu. Hal. Diez. an imperfect and bunbutt end. blister. whence the name ol pool to podge. especially in Gael. botch. is also a bubble. j3i/9os. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. See Boss. for a bud. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. * To Bother. a tinker schuhbiisser. stem or base. I.D. ' G. to work without order or know. mess. To confuse with noise. to rage. to strike . butsen. bosser. a pit. batschen. disturbance to . bativa. Bailey. to mend. — — . is boteau. ubhau. of botta. podge. Gael. btitse. — — belly-worm.— Swift in R. — duj Lett. a depth. bdsser. burgi vel pontis refectionem. a bottle. botel. Bochu. disturbance. botel foenn. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. See To Bodge. abyss. to bcBta. to smack. — Fl. gipuozan. abbu. stock. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. scuohbuzere. botse. a. ON. boss. See Butt. botn. ing out. ledge It. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. — Dief. ON. you two. a plague-boil Kil. dial. buideal. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. an abyss or bottoniless pit. Hal. bile. a cask. . bluster. gling piece of work. a vessel for holding liquids. . 212. buazen. bouteille. bottom. mend. by met.) . bdt. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. Botcli. potra. a lump of somebatschen. Mudu. signify a in OE. they two. dim. boitean. nets. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. tumour. whisper. a bubble. i. Both. bozza. a botcher of shoes. to froth as beer . buddeln. Fr. . Fl. AS. Bottle. butwo. G. Kil. empty or hollow. bottigUa. mutter. . to give a sounding blow. Gael. patch. as a push or windgaU. bunch. to put on a patch. any round ball or bowl to play withal. repara- — — See To Bete. butse. ixorapudder. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. a bott . bund. a pock. Bret. a boil or swelling Halma. any plain round viol glass bozzo. . biissen. Du. a humpback. abbution. pocciar. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. a bundle of straw or hay. to botch or patch. — . botm. bossu. buts. oba. from the dashing of water. to make a make a noise.^Dec. ^kvBoQ. and E. the lowest part. gen. bulder. Here the radical image seems a bubble. boute. boden . stock. Podge. ba. botola. kessel-biisser. blain. to make better. schuhbosser. bulderen. we have Swiss batscken. A horses. — . bAdtr. E. Dan. a slop. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. to we have OHG. From the dim. a slop.ments of the same root. a cobbler. botte. a patch patschen. It. to from the root bot. and ajSvamg. shoes. And so we speak of an eruption. bot. Fr. Du. See Bound. the other hand. buddl. bide. to podge. . fire-bote. Decorde. Danneil.of a ball of thread. what pushes outwards. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. the first rough draught 2. pother. both. ambo. to dash about . abbi. contusion . turmoil. Again. Parmesan poccia. botsen. corresponding to . the bud of a flower . a cess. Leg. It. to knock. pimple.' to the fiery Csedm. Ancren Riwle. blow. ON. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. Butu. poltern. G. baiothsj Sanscr. AS. or plague sore . On — Du. Fl. a knock. H^cart. boiteal. a wisp. abbi-diwij Slavon. . stump. A — oba-dwaj Lat. boil. w. bSn. e. to stir and mix together. OSax. a pit. botus. however. Prov. hurly-burly. bun. noise. to dip in liquid (to Gael. in the sense of mend the fire. &c. botte. pozzo. Pl. The Gr. Lith. to fall : with a sound batsch. pozzanghera. botte. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. beggtaj Goth. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . a bottle. a maggot. It. a cesspool pass.

bottom.— — — - 88 BOUGH . And in the spreading of a bough-pot. round.' round and round in similar circles. a bound. Webster. root (see Bottom). bun. came home with his face all to-bounced. a large stone rounded by the action of water. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. gulf. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. geration. bolder. Probably from the Celtic root bon. boujtce. nor horn sound. limit. 3. to spring. to hum. an occasion. the bay of Benin. march. butina. Ducange. bodina. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. Raynouard. ing. bumper.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. as a nosegay. as that of E. Bought. winding. to thunder. a turn or time. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. bend. signifying in nautical coil of rope. knock it sounds again. language a * Boulder. bullra. its kind. E. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. bonzen. jungen. to set bounds. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. The W. and Prov. whence buj7isen. like bobbin. Bout. Du. Bound. Mid. Coxcomb. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. And the new stools set out. — — leap. Bough. by Bujns or Buns. bog. The Bight of Benin. bounbounejha.— Cot. From Sw. in the absence of actual e. to set out by metes and bounds. the hollow of a bay.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. till The dat et bunsede. To Boult. to turn. To Bound. frequently used in the same sense with bound. pothel. . a boss. a blow. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. volta. AS. bouton. ni frestelar. boh. ni motz brugir. turn. botwm. tnndo. See Bunch. Primarily to strike. Nor a centinel whistle. a button. to resound. Sw. bone." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. to knock at the door. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . nave of a wheel bothel. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. bunda. bonna. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. in contrast to klappersten. to thundering big one hum. a stock. mere. Wtb. to knock. bend. Fr. as a bout of fair or foul weather. To Bounce.. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. bons. boriie. the verb bondir in OFr. — No i ausiratz parlar. Ni gacha cor bondir. — — Bight. Brem. mcn-bomi. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. buUersten. a bud. Bodinare. p. and F. Bunche. Bowlder. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. bay. Bret. a blister. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. has hot. 136. to bow. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. pimple Richards bothog.D. Bough-pot. to fix limits. A Langued. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. the smaller ones. a boundary stone (men stone). carpet. — strike. contusi. an de dor bunsen. bunsen. or Bow-pot. bamsen. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. Fr. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. . Alpine Re- — gions. he fell so that it sounded. See To Bolt. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. signifies a sliort thick mass.— Boundary. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. I assure you. — Take care my house be handsome. So It. Fr. to spring. jump. Bonny. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. dial. from bugan. from AS. the larger kind of pebbles. a bouncing apple. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . for anything large of Een bunsken appel. from volgere. boss of a buckler. to make a loud noise. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained.' B. debodinare. bugan. Q. strapping. iv.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata.— F. baby. thumping. Halma. bugt. a round body both. bondir. a large pebble. Dan.>a bout.'— Charter of K. boundina. Pm. see Boss. The branch of a tree. Pr. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. 2. of thread. Boulderstone. . bonndn. dial.

bausen. on the whole. Bow. to bulge. schulter-bug. As the Gael. buzzing of bees. to drink deep. bage. Bret. to draw a deep breath. curvature. a mill-post. cheat. Immediately from Fr. Borden. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. Lat. — — — A pare. a. pre. spelling the word iox bound. Bounty. — — . . burn. buzz. Gael. that ON. pusta. Sw. to hum as a bee. their time -With "wailful tunes.which see. address. bonitas. bending. repartee. ready to pike or spear . Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. buizen. pot. identical with E. brunna. a for New York. burreti. bend Sw. bov. Gael. pausen. schenkelbug. fresh* water. bwa. bogr. to tope W. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. taunt. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. Du. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. bovne. Dan. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . way ba7n. beygja. It is remarkable that we find vary. or of an Gael. Bourdon. bending of a joint knie-bug. to take one in.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. purra. analogous to Fr. hence musical accompaniment. a jibe. Fr. purlBav. Swiss bausen. Dan. biegen. trick. buyse. The foregoing derivation seems. Dan. brausen. staff. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. It is bov. Dan. Bourdon. bourdon. the fixed. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. Cot. Chaucer in R. shoulder-blade. Goth. bue. a jibe Shaw bururus. burdan. bugan. ing. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. a. sense durd. a humming noise. springbiirn. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. patesten. bagna. joke. spring. It is the participle past buinn. brummen. g. to tipple. a drone or dor-bee. bog. bordon. good. a bow. language of folly or ridicule. burd. Gael. sotich. bug. in Fr. of the ON. Sp. G. It. sport. as was for. G. Burgeon. Du. bourde in the same sense. bontS. the burden of a song. lance. a humming noise Macleod. must be referred to the same root. ruption of bonne. head Fr. when we speak of. a — — . Burden. set out. whence buysen. A —Cot.. ready. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. biugan. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. to hum. a well. on. Eown. puff out. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. Bound. belly out. has also buirleadh. to our bous. bordone. — probably through this latter signification. When used alone it . whether by sound or gesticulation. bound. Du. Gael. buys. is. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. drink deep. i. bordo. The meaning of bound. the Bourdon. bogha. warbling. a brook. to pre2. souf. addressed to. Sw. bourd. epaule du vaisseau. to trick. borne. Spenser in R. . also the humming or ON. drunken. to draw a deep breath. Du. different modification gives ON. potio. a corToward the garden. crutch. bogna. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. . bugna. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. a cup kroesen. w. and not in the sense of curvature in general. to drink deep. an arch. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. G. Comp. . game. Bourd. burt. jest.bass of a stringed instrument. a prop. a go to. to tope. to banter or laugh at. and that probably from a Celtic root. bend. G. bugna. flagon. to take deep draughts. bow to shoot with. Fr. Gael. AS. bogen. explaining Sw. pared. bourdon. to take breath. btiga. .the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. Sw. bog. to bow. beogan. are applied to the bow of a ship. bunaiteach. saufen. bommen. like quaff. . ridicule buirte. bugne. And there in mourning spend Sw. kroes. from spring. buigen. So Sc. . fun of one . to mutter. hous^ Man in the Moon. bdgi. ^<7r«i?. firm. the ting of a bell. burlare. bonus. grumble Sw. gurgling. to indulge in his cups . Cot. a pot. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. A water. it is probable that the It. the big end of a club. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. a sing-song. limit. to swell. cudgel. the shoulder of the vessel. burdan. drone of a bagpipe. Sc. mockery. to — Hal. to bow or incline the . a drone of a bagpipe. steady. buga. bending. deceit. sausen. prepared for. verb bua. Fr. a from Du. Prov. tinton. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root.

bulge. globular. inclinare se (Kil. different position in ODu. kuppelo. bowels. bugy.. bhugna. budello. beutel. with inversion of the round. to bend down. bhuj. to yield to one. a pot. box. crown of a hat. a buck. the head. bol. Du. budel. See MHO. tumour . Du. bent. convexity. W. to make crooked . a. guestchamber . a boil. The / a bow. the box-tree It. . buello. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. to raise the back boll OHG. bulb of an onion bolleyield. painter's easel. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. a little box . bulne. Lat. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. cumena-bur. a bowl. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. Hal. to puff up pullakka. or. the bogna. buckelig gehen. bolne.D. . to bow buck. and to a coachbox in particular. a hen-coop . mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. to bubble up. . Bret. folliculus . boss. bowel Box. bog. trestle. See Crab. . a wardrobe .a. belly. Fr. . bugna. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. boucle. ^o«/«. . ttuJic. bugyani. a box. kupu. * Bowels.flask It. . compared with Fr. a stud. heafod bolla. convex. bog. peated in Magy. buk. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. E. a iDubble. honse-bur. hiidel. Bower.). a hump on the back rossbollen. pocket. PLD. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. boxtree pusska. Gr. bur. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. acsian. Dan. crooked. buga. a bubble bolli. W. a protuberance. in walking appears in a . as in AS. Bret. passing on stud. bulka. hollow place Fr. polla. swoUei) Lat. . Sw. ask. bulla. bolgna. bolla.) to incline oneself . bocka. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. biisse. gut. fata-bur. bubble. to buckle G. fyn. spring as water bugya. to stoop biickling. Sw. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. boel. buckel. to guggle. beuz. Fr. OFr.cup Du. a sack. a bubble Fin. bulla in aqua. bubble. bucka. . Du. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. in both senses. Boll. or in e. ON. as well as the name of a. bosso. wisp of straw . G. bow. AS. the box-tree and articles made of it G. Fr. a bundle. a ball . a round glass or bolg. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. to stoop. a separate apartment . . globe or spherical body. w. . a bubble. to bulge. boss. ON. as in E. It is more probably from the G.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. to bend. give in to. bock. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. bouzellou. Bowl. a polla. a box.. bwr. bwra. bowl . shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. swell. blister. boudin. the barrel of a gun. a chamber swefnbur. zich onder jemand under to him. In like manner the Pol. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. bol. Sanscr. . bending. iri'iaQ. knob From the former modification we have bolla. koziel. kupula. a ball. A Bulk. bolle. a knot. bollen. ne. tumour. is applied to a coach-box. Hence. The word may probably be identical with Fris. . biiske. anything globular. busse. puffy. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. . the skull or brainpan . purse. a box. the head. water pulli. round bead. utibur.). round glass phial. hill. signified by forms like Gael. . a ball. head of a cabbage. . hollow wooden case. of a wooden ball to play with and — . G. at the e. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. a black pudding. belly of a cask. a bud. Pol. an inclosure. . spherical Dan. bouellou. . bukke. . an outhouse AS. then by the loss of the /. globular body. boxtree. a box. to swell. dial. bola. buxus. busskai. bugyola. ku^o. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. mausbollelein. buchsbaum. a bubble. Bohem. a drop of pullistaa. pullo. to puff up. Bav. ON. (in pass . a wine-can . a swelling or rising up. lump . bossola. ken. &c. bogla. Thus we have Esthon. . AS. without the and grits.\s. Buckle. bulk compared with Sw. pusspan. bulcken. the box-tree. bow. bouge. belly. boor. . stream forth bugyogni. bolla. sausage. From the other form are G. and on swollen. biichse. . intrenchment. buis. the crop of a bird. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. botulus. make obeisance. buigen. Sp. . a parlour. Sw. prominence. Cable. a box Lat. box in both senses. similar shape. Dan. OE. bugyni. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . bug. kupukka. A . boil. hollow. bur. a thing of liquid. See Boil. a sleeping-room . biicken. . a croft by a house. ^o/a.

Kil. fault. clay. Pr. ing from a mixture of salt. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. race. damaged board a ship. . rakke. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. a girl. babble. pupus. to stutter. from a root brak. One girl. brack. to give a blow with the fists. or bracer Cot. The different meanings of the brageux. Lett. s. quarrel Bohem. To brace is to draw together. which has many representatives in the other Europe. breach. braco. braca. to give a gebrechen. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. to want. to give a sounding blow defect. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. unmarried man . a grown youth Cimbr. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. OFr. brageuses. pus. filth . bracil. acidus. compressing. Pl. defect Du. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . bray. which sigof straining. I sal slyng. s. — — . A — — . cramp-iron holding things together . root). turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. G. thwack. Lat. pube. Sp. — . boussole. bracon. bouibo. loud smack. mud. ratch. Pm. matter. . brace on and Du. Fr. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. — ." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. bask. . Brak-goed. bracha. dirty. then from break. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . brasselet. bragos. a pair of braces. bracket. ON. .— D. to box the ears. refuse. mud. to fall. let. . brae. rakki. a boy pupa. a braceOFr. Swab.. On the same principle from the buksteht. strike.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. beagle. need. to crack. V.with a noise. See Brake. whelp as. brae. defect. taneous talking. to stammer. bracco. isolated part of the text. want.. Heligoneed. bruxula. murmur. Kil. brack. con. breuque. bitch Du. OE. break. ' — A — — — . to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. In like manner the It. variation of babble. boy. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. brassard. It. odorinsecus. braquet.puddle. briche. dog in general. Swiss Rom. It. Fr. his eyes are failing him). A bracket is properly a scenting dog. and then Pl. brek. Sp. It. and string of his bow. in R. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. bube. Bracket. foul. Gael. land batsken. flaw. a crack. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . rack. Thus brack. baukscheht. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. — . confining. in R. to is derived brestr. by the same inversion of J and k. want. braecke. corruptse. a guard to torf. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. flaw. Fr. La ville ou y avait Brace. To fight with the fists. salo sive aqua marinS.. a sounding blow. Swiss bub. an languages.D. a bubbling dura del mun. to slap. Prov. priated to the original sense. the first instancebya physical tie. — .nated by dirt. Fr. Water rendered boubo. parallel with OK. a box. BOX To Box. Brach. . bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. defect. .D. Brackish. Brack. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. brae. baske. ghebreck. Sp. youth. MHG. brae. and F. Prov. boiste. jabber. merely in our mode of considering them. disturb. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. brakke Bracelet. brague. buah. Boy. brechen. to be wanting. Cot. 91 the Dan. posh. brakke grund. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation.. Rouchi Then as an adj. &c. brechen ihm. Brack. to burst. bue. Prov. wnzC/J. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. brek. A brace probis. AS. spaniel. rakka. Bracelet. flap. as noticed under Box. suppuration. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. Du. bracke. Ptg. bracer. ON. salsus. land spoilt Kil. fault . the word passed on to signify salt water in general. to smack the hand batschen. wrack. brabbelen. breptati. Du. armour for the arm. See Broker. fuse. dog that hunts by scent. boy bouba. by an overflow of sea water. braic. . To Brabble. bresta. — . Kil. A to halt between two derivations. mud. G. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. a bog or pass Fr. a comworld Rayn. wristband. breach. brago. dog Sw. brec. Prov. is a rope holding G. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. moral or physical. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. the arm. braque. braco. . OFr. lalear-eyed Prov. It is B. bou^ba. to Swiss batschen. or defect. brostia. Hdcart. want.

It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. braka. bully . make a noise . gayly dressed. Cot. Brail. be found. From sprouted corn. also derived Fr. expensive. also insolenter se gerere . slight modificajoining the two legs. BRAG Piedm. braw. swagger. excellent. A — Hal.Shepherd's Cal. brabhdair.i5nz^. Brag was then used brisk. Sp. breach. torture . i.explosion. compressing. — A — .aburst. to swagger. It is certain that the word for arm is. to crack. braver. &c. brave. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. It. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a .—— . Thus we are brought to the OE.. also tion of this was brayeul. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. vanter une chose. to Rouchi brMer. to boast or brag. braga. See Brace. well-dressed. brake is. brag. affront. be noisy . valiant The head are sumptuous. Dan. bragging. riches.^Vocab. to boast of his own worth. From brayel. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . boast. power. to rattle. Bray. beautiful. brave. was formed brayele. brave. de Vaud. Fr. — Equivalent forms are Gael.^ Sp. brails. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. braegenj Du. hectoring. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. bragging of his own valour. braske. bragio. in the sense of the Lat. Cot. bravache. Walloon bress. Brake. stout. a roisterer. braguer. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. brabhdadh. confining. To Braid. dhbrailler. courageous. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. the feathers ON. Brain. brao. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). to unbrace or let down the breeches. gay. gallant (in apparel) also proud. handsome. used in the sense of force. — Chaucer. and it is very likely that the root brak. showy bravery. braszketi. braies. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. and that from e. Lat. the opposite of which. breyne. h-avare and Fr. The meanings included under — Bragget. to shout. 2. bushy . bravacherie. Dan. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. Chaucer. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. fine. finery. or from braie itself. about the hawk's fundament. blusterer. binding anything together. crash. brake in the sense of constraining. goods. spot. 92 Cot. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . Rom. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . Brake. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. breagh. cry. gorgeous. breghe. flaunting. flaunt in fine clothes . . To Brag. gay. subduing. to brail up a sail. stately. proud. se parer de beaux habits. . brave. w. Lith. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. is identical with Gael. subigere. . AS. ^Brave. braga. braske. Cot. strength. ative fellow. brae.%. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. To Brail. bullying. fine. in order to prevent its catching the wind. vain glory. boasting. to cord a bale of tie up. to stand upon terms. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. brave. brag or jet it braguard. Fris. crash ON. See Bray. se pavaner. called by our braggard. brag. braicli. . Langued. brazo. Primarily to crack. Hecart. fine. brav. brachittm. bragd. breghen. crack. The plant y^r«. braggard also valiant. From Fr. Wallachian bratsou. is Cot. in numerous dialects. . . —Spenser in R. Haldorsen Gael. that will carry no coals. bra!. The meanings of brake are very numerous. bravo. a noisy talkboasting. smart. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. bragaireachd. as the type of exertion and strength. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. empty pride. fine. Thus Bret.breeches. an inclosure for cattle . or by gaudy dress and show. drawers. the arm. Turk bazu are used in both senses. would be to brace.. an iron for holding Zalli. braga. gallant. — From W. noisy ostentation.hy which this idea is con\eyed. — . se donner trop de licence. splendid. swaggerer. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. . braka. idle talk. Hence E. to sprout malt. . vaunting. bravado j Fr. to flaunt. Sc. to strut. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. a carriage for breaking in horses . Faire le brave. Bret. to make a noise. Fr. brayete. Bret.

brolium. to exert force in different ways. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). It. thing is brought under control. In like manner Lat. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. to break. to pound. to break. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. properly braking or subduing them.. to knead or mix up in a mortar. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. to fracture. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. break flax PLD. broor bushy place Hal. —Ovid. bregar. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. might come to signify a swamp. gebiisch. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. brogille. brook. bushes. murran. It may be sus- . de Vaud. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. the lever by which the string was drawn up. — Fl. brage. riguus. BRAKE to external force. bregar brake. brcekke. broil. Gr. casser le \va. OFr. Biglotton. breuil. In ON. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. a brace on board a ship. briers. the original meaning of G.— . or the instrument by which the action is exerted. bush. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. Fr. broyer. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. to distinct. iSpsx". braquer un canon. in usus braca. game. Prov. 3. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. brage. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. In the sense of a thicket. as in Sp. Swiss Rom. broeck. where from Esthon. braca. t° moisten. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. gilum. cover G. It. braken. referred brake. as in Du. or overthrow of trees by the wind. a marsh. or A A ' . have thus Du. to bend a bow. G. or a wood in a marshy place . Corrfeze bredgea. cetur. it is not surprising that the word has here. bush. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. P&. Voc. to break or fracture. Brake. murtaa. and G. gebrUche. Sp. brook. brog. break of such a kind. Dan. brook. to head must be bit. quarry from Fin. brambles. to row. murrokko. watered. Pl. pasture. is braukti. gebroge. bruch. marsh. to brush. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. ^raca. brego. brog above mentioned. copse-wood. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. gebroge. and when once thrown down. a harrow. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. to The ON. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . signifying to sweep. braeken. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. nemus. brake. Gael. tris). in northern climates. low wet land bruch. bredza.' It. a horse's a horse's twitch. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. a fen. e. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. Dan. brak is a frame in which strip. a swampy Mid. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. and Lat. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other.D. 2. bregille. glebas subigere. farinam in mortario subigere. broillet. thicket. The Fr. for — Due. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. as in the case of horse-breaking. is formed murd. to harrow (Lat. To the same bend a bow. . a stream. el arco. dial. any thicket of brakes. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. frangere linum. Fr. a thicket. — — . fratto. to stiffen against Taboada). as well as in the case of the e. to bend or direct a cannon. ing of flax or hemp. broilium. Brake. briser. brushwood. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. brega. —Bracken. braka. subigere. word. Dan. to subdue. tnurdma. brake. We — . to bray in a mortar. In the case of the ne. gebrUche. breaking in the operation. Fr. broken fratta.D. flachs brechen.bracan. gebroge. brambles. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. conSo in G. to rub. Lat. a spinning-wheel. marsh or swamp. been confounded with the verb break. braecken het vlasch. brog or brake. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer.

Bret.G. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. brin (as It brano). and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. The naof strain. broem. broembel-CBppel. wood composed of twigs. as. also pfriemkraut. cabbage sprouts Fl. brarn. bramble Du. See Brush. prufye. . bran.. Grisons bruch. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. ground full of briers. that is to say. bushes. braam. from virga. G. brank. bruskoad. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . a halter. —Ducange. virgultum. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. — . brugek. in the sense oi fern. It will be found that shrubs. iii. Bret. to brank. brank. branche. and waste growths. bromboli. brwnt. may be so called in analogy with Bret. brosst.). heath (Bret. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. a bud It. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. thicket of brambles Cot. a roA. stink . sedge burkni. dirt . that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. a small deri\'ation . the thorn apple or stramonium. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. ear-wax mud. heath.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. a vine twig Bav. gebroge. bren. braeme. Port. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. heath ON. G. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. Bret. and E. i. . bracken or fern . The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. to bridle. G. to burn. bit by bit. broccoli. a heath. berneux. from brand. brandr. brambles. bronbo. Sir Topaz. also a marshy low ground or fen . a bud. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. bruch. brandello. bruk. apiece orbitbrandone. branco. broust. brake. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . brem. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. E. pfropf. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. hallier. . the leafless plant of which besoms are made. broom. Dan. a briery plot. brenna. brejo. Thus we have w. a rod or twig. piece of anything. bruch. clutch. 1 8. heath. Thus in Lat. . Gael. breanan. G. a shoot or twig. a thick bush. brano. in the same sense. Pl. a shrub . brenn. It. bruk. burning brennen. AS. or other plants of a like nature. As ON. brenda. from Servian pnit. Broom. excrement. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. Pl. Thornas and bremelas. bran. Bav. Fr. sweet broom. is the draff or excrement of the com. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. it glitters — — . brancas. In like hrst. Gael. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. sprouts. heath. gebriiche. compress. pfriem in the sense of an awl. a bud. Serv. brok. a shrub from Bret. But we find It. and thence a shoot. brenn hesken. A mark made by burning. Rouchi bren d'orMe. pected that brake. chaff. So Swiss gaggi. It. as AS. to gripe. a shoot. heath. piecemeal brindelles. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . That beareth the red hepe. sawdust. Diez. brug). a bridle or bit .D. The same form becomes in It. to -brugen. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. Then by comparison with claws or arms. brom. brushwood. Branch. or with It. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. breun. brandiiialil. &c. cack. brin. . brog. from gaggi. — branca. broom. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. . brand. brin d. the branch of a tree. . broussaille. restrain. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described.D. a burning fragment of wood. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. Fr. young buisson fort epais. branchia. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. brang. brouskoad. brein. a firebrand. to or iron. ." The bmno a • on . or ling. brous. Piedm. young twig {brom-beisser. brass. bren. Brancare. brug. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. w. brughera. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. Brank. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. briars. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. pfriemen. 2. . Fr. nasty. the bull-finch. from Lat. constrain. ordure . brandmurk. w. bretnel. Russ. breme j Sw. Bramble. Fr. thorns and Gen. Bran. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. a single plant of heath. snotty . Bret. what is cast out as worthless. a dunghill. bro7n. bruk. Brand. from brug. &c. titio.

To brand. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun.. to confuse. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. to shake. is bntan. make an outcry. brane-wood. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. Ija. crackle. brandigh. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. Gris. brandende wijn. braise or hot coals. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. brin. It. Port. du Roi et laine. braser. WaUon. ish. incendium. brustle. bra?ier. shake. to shog. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. brus^. braise. totter. Bret. and bruir. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. firebrand. The corresponding form in Gael. to solder iron. bresil. brasca. put. brasca. brandiller. embraser. The name Brandy. bruire. brasil. became ashes Pied. billet.^Brandle. V. all.well. to dash. spirit distilled from wine. was in use Fr. firewood. to burn. to make shine with shaking. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. It. and scold. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. Brangle. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. to brandle. to roar. to bicker 2nd. briiler. AS. Chron. d'Angl. live coals. not. — . given to the country. Sw. Fr. crackle. urens. brush. Brasil. G. to shake. bragale\ wood. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. bransle. Manx bransey. to brustle. Chron. glowing embers . noise. Jam. so. from used in dyeing cloths. flagrans. a round dance. branler. fire-wood. To brase AS. bracea. in Marsh. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. brazeiro. as again by well as the blade of a sword. With top trimbling. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. then brandr. brazil. Fl. brastlian. to Bailey. to shake The word brisil. to brangle. aqua ardens. or in stick. brandolare is exbrandish. bruzi. morsel. perplex. to French brawl or brangle. to burn. the colour than hitherto known. conbillet. E. before the discovery of America in the brandir. G. ist. the spelling to kindle. apparently very distinct from each other. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword.pan of coals. a roaring fire. faire fracas. bracia. De Goes. to glisten or flash. to hurl with great force. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. Diez. braise. In the same way the set on fire . of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. The tre brangillis. to rustle. — . It. make a — . to sound of the Fr. to make display . comes from thence. plained by Florio. to crackle . — ting to confusion. brouir. to totter. brausen. bruan. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. a pan of hot coals. splinter. Brase. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. a brusler. Sw. a stick. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. Formerly brandy-wine. to murmur. a fragment. Fr. Milan. — . to make sense of a bright red dye. forms brasil. Du. E. brennen. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. a To Brandish.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. brand. Kil. bransella. eldibrandr. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. as Fr. Lye. to brandle or The It. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. 59. Hume in brand in ON. Bailey. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. Braser. to braze or lute. Fr. gebrannter wein. brasa. to burn. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. brascct. De Barros considers vinum ardens. to blaze. prasseln. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. bum. and branchis shaiand D. stake. hoisting to the fall. e. distilled wine. branler. to and fro in the hand. So. Guill. from to vociferate. to distil . to quarrel. braza. weinbrenner. N. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. as Jamieson explains it. brangle or brawl in E. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. set on fire. n. hot Fr. bryne. Fr. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. branla. brasa. brandiller. Fr. bruciare. Thus the bound up again. bragia.

— Remade. A.D. breyon. . a slabbering-bib. a lump of flesh. — . Gael. to talk at bralle op. brat. 2. I. Florio. coassatio. solder.^ — Sverris Saga. slibro. a contemptuous name for a young child. The muscular part of the body.' BRASS BRAY et AS. Fris. Cot. apron. tasce. Certainly a little girl. braser Fargent. trul. Wall. to scold . 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. lat'te. to shake. bradlete. bransle. Cologne broden. brass. Math. boarding being sbranare. brat. Kil. 1156. a lath. pil. 1224. rag. borderinge. A land of dance. Dan. a battle-girdle. in the first instance of boards. bras. Fr. strepitus 2. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. ship. le repasser un peu sur la braise. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. KiL Prov. bronzacchiare. Many gambes. flesh of a leg of pork. G. A dispute or squabble. pan- — Rayn. ON. bratach. braon. For the application to a^child compare Bret. especially that used in the working of iron . to copper. a lump. brat. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. ^Altieri. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. from branler. Mundart. a plank or board. a rag . bronze. to braze. ' A vraale.brettysing. esbraotier. as scrawl from scrabble. discord. is The word — uous name for a woman. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. or whether it be from Fr. a rag . burning coals. fraiche. a contempt- banner. It . ferruminare. a — A from the confused noise. baltresca. W. bretesque. P1. &c. See Bray. roar. brces. The verb is probably derived from the brase. a patch of cloth. Brass. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. from Fr. a wooden tower. So also See Brag. bradon.D. — Deutsch. OFr. to cry. saillies. bmhon for brado7i. branle. neita girl). Sup. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. —-Jam. cloth. braoilich. bartisan. a rag.walle — Pr. a Lap. to Gael. deblaterare. then a parapet. bratid calf of the leg. Du. Swiss bradle. noise. as lattice. frequentative of braire. bartising.D. OHG. boutures. any piece. frame of laths. a cloak. Cot. braeye. at brasa. the buttocks. Bartizan. a clout. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower.96 Roquefort. contignatio. breyon d'chaur. Brawl. berd. Jam. Circumeunt cibertesca. See Brandish. bralle. Pisana in Mur. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. Brawn. ni autres choses sur Due. bruir. It.— Diez. Lorraine bravon. bronzare. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. bratdn). Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. The same correspondence is seen between It.— Fl. a fortification. breyon de kinds of .' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. a parapet. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. Paris. Brave. slut. as criailler of crier. Brat. braiio. bas morceau de viande brawhng. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. AS. 368. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. muscular parts of the body. Hist. slibro {neita. to solder. a mantle. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. Fr. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. Pm. calf of the leg. and bronzo. to tear piecemeal. as rashers upon quick burning coals. brdto (ace. or on the top of a wall. braion. buttock Sc. A. breteque. Westphal. Brangle. braede. cob. bred. Sp. a lump of flesh. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. bran.propugnaculum. a. luncheon. bretays). trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). Bailey. from Sc. as a brawling brook.' Hal. braodhlach. a loud noise. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. It. the calf of the leg. brandillo. slakker-bortchen. calf of the leg. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. —^Bronze. Sc. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. Brattice. whether contracted from brabble. squall. to carbonado. brailler. bribe de viande. OFr. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. bratidone. equivalent to the Du. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. Fr. brazen. bretesche. brett.— Braid. brettys. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. Betrax of a —^Jam.

broyer. brugier. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. as the notion of turning crack. cyprinus latus. fragor. Cot. to roar as the sea. a rag f . to bray in a mortar. father. 145. to braid the hair.g. braidir. breach. a wink. W. Wal. brikan. to start. iU-favouredly — in Jam. resound . yell. to roar or bellow. explaining a very obscure application of the E. bregar. bragd — ON. to roar. to crash. V. AS.^ Fr.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. Then. &c. Du. to rub Fr. to rush. bray.. bragr. ser. to snatch. &c. a . at a braid. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. bratsche. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. to bray like an ass.ch. Lat. or wound. e. fractus j Gr.' To Bray. a brake for hemp or flax. to resemble him. broad. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. to work up in a mortar. See Brake. crash. Bret. rustle. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. ^p&xia. to t. roar. father. crepo and E. and fracasously. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. to cry out. to cry out. on. to break. mos. Goth. to resemble. i. Beryn. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. Chaucer. a breach Cot. — . to pretend. plait. to cry Port. relation is seen between Lat. G. turn. Fr. gestus. to smack or the eye. Prov. to braid acquires the sense of bend. rangere. crash. to the seijauntes. Breach. fish. Dunbar braessem. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. brame. breche. Gr. ing. regi. vapna-brak. G. crackle . And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. upbraid. with or without a final d. E. to break. D. The same He might don us both a villany. augnabragd. ON. the miller's dog. rattle. the sword was out break. k. 2. to braid. The ON. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. brak. braidar. a crash. F. — koa. as the voice of the ass. &c. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. ybrayid. bregar. paste or dough. yell. as OE. to knead. riAprjyvvfu. Bailey. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. brechen. and to signify the fracture itself. roar. paxog. Bread. abraid. Q. to bawl. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. which has given much trouble to commentators. at once. D. to N. is . And at a braid he gun it bende. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. a rent. imitate or resemble one. to sound very loud and very harshly. or cry out loudly . V. to The cup was uncoverid. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. twist. to tear Bret. braa. the sound — of arms. to bellow. ON. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. From the or brack in a wall. — — — explained motus loud noise. R. 7 . to break. Swiss bratschig. to rumble. brak. brot. braire. To Break. at braga eftir euium. bruzir. kind. to resemble. to break Fr. brice. a mill. brand. baiyl.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. braid. soft . . braa. braea. bruire. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. verb to break. a brack. V. brage. rogi. Cat. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. bradar. Fin. &c. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. breuan. to crash. and make a hideous noise. D. To rub or grind down Sp.fracas. to have the lineaments of one's ON. I'll live and die a maid. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. and frangere. The Lat. Fr. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. Bread. to braid. in Jam. instantane. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. Ppvxia. And with a traid I tumyt me about. Chaucer. weave The ON. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. noise . . bregda. bragd is also applied nets. the clash of ai-ms Dan. . disturbance.y. bru. Prov. OE. starts crackling up.ear rog. Then is simply. make a disturbance. R. to scold. will. appearance Hal.

brache. representing the sound of a blow. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. the breech or buttocks. to fry . brijsen. grill. brist. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. as the G. chillness or shivering. to shiver for cold. brise. their stings draw . E. then to broil. Brize. Breeze. are in like manner ' . OFr. brezzare. braich. noise. brut. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. to crackle. as. Breath. bracecs . applied to shivering. G. G. so AS. So ON. It. binding. G. . an into shiver. morsel. brisd. bruc. to be misty and cold. and E. de Vaud.'— Gl. malt. Sw. simmering. to fry Then from a Gl. broden. Du. braie. grillare. Rom. as. — See Broth. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. brusc. xyligogio castigare. remains of leaves. braga. Swiss Rom. brezling. brijselen. subligaculum. to murmur.t. brison. Breeches. dial. peitschen. Lat. trembling. cloven. brok. to rattle (as hail). crush. briig. a cold and windy mist or frost . brasiuiii. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. AS. bragues.britschen. to brew. singing bone. b}-as. breost. briste. braucn. the dry spines of furze broken off. griller. britze. Bruise. bris. See Brick. /esses. of straining. break. to whip. Russ. a horse's twitch.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. w. to crush to break. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. instead of being derived from 'La. vapour. G. sprouted corn. malt. braga. an odour. clout for a child. in Schilter. — . a to lay fly-flap. Hume in Jam. briosa. bra. braca. are related to Prov. . forms analogous to E. Hence the Lat. little bits of wood Berri briser. Breast. bruise. zare. to bray. bre- I'os qui bresole. Breeze. trusts. also to chill and shiver with cold. Originally probably the word signified steam. brasser. Du. a cool wind. brodel. bratscher. braux. brezza. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. brisciare. — — strument for smacking. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . Breeze. . brew. braies. orts. broiiwen. Fris. brimsa. —Briss. Piedm. a gadfly. polenta. brire. of trees. broza. Isidore and Tatian. brumtnen. brdtschen. bryi^ga. Gl. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. We bragezj on. windy withal. i5r(Z^. Dan. &c. bridsen. breson. sheep's droppings bruss. and brought beneath between the legs. — Halma. Bret. Dev. rubbish. Briss and buttons. properly to crackle. or the blow itself. a twitch for a horse. Fr. G. but more probably the E. broil. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. with It. to smack. grillen. forms. G^nev. a crum Du. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. drawers. Gl. murmur—Vocab. brisoler. to buzz. Du. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. The Teutonic verbs. fastening . briosat'. Bracha. burst. . brcEth. from AS. einem de britze geven. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. to feize or feaze. bruzun. corresponding to G. to bind. brodem. rubbish. . to hum. breme. the soler. as commonly explained. Prov. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. a crum. scent. Fr. siibligar. braciarc. of E. brugga. Bret. Biglotton. braca. Compare OE. to break. bandage or truss for a rupture. breath. PI. fitzen. breeze. Du. To Brew. to burst. from brace. murmur. to breech. point to G. braies. may be from the wurh fesser.98 borst. braia J OFr. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. QNtsterviald) pritschen. to simmer. brossi!. bretilles. brustia. Swiss AS. to resound. Swiss brdtsch. Piedm. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. The Breech (Prov. — And blood. as in the case of twitter. Dtyden. a cramp-iron for holding things together. and other rubbish dibris. body brostia. — . bark Fr. switch. — Brist. brasiare. to brew. brcekur j It. de bridse geveii. a smack. Goth. . E.). fail.vare. brimme. brissle. bresilles. met de bridse slaan. bris. AS. Gael. one on the breech so that (klatschet). briosa. chilly. briiz.D. as by the Sc. a girdle. Fr. to roast. simmer. Lat./ssus. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. Prov. bruzir. from ligare. brosame. a box. brinisa. bris de charbon. coaldust. breinse. the bust. Gael. brciz. braguier. bremse. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It.

. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . lipdZu}. remarkable that the Gr. bricou. Trovarfor bride-ale. the newly. especially to a letter or command. thick appropriated. Rouchi brife. to boil. AS. a cheat. piece of burnt clay. ap.bergantino. E. Fl. fit. as so.gfiugga. If the foregoing were not so clear. brique de pain. the equivalent of to the dial. a bride. E. ' . bruskr and buskr. bricge j G. to boil. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. but to a paved road. Bridge. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. It. a beggar. Gael. from bit. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. guma. Bridal. as. fastningar-ol. to pave. pier. Neumann. privus. birbante. Du. — — — — — — . briwo. Gl. priod-ferch. conjux. heath. to stamp. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. one's ovin. to circulate. served (Patois de Bray). AS. which however is undoubtedly from brace. collect bits of food. AS. Brique. consort with.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. a lump of bread. brakes of high-grown ferns. Pol. in the sense of OSw. nurus G. to appropriate. a little king's writs. groom (mab=:son). The Sw. It. bretonica. broken bread. feast of espousals.privatus. Due. a bit. bro. and berweddu. brar. brocaly. fraoch. two-masted vessel. brug. brigantine. . Grisons bruch. Brewis. broosekens. has briguer. a crum. brieden. bride. AS. Goth. briicke. Thom. and that from It. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. bread. from Bridegroom. from the last 99 of which. from the Normans. — . of the Archbishop or similar official fracture.groom. bruith. ment of anything broken. corresponding or letter. BRIGADE dead. Walach. a bride Brig. pavement brolegge. a bush. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. E. to press. broken. buckler J ON. pavement Lith. brittil. to press in. a sow. bitill. ibrukkti. In the G. troop. bo. bruk. daughheath. Mid. . bara briw. bro is applied not only to a bridge.Fr. masted vessel.It.. or brizo. G^n^v. a married man guma. barren land priodas. peculiar. a heath brughera. broken victuals. It — is Kil. division of an army. The origin of the word is the w. braut. brukkas. to break. Diez. twopares Lat. pavement. buskins. In the patois of briccia. son. to rub. Brier. malt. to brew. — . bulicame. hlafes brice. the Fr. . any jot or crum. brygga. feast. AS. . to Isrew. brau. briiths. priod. Bribe. to break to pieces bricalio. AS. from Bret.pritil . Bridal. to meet together. to beg one's bread. briw. arf-ol. A bribe is A — — arval. Bridle. crew. A — A — . a proprietor. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. bribour. bride. ter-in-law. is still used in this sense. Fr. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. brahi. with transposition of the r.rough with brambles and bushes. Pro(merch=:maid). See Broth. bryd-eale. birbone. imprint. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. a rogue . a briole. ' — . bridelj OHG. breve or brevis. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . beaten way Dan. ON. bruarium. a heath. Ducange. malt. company. a boiling. a wedding priod-fab. a rogue. fragment. then the marriage itself. to boil. . So It. W. betony brulicame. Lang. to pave brukkti. funeral. So in The Prov. . Applied ous words derived from break. Fr. Brief. Flor. to prepare. Hdcart. jetty. E. Brick. bridge. brughiera. a man. a crum. betonica. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. brigade. bruk. Cot. a quoit of stone. gf2o. brice. but probably Bricoteau. Fr. berwi. Gael. OHG. to tlie brico. stone-bridge bnikkoti. Ihre. owned also propriate. Priodi. a married man or woman Lat. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. sponsa. OSw. httle bit. Hence OE. a brig or priodor. and ODu. brutg. sugga. a fragment. Dan. graf-ol. whence berw. a lump of bread. . brilt. . brood. bidsel. Sp. the marriage si in brigata. brere. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. brasser. bygga. frayer. a lump of bread briber. brigata. bribe de pain. a fragment. boiling up brocoliere. Lat. w. bruyere. of burial. brA. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. bryd-gutna. In E. jipaaaiii. married. fervere. appropriate. it is applied to the letter to OE. grug. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. bro. bably contracted from brigantine. Diefenbach com. a Bride. Brigade. berwedd.

It. Brigand. to contend with another. Due. So G. Owl and beorhtian.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. and. and to associate with them. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . — brigante. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. The E. glbram. to bend a bow It. brigan. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . A strepere. speech.clare ^tinniens. clangour. wilella. dine. riis ' — Chron. to resound. glamra. brigant. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. biartr. splendour. representing a sudden noise. and diligence. to make a loud noise. to shine. . Lat. bragen. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. bright bearhtm. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur.' The sense of strife or combat express. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. rover either by sea or land. briga. Mid. — — . In Fin. pugna.' in Due. manifest ON. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. glamm. Xa/iTTii). bracht. a noise. noise. Beorktode bene sweg. bregar. schiteren. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. sound. tinnitum clarum movco. in the sense of a robber. It. at a later period. tuilahtaa. See Brake. from hall. In the same way to strive is. to sound. with respect either to sound or colour. Brilliant. From ON. clare lucens. to glitter. Adelung. malandrini. willata. to shine. — brigante. etincelle. a glittering. to glamr. — Briganbriga. A. to rob. inde squammatus. transparent.' The passage from the sense of a light. to cry. strife. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. Wilista. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. \oice. 1351. Bright. Du. glitter. a sound. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. may play the pirate or thief at sea. Flor. — Beowulf. to shift for with care. combat. clarus. splendour. twinkling.' torum. and.dorem clarum reflecto. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. shriek with laughter. and secondly. The Ir. clear. labour. seems to be to exert force gar el area. necessary business. brak. schateren. squamma . Gr. clear. tinnitus. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. 312. Brigata. brigare. Gall. clear. secondarily. brigare. the gleeman's song.pracht. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. brcEhtin. and the E. the bench-notes resounded. a small light pinnace pro. show the origin of Lat. brebrigare. XafXTTpoQ.— . and ner me hit iherde. Florio. — Due. loo BRIGAND lor. briegen. tumult. brawl. 1654.shine. to rove. lay was sung. rixa. that of Fr. The primary meaning of Sp. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. to piracy. outcry. They or brigantini. to strive for. splendens . briga. praht. in later times a robber or highway-man.Lat. splcnornd de brigandine. beorht. braid. — Probably then to strive. bryhtm. brdgen. OHG. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. there are many armour. in the first instance. moment. Schmeller. is easily understood. tinkle. to ring. and led it away. on his — own account. to cry 'Schmid OE. glir. Swab. dine. cange has 'Veles. — Brigantine. Goth. a brigantine. and hence be explained glampi. a spark. kilistua. tion. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. —Capgrave. clang. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. It.glampa. Heo — song That AS. then. a pirate. hell. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. bray. brigandare. himself to serve men of merit. bairhts. It.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force.D. also called briganders. Bav. jurgia. kii:'a. AS. — A A . the grew high. to reservavit. clear sound. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. .

Wtb. fire. The meaning of the Fr. voux. Sw. glisten. Prov. dial. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar.preni. griller d'impatience. from bringe.— Brinded. griller). to creak. vattubryn. brow of a hill. to parch. griller. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. briller. In the same way Sw. border. brummen. G. post. briller. brullo. beam. Rugere. Supp. AS. ON. The E. kiimottaa. Du. a rod. kajata. Tutschek. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). sparkle. rugire. The expression is now confined to the sow. Dief. a long. with an initial br instead of gr. bremmen. brame. to shine. and corresponding to these. to roar. to broil. fierce. reecho. Thus Lat. brdnnsten. the verbs Flor. a stick. leonum). In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. clangor tinniens. brissle. brommen. crackle.its vent in cries and roaring. ous. brillare. Hence with an initial s. Tresiller. to . to utter cries. crackle . The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. Rayn. and 1. bramar. bramire. cross-barred in colour. the heat of animals. perent. ON. pMiller. fimbria) . to crackle. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. os qui bresole. a borDu. a streak. Brim. spraing. border. Langtoft. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. rym^. rugire (cervorum. brand-krossottr. to creak. breziller. der. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. s. to shimmer. the sow is brimming. Subo. broiled. whence bilbil-goda (literally. the lap or bosom. also to reflect. Kil. bryn. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. ring. brisoler. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. as is the case also with Pl. to long for a thing. It. : ' — bone). hence the bosom.' Elyot in Way. which seems identical with rim. brumft. to crackle. AS.). brunft. greDiet. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. greedily to covet Cot. — — — . fringe (Lat. bry7ie. Swiss Rom. komista. parched. furious. as of meat in broiling .' d'etre marie . bremmen.D. to shake. brandr and Fr. to roar. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. Fl. brama. brim. have then in Fr. the singing of Sodom — — . glit. Streaked. originally the lap folding over the breast. — . a border. to glitter distance . bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. grisser. bramar. . vigorHal. 1. striped or streaked. bar. breziller. brmdottr. burning. on. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. to fret . ON. to make bilbil). must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. . uses bresoler (il bresole fir. It. fringe . burning stone. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. The identity of ON. 754. bremas. — Rim. breme. as well as bl and gl. the eye-brow. lip of a vessel. that the original meaning of the Sc. surface of the ocean. Sc. kommata. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. . E. brummen : de soge brummet. excited. edge Pol. an apron. Lith. ter. Closely connected is OE. briller (related to each other as OFr. coloured in stripes. kimista. barmr. to glitter . from brandr. Brindled. sonitum edere bremen. 1 1 64. sprainged. 154. to shine. to quaver with the voice. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. grdzil. Said of swine when in heat. the meaning is transL' amour. identical with passion. (poet. gresiller.— BRIM . to wish or covet. brastlian. ardere desiderio. ling noise and a sparkling light. shine. earnestly . to shine. barm. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. as in Langued. of the eye. small gravel. bresoler (Gloss. In Fr. — g. It. kimina. brimmen. gresiller. brezil. kimmaltaa. brennistein. Dan. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. lap of a garment . to storm. bramer. the edge. broil . komottaa. Brimstone. tience. margin. to make a crackling noise. bray as an ass bramire. brame. finds the Fr. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. whether of desire or anger. is used of raging. FJ. to sparkle. grisler. barm-cloth or barmskin. — — So Fr. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. or violent action. Brem. to sound deep or hollow. to burn. rut. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. brant.ioTiviS acutus. Fr. noise made by meat in broiling. chime). brim Magy. border. To Brim. to twinkle. brinfire. Sc. lap. s.) brimi. A . frequently interchange. to resound. to glitter. grullo. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. breme. the heat of animals.

Russ. Dan. Fr. rebrousser. sprouts. to stab Gael. Prov. . originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. It. a projecting tooth It. bryne. broccare. brocciare. broca. aculeus. to put one in a rage . sprocco. to stitch. briota. a skewer. Hence ribrezzare. — in Due. brust. to set it a going. brijn (Kil. a rebours. ' breast. G. suddenly angry. Bret. a crum. a bit . It. Du. a fragment. brot. Fr. brim. brusco. Brisket. Russ. broche. bruched (Fr. Swiss to stand out . which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. brichet. to break. — — . to goad. broccata. /3pE^m.procio. wine of a sharp. Port. to thrust. trembling. Brocade. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. lively. humorous. bringe. stitch. See Brand. Prov. whence may be explained the Sc. the twigs of a besom. Brittle. sharp. brytan. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. briocho. borzen. broc. are used in the sense of brittle. Fris. to set up one's birse. and Sc. to birstle. Walach. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. Mid. bruskett. Bristle. Commonly explained as from Fr. from brande. Fr. Sp. borzos (struppig). startling. very salt brimi. brusk. flames. bristly . and. breidr. The Pl. brocher. to shoot. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. to turn up the point of anything. Da. brocco. harsh vin brusque. brandello. Fr.. shoot. p. rebursiis. bronchus. to burn. i. Sc. brog. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. Compare also E. reburrus. expression. brimme. briser. a belly. brisciare. the surf. Then as the effect of shivering. Formerly written brotil. bruckle. Gl. fragile. fierce. Liquamen vel garum.). . brime.' Nat. Lat. setting the hair on end compare It. ribrezzoso. sticking up . bros. . can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. See To Brim. Fr. Berri. of astonishment. birstle. It. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. as. brindelles de balai. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. a deluge. . man's throat.'— Vita'abbatum S. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. a slip or sprig of an herb . birs. to break. Bret. thick — A elastic hair. Brooch. against the grain . brim. brocco. Boh. breaking out into growth.. emotions which produce it.D. broca. Prov. coli. Antiq. brich. like the Broad.). Salte sand is called brimsand. borst. a morsel . Brisk. rude. brodden. metaphorically. brissle. an awl. Hal. from AS. Fr. a stitch brocher. bricho (with the diminutives. In the N. Abroacli. to begin upon it. to roar. NE. Alfr.g. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. brusque. brimhliod. a spit.rcendij'i. as. a stormy brimsea . braidsj ON. bryde. brioshko. Bohem. Pectusculum. or — . Ptg. bresk. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. a brad or tack. brittle. is to erect the hair. brim (poet. Cot. a rod or twig. Brickie. sprout. roar of the sea saltr. brin. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael.Lat. a clasp. hot-tempered. rash. — bryme. a shoot or sprig. — . sour. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. breaking of the waves brim sior. to broil. . the surf. spricka. brockle. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. brcit. Du. a bud. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. or the full • . birse. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. brezza. from break. to spur. prick with Sw. of E. bros. fantas'* tical. Brine. as unripe fruits. to shiver for Sold or for fear. brocchus. to stick. britchet. briota. a peg sbrocco. Palsgr. the brisket or . strong itself. smart taste. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. britar. setting the hair on end. brddj Goth. quick. britar. Breeze been connected with the Sc. birssy. to broach a business. — A . cK) the . craw of a bird. 'V^. a brooch. birsle. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. ON. to break. angry. a button broche. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. byrst. flame. brisk in taste. as. has under It. fiscbryne. breast. . to crack. ruffling. ' . brote. borstel. to bud. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. b. bringe traced through the brano. apt to break. Sc. e. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). 222. form bris. spur. to scorch. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. brissko). crabbed. Zeuss. to spit. a morsel. See Spread. saulmeure. Brym. a bud. brittle. as a noun. It. grim. is called a birssy day. and forms on. and hence. chest. brezzare. a cold and windy mist or frost. Gr. bringue. eager. to spur. brocar. Sw. brickie.

the shoot of corn. broil. a brim. brod. bram. ciare. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. Compare also AS. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. v. bustling. brizen. Hal. The Bret. brusler. silkes-borda. brychau. speckled. a badger. Fr. brustle. spotted. border. hurly-burlies. brocart. to crackle. brullare. of pointing out their latent defects. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. to crackle. storms. a freckle. a prick. A fried or boiled steaks). ToBroider. or It. or glowing coals broged. or snag. border ornamented with silk. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. embroidering. — The proper sense is that of Fr. to boss. Surrey in R. the line of development has been something different. — Gower in It. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. Compare G. to crackle as a shell in the fire. embroidery. a brecJi. Gael. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. margin. forming to jumble. onbryrdan. trouble. has grisser. 103 embroidered. — . tumult broighleach. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. From direct imitation of Brock. brasiller. noise. Broker. piebald . fundamental origin. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. It. knobby . rinj'. point to an origin in Bret. Cot. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. a border. AS. a point. broice. brouFr. tufted ornaments. agree in being the extremity of a thing. prod. to burn. confound. Sc. a flock or Gael. a brouhaha. creak. tori shows that.. rustle. a To Broil. brindled. — — . noisy. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. broccato was used to signify stuff . It of br the Fr. bawling. broc. Gael. brucilare. precisely analogous to the Sc. a mole. broder. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. broil. brasolare. Brocket. ornamented with a raised pile. Florio. from the white. parti-coloured. broud. brouda. So from Pol. a confused streaked face of the animal. to stud broccoso. grislement. and bord or bred. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. thread. carbonado. brasiller. W. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. — brissle. or salted fish on coals. that these are themselves modifications of a common original.tumultuous. to instigate. b?-od. briz. a quarrel. R. broglio. Sc. an edge. Icnotty. broiled. brastlian. Grisons brascla. broighlich. froco. Here to ornament with needle-work. frocadura. to broil. Dan. hart of two years old. whence broccare. brusuole. to darn. parch. to knots or loops. E. blusters. broukit.sound. — Fl. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. prasseln. brasbrasciuolare. frecSee Brawl. bordo. Fr. broccuto. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. . birsle. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. trouble. a freckle. broc. It. Sp. to embroider. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. to crackle. parti-coloured. and w. to prick. The ON. brooked. grullo. brocach. to spur. stump. Contracted from Fr. gold and silver. badger . a b?-ustolare. sting. to streaked or speckled in the face. to scorch. to embroider. streaked. brucach. a border ornamented with gold. Fr. brerd. freckled. a fallingThe sense has been out. To roast upon hot coals. Cot. or roast on the braise. here. speckled. shuffle. a peg. bmsciare. bruler. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). brocco.. kled breac. bj'oil. dar seems derived from borde. bordar. to crackle. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . B. Ptg. Ihre has guU-bord. and AS. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. sparks E. parched. brodio. to parch or broil. Bret. q. gresiller. A badger. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. to burn.— B. bramowanie. scorch. Thus brod. atoms . age was termed a pricket. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. brych. borprick. breard. to On the other hand the Sp. brasuole. braird. spots. motes. briefh. a flake of snow sion. . with Sc. initial . and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. houx.

brands. brunds. bredan. to copper. blur. To blame mens ware. braeck goed. brack-gut (Sanders). brokoti. vile. goods damaged by sea-water. For the same reason the Kiittner. et A. make out. couratier. progeny of birds. Jam. G. Fl. Fr. merchandises de rebut G. brieden. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. tan. an operation performed over hot coals. Russ. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. to roast on the embers. try out. brack-gut. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. a broker. burning. bronce. to braze. to reject. • . Bronzare. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. brokers' goods. filth. to pro- to reject . find fault — — — fuse matter. cracker. Pl. — a spark. brechen. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. See Broth. to scorch. cast Lith. Pl. broiid. from break. rejected. brumo. refuse. lack. It. bronze. but from the primary sense of the It.D. broen. to — garble. the spawn of fishes. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned.— — . brod. to hatch. to be wanting. pan metal. On • tliis principle the G. in which sense the OHG. tussis. abject. — point out the faults. the young of any animal . Prov. brut. brak. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. brae. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. i. — broeden.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. spittle . spittle. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. 38. nounce unsound. brak. brasa. brakyne. refuse brakovat. brid. damaged. . See Wreak. Brood. vile. hot. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. It may be compared with It. . to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. a fault. to hatch. . to sparkle. hraki. mediationem quorundam J. briiten. 396. bring eggs and spawn into active life. to pick. Alb. ordure. embers. to hatch G. a cough Hal. sort. refuse goods. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. cherish. damaged. If to vomit . G. OFr. Du. wraken. designation is indkler. want. Dan. fermenting. inspect. matter of blame weak place. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. with. brasa. whence the modern courtier. stain. vrage. bridde. dirty. correctarius. refuse wares. — Fl. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. Du. and fishes . Bret. Pl. a breach or flaw. bronze. an . Kil. refuse Fr. The use sunburn. This word shows the same relation to It. an outcast or rejected sheep. raquer. whnake. to pick and choose. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. selection. brackefi. a chicken. to emit sparks.— Lib. embers to brund. : ' . to . to be hot. refuse. embers. Grisons brinzla. raca. See Brackish. In those countries the term braker. a brood . from makel. S. ODu.— Breed. Adelung. a makeln. reject. e. to spit . buy and sell by commission. phlegm. To correct an exercise is to Lib. and to reject the damaged and unsound. braken. to sort brakovanie. criticise (makeln). keep warm. to sit on eggs. bronzo. mud. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. wrak. The Langued. . Sc. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. racaille. . Teutonic class : Du. try . to throw blame upon. to blame. hrak. sbrinzlar. bric-a-brac. to sort goods .D. brot. fault censure. Bronze. brod. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. slaae vrag paa. Abbronzare. to brew. Sp. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. to criticise.D. in the sense of rejection. . to nourish. ON. Tooke's Catherine.D. Alb. G. find fault with. dial. abbronzanchiare. analogous to Bohem. brydio. w. or brascla. sunburnt. Lat. which E. as. hot. screatio Junfus . has exactly the force of G. inspection. brokas. racher. glowing coals. trumpery. wrack-good. brack. on. warm. In the . brass does to Sp. brwd. Pro v. rejection Pol. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. find fault with. to garble. wreak. faulty. and as an adj. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. fish-spawn broden. bracker. corrector. refuse brakowad. bronze. insects. term was correcfo^ir. Per manus et old worthless horse. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. — . In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack.

Fr. The origin is a re. brouser. bruich. margin. bruth. a caldron. a bud. to murmur. bank. enjoy Goth. to boil. spuma. to use. a bud brous-koad. — exiit et heath. bank. and It. AS. eat. brow. to shoot. brue . briu. broo. to use bruks. — ' . house of ill fame. . edge. as rhododendrons. brudi. broth. signifying low wet land (Brem. brodem. eminence . a shrub broust. to bear patiently. broth brothaire. Serv. . eye-lid. sap. surDu. bruceti. Ger. Fr. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. broem bark. pfriemkraut. to roar. face. infusion. G. b7-un. Gael. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. G. eye-lid. fabric consists. bruno. dumetum. bruc. juice of meat. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. brouskaol.D. bryii. braces. . . a confused noise of winds. sproc. a river. brushbroccoli. heath. rage. Sanscr. &c. circuindedit cum familia. bratrj Lat. grow brossa. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. sprouts . properly boiling water briihen. Catalan brossa. broieii. To digest. Bohem. bud. who is steaming with sweat. buds. brous. brodo. brdtaj Gael. brogues. brink.spross. to boil.braubiti. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . braussa. Fr. Gael. sense the Sc. eye-brow. was originally used in the innocent sense of . hut. &c. to Pl. from ripa. brow of a hill. brass. dialects is very different. brwd. . of which the variety of forms. brad. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. . 'Lzt. shoot. breg. broca. sprocco. bros. riviera. bruach. eye-brow. a derived from the boards. brost. (for brodem). — . broit. Gael. as small-pox. bor. and Slavonic families. It. bank. and Sc. brewis. w. brosses. the colour of things burnt. . low The AS. Tam de terrS. BROOK brook w. eye-brow. bree. . Sp. Russ. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. eye-lash . bryn. to use. G. frui. Pl. broud. a shore. seethe. Brothel. warmth ch'an." Serv. bruitheati. brov. chen. .D. brucan. brost. briar. strength Ir. strength. braew. brushbrothas) gives the OE. broc. mettle. meal. brotar. to scald. thick bush brousta. fur Broom. awl-plant. Gris. Bav. branches. ceales briw. A — .' Due. broth. brun. riviere. OFr. bhratrj Zend. Wtb. brmi. a little house or cottage of timber. Du. noise. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. borde. plants composed of twigs. may be connected with Russ. bruich. G. a sprig. brusmalt. bank. AS. heat explaining the Prov. &c. . sprot. grow into a bush. sprout. brio. and also border. See Bramble. forms appear related to the Ir. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. brpuster. Roquef. on. Bret. Celtic. a source Gael. sodden. steam from heated bodies. break out brewet. waves. brawdj Slavon. Fr. &c.brons. to burn. ale . G. Gr. The AS. cabbage soup . a hill. . OHG. to boil bruithe. brozia. vigour. or shoot. bregh. Fr. signifying twigs. bruscosd quam de arabili. broth Brown. w. broccola. edge. protecting the eye. brabruach. augen-braune. braun. a sprout. shrub with leafless pointed edging. shrubs. brothas. of plants broust. a hut or cottage It. Sc. in which brinnan. broi. heat. has briw. brennen. bruithim. breh. Here we find throughout the Romance. Prov. a bruth. brosses. breg. borda. bruddeln. iVlanx broogh. briihe. Sp. as Fr. sprout. Pol. Lat. . thicket. laissent Domunculum. Kil. rerum decoctarum. Limousin broudi. or broken up . to browse. useful G. eye-brow. .— Overyssel Almanack. infusion the barley bree. cabbage water. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. . bntdien. shore. Cot. brus.) . Commonly Teutonic. — . Ppim. bryn. brst. to spring . It. broza. t— Cot. or bushes and scrubby growths. spirit. brotar. The softening down of the consonant bud. a . Bohem. to sprout. wood . It. brouet. a hill. a spring. brosst. brd. cia. juniper. shore . Bret. bros. bushes. Due. simmer from the murmuring AS. OHG. 105 Brook. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. to bubble up with noise. frater. brocco. brouches. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. Prov. Brow. hot. Dan. pith. brouter. broeye. hovel. perhaps burnt coloilr. Bohem. broden. to border. Browse. vigour. juice of briars. browys. pottage. bruith. breg. boiled .brink. border. the bubbling or springing up of water. broth is sometimes used . brouic. brauwe. sordes seu strigmata young branch. But the Walach. It is Brother. verge. brau. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. shoots. Russ. to browse. Gael. thairj w. Du. from Goth. to boil.. Mid. frucius. brstiti. a little . on. . Manx broie. brukjan. bordeau. broth the ocean Sw. bordel. brlgh. pour boiling water over. . surface of Broth. brew . kail brose. heath.

borste. a blow. biirste. bud. The same relation holds good between G. brustia. bris. to butt. twig. a bristle. brise. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there.— Palsgr. It. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. Alexander. brottcher. brik. fragments. escousse. . a briser. Pm. or shoot. abroncar. brosst. to cleanse. borste. —Chaucer. bris. a brush . bruscolo. or sodenly comyn' dust. brikan.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. Port. britar. In E. OFr. ca7-bo>i. brosst. also a head-brush. and in the second place a besoiB. brMt. wool-card. NE. a crum. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. On the other hand. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. tuft of grass or hay. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. bruito. to strike the foot against an obstacle. bushy ground. E. of twigs. 174. brugir. brustia. to stumble. a bush of hair. brist. a bristle. brist j Port. rubbish. Fr. Lang. Prov. G. appearin Goth. brist. a little brizal. a brush. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. Lang. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. a flax comb. — Fr. heath. chips. a — — (Agea) said. bruskr. wood composed OE. a rumbling. bruire. ling or heath for brushes. The Bav. bruzir. modification of the same root which gives the E. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. B?-usske. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. a brush. dust. broken. Prov. shoot brouskoad. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. but on whom it schall to brisen him. It. Fr. brusco. Text Soc. Fr. briiis (in the pi. Beryn.). sordes. it schall be al Sw. — OE. 134. brizeto. brunt. tremely. brossar. to break. Brunt of a daunger. —Fabyan. detergere . a bud or sprout Bret. brit. . and . Fl. a shrub composed of small twigs . borst. Wicliff. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. to crush. To brush then would be to dust. AS. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. brysan. biirste. brisd. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. bruyere. a brush . crum bit . as It. See next article. . broustia. broust. brousso. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. bross. Pr. insultus. brosse. to make a rumbling. brossa. Fr. a bud. bruise exOFr. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. Bret. And that best is. flax-comb brossettes. brustid. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. into a multitude of points. Palsgr. brous. Hall in R. It. and also Brush. orts.). An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. Castr. brus. The Lat. fasx . borste. splinters. and sighid therewithal. ON. Prov. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. desbrisar. Poems. Gael. Sp. dust. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. to brush. That in all haste he wouli. bruscolo. seems named from burst(on. rods.). a brush . bris. irruo. fescue . brusco. . to break or burst. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. bruiser. field. an enmy. brossa. Gael. Piedm.— — i. quasi twigs. Cot. Diez. Pm. Bav. wool-card. . brusca. OE. mg Cat. * Brunt. a brush . rubbish. brico or brizo. Pr. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. borste. Piedm. Pr. brust. a brush Swiss bruske. a mote. shock. insilio. . Allit. bris. a tuft of heath . broza.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. Bruise. Prov. dust. G. and actually come in collision. crush. bross. brusc (Diet. remnants of hay or fodder. brusg. rubbish. wool-card. A. Bruit. Brush. bush. twig. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. quisquilise. burt. . 201. Pr. Gael. coal See Breeze. Fr. Cot. brist. Broach. borste. briketo. and It. dust. — a bush. Gael. broza. E. Brunt. break. a noise. bruis (sing. brusca. burs. britar. a horse-brush. brisar. briser. shivers. brushwood. and Piedm. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. K. to make brusshes on. — those signifying a sprig. a brush. Sw. Sw. blow burcar. bruc. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. bruscia. effort. brista) or breaking out . to break to bits . the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. E. p. to break. brous. bricalio. brosse. bruit.

Sc. The cipally on the Spaniards. . bouc. The place of such a 2.— . The natives of Florida. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. tender. open lath-work. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. From an imita. It. bog-aske. to strain. boc. Dan. buchen. bubiti. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. the linen at buck. to soften. watery bud. pukkata. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. moist. hump. — — ' A : ' ' . Fr. it is beuchen. because bucare does not in Marsh). Pref A. to soak.to allow a free current of air. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. to butt or jurr Dan. knock. Cot. pup. different form. pokka7na. thunder gently . buerj It.lessiver. buborek. Sp. to soften. tender. in which the flesh dish. buck-ashes. to butt. erweichen. tap . the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. wood.steep or soak. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. mollire. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. Pol. to murmur. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. w. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. to wet Pol. bucaIndies. mokry. The term bocan is still ap.' Palsgr. or mok. a to the male deer. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. lye. to soften . caned' Hence those who established them. Bubble. to Gael. a bubble . — . and the bunch. a. Fr. plied in the W. to soak foul linen before washing. Pol. hump. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. hog dressed whole). set of pirates in the spread. bucata. Magy. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. maban and baban. buck-ashes. to buck. bwch.-wtt miekki. Bret. bub. — . to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . Diet. a steep for flax. byge. soft . and as a verb. Fin. . does not hold. the first wheal. from colar.derivation has been much discussed. bube. a push. the upper for coifee. very generally designated by the same puk. a ashes. Bret. It. bubseti. The name. as a buck rabbit. Bohem. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. Fr. a hole. boc. soft It. This bubette. faire la lessive. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. tuft. Etym. A . boh. buquer. The word was very generally Buccanier. News. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. boil animals. to bump as a bittern. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. bduclien. I. Gael. . either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. and Fr. to butt. moczyd. soft. to soak. . bubbola. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. 1586. designation of a knob.wet Lat. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. Formerly. also applied Una. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. bubBuck. top. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. to bubble. bifbel. to stick. drying of produce. is 1. at a door. when soap was tion is commonly taken. Esthon. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. says Laudon. blast or strike with the forehead. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. soft. colada. bokni. The male goat. Illust. bugada. or projecTo Buck. of wind. ac. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. bubauti. soft. Magy. as G. a bubble. See Dupe. . Bohem. lye. not so plentiful a commodity. w.byka.biiken j Svi. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. blister. was called in Fr. was called bucking the linen. to filter. bucquer. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. buquer. bublati. bucking. It. bub. mieknad. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. and then to other wild tumour Lith. rap. bugd.D. March 28. .buchen. the lower soak in lye. . boucaner. In G. BUBBLE bruschetta. to which in their language they call bou. 1857. . smokipg meat were called buccaniers. from weich. bukke. But see Bristle. a knock word. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. who resorted to the islands beichen. Sp. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. de la Floride.tare. a fescue. and exercised their cruelties prin.boukaat. molle.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). mote. a. a bubble. to a place used for the mouillir. bouk. 17th century.

mani. don't stir from hence.' And this sacrament bus have dial. bulb. buckel. words is converted into b. to swell. bucolicus. bullion. It. Fr. Bret. bougette. a leathern sack. . potz. bug. boucle. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. pote. Hence quel. In Lat. probably from the notion of bubbling. explaining Fr. bulka. It.' Schm. sboge. a buclder or shield budge. trunk of wood covered with leather. from bugr. NE. Dan. Bus. rump of fowls . call. crack.goa. motus creber. The knob or projection formN. a navel. call bo. budge. a . blow. Dan. ' .Lat. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. butt . as in Fr. and of the Lat. dint .anything short of its kind. prick in a target. Port. protuberance. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. set of a plant in bulk. bunch. boiling. bouger. bod. Fr. to move. in the beginning of to pierce holes. Fr.chissima. bulla. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. So on. bog and G. bloca. a small shallow and open tub. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. knob dwfr yn boglynu. butzen. bod. bouljein. excrescence. is doubtless fallacious. botzen. like a bean. bul.may probably be explained by N. cattle. dinted. The word is a ddyn. imbuere. bogla. thrust. Bav. clump.) as to soak. Pol. bucket Fl. Wtb. from Gr.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. boucle. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. . This expression boglire. See Bulk. a shoot. swelling. bdden. a curl. goat's hoof. — . A buckle or fastening for botch. butzen K. * Bud. where the G. dim. The Fr. w. noise . to budge. G. to 'soak. bolgetta. water message. having a boss. Fr. Swab. skins pushit'./a. ein. bump. . Prov. boss of a shield. . Prov. built. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. It. lump. . bouclier. bode. inboachen. pwt o Fr. Gael. a bubble three thyngis. need.stuff. . case of leather . The entire train of thought is bucket. — — . boaLat. a budget. become bochen.n. bucherare. bugnir. bocla. weich. of a surface. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. wallet. buachazlle. Fr. Bucolic. scion. bo. pulga. a bump. bunch . ble. botzen. great pouch.poot. stroke. hump. no business to do that. a tuft. bouton.). Mid. A water-plant with leaves and gille. . a short thick man. also a leather tuft . Russ. pwtio. bloca. jSouKoXiKog. weich. Fr. is to shrivel up. * Buckle. Prov. butzen (Du. clasp of a book. boucle. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. fur. rabodS. a trough). a dumpy gin. ' . soft.r//'. a boy.t-le!L{ * Bud. convexity. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. or male of to boil . put. a shield. weichen. a wallet. bucherame. the radical image seems to be a set plants. to stir. Buckler. boss. gjeit-klauv. whom it is still much in use. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. loud Cot.. bub. — . Du. boglyn. OFr. W.stumpy man.. boulj. Mid. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. The dressed fur of lambs. Pied. butze. to bud or bocla. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. stir. . agreeing with Gael. seen in Hesse botz. butzen. a boss. butz. macero. with which it was ornamented. Hardly identical with Fr. don't a baby). ' . bougette. and the reference to It. Fr. Behoves. child. to poke. to un bout d'homme. to graft or bud trees. of bouge.. bollire. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. turgere buczendig. Lat. boucaran. were To Budge. knock. brobrocchiere. to line with fur. bulga. Budget.) . w. bukke-blad. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. OHG. It. a servant. with a central boss. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. K. no wheel bogeilio. a little coffer or turgidus. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. with let. Sp. boucler. to pen cattle. . — — . Cot. a ring. ornamental stud. of bac. bouk is a pail and with the dim. a stump buckle up. a boss.' Boccaccio. above mentioned. Sw. male or botzen. Du. Budge. call. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. bedde. Bav. a buckle or protuberance. boccula. a cowherd. bloquier. bouter. II I'a feru desor I'escu. pulga. to butt. and weichen. boqueranmis. knob . to word. stud. to boss or swell out G. swelling. the root of the Slavonic words gran. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. the word w ' — . push forwards. a pail or flowers. To thrusting part of a long body. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. Bret. bouge. a bud. bulais daqui. belonging to the calling of the chen. bouprobably identical with inok. a pustule bout. It termination is lost. bolgia. a budget. a fold ceilio.— . bud butzen.pode. . * Bucket. boach. from bo. ON. Buck-bean. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. to thrust. to boil.' Hal.

D. Buffoon. The children were playing in an oppocomer. buivol. sounds. puff. 265. baubau. made by a person. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. buffet. rebuff. &c. buffalo. G. It. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. bolgia. boo. E. bufogni. made to —Bugbear. as from Lith. From bulga. een duffen toon. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. smells . bukow Ikow. buffet. word other cases. to blow souffleU. and in Fr. Lith. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. to give benti. bouffer. tastes. dausa. Buff. a In . le reste emplissant d'eau. deadened. Buffeter. to blow.—Buffet. things in Jam. The cry made to excite terror is then used. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. Lat. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . leathern bucket. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. bau ! children. a hollow sound. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. buffets. Limousin bobal. buffet. Fr. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. popo. bo ! an interj. to rePl. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. —Boggart. Esthon. from souffler. either alone or with various terminations.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. stupid. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. bubaRuss. Lith. Magy. as wine that hath taken wind. boman. also a G. ' They rether puffed at him. bolgetta. a block-headed noddy. Hence the E. a side-board. thus be translated to tap. to strike face to represent the unknown. A — Bug. bugs. buffare. bubach. air. mingled with water. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. a puff. colour. to signify an indefinite object of terror. A puff with — Fl. The name of the beast seems taken from lus.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. a buffle or a bugle. a dull BUG From 109 — A . buffeteur. bufHe. From buff! of terror. buffen. to jest or sport. Romola. buffare. bugbear. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. dull sound. while in Sp. btifetarius. — La Crusca. duff^ dull. a goblin). to marre often tasting it . Fr. a clap. It. pulse . and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. — — — Buffet. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. Fr. — retailing buffeter buffetier. bufogni. Buffalo. Thus buffet would a tapster. — thence it has been transferred in E. buffle-headed. often covering his E. bubus. Teet-bo. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt.— Buflae. Cot. to blow . confused. mumming. senses. site The two — — iii. of colours. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. buffer. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. as Diez remarks. scarecrow . also the skin or heck of a buffe. as emblematically making light of an object. human. to puff. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. W. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals.' La Crusca. to bellow . Lat. a skin.D. blurt or puff with one's mouth. Buff. to puff. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. It. bobaow. to excite terror in Macleod. Fr.' perfield. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. Sc. bumann. Bufetarium. yar^aa. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. or wild ox. cuff . botffon. — Z. wauwau. by metaphor. The use of the exclamation children. to frighten . him but Boyd iugges. the place whence the wine was drawn. Fl. w. — Bogle. Pl. bouffer. soufflet. Swiss baui. to a representation of his voice. Pl. from It. buMagy. the buffe. bugle. often blown upon. Gael. Mid. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. caupo. dial. . for this purpose is very widely spread. God's boast seemed feare children. a cuff or buffet. bw! It. buffetto. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . a bugbear. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. breath./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . buff leather. a hobgoblin. to give a as of a blow. wine may The verb in taverns. a jester. to beat. bwg. or hath been Cot. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. Fr. dausinti. bauwi. bubiti. A blow. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. It. bw.D. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. buffle. a budget. Sc. Cot. buffa. tabernarius.

a bugbear for children. 493. bug-bear. rose-bug. fette. buba. Fl. Same as buffle. Magy. Lap. Bdronie. insect. An ornament of female dress condread. protuberant. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. Serv. terrifying ward. W. and a boggarty ing. mask ' . pugalo.Fr. Lesachthal. Swiss ing. saucy. Parolone. dial. the Devil. The name of bug is — . a misshapen person. larva (a bug-bear. to take fright. It. beugler. is the dim. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. bogk. a bug-bear. E. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. especially to beetles or winged insects. bukati. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. bwgwl. to bellow. boa-peep. insect. big. bugar. boo. pugaf. is very common. (Spurrell). monster. coco. to creeping things. bbgni. any disgusting animal. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. swollen. tumble-bug. paws the ground . Grisons bau. Bible. shepe and gootes. A similar applica. — . given in Chaucer. of bugabo was given.. * 2. high. a beetle. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. the buggaboo w. well as the terrific object. earwig bau da grascha. also a baco-baco. Russ. gad. vermin. Schmidt. Bogge. bukashka. to frighten scarecrow. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. Bugle. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. Deut. bau (Pureiglia. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. bogle. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. . an object of terror. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. Lett. also a bug-bear. Sw. The final guttural of W. oxen. iv. See The name terror). Lith. threatening. ghost. w. tion of the beetle tribe. bugler.— . a boogg. bucula. and in Lat. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. Hal. bug-bear. long. bugle. buculus. to bellow. bok. then a horn for drinking. BUGLE Tentennino. — — ' . boeuf sauvage. as an object of dread. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . also a bug-bear. superbire. forSc. according to Coles. pujalo. — — terror. buggabod). il brutto Demonio. bogk. used in the same sense. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. troll. roo. threatening. a silk-worm.' In my time at horse is one apt to start.Lat. quos what produces dread or disgust. Mundart. 1551. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. bobal. biignt. Bug as a lord. Big. thus connected with bug. baco. fierce. Chaucer. . In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. a. bwgar. i. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. Cheval de trombugti. a buffalo. to roar Aasen. I. bug. Sp. Bug. Magy. scarecrow . buffle. bwg and E. of pipes sewn on. a proud overbearing man pujat'. fear. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. as Buffalo. language any kind of insect. blustering. Hence bugle-horn. Illyr. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. roarHal. bogil bo (e. a goblin. — — . high-sounding words. bug dung-beetle. proud. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. Fl. b'dgni. provincially an insect. an insect. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. poggl. Grose. great or bug words. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. the black a maggot. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. with more or less modification represents bau. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. and bugle. to take bug. affright. banian boube. bug-bear. Manx boa. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. xiv. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. . Swiss booggen. and is Deutsch.loud noise. bauginti. It. to take fright. to origin in the expression bugs words. — boogg. 3. the word is lin) bbgge. and in child's Magy. The w. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. . hert. 2. booggen. Mid. worm. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce.. a rabme. a bug-bear. Stalder bog. bold. bugbear. Swelling.3uhtii&:. bogil. disgust. : no BUG .

unevenness Sw. trunk. — — . we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. to build. m um Placentiae. trunk of the body. Pm. ' . MHG. jnake bulch. . body. .pulks. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. bulgen. boss of a buckler. bulwis. a globe. principal portion. bolgia. balcone. belgja.' Cot. In the representation of natural sounds. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. a round bulky body bwlgan. swell. OSw. to bubble up. belly.' Festus. a bulb Du. Melancholy. and bulbukd. bulk. I. tumeo. balg. inhabit. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. Ptg. it again. bullka. knobby. See how this tode bolneth. bo. a lump or mass. G. or feminine termination gives Bav. hold or bilge of a ship. compare Da. snorting on a bulk. a. Pm. a protuberance. bolgetta. pod ON. a bunch. head . bulle. bauen. pouch builgeadh. The Walach. . balco. bulk or capacity of anything. — Bulb. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. — — . to bubble up Pol. to bol. lump. in vessel. . Dan. belly van de kerche. byli. Gr. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). bubbling up. ne. w. Othello. puff. biilken. Bav. Kil. bukr.' Fl. It. (3oX|8oc. Dan. to break bulk. bilge. knob. bulbus. or of what is shaped like a bubble. to belly out. pimple. blister. . a leather sack or budget Fr. . whence bylja. pulkas. bulge or bilge. at riufa bulkann. Lat. Lith. knob. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. the carcase. swollen. G. to throw out a convexity. and N. ball. turgeo bolnyd. bulge or convex part of a cask. a bubble. a bubble Gael. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. a. pocket. as it was merly written in English to bylle. has bulbuk. bulbe. bolgna. blister Manx bolg. swell. balg. Bulge. bulne. to raise a habitation. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. bubble. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. bulki. leather sack. bouge. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. ' . buc. G. OSw. blister. Pr. to swell. Sp. in Sc. habitaculum. bulka. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. . to undo the cargo. stuffed bag. bubble. Lett. a leathern sack or portmanteau. . mass. With these must probably be classed ON. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. a heap. the position of liquids in the word In English. Palco. sedes. swollen OE. ^ — . lump. a tuberous or bulbous root . the capacity or burden of a ship. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. Gr. the contents of the hold. Mister. knot in thread. gebolgen. globule bolg-lhuingey. Here stand behind this bulk. boa. belgr. a stage or scaffold. boulge. . tumidus. formed a farm. For the latter sense ' — My . bolnyn. villa. See bollekeii next article. A — ' — Bulk. domicilium. . van loock. boss. See Bulk. . . or bear out as a full purse. bol. were a habitation. womb. acervus.). of an inflated skin. ON. a straw corn-vessel. The radical sense is shown in Russ. . a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. Pr. skin flayed whole. projection. Lat. Hence e. Boss^. straight will he 2. thorax buick. belly Cat. boss of shield. — — . bulkaf. bale. ON. bag. herd^ swarm pulkd. bolso. body of a ship . to puff up bolginn. boss. bolg. a prominence. bulbe. nave or body of the church van 't schip. the body Du. bouk. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. bulked or bumped out. hollow. Bolke or hepe. to blow.— . on. hull of a ship.' Anat. bulk is a partition of boards. in bulk. skin of an animal. He found a country fellow dead drunk. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. 1388. belly. bubble {palgan tiisge. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. belly. bulg. or cargo of a ship. bugue. bauch. Hal. bulcke. Bulch. bolle. — . a water-bubble). wallet. to swell. vulva. body of an animal. cultivate. belly. PoXj3a. crowd.'— Cot. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop.d. Lith. mass. cumulus. From till. To Build. bole. bua. . beuck. — . dial. . blow. bellows builgean. to spring. bladder. . to gather. bolle. bolgan. anything prominent. as water beginning to boil bolg. ' . The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. bol. be protuberant. buhe. Bulk. the head of an onion.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. trunk. and put it home. The addition of a dim. . bunch or projection. Mandeville. bulgen. balgs.' Palsgr. buk. skin bag. chest. belly. of E. husk. a dint in a metal . bubble. belly Sw. the womb. Bourser. bed of a river. bwlg. swell. bol. or. Muratori. the belly. bug. Jno. as well as is very variable. the potato G.

I. stud. The wild plum. the matrix or die . in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. a hobgoblin. whence Mod. boss. Lith. 2. w. to boil. biitzibau. bulk. dial. in the sense of base metal.' do not go by the dangerous water. BuUiou. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. bugbear. bulderen. from Lat. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. boss or stud. as geting. Gael. w. bouillon. from baula. scarecrow. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. stamp. which may probably be the origin of the name. bal. beams or boards. bolli. Dan. bwlas. as It.'— ' Palsgr. bolli. a hornet. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. A papal rescript. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. brass-headed nail . . a seal. poll-cheannach. bulke. N. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. Sp. /SouWivu. a stud. boillon. a tadpole .D. a noisy violent fellow. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. assito. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. a beam or rafter. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. on the contrary. 2. Gold or silver uncoined. and vellon in Sp. a bull. balgeting. bulla. billoti in Fr. a hobgoblin. bellow. from the Lat. large. The bullfrog. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. to bellow. to emboss . however. a bulox polos. bullocks. eth and frighteth. to bubble. to tical with Sw. of boule. — A tition in a ship. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. bwla. stupid .' Baret's Alveary in Hal. bullebak. stamped money. blister. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. bulla. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. bollar. hhint. This word is used in several senses.lle de fusil. pimple. large of its kind. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. a blockhead. bulle. spirits. but is more probably iden- palchetto. bolos Fr. a bul-begger. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . a cow. of Witchcr. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. &c. blunt. any great-headed or studded nail.D. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. dim. to seal. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. elves. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. i. Bullet. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. also a parFl. G. whence bullire. — — Bull. lumpheaded . The final element tergeist. bollos de relieve. bietebau. bullus. witches. many to protuberant objects. G. sloes. boulct. bellocier. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. Pl. bullern. coarse.D. and thence terror. Bullbeggar. embossed work. BulUiead. Scot's Deso. It. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. thick. Eullrusli. bole or trunk of a tree. any embossed work. a tadpole. bolla. b2iggaboo. G. a wasp.Gr. And The word bullerbak. as the ornanails. bauli. from the use of the equivalent terms. It. it may be observed that a bullet in E. polten. bwbach. bulk of a thing. billon. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. Pm. Bullace. Du. a seal. is called a ball. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. ba. See Bowl. ON.. Fr. Cot. as a mill-dam or the like. from the noise. penbwl. — Fl. from Fr. Terriculamentum.. poli-cheannan. 3. G.. lumpish. The male W. a scare-bug. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. Bully. Du. See Billet. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. W. as in E. urchens. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. Du. poltern. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. Bullfrog. pollach. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. pwl. also of the tadpole or young frog. round glass phial. Du. is of a class with Pl. a framework of balks. leraures nocturni nigri. the seal affixed to the document. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. baula. a little fish nearly all head. a bull Swiss bullen. bollon. tition of deals instead of a wall. of the ox kind. bullos. bubble. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. in N.. signifying roaring. Bret. child by the represents the hobgoblin. stud. Fr. bulloi. it is boulet de canon. a bowl.Fris.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. A lace tree. bouillon.

^Bully-rook. Hence bom and ban. a hectoring. Du. To bum. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . a bumble-. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. buller-bas. The 27 Ed.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. buller-bas. buller-brook. boene. Bum. bustle. primarily the ramparts of a town. Etym. 9 E. a blunderhead. but now is the central part of the town. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. — bombam?nen. 1687). The decried coin. to make a noise . 'lega. noise. Hence — . G. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. From the notion of a humming.. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. 4 Hen. St. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. Sw. vallum. boisterous fellow. up was termed monnaie de billon. a boisterous. un faux brave. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. agrees with e. The cry of the bittern. 10. polterer. IIL st. — Bumto . vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. to . bodem. legaggio di metallo. Kil. buller-jaan (bully. To bully is to bluster. Kil.' ' mettre au billon. bottom. D. The Sw. beat a — Hal. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. clamour. biihne. blaterare. Hal. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. Thus ' ble. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. Bum-bailiff. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. 2. bol-werck. For bottom. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. bommele. botm. Philip le Bel in Due. III. from boden. to dun. ^i^/«. IV. honunele. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. to terrify by noise and clamour.' Stat. a noisy blustering fellow. is bullion — A — buller. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. G. c.D. Fris. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. furious man. block-werck. blunder-buss. Bailey. To Bum. &c. sound. — Bump.' reals of standard currency. The Stat. It. boulevard. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. To bum. perturbare saevis dictis. Fris. John). resonare. a.' agger.the ramparts. minari verbulderen. bomtnen. violent overbearing person. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. propugnaculum.. ierd-boeyme. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. ground. A. provides. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. argentum and silver. debacchari. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. bulderen. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . Bully. a floor. ierd-beame. AS. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. violent. bombilare. by corruption boulevart. is called bumping or bells. buller-bak. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. or work of defence. Kiittner.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. — Boom. 14. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. c. 2. and porter au billon. blunder-buss. — — plate d'argent. BULLY with which coins were stamped.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. bastion. then in general a rampart. 1305. Fr. scaffold.' for the purpose of exchange. intonare. Du. bottn.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. the soil. hum. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. droning.' Again. a stage. poltem. c. on the other hand. Bully-rock. provides.D. to drum Lat.d. Miege in Hal. bolderen. G. or a humblebee. buene. ON. to make a droning Du. baluarte. 2. Du.

bannock. large.).D. Bony. noise. bottom. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. and signifies consequently a mass. a.— Bunnion. bund. a person employed to dun one for a debt. or grete knobbe. bump. il me pousse. bull. knuckles. bulto. See Boss. bungersome. a large . hay stubble . bugnet. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). trunk. truss E. Pm. any round knob or bunch. Then. Bunk. pwmp. See Bounce. Gael. Pm. Related on the one side to Pl. binge. . clown. Ir. Pm. — — Bun. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. Bung^. bum-boot. bamgetroffen. from knock) It. . to beat. pumpurras. so the form btmk. Fr. a hump. lungeous. bulse. a knock. to thump. a pocket Sw. knochen. stem or base. — Marine Diet. 1. a heap. Lang. Radically identical with Dan. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . To bam. Forby. Bumsen. Hal. .S. round mass of anything. should probably be a short tail. . — — de dor bunsen. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. Hence E. Suffolk bonnka. a boil or blain. . Roding. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. a lump on the foot bunny. strapping. from bunsen. a bowl P1. a rabbit. lump. buns. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. . root. bun with ON. a boil (punkos bot. strike E. seems to unite Gael. bunka. .pummel. to . bunan. dial. Bunewand. a round mass . bumtel. especially girls. Li cake. botn. protuberance. stubble of beans. bignet. blain. hdk passing and E.^Cot. OSw. passes Sw. Manx bonkan. Dunchyn or bunchyn. pwmpio. Fl. Hal. stump. Probably for bun-boot.D. banga. pompon. Bang sen.. to . to knock . bunke. pumpa. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. dial. bulscha. . a tail (Macleod). Bunch. Hal. a heap. Holland and Flanders. to bang. a dry No . He buncheth me and beateth me. bugnone. to strike so as to give a dull sound. stubble Manx bun. S. .D. lenten loaves. bu<rnone. Again. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. bun eich. a pumpion or gourd. bans. any round knob or bunch. forms. bun. BUNCH bum-bailiff. bottom bun feoir. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. a hemp-stalk. poumpido. See Bunch. to swell out E. Moor. Bun. callus. bunny. bunga. a knob. or to the mass by which it is given. A clumsy. clumsy. bmike. poumpi. as in other cases. a swelling from a blow. awkward. bunt. bugno. the tail of a hare. abrupt manbuns-wise.! .' Palsgr. Thus e. bundle. bunch— Hal. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. bongie. a bag or sack. a heap Wall. a bump. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. bolsa.P. cluster. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. a Sp. . inconsiderately. the Pr. . E. also for taking a pilot to a ship. Pr. . to bang ON. It. bung. ner. root. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. a bud. a purse . Bump.D. bugno. A Du. Pl. a into Dan.— Pr. Dan.. gibber. a button. — — — — ' — knock. to bang down. a knotty stick) Sw. stock. to beat. bunsen. bunkc. a knob . bune or boon. Mrs Baker. a heap OSw. applied to young persons. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. bonuach. stock. — — Bun. — stalk . calamus. a rabbit. throw down with a bang. Bumboat. . Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. stump. are dim. and related with ON. butt end. explaining E. Sc. Hal. He fult dat et bunsede. w. Daal bu7iseti. w. a dried hemp-stalk. a wallet. bon. bottom.' Bun. as we have seen E. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. a heap or cluster. a swelling. signifying one who does things in a thumping. foundation w. mto Sp. bunga. Dan. E. &c. Bunch. awkward clown. boi7ieog. — round fruit. a knob. Du. a bunch Magy. an old stump of a horse. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. while bulch was traced through Gris. Fr. tundo. bunken.' he fell with a bang. bonge. ! — knocking. to ' . 114 BUMBOAT Bun. nor would it concern the public if he did. banke. bumsen. Bums it's hit. bunki. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. gibbus. bmidt. bunnion. .-^Fl. Bumpkin. a bunch. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. Probably from bump. knob or heap. E. a. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. Sc. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. H. one ever saw the word in that shape. Gael. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. a boss Lith. pompette. stalk. Pl. bonnock. pwmpl. Kyx or bunne. —Bunny.

to knock. boya. AS. banga. to botch. To do anything awk- wardly. the stopper of a cask). bonde. loosed from bonds. knock. to push ghebondte. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. B. to hum. tapp (whence tceppa. or tuft. — — . a drum . or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. bui. bongani. to bear. to bolt meal. Bundle.punt. byndel. to work ineffectually. Bunny. generally known as the material of which bud. . Compare G. to Somerset is to sift. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. dial. a botch. Bunting. properly a Burgundian helmet. to hum. * Buoy. The Magy. a bunch Burbulas. Johansen. to bungle. la Borgonota. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. shove . — . racket . A load. p. The word is flags are made. bungande. to pype. and now more Bailey. unskilful working. a bung. Rietz. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. to float. on. Burganet. bummle. modem bummle. bunta. A bubble. OFr. the bung of a barrel Lim. working in wood (especially with an axe). . Fr. ho-tapp. noise. See Bun. bangla. bimge. Cat. Fr. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. boei. See Bourdon. bove. do a thing bunglingly. bonde. Hal.' Festus in Diez. Kil. bundt. dicimus rufum. Lat. buret. a sort of helmet. to shove. ghebundte. tap. The Italian buio. It.Fris. that the primitive meaning of shackle . tinkle. klimpem. Bung of a tonne or Lith. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. from beran. Du. to resound. bommen. fetters. burboloti. Burden. the noise of drums. bangla. bon. halm-tapp. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . bouchon. Pl. of a song. Sw. borboUar. So in Pol. to bud forth. bourgeon. driving in the bung. something bound together (Mrs Baker). rumble as the bowels. . boucher. E. Fl. the float of an bundle. OFr. . the young cloth used for sifting flour. Biu'geon. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. to cobble. sprig. the middle part of it. Fr. G. knocking. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. to gingle. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. guggle as water. and bomme. Russ. to hum. Cot. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. the loose open grow big about or gross. a bungler. Burly. bag to catch the wind. also a piinple in the face. Bret. Palsgr. buove. B. bou^e. to work at carpentry bangan. So Du. bondelj bundell. to push with the head del. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. bundel. The belly or hollow of a sail. bouche. anchor or of a net boyar. bundle. Sp. The stopper for the hole in a boia. bondel-loos. to gingle. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. reddish brown. bond. and E. bongun. klempern. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. with the head. bolting-cloth. a bunch. bondeau. to stop. is originally a wisp or bunch . an anchor buoy. punishments for prisoners. bourguignote. A Dan.D. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. banghagr. — — To Bungle. clogs. a water bubble made by rain. ' — work . in is Fr. dark. coassatio et Du. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. and van t' vat. Prov. To bunt. clumsy performance. Muratori. bondon. to stnmi on an instrument. to stop. To Bunt. contignatio. bourjon. byrthen. Prov. Fr. however. bindini. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. russet. racket. — btiruii. Burble.— . — Bureau. tinker . boj. are from bouscfie. bunsen. colligatio. shackles. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. to push. bote. AS. N. . burion. dark grey bura. especially in wood. The Fr. bang. fascis. dial. buie. Burden. See Barbarous. and Du. boil or bubble up. gyves. to strum on an instrument. or used as a receptacle for papers. bondir. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. Bunt. bury. whence in bure. Sp. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. To burgeon. would be the earliest float for an anchor. stilmpern. Sp. G. knocking. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. was formerly pronounced buro. 202. or putting forth of a vine. bang. stiimpeln. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. borgonota. on. a cork. bounta. to kick. bourion. a boye. stocks or such OSw. See Borel. buret. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. and the Sw. Banff. Sw. Sp. to knock. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. Sw. a wisp of hay or straw. biirde. OG. whence bunting. to in to stop the hole. Bung.

Probably. From Fr.).. From the same root E. to give an edge to. pressa puret. blow. to rub. bururus. sicut sound. Burglar. a bubble to spring as water. as in cousteau. bourou. Burryn. bears. — — . ON. watery. borr. Sw. Compare also Piedm. boura. It. The Gael. burlare. the J in OFr. broil. a prominent eye borracka. tion of the root which gave the OE.. barrel. roguing beggars. knob. It. bourglairs. a well. to ridicule. to burgen or wax big. Hence Bridel. Burgess. to have acquired the sense of polishing. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. to Gael. Pm. repartee . to swell oneself out as birds borras. Limousin bourdo. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. Burler. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. brunir. a spring a robber. to bud . brasa.Ps. fire. as of suggests. an edge. sbornoi. to make a So from Fin. the flocks. to set on fire. ridicule. and OG.). Bav. OE. to roar. Burgh. with little iron nippers called burling irons. to roar (as lions. from bryii. and the Burin. Schm. It. 122. . as the / in purl. ample of polishing metal. See Burr. occupying much space. borujon. toast. big. the roaring surge of the — — — . Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. which has given much trouble to etymologists. compared with G.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. See Berough. Fr. grancelli. bremmen. lerre. Cot. Walach. Lang. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. like. protuberance. i5«r4 biiirte. Burlesque. brinna. crackle wood in burning Hal. ^ttsa. brAler. burn. j. Probably a modifica. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. to murmur. Goth. to grind on a whetstone. E. with Dan. condemnentur morti. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. Lang. purling. a purling hiwe brennen. A burl. from the roaring sound of flame. Antiq. is connected with brim. embraser. Fr. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. language of folly or ridicule. Swiss Rom. schleiffen. ends of thread. fires up. bunch. sea. water. boure. warbling. The in. Burly. ends of thread. — . In the manu. Pren7ien.— . A — — . borracka. ii6 BURGESS Gael. tumentum. Sw. burgi latro. a bladder. In the same way ON. the er is a dresser of cloth. to bourda. flocks. brandung. burle of cloth. tahkoa. Castrais bourril.j'own. brunnen.. bud or sprout forth. Pr. to surge. OFr. bruzir. and Dan. brinnen or Also ein roar. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew.— Pr. brook. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. bouril. sidiary element. to swell with pride. to polish helmets. Todd. buirleadh. purra. Nat. from Lat. burren. a lie. 56. Burn. lorra. to bouronna. to burn. robber. brusler being a faulty spelling. dial. G. brynsten. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. brunna.' a jibe.). purrata. Fr. explaining the E. to To Bum. a jest. bruse. to sharpen. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. to roar 5. spring-water bumach. boiirre. to puff. — — . So also Sw. singe or scorch with fire. to polish. brase. brausen. a whetstone..' Cot. ^Notk. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. OFr. burgensis. Burgher. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. born. de Vaud. a fountain. has also borr. he rustle. abourioner. as Diefenbach bud. Supp. G. a knob.sharpen. borrelen. borni. Dief. to roar. jest of. a blaze. to hum. burgeois. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. angular . ' rugiens. become big and proud. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. an &c. a bubble. A legal term from the Lat. BURNISH i5«r/. to puff up borr^ .. and the Burnish. to polish. a wine skin. . like straw or small . de Vaud. the word seems Pm. it of the knots. . The primary origin of the word. — . is termed burling. brim or edge of anything. See Burgeon. OE. &c. must be explained on the same principle from G. N. to roar. pur (see Burgeon). . explaining Sp. a gurgling ^. brustolare. is an Thus G. in Schm. to sharpen on a whetstone. Fl. — Han to bruser op. to fiy. — — . a margin. briis^. bururus. tahko. a jest. brustle. to ridicule. brinii. Sp. leo Fin. swelling borr-shuil. It is probable indeed that Fr. Bret. a bud. surge or dashing of the sea . bourd. Gael. burly. Bav. mockery. thence. brunnr. taunt. to roar.bryna. Fl. brun. like the wind in trees. Prov. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. Bouffer. to burn.ireui£r:e. brima. to effervesce. to tell lies. to swell. burgen. Bestiary. brimmen. Swiss Rom. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. laer. swell up or strout out. See under Bore. joking.or bubbling up.

With a slightly different ghen. Sexy. signifying protrude. chips or anything else Fl. a morsel. also all such stuff as hay. This word seems safety. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . brown. Fr. S w. Fr. brisdeach. borre. borsa. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. shuffling. blurra. brokil and brotil. Port. g. burra. brittle. and thence flocks 'of wool. -burse. whirr and burr. Burse. In OE. swell. that birds make their nests with. a. Burr. impetus. preserve. but it is more probably a development of It. AS. bourrer. beurs. bourse. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. to hide . of a body hurled through the air. any kind of quilting or stuffing. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. stuffing.— . borre. shearing of cloth. dial. Beowulf. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. karborre. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. the officer who bears the purse. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. break . Sw. bolsa to It. idiom if 4. a sepulchre. as in Northumberland. buscha. byrgen. verbergen. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. Dan. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. berstan. -Grisons bulscha. an exchange. bristeach. 5150. &c. borra. a wallet or scrip. bres- — tan. shales. straw. Burrow. brizeto. OHG. any rapid whirling biarga. borrow. brisd. . Jam. a port.' edge grew weak. brjota. tomb. ptcrren. from whence we pass through Sp. some people in pronouncing the letter r. preserve. whence Kil. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. It. . briser. explained E. brist. Du. an annular swelling. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. Fris. — Clare. talk fast and indistinctly. bersten. and met. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. ' BURR AS. Brun on bane. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. — Translated by Kemble. bolgia. borsa. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. makes the disbursements of the college. Bursar. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. AS. prsnuti. of England. byrgels.Lat. burre.' Harris in Todd. bourlet. shelter. a place of defence. Mid. byrigels. a barn or cupboard. peluca to Fr. byrgan. to hide. bourse. husks. borra.' The same word with burgh. briso. bourrelet. byrstan. Swiss burren. and. to save. brickie. G. Burser. moss. birgan. hair.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. Burial. the — — castle or fortress. ON. appears under the Lang. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. and spelling. birigean. In a met. brist. save.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. bourre. Shelter. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. perruque. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. mentioned under Burgeon. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. 225. as for the protection of a child's head. foretell great storms at 3. Compare also OE. See Burgeon. be more in accordance with AS. force. whirr. To Burst. also ' any such trash as chaff. Du. i5(7&a. brittle. britar. . brit. dial. briketo. A rabbit burmotion. to stuff. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. brico. burial place. bris. cwning-gaer. as from Sp. to burst. I. See Bulge. when they spring So in W. It. a pad. leather. casting bullets. pipaa. bur. ' ' — — burren. to buzz. to P'air. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. Burse. To Bury. to bury . ON. burgisli. brest. brista. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. E. The root forms brik. brast. beorgan. a rabbit burrow. OHG. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. a harness or collar maker) . Cot. G. cover. borsia. ultimately resting on the Gael. fortify. from AS. Fr. caer is a — — — ' ' : . skin. coo. bris. barza. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. from Fr. 2. Burr is related to buzz as protect. byrsa. Gael. Hence Fr. Sw. to mutter Sw. bur. keep.. a purse. its own protection. birr. root borr. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. a purse. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. iii. bristen. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . purr. ber•whirr to whizz. to break. &c. bergen. as it is still pronounced in N. Hal.

a tuft.gur bidst austur um EySascog. Mid. . tuft. bramble. roquies. And her ful sone tuft. and he cites wisp bauschen. to prepare. at bua sig. bairgan. : — . 2. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . iriCtf -ifoe.P. dead. . Du. Thence byrigean.) to hide in the ground. bussel. box wood to bush. ' . fiast. to sepulchre. basse. occultare K. They busked and malced them boun. then a tuft Sp.' sheath. we have Fr. to direct one's course towards. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. berghen. the land. ' —P. protect . signifying to entomb. a box for measuring corn. bossen. R. preserve. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. brodequin tout noir. Sw. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. boistel. bousche.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. The primary sense of hair . bos. bussellus. the Moors and of Morocco. borseof trees. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. besom). to bend one's steps. for at buasc. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. Gr. It. whence bouchon. Prov. as synonymous with to inake one boun. borcegui. a corpse). borghen. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. a box. and from the Fr. rad. Sc. bosta. a little box Dan. . from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out.' The word is explained by — — .' a box. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. 410. AS. tow. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. to forest of Eyda. OFr. -idis. thicket {buski. lump. ch). a wisp. OFr. Harold G. il fut couch6 l^jkema). G. a bush. cluster. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. busken. bush. whence at bua sik. a tuft. boxta. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. The bone in a woman's stays. boisseau.fiasc. brodiquin. To Busk. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. projection. as boun is simply buinn. In to Brutaine. buxta. bunch. whente beorg. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. hunch Du. which would later have truast. and not directly (as Du. AS. to swell. thicket of thorns . a bundle. bossida. bua. boiste. See Box.boisteau. induere vestes . oneself. abdere. Sibriht that I of told. bosch (a diminutive ?). van wijnbesien. bo7ich (Fr.-^Bushel. bundle. knot. Thus Froister . gave Lat. bouche.Lat. the idea of knocking. diminutives. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. to keep. biichse. hjul-bosse. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. and we actually find bushel. burial mound. . or — Busk. Brunne. Du. Brunne. a bunch. basse. aheap of stones. buysschen. verb. mount. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. So from Fr. Malberg.' The buskin is said Bret. a -tavern bush. is thus accounted for. boucher. bulge. defence. Layamon. sur une litifere. 'at bua sik. condere. bousIn the other copy ser. busse.— ' ii8 {chreo. to turn. to enclose in a case or box. bousse. to bury. a hump. See Bust. the past participle of the same verb bua. bussare. bustula. from the ON. a bush. busk. and thence Mid. to dress. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. to bow. . truasc. bush. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. a clot of phlegm sart. that the lend had lorn thorn. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. To prepare. bosc. beorgan. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. apparently a secondary verb. a gun biichse. buxula. qualster-boscken. ' . or the like. a tuft of hair. . ieorh. brake. buxida. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. barst. clusprobably Morocco leather. wisp. It is certain that buast must once have Fr.Lat. Sir Tristram. bausen. BUSH hreaw. Fr. to stop. grapes. in OE. bulk. Bush. a troop. bundle * Buskin. a rampart. to dress. —Busk. boissa. at buast. a tuft guini. The radical idea is seen in Goth. It. a bunch of twigs. bustellus. make ready. The word frequency with which to busk is used. a been written buasc. barsc in Heimskringla. Fris. ' . and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. Bush. Bouchet. ' . a grove bosch van haer. Du. Ptg. Le roy Richard mort. buskr. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. in the For Skirnis . a box.

10. to make a splash in the water. kupata. bysgje. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. bucha. ' BUSY 2. bisgung.Lat. I. Bust. busta. sunt quas Hispania aves . Sw. to occupy. box. ^A. tuft. Cot. the body without arms busque. To hurry or make a great B. as in avestruz (^avis struthio).d. cata — . a fishing vessel. — — — — It is like the smouldering. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. or chest in which the vitals are contained. ' bistardej It. to make use of. arbor ramis trunGloss. of the human body (Grandg. basiuin. Prov.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. but. — — difications of the same word. baiser. beezig. to bustle. stump. a bulk or trunk without a head. a great billet Cot. utarda. of a doublet. brusc. a bush. also a It. — hardly be distinct from Fr. butz. Lindenbr. I bustle. Edrtst. a Mid. betarda. bisg. busche. stump. body. busch. buc. Gael. or Cherqui. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. and supposes that the common Arab. bust. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . geidha. Lat. besoigAe. signifying trunk of a the body. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. a blow. says. Busitiess :c3iVi . Swiss butschen. avuDiez. morsequi. log . bus. made stiff. — clattering about. Namur — Champagne Fr.pjik. body of a man. Du. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. lips. Business. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. the long. Sp. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. to Swab. mouth. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. ViM. body . small. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc.' ON. a backstock. austarda. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. bu. brut. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. Fl. a large cljest or particular applibox. crack . busc. Bust. putschen. bisegung. btcc. bussa. body without arms and legs. . Rouchi. Nained from Proximse iis zia. biseg. or avutarda. thick end. trunk. would explain the G. Bustard. The Prov. I. a ship of some size. busy. representing a blow. a log. busch. sera. a kiss of reverence. Fr.bezig. its slowness of flight. A wisp. stir. buz.> Also written buskle. bussen. On the other hand. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. Fr. the point of a lance. 119 bi{tr. Fr. trunk of Cot. body of garment. knock. pussa. kiss. bukr. snout. trunk. the breast. also a busk. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. mohedairova. inde discurro et operosus sum. 22. employment bisgan. 2l box. bruskras well as buskr. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. windbutsch. an ostrich.' Plin. So in Fin. Box. bus and Pol. kiss. — Thus we should have mocherqui. biist. tarda. mosequin. to knock . and also a sounding blow. borcegui. A great sluggish fowl. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. smack. a boat or small vessel . Lang. hipista. a blow. lip. buta. body of a woman's dress It. lip. a mouth. 7o\. Prov.D. a kiss. bnist. Cat. occupation. vessel employed in the herring fishery. also a flagon. . The form brust. fe^a. ON. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. bacio. Sp. Hal. — . knock. See Boss. bust. Comp. busto. 1555. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. ON. abotarda. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. A A busquer (Sigart). Fris. 1372. buc. buyse. bulk. plated body or other quilted thing. worn to make the body straight . body. stem. busq. besongne. statue of the upper part of Fr. Prov. Bav. Fr. business. work. a. bus. a kiss. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. forms morseqiiill.). a projection. Walach. outarde. an affair. ottarda. bist. Hence probably au-tarda. otarda. the trunk. chest. B. forest. buquer. mons. love gestures. AS. Pol. The proceedings of Parliament. mouth. putta. and by transposition morchequi. bysgian. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. BUSS Dozy from Arab. a busk. Xerqui. With respect to bust.— . a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. brostia as well as bostia. as in moharra from harbe. a bunch of flowers . ship Sp. Busy. from jnund. So Wes- terwald munds. a stroke of wind. To Bustle. mogangas from gonj. trunk of a tree. and then with avis again prefixed. buc. abutarda. bustla. Bulch. occupied bezigen. outard. in Diaz Gris. especially of a woman's dress. I go strepo) . a bust. a kiss. Sp. 2. Busk. beso. a sleeveless truss or doublet. Port. a tree. Buss. lump. as in ON.

bag made of the entire skin of an animal. the present day we should say. bounds of. be out. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . in addition. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. but one thing. without the house kept in bottles. the name must have arisen before the within. of the wine and drink. bountifully. belly. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree.The Sp. is put in a class by himself. the bottles. without punishment . biitait slaughterer of goats . plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. those in beccaio. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. the store of ten. and with It.' ' write. — . — we acle for liquors. also a hollow vessel . Sp. bodifie. So in Italian from becco. . Ben-house. ont jhi^ton. large barrel. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. AS. G. boucher. Prov. "PLT) . The E.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. except.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. are. original sense of without. bous. a butcher . trunk. beccaro. botija. a cask. Fr. Butcher. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. the principal apartment. bitten dai. botte.in which his brethren are included. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. collection of casks. rotundity of the body. my is called the adversative use of but. beyond the Piedm. bol. belly. from as. tinction between but. buta. the body of an animal. then hoUow trunk. being wholly unten. and bot. Lang. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. able. Butt. as Pantler. add. moreover. bout.jamin. besides that . binnan. But In Sc. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. skin-bag.' Thus Chaucer says. and the real origin of the and within . a budget. the mouth). without. the precise correlative of but.streets. Fr. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. boteria. earthen which the debtor has adverted. that which would be translated by Fr. Butler. hollow case. Fr.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. a baiTel . Sp. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. boquier. barriga. young mais.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. from boc. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . a small winebag. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . bag. a butcher. the full expres. ways. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. butan. ox. viz. beccaria. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. or what in in charge of the pantry. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. bolgia. bocin. the trunk or body of an animal. calf. bole of a tree. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. But when will you pay it ? the belly. beta. is well explained by Tooke. butan ce. which the word corresponds to the Fr. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments.' there is really a negation to be supplied. As a conjunction but is in every portion. without buiten-man. a goat. bisgung. bute. But It. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. bouz. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. we find ben. the jug and in E. bochier. without law. equivalent of AS. gives at least two pounds sterling. calf of the ' say. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. outside that moreover._ bitten j biiten door. A A . bitlga.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. Buttery. hull of a ship. body of a shirt w. ' Besides all that. belly. (children) boc. . an outlaw from bouche. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. a butchery. Lang. a goat (and not besides . mais. bouteillier. the body of a tree or of a man. viz. a barrel. Du. a bottle. the servant in charge of the original object. similar train of thought is seen in ON. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. Where at an earthen jar . Sp. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. bolr. botilla. bhcciero. properly a butan wite. bola. the belly. a wooden cask. Whatever is in addition to Butler. a leathern bag. slaughter-house. Here the but implies the existence of an. It. ' There is leathern bottle. If that where now we should compiler. sup- meat and drink. rumpf. Tooke's dis. wooden receptthing to be done. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. to-boot. the Perhaps besogne — . Wall. boccino. OFr. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. by the mode in which he is treated.' — — ' . without care. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin.

G. Bav. Buttery. Du. i. pwt. having a rotundity . Du. waste ground. bud. Buttress.against another which needs support . a. obeto shake backwards and forwards. a tub. butteln. the thigh of a goose. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. a blow. From Grisons biitt. end . Lang. Kil. dripping. Kil. Kil. to bow. rabodd. nourrissons. boteria. a mound. stump of a tree Fr. An erection built up as a Fr. Perhaps corrupted Lat. boter-vliege. to throw . . then the thigh or leg of an to push . to strike. bothog. nursling. a ribbed glass for dient. ment being supposed to resemble butter. stump. able that Chaucer. a heap of merly called pushes. bottich. to be con. Butter-glass. in the R. the rosebud. Bav.' thick from shaking. any short thick thing. Grandg. bot. botwm. Butter. Fr. a button. Fr. fle>(ible. to touch at the end. a boss. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. obedient. poke. The word body itself seems identical with G. as if from Povg. a scope. botten. trapu. a leg of mutton.to push. Buttock. courtaud. Hal. to abut a stone roof. from bugan. grease that sets by merely standing. pwtiaw. Du. botte. W.rejected thing. geboogsaem. butt. bocsam. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. bodi. nourrisson. bottig. -ez. To strike with the head bags. the edge forwards. or or shore post. From the noise of drinkables in a house. clumsy . clunis. — A . at. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. a corner horses' hoofs. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. See Butler. Btetter-schmalz. — . a.— BUTT leg . bata. butte. to so close to the Fr. a hill. signify a cask or tub. a boss. Gr. botta. any small projection. buttock of beef is called butr. to heap up earth or ihrust. lams-bout. so as to make a sounding blow. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. on. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. potacha. Sp. Mur-buttant. a blow. Buttrice. to thrust . Du. aim whence to make a support to a wall. a bot. tout seat or breech. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . from the large knobbed head of botto. boutoir. Schmell. — A . of E. bout. bout. botta. a large belly. both. humble. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. tress. striking end. as rejeton. a bun. . to femur. R. a barrel. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. thick. is formed the augmentative buttatich. from notirrir. gigot. A — — — . strike. Boutje. bott. bot. bouton. to abut on. the store of while bottich. boter-schijte. Bout van het schouderIt. hillock . Cot. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. Buttel-triib. boding. an etwas anstossen. Boutant. to blad. coxa. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. the thick end.putan. an ox.thum and not button. botto. the Butter-fly. caput scapula bout van f been. boil. a stump or club foot. povrvpov. Button. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. suddenly . but this is probably from Fr. buttern. butyrum. buttals. large head. butter. butt. — . It. bouter. butter. from rejeter. butter un. * Buxom. Halma. bodi'. give way. to thrust. Hal. pied. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. submit shaking up salad sauce.. to push earth . w. a button. of the present day. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. the prick in the middle of a target. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . bouter. &c. by boE. thrust. Fr. from stossen. bouton. Fris. oir spike with a k coup . a thrust the thigh-bone. AS. a buttress Cot. to thrust Fr. to boult flour. a little push . buttare. buter. a wall butor butt on. : . boutis. W. to thrust. butz. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. a mound of turf in a field to sup. to thrust. bocgsuin. Gael. From Du. as in G. Du. to butt. bot blijven staan. leg of lamb. thrust forwards. . or person Schmeller . to cast. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. e. are the strips at the edges of the field. fowl. Schmell. a button. and the true derivation boar. a but in the W. a bolt. a dle . butt. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. what is kept in a blow. Fr. butt of a person. Fr. butte. &c. boiUer. To Butt. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . a cask. boter-vogel.. short thick thing pimple. Fr. a stroke di animal. Gris. So in English pimples were fora clod. from bouter. a buttrice. but. a flying buttress. buhsom. the trunk. put. The Bavarian potig.arbre. Fr. To come full butt against a butts. — — — — .

byar-log. & Q. Originally the law of a particular town. Dan. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. town having separate jurisdiction. Verstegan in R. The ON. p. bycgan. — 122 BUY P. By-law. as heedless as a cock-chafer. buso. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness.— Diet. Sw. . to stand at his side . but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. —gracious of speech.. and boxome of speche xviii. Buzzard. buzac. Etynj. harty prayers and God speedes.— P. bij. Goth. Mercy hight that mayde. It. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. abozzago. a beetle. The sense of buxom. groat in token of his good heart towards him. 116. bohte. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. bi. Pecock Repressor. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. 3. ON. AS. called Cabala or Tradition. bugjan. leges urbanse ON. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. bei. indistinctly. a town. bozzago. A by. 21. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. good-humoured one. byar-rettr. depends upon a esteem in falconry. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. to whisper. lb. a by-path is a side path . bar. to purchase for money. ii. as in Da. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. and would have been lost in E. to buzz. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. village. bees. train of thought which has become obso. blessing me with their of side. bylag. who makes abigg. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . See Abie.busardj Prov. G. a buzzard or puttock. 519. as Fr. . bi. Many good mological explanation. CABAL Goth. . tions by one. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. frabttg- To Buzz. A ful benygne buirde. It. cow-house. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. 200. buzzicare. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. to abie ' rhyme with rigg.in N. \s\xy. byr. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. bygge. bauhta. jus municipii. AS. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. favourably to a petition. bylove. Byre. To Buy. a meke thynge with — alle. buteoj Fr. Lat. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. farm. P. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. to sell. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. lete. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. gracious. from by.. Then applied to speaking low. A A We — — — days' wonder. favourable. Cabal. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. to swear with him by . and it is of good will. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. confusedly. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. to pass by. to wit. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. a borough. iii. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. big. Sw. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. to jan. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. also say. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. stall.P. buzarg. Du. from whom it was addressed. OE. son.

or cadable. from manganum. cadabola. : — from violence without blood. 'habl. string. cadabulum. cabas. . magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . brassica — capitata. Sw. Cappa in OSp. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. Imitative of the cry of hens. the bowels. gatsch. — . the Slavonian. to put or pack up in a frail.). a rope. kabane. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. as Diez supposes). and the Arab. name of the projectile engine. cab. ! — . The double a in the OFr. Mid. gaban. kabaSsen.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. Katr-iT-aKt. — Ibid. It. caable (in legal language). to strain in such a manner . The Sp. mdhaigner. a booth or hut.. band. the Prov. Gaggle.. especially shepherd's frock. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. Brushwood — — B. vile. and Or. a rope or cable. The name of the engine. to hurl in Nat. gabardme. Antiq. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. originally an Gael. nasty. it would seem fundain children's language. — Kil.Gr. whence Lang. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. Mid. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. cabuccio. caable. Lang. dirt and the Fr. su/Furari. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . round or great headed. chaable. dung. . accablcr. Cabinet. hovel. agge machen (in nurses' language).ticula. It. serious injury — In like manner It. —Diet. to crush. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. a jacket Fr. akista. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. cadabalum. Fr. cable .. case. Lat. a shed. ceach / exclamation of guages. Coticesserint Swiss aa. whence Fr. gaggele. Due. Etym. &c. It. cadabula. caable. manticuKil. and Finnish lanLat. to keep or Du.Lat. headed or cabbage lettuce. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. Sp. It. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. Cot. wilful). heady. Fr. . hoard together. cables. cabarino. Mid. giiare. hut. Fr. surripere.' Due. bad. signifies down. origin is the OFr. capo. To Cabbage. disgust. chadabula. manganare. cabo. gaggi. a cloak of felt or Cack. — Tarbe. cadabulum. cabbage. aakkat'a. a car- We convasare. to hurl down. from trabocco. Cabin. Kil. vincially used in E. kakla. would correspond to cable. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. Du. Capstan. headed. form kactal. capuccio.Lat.. caables. chaable. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. a tunic. aak! tandi like Fr. disgust cac. aeggi. cacare. an engine for casting stones. as Turk. Very generally used. disgusting such an engine was exerted. traboccare. kabat. Cot. OFr. It is remarkable that the Esthon.Lat. maim. — the ON. cabulus. has kabbel. cacare . main. or rush basket. calabre. . From It. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. Celtic. cabuyskoole. Due. . deponat a store closet. Finn. &c. dirty. cab lis. lactuca capitata. overwhelm. a frail. Tugurium. a rope. ckaable. OFr. Common to Lat. a cabbage . Du. cabaii. havyar to caviare. chabla. agge. precisely in the sense of the lari E. a headed cole or cabbage . E. To steal or pocket. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. covering. Cabbage. properly windfalls. stercus. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. come the Fr. signifying properly a rope's end. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. — . Sp. a covering. is probably unconnected. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. cabane. and as we find stones Mid. as it must have stood in French. for the origin of which see Carabine. in which sense are explained The the OFr. Fr. w. Cablisb. . OFr. kakaloH. cabacho. cdble. caqueter. Lith. forms indi. caboche. E. head. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. or as an interjection of disMod. Fr. Choux cabus. geese. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . a head (whence cabochard. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. (ca/coe. filth. dirty. and Ptg. Didot. cabo. Castr. cabasser. a rope. to chatter. as an expression of Gr. Du. Item habeat vocant. cabus. agga. laitue cabusse. prostratio ad terram. capanna. cabre. overwhelm (Diet. cabre. Neckam — by the wind. Ptg. OSp. kabas.

calpa. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. Lat. to cage. a cake or loaf. Cake. kolesnitza. KaKKat. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. . a waggon . a counter used in casting accounts. caldarius. captive. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. loss. G. to sleek hence a den. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). Turk. chetif. lindrus. 124 prattle . kail. caioler. * Cade. Cot. incolumis. cage. Dan.warmth . It. kakulla. ON. the calf of the leg. dead body. Gascon capdet. Caldron. roller. a wretch. —Atkinson. safe. a roller. kolyasochka. of oxen and similar animals. a wheel. kalem. A — fall. from Gr. principal and interest. Cage. It. Tea-caddy. kolo.— Cot. Calocli. gabberen is identical with E. the pith or soft part of wood. Sw. Pol. and troublesomely attached to. a calesh. Du. the lump and the increase. cadet. Russ. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. Sp. rattaat (wheels). N. calibre. when they are said to poor. Fr. gabble. gavia. cadere. pet lamb. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. See Kiddier. pen Mod. Mrs B. to heat. gaggia. Roman reckoning. limestone. taking it Sp. kaka. chaudiere. from the Chinese catty. Cauldron. a wheel . hot . Du. master. It. Perhaps from w. to — Fr. gabbia. a wheel . reed-pen. Cot. without loss. Lat. A hooded carriage. gaggle. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. A . As Du. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. Fr. To Cajole. calibre. calidus. kuchen. Lat. kolasa. calesa. En kaka br'od. collop. — — — Dan. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. babbhng. desire of land. calx. colibro. to compute. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. Cadge*. It. kalfvan hout. pi. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. Calp is riadh. signifies a waggon. gabbia. for green fields. a calash . ' . . jabber. little chief. calcis. a tea-chest. Lat. kaeckelenj Gr. cabdillo. a car. Sp. calba. kalb. Gael. from calculus. Cadaverous. caliche. . kaad. whence calash. Lat. the pi. javioler. cattivo (from Lat. From lerie. Calash. kauwe. boy. cavea. so gabble corresponds with Fr. a loaf of bread. Fr. one unduly indulged by. Du. Fr. marrow. a low note. calidus. a circle. to treat like lime. from the ink-bag which it contains. Lat. on. Serv. a dence. joyous . Turk. Sw. prate. calessa. . pith. a vessel for heating water. Calf of the Leg. coll. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. from calendcE. or colpa na coise. cadence. Fr. calamus. Lat. Calc-. calentar. A cuttle-fish. Caitiff. Cot. cuttle-fish. kolesb. It. to cackle .Gr. Sp. cykevie. loss. Lat. Du. kola. form) calderone. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. cha'cmie cadence. Lat. ratas. Calamary. to . The young G. bad . kage. kukje. a falling. wretched. frolicsome kaad mund. KxiKivh^o^. a cylinder. The Lat. B. kat. (in the augm. Calandre. cage. or smooth Hnen cloth. G. especially of something soft. Arab. koeck. calendrer. Dan. Caddy.— . calculo. lime whence calcareous. Calamity. chaudron. kolyaska. a reed. kolo.uv. a corpse. Originally from a Slavonic source. disease of sailors from tivus). eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. kdfich. An open travelling chariot. Due. a wheel . * Calibre. an inkstand . Calcialate. calf of leg. kdtr. Cajol. — in a kiln. unruly . Cadence. ben- kalf. cageoler. kalfi. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. chattering. coop. a caFr. In the same way Fin. dial. to throw themselves into the sea. to gabble. Sw. &c. a common cart. Cadet. calendarium. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. Fr. of which. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. an ugly waggon kolaska. the bore of a cannon. whence Lat.— Calliper. Flo. The Calf. a hollow place. hence musical rhythm. misfortune. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. It. cadaver. frisky. to prate much to little purpose. a lump or large piece. To Calender. caldaria. Fr. or prattle. is probably delusive. naXaiidpi. ever and anon. Lat. calamitas. lord. Lat. hot. kolo. a small stone. It is another form of the E. cadenza. the younger son of a family said to be from . just falling. its mother. wanton. . of the nature of lime to calcine. a fever. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. capitetum. cake. cauldron. Calendar. Fr. calentura. a mischievous dial. capCalenture.

given. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. vulgo Coluvrine. cahna. Lat. a soldier who the It. Fr. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal.— .Lat. on. or languishing drought is . Derived by some from Arab. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. Dief. So It. alta voce ploro. coluber. kal. kal. or caliever. abto suppose that E. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. by many that the weapon Callous.' Whitby Gl. to proclaim. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. kalla. to calk. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. glotton. tapulta. bald. calcaich. Unfledged. * Caliver. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. hallottaa. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. caluw. calc.en~ kinds of firearms. calgua. to callet. kind heat of the sun. to call. kallo. moso. quality. faint. dial. skin hardened by labour. oldire from audire. E. Lang. calo. To call. brawny. a drab. scold. Callow. Mil. harden by pressure. from Calicut in the E. 'A callet of boundless tongue. ululo Turk. hot. It. calor. to hear. AS. prattle. couleuvre.' Winter's Tale. Mid. dragonder. trull. u to an I in such a colubrum. ram. but is only a jda-kallo. culverin. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. 125 Prov. femme frivole et babillarde. Antiq. serpentina. piece of bigger circuite. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. a round of abuse. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. or mould. to tread. sound. water-tight. qAlab.(jaa= ice). chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). fistula. them &c. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. donderbuchs Sp. saucy. According to Jal (Gl. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. to prattle. Heb. — Fl. a good calling. The origin is Gr. calme. an adder. whence couleuv. Bi. Kavfia. kael. push violently. people's remarks. and dragon. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. overscalmaccio. the Fr. a successor. khalif. Turk. however. To drive tow or oakham. a feathers. koluvre. — — — — — . Sc. To century was Squalibre. voice. Indies. Fr. cotton cloth.piicede Lat. Mahn derives it from Lat. hollaing. longior. Fr. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). i. Gael. Du. serpens. which is as much as to say. klover. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is .' Slange. Calico. depreciatory term for a woman. The primitive colubrina bombarda. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. tittle-tattle. to rail or scold . to abuse . calat of leude demeaning. Diet. CALM to press or stuff. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. coluber also. scalmato. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. cauma. Gr. ' pert. quA librd. Fin. the hard surface of the ground. calca. calicot. * Callet. caillette. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. Among these were the turn. kol. Sir John Smith in Grose. overheated. B. form. calcare. Caliph.from Ka'tm. KaXka. whereas in troth it is not. the Fr. moist. a last. form in the kalib. The reference to heat is preserved in. drive. calleting. callus. the heat of Now these Du. dragoon. ' rine. nautique). . kahcwe. a. Calm. colubrina. NE.position is much less common than the geschut. Call. the scalp or skull. heat. to be of a good or bad quality. Lat. word of mouth . faint. having a thick skin. and sometimes a handgun. to say. The word was also written cawme in OE. diameter of a ball. Fr. try. Fin. Hard. whehce it was first brought.' Chaucer. calare. calk. bombarda Cauma incendium. Ptg.. heat.' But it is hard Du. sence of wind. Ibid. Kil. kil-u-kal.meaning of the word. quiet. and E. the day. chatter. calibre. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. CALICO Calliper-compasses. to affirm. sclopus. calibre. calma. gossiping. Sp. Sup. — — — — — . Probably from the sound of one hallooing. . sestus. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. cauque. callum. to cram. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. calclover. caliver. To Calk. can be distinct from ODu. Kil. Ca. which has its memory preserved in Du. colubraria canna. harquebus or handgun. licht stuk The change from a. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . the latter of chamber. calvus. and heat. done with heat Alt. of the bore of a firearm met. Diez. Sp. of a column. calma. chatter kallen. to burn. Due. coulevrine. to call.

different sections of the like the Chinese. Canker. B. camber-nosed. whence Fr. open and level ground. It was distinfrom work. The Grisons cauina. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. It.—Jam.. Camp. the type of a hollow pipe. Lat. Lat. chaitcre. KafitjUe. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. cup. to break. sore. — Cancel. camiscieia. a piece. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. Caloyer. Fr. Candid. Lat. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. Canibal. cere : Lat. It. canna. icaSoytipoe. Sanson khanda.—Candidate. Camisade. arched. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. cup.Lat. campus. camafeo. Mod. callar. salmon. Campaign. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. Gr. water chamlet . a dog. co7nbar. lie level. Canal Channel. Fr. the calix. campo. is Cambering. Kakoycpos. It. good. a crab. kanna. whence the noun signifying an applicant.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. crooked. mg Canister. Lat. Sp. chandelle. on. Sp. a. camiscia. ation. chommer. Cot. a.— Hackluyt in R. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. Or the word Lat. had no r in de bric— Cot. canis. lame. whence the Fr. a goblet bud. cambre. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. Camel. champ. to bend. Cambric. Bret. cambrer. Fr. the salmondis faillis thair loup. paign.— B. In a different application It. candela. fresh. Pers. — B. field . the heat. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. An eater of human flesh. Cancer. . Cann. from xaXbg. India Islands. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. Gr. canistrum. Fr. camaien. monk. aged. Sp. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. hooked. would plenier. It. Canine. frank and sincandidatus. spot for cattle. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. cancello. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. camelot. camelus. is Candle. KafivTu. cancer. E. Lat. to glow. cambr^. slander. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. and yspiuv. a caught. Fr. champagne. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. lattice. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. w. crooked. camahutus. Fr. Fr. Cameo. or Caribs. campagne. camp. Properly calver in the field during a war. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. Calyx. It.— Chandelier. ko/utuXoc. higher in the middle than Fr.Gr._ kamm. — Lat. Fr. campren. fair. at the ends. unwater chamelot . to avoid enemy in their shirts. arch. to bend. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. the space of false imputation. having an aquiline nose. the bed of a stream. or hollow of a flower. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. cambren. a basket. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. Calver of cane. See Canker. to warp. also an eatmg sore. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. Cambray. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. Cambrel. white. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. arched. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. Lat. a' Sc. cainahelus. properly good country.—Cambrel. callour. candidus. cAouma. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. the spersed with white flakes like curd. From fluting or furrow in a column . Arab. aspirant. a may have acquired that signification from plain. when its substance appears inter. campagna. B. . died in 1526. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. cam^e. se cameloter.' Forme of Cury in Way. crook. clothed in white. E. calutmiia. samon.' ' Quhen a lattice. Calumny. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. From campus was formed Lat. Peter Martyr. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. campaign. ckaouma. calj'x. crooked. camisa. to the force of the wind.who their language. Mid.conduit-pipe. toile some of whom. to bow. Palsgr. It. Candy. catmneo. Camlet. chamold man. crooked-stick. canalis. Lat. a large drinking . an eating. nia. Ptg. Turk. from candere. camisade. a field Greek monk. E. bis. — — — A — — escume de saumon. brought from Fr. campagna. Cambrav—Cam. campo. A — the Cannibals. to jut. across — Bellenden in Jam. sugar.

being a yard or thereabouts . a wine-cellar or vault. It.Gr. Gael. it would have been found in the continental languages. KaTTiram. to contain. Canteen. shut. or hold. a cantle of bread. to shut. the part easiest broken off. gnat. and tref. kwvwxIi. the heel. cannevaccia. clqse. a pipe. regular. Cope. signifying cover. ON. Palsgr. rumme. Capacious. from . a tube. a boat. a cane. But it may be different source. B. . kantr. canto. Prov. kaput. a ruler. Lat. a drinking glass.CANNEL vessel. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. the tried list of saints. A piece of anything. capax. Cannoii. cover kapi. Fr. canvas. a rule or standard of excellence. schlapp. from cant. Probably only the augmentative of canto. call. a reed. The meserseum and the mesentericum. also a measure. hamlet. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. caparazon. to con- rummer. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. able to receive. Schwab. capevole. chape. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. Goldast — in in Schmid. cope. To his judicial And trowl the tile. kand. the heel. Sp. quarter. If the word had been from cantherius. chantel. kanta. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. Alamannis. or cantell of bread. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. cannu. kyndel. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. kynnel. cane. astrology. root cap. he discourseth of dissection. cheese. measure for cloth. cappe. Again we have Lat. W. quarter . trine. cappa. cainnt. Jonson. Sp. coarse hempen cloth Fr. has kahn. that the G. Of vena cava and of vena porta. A slow gallop. covered. a cap. Swab. It. canapa. See Capt-. a small boat.^on. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. See Chape. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. Germanis kdppen. coarse hemp. canapaccia. and met. Diez. border Dan. a torch. Canon. to put upon sacred writers. chanteau. It. capace. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. cappe. is found languages of very different stocks. coat. was formed Kavtiiv. quito curtain. name. N. Sp. KCLvva. It. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. Mod. a door . It. The — . a Fr. Mod. the quartile. Kil. . from a Canter. schlappen. kq. a — A — Cannel Coal. and the sex- &c. to sing. as a cantle of bread. Capable. canonicus. Hence Lat. cantred. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. margo panis diffracta. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. speech. hirnschlapple. cane. a cover Turk. side. Kavt\. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. Cot. A . Fin. kandt-broodts. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. From Lat. a gelding. cannone. cannevo. a cloak. corner. and hence a gobbet. lump. hemp. Canvas. properly a large Prov. Esthon. a hunch of bread. cantina.n. a side. a hundred. canon. like a torch or candle. tain. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap.. from Dan. language. canoa. canton. Capari. OFr. Gugel. cannabis. haitt. border. region. Du. The word seems to be taken from Gael. edge. as. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. cover . Canoe. &c. a cloak kapali.Gr. from canna. a ship canot. &c. Fr. a reed.— Cot. which is not the case. say. cantref. cantone. capa. a horn of the moon . can. a corner. canonici. Canton. cane. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. a division of a country. capello Italis. carcase . Canopy. Fr. cantle then is a corner of a thing. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. canevas. Cant. From Gr. leiwan kanta. hood. It. To canvas — . cape. To Canonise. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. a straight rod. Wtb. It. . a scull- — here. pipe. . thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. hemp. contain. Cape. Cantle. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. part. Coal burning with bright flame. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. territorial hundred. canteau. Picard. kapamak. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. cane.

heath. capriola. ericius. abridge amKoTroq. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. cover of a saddle.impressions on the ear. to parch. Fr. Fr. It. bristling. a separate division of a matter. to crackle. arricciarsi. Caper. knis-hujwud . because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. humorous. the principal part of the debt. brisciare. rihrczzoso. a capriol. bruco. of a fowl. where Burton adds in a note. brug. fansuddenly angry. frissoner. or. Capers. also the capriole. And similarly to yearn. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . brisciare. a young kid met. a kid. or represented by the syllable e. of a tremtdoiis sound. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. Torriano. p. castrated. the hair to stand on end. the head.— 128 CAPE a rustling. caprice It. to from capitulum. brisciare. and 7tucc. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. eruca compared with It. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . bristling. See Chief. to shudder. It. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. to crackle. herissonnement. belonging to From caput. brisoler. explained by Diez from capra. A headland. gives rise to Sc. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . Fr. curly. a .— Fl. the singing'bone). Sp. ziki. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. Lat. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. erica. capillus. principal. — to yearne. to broil. a little head. h^risser.' Cot. they longed extremely to see it. prickly husk of chestnut. as in Lat. horripilation. Capital. or Lat. — — A a hair. Mod. shrub. It. <I>pi'?oe. the head. caj)o. gives rise to brezza. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. hedge-hog. To treat Capitulate. Acad. a chevret. the initial mute of forms like Gr. Caprice. the hair to stand on end. Genevese bresoler. or other things. grisser. Lat. Lat. to ruffle the surface of water. A . I have shivered with love. for which he cites the Comask nucia. a yearning through sudden fear. to fry.standing on end. birsle. grug. algabr. as Fr. a ch illness. then to shiver or shudder. as the means of earning profit. gricciare. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. Cot. It. to shiver for cold. horror. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. a buck. ^piKos. Griller d'im' patience. of a coach. Unexpected pleasure. The same imitation of Capon.) d'etre The It. . brissle. curling. capriole. It. as Fr. Fr. 75. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir.Gr. hair. capriol or caper in dancing. a caterpillar. and his body bristled We to castrate. caper j caprio. then to be in a state of vibration. to twitter as birds. riccio. and OHG. ticchio. Capillary. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. as Fr. compared with Bret. CAPRICE twittering. w. to broil. It. Hal. arricciarsi. greziller. Arab. It. capro. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle.'— Trev. frisser {frissement d'un trait. is either wholly lost. crackling sound Cape. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. then find the symptoms of shivering. G^' Many words — ' ndv. to chill and chatter with one's teeth.). to desire earnestly. shivering. grisser. cut off. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. hi. Fl. II bresole (Gl. upon terms Sp. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. and with an initial gr instead of br. to . cApre. Hence capitalis the sum lent. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. shivering. capitalis. end. a head. capitulare. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. chief. Lang. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. toy. brezilia. gricciare. So from Sw. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. sault. cappriccio. Hair-like. or goat's leap (done by a horse). ribrezzo. grillcr. greziller. to shiver. alcaparra. according to the Hindoos. frort^Lat. aggricciare. kid. Lat. frizzle. frisson- ner .' — (Supp. a goat. a hedge-hog. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. s'hdrisser. chattering of the teeth. rissoler. cut. caprice.) grezille marid. capar. It. The true derivation lies in a different direction. capparis. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. airoKOTrrw. a caper in dancing. roughening of the skin. curl. It is probable that Gr. with joy' Vikram. wriggle. knis. castrated cock.

however. a she-goat. calabrin. di cappa. cabra. to take to. caThe hrestante. It. recepte. Caseneuve in Diet. Capsule.of these compound verbs. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. karrende waegen. precept. Thus the musket. to creak. caput. Fr. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. capsula. and has accordingly been lost in E. concept. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. one odd. -cept. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. Fl. Lat. It.or -cib-. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. Fr. carro. a sudden fear apprehended. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. Lat. It. &c. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. the -cevofthe Fr. verbs gives rise to the element . krul. box. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. where it forms a very large class of compounds. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. Capriole. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. conception. Cart. recevoir. a hooded friar. It. a taking back. a creaking waggon. Etym. Cot. deception. carretta. seize. It. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. &c. OSp. except. In cases. receptus. i The meaning Car. of capsa. an engine for throwing stones. Carry. a coffer. Fr. tnoschetta. capp%tccio. captus. a windlass. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. cabrestante (whence e. to take. It. Carabin. conceit. de- price. desire. was originally a missile . a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. fantastic. — —Diet. See Caper. Capuchin. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. Sp. concevoir. a. capio. dim. Lat. Nordfoss. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. . a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. cams. whence capture. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. caricare. capitano. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. to take baclc. a reception. concipere. crepo. also to carry on a car . Crab. Captain. from head. to accept. a capuchin. a fantastical humour. a cart. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . chirriar. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. shivering fit (Altieri). hold. chirrion. perceive. karren. was a kind of horse soldier. commander. to receive receptio. Derivatives are Fr. of the Sp. as in OFr. to carry .s. conceive. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. as the dragoons (Du. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. cabestrantej Fr. case. captivate. Sp. karista. was converted into -ceb. cabestan. and of captus to an e. recibir. to this is It. Cot. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. charger. crab s. sels. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E.. fancy. contain. and has thus descended unaltered to English.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). Fr. Castr. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. a. Capstern. Carabine. to creak. caprice. Du. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. bock. In the S. Kiittner. capra. a sudden will. &c. It. also a kind of rack. a cloke) capuccino. Fr. deceit. kerren. Fr. Fin. a kind of torture. to load . It is a standing crab. -cept. a head man. calabrino.. or the (capo-riccio). Neumann. cabreia. 129 — receive. a hood (dim. oisr. charrier. recipere. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. Capt-. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. char. also tresFl. Du. karra. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. accept. intercept. G. and tropically. trestle. strideo. carabin.). CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. to please. a sawing-block or trestles. Carbine. captive. -ceive. concebir. chevre. decepte. — — Capstan. charret.). at least. latterly. recipio. Fr. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. as in accipio. capuccio. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. acceptus. Lat. The It. capitis. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. Passing on into E.

to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. eit. poison eiz. Cat. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . cassa. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. carquois. . case. caravela. a winding staircase. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. OHG. cabra. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. the carcase of a fowl. seed of carob. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. Lat. the dead body of any creature. the husk or cod of beans. a firelock. Gr. Venet. the core of fruit . Carat. a coffer. carcame.z. skeleton. carquasse. The Trjg xeXwwac. coming to four grains. Parmesan cassiron. burning coal. skeleton. carcanada. an engine for hurling stones. Sp. a prison. cramp. Sp. Fr. &c. Sp. Carrob. wool card. decanter. is the word used in modern Lat. a small weight. espi7igarda. Cot. It. carabba. . chevre by the name of the goat. avSpaS. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. Fr. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. carduus. caraffa.. a snail. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. garafa. quilato. karra. turning. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. the case of the flesh. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. or framework. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. Caraool. to comb. a quiver . alia sunt majora. Gr. contract. Cot. of the same Caravan. winding carach. a ripple for flax. carbh. a crane.. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. It. Lith. card. to comb wool .Gr. the name might naturally Mod. turn of a horse. a card or comb . Ptg. Carbuncle. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. tcapKaai. to curry horses karsztuwas. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. karszti. . &c. also (as Gr. black dye. ON. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. is the chine. the shell of a torcarcasso. Carbonaceous.. to draw in. Pers. also a small weight. car. Gael. designated in the case of G. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. It. p. — seems to be something holding together. Derived in the first edition from Mod. Gael. an ulcer. cardo. ancient springald. a thistle. to turn. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. Carcax. a ship. a machine for casting large darts. the trunk or chest of the body . carbo. . 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. to card wool.' From the same source are SicU. Arab. silique. See Carpenter. matter. skeleton toise. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. krciti. An implement for dressing wool. kirat. karri. carch. caracal. restraint . AS. quse vocant karabd. a quiver . carquan.— — — . curry-comb. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. a lock of wool . bock and Fr. Sp. copperas. a wool card. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . Mod.applied to a battering-ram (G. in the same way that the Sp. kard boyd. a gem resembling a live coal. kerwan. a quiver.. «capa'|8i. winding. It. the . a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. a kind of ship. . carbunculus (dim. word is only an adoption of the Turk. military engines made for hurling stones. carta. a collar or chain for the neck. KtpaTwv. cdrlag. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. a battering-ram). for a gun. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. cabreia. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. &c. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. carcanet. cerran. a thistle. carere. wine- bottle. eitar. a goat. fire . A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. to card wool. carabe. It. Lat. carate. Carcase. casso. a he-goat. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. a skeleton. From the battering-ram. a case or chest .charcoal . cabrita. to hiss (as gee^e). shell. carmiiiarc. Gael.. Carboy. I. ' Vasa vitrea. constraining . properly a siege machine. a twist. mural attack. a dead carcase. to ripple flax. Exot. Card. The radical meaning . carcasa. of carbo). Caravel. vitriol. bend. Fr. Comp. the carob bean. Sp. boch.Gr. W. confining. Bohem. carcaij. Fr. a quiver. caraffe. Gael. to creak. and catapulta.

Fr. road. It. careless take care of. an endearment. to fry or broil. charag. and murhet. be anxious. as carminare. and compare Bret. piger. carnalis. Card. a deed. appertaining to the flesh. W. zanken . carena. the old theory of humours. Fr. . to care unkarja. Carled peas. to scrape . Fr. kumra.— CARD karr-kambar. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. karl. For the root of carminare. crowl. Cot. a highway. Carminative. Venet. the load of a ship. charnage. Carlings. murahtaa.. — Carfax. Fin. the time during which to Rom. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. Charnel. carnasciale. four. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. It. 1S66. grief. gakaran.Lat. W. carriire. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. Carenare. a card. kroU-erbser. From. Farewell flesh. carnal. & Q. to whirr (schnurren). karrig. kribina. morosus. quarreG. Chart. carcus. Coll. Fl. carriera. to comb flax or hemp. ignarus. Bret. — To Careen. AS. a hinge. winding. Ptg. carena. or street. from carus. is to say. A quirito ut infans. quadrifurcum from quameet. cargo. asper. sensual. . voce strepo stridente. quaver a lazar's clack. carezza. OHG. rixosus. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. Fr. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. Gael. dear. 8. hoed. W. cura may be ror. stingy. also a career on horseback. msstus. in Carp. kurista. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. cargar. that on wliich the matter hinges. No ' place there had. or grumbling —Due. Translated in MS. Fr. cardinis. bottom. as peas. cearian. cdrle. . rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. karantez. and sum. crosier. meet at a head. to clean the bottom of the ship. and G.' Slceat. fleshy . — — . Caricature. niggardly . to comb wool. is This however Shrove tide. E. to shake. compared with Fin. to fry. cura intenta. p. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. Carnal. Properly. A mod-carag. caricare. chartre. kummer. AS. grolU. to parch. OFr. Probably the origin of the word is the . crawl. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. cardo. 273. to load. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. . — — — : Cardinal. the hull of a ship. what is felt as grievous. carian. to scratch. sorrow. giierlir. astutus. surrata.Lat. to card wool. carina. Cargo. charneux. principal. graller. carener. an overloaded representation of anything. mutter. beans. Sp. Bret. parched or carled. Care. croller. carrefourg. Trin. immediately before the long fast of Lent. Mur. essere in carena. carFrom carrus. to rumble. to load. charnel. It. from carrus. camovale. Carl. 2. to eat flesh. Cark. Cot. at murmuring. Bois crolant d'un ladre. Lat. to love. intrasset caro. carminare. from Lat. — — — Caress. carcare. cearig. charta (Gr. . a man.. the flesh of animals . Sp. murista. It. kara. sorrow. morosus sum. Fr. carch. strideo. Fr. a turn. care. karry. act of moaning. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. to load. Cot. charg. in N. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. combing them out like the knots in wool. to distress growl. love. fundamental. as quadrivium from Carnaval. carnis. Champ. soUicitus OSax. caru. G. AS. It. A place where four roads Mid. G. x'»P'"^s)) paper. tremble. caresse. tuorfurcm (Burguy). stridere. the keel. the keel of a vessel. de Parthenay. tenax. It. caritia. Roquef. karista. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. Fin. Groler. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. . Fr. ON. moeThe Lat. from the keel to the water . caMid. from caricare. male person. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. like connection may be seen between Fin. scharren. caricatura. weyes. w. in St Jerome. record. to take Goth. clown or churl. karout. carnavale. A medical term from line —Boerio. It. Lat. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. Peas steeped and fried. charger. sgritudo animi. to growl. . . whence carricare. that Fl. Sept. kargr. affection. Properly a car-road. — — Diez. to lie on its side.— Charter. wool cards. Cartel. see Garble. one of those ac- 9 * . Dan. murren. place for exercise on horseback. &c. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. ceorl. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. care on. regar. solicitous. ress. ON. and thin. Carnage. charie. car. the several meanings of the words above Rom. Cath. karg.

linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur.' says Motley (United Neth. differing To Carp. Analogous R. act of drinking a full Eq.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. 2. quoted by Carpentier. to dance. e. vel coopertorio carebit. ' ' — .D. a drinking cup. carpentum. Olr. Nomin. skraf. I quaught. lint. tattle. or a carouse fully drunk up. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. in Due. peta. as E. chirp. a car carpentarius. as Fr. balade from It. a dance.' Raleigh. to rustle. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. The karole of the stones behelde. The word seems of Celtic origin. Fr. querole. carpetam (a quilt?). Dief. carnelascid). — . — — ' ' — — — I — — . Properly a round dance. a song accompanying a dance then. garrulo. in Nat. biheld without. The ' ' a chariot. chatter skra/a. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. Templariorum — ' — Due.Lat. a plank. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. ballare.— Drant in R. Gower in Way. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. carpenta. Carpyn or talkyn. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat.]e bois Carnelevale. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. Cot. Pref. koroll. a wheelwright. charpentier. Bohem. In Dominica d'autant. . as the Lat. So gone they forthe. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. Pr. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. to find fault with.— R.gonnella. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. i. to reel. linteamen.— Neum. ! Carouse. Bret.' Ordo Eccles. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade.Lat. To pledge them thou refuse. Palsgr. gar aus / all out is correct. cited by Marsh.: . Teut. was formed Mid. worker in timber Fr. ship. Shrove Tuesday. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. 216. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. Carpenter. carduz. W. zimmerspan. pluck at. Pm. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. Mid. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. carpende fast Carol. Fr.— Patriarchi. carpita. 2. a carder. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. Lat.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. Carpet. carpo. tymmer. at midnight which derivation from kroes. . about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. Carnevale. 94). carpenticre. chatter. litter. I drink all out. On the other hand bumper to one's health. all aus). The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. of Guiana. maker of waggons It. krapati.' Reg. Lat. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. to chatter coroli. All out B. Sup.Lat. gonna. to pluck. chariot carbad. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. carpetrix. a wheelwright.Why give's some wine then. Mid. zimmer. on that. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. krapanj. Here's to you still my captains friend. i. CarTo quaff carouse do use. qui sacco. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. Biheld within. In a MS. or loose as a couch without further preparation. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. charpie. Mediol. is erroneous. fabulor. Discov. Beggars Bush. to talk. Lat. carpat (Stokes). From Lat. garrire. Carnelevale. and Carnem laxare (It. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. The custom. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. . 1 1 30. carpenter only in the latter sense. Alluz (G. in Carp. carbh. cardos. A. and F. to dance. 760. bier. to gather. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. sense. Carole. carpere.'— Stat. whence the form carnasciale. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. pluck. Other names of the sea. Carpitam habeat in lecto. The tippling sots. as carnaval from carnelevamen. course. used for stuffing mattresses. Chanson de carole. Ein we find the signification transferred from . Sp. carpia. yede tham about. to pull asunder. Gael. Ant. On this. cxciv. culcitra. ON.

Fr. Casque. cia. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. To duash. fall It. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. Fr. Du. paper. to fire on the enemy. the money chest. Cart. to shear. a paper case. cascade. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. vault hole in a fortified wall. It. It. cartilage. cancelled. card. It. pasteboard. It. cassa. coffin of paper for groceries. luggage. an act of falling. It. Lat. Case-mate. as we . Fr. AS. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. See Case. To Cashier. mata. It. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. case-maiej Sp. a fall. a merchant's cash or counter. caroach. from It. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. a car. for the security of the defenders. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. cartella. Fr. ceorfan. ignominiously exposed. one who reasons on cases put. to bear or carry. discharge. casser. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. break to pieces. casa. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. charogne. where Fr. slaughter-house. mord-grube. cashiered. Carrion. blotted out. cancel. cassus. to cut or carve . Case. Fr. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. carriaggio.— Fl. casus. The Sp. Fr. cassette. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . Sp. Rouchi caroche. The carrying of anything. caisse. ' Casa-matta. — — . Cassock. cut with scissors. a long coat. a canonry or slaughterhouse. Gael. Carrot. properly to convey in a car. a car. — — nul the proceeding. a hut. krat. of carro. to an- — Kil. tion from Sp. des rideaux A'carp^ie. casacca. — FI. Lat. Sp. carroccio. cascar. hollow. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. Cartel. carota. the charge of — — Fr. made void. a chance or accident. mord-keller. cassa. turn out of service. See Card. from It. Casual. Case. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. Preparatory drawing of a It. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch.' Cot. Rouchi carpHe. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. dim. to notch. Fl. of carta. quash. caroche. Cot. gristle. carroc- carrozza . Hence casket. Cartoon. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. cartone. a coffer or small case for jewels.. casuelj Fr. See Gristle. cassere. something that actually occurs. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. to break. carretta. from casa. to convey in a cart. To Carry. Walach. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. afterwards any written challenge. from Lat. It. a loopscale the wall. abrogate. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. not reaching to the height of the ditch. casaque. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. Fr. a of water. like all the names of tendon. from the sound it makes when Alban. casag. to hold. Casket. long man's gown with a close body. subject for a picture. discharge It. and that apparently from capio. Carriage. cascata. kerpu. augmentatives of carro. As defence from shells became more important. carogna. It. Flor. To quash an indictment. annul. to crack. quasser. Fr. caisse. Fr. Rouchi carter.' Bailey. augm. bitten. caro. G. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. carreaggio. carrosse. cascare. kerben. also the carriage. shell or carcase of a house. Cot. void cassare. to slay. and the OE. AS. house. hung up in some place and to be removed. Cask. caxa. charrier. kirpti. bag and baggage of a camp. Lith. and matar. Du. casso. Ready money. Hence a challenge openly hung up.to annul. casualis. kerven. coffer. Fr. an augmentative from Lat.' Fl. to dash. It. Lat. Fl. to fall. corresponding to the G. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. caisse. Lat. capsa (Diez). Casuist. Cascade. Cash. crown of a hat. casitiste. carretto. gristle. charrette. — Cartoose. a chest. to — — also casse. casa-maita. Rouchi carone. cartoccio. fortuitous. packing ' cloth. casco signifies a skull. case. CartOTicli. empty. helmet. cartouche.' — Hdcart. kasseren. crush. Fr. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. To Carve. Probably. OE. hull of a ship. Fr. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. — Cartridge.

bot-kotis. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. Fr. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. The Diet.out cacciare . the castanets for or implement . arpi^m.Rouchi Scaches. the earlier sense of catch. catch. first made ordinary Fr. kotas. rack. drive away. an enumerlist. execu. Pm. coming to us through different dialects of French. second chase. to dash. of sarabands does Gr. Lat. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. Hence castaneta. casulla. chasser. Fr. to drive away. Fr. puss / for calling them. speak of dashing a thing down. signifying breed. puras E. by the loss of with several pitched cords. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . the ground . ecrevisse. was introduced. kic' kicil are used chasser. stilts. a chesnut . Castle. . or bruise together. which has been retained in E. kasi. castro. down. to drive Cat o' nine tails. &c. kakka. . KaTaarpifm. to hunt. Lat. 120. The E. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. torture. probably from an imita. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. Fr. the stalk of plants. casupola. to Fl. Roukind. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. of castrum (castra). Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. fer toTa. a fortified place. or Rouchi cat. Fr. dashing it to pieces. kat. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. to scourge. a cat . fall. cascar. from water Karappaaaiii. chat. Isidore — in Diez. casipola. Fr. to torture. catar. Fr. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. Others explain it from Kara. a vault. So also from It. however. and from the castus. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. KaraXoyog. squash. cacciarc. cat-o'-nine. Gr.. Yz. chasser. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. casule. Chase. to break. To Catch. being Fin. from the first of Castrate. Hal. Thus we have Caste. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. cacciuolo. which. a little house or hut. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). cash. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. Lang. force j Rouchi equerviche. is not satisfactory. Pol. under chi caleur. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. squash. in the fire. Catastrophe. heat . a garment for performing the mass in. Cot. a thump. and KviilSog. sue. to cast or beat to tioner . tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. represented by the syllable quash. while kiss / Pol. ON. katze. casser. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. cacciare fuora. chaleur. down. to hurl See Awgrim. to look at. dash. name. on. Sp. a whip on the other into latch. to is Essentially the Sp. race. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . R. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. In the dialect of Picardy. accastiare. to close. dim.— Fl. cassa / cry for the same purpose. punch. Brunne. Cast. Castanets. perhaps from which we have E. Fr. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. a Cataract.'— Pr. castello. ichasses. . Mid. shaft of a 1 push. . V Lith. V. Sp. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. n. to turn overturn. Catalogue.. to bring to an crack given by the joints. cast. koshka. chasuble. To It. handle of an axe. kaJoivad. . same word with break. to clack. castana. Gr. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. kissa. 134 CAST Catacomb. kotas. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. It. It. to lash. ating. image accasciare. cojz^/a. ' Catchyn away abigo. away. a cat koshki. _G. It. lance.the / or c respectively. burst cascare. kasta. to crackle.to drive out. to fall as over a precipice. Etym. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. Pic. and tomba. cat. to make clean or chaste. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. crush . KarapaKrr]g. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. KaTappaKTrjQ. tails. mino. like that of It. klakka. Fr. to crack. OFr. kottr. follow after. dashing it out of the window. or comba. Cat. 'Vaaaw. castanetazo. castellum.Lat. — We a cavity. B. to end. Gael.

Guernsey chafer. pedes. which all . — Catcli-poll. or any kind of relishing food tuals. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. weevils. happe-chair. is said that he got a claucht of it. * Caterpillar. Metivier.' ^Jam.V. 135 — Aasen. kaetse. with and without an / after the c. insect. G. Ptg. in order). Fr. instruction in forms. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. a whip Rouchi cachoire. gattola. as of the latch of a As ! — . lash of a whip corresponding to the G. dainties. . Sp. to kythe D. to clap hands. a. fragor kletsoore. Swiss Lombard G. caucht.yopl(. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i.) . For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. to snatch (said of dogs). . snatched. c or ^. worm. apprehend a person. — with a whip. icarrix'Ki^. chatter . And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . e. chink. a whip. a clap. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. GaUa catchiza. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. 'Horxa. — tinman. bichano (pussy). glcu. Kil. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. klatscherei.s. Cot. Sc. snatching it with a any one. 'Bxn. Du. Claucht. door when it is shut. P. Diez. the OE. companaige. Cates. ecachoire. klinke. E. resound. the the same principle he was Fr. ArbaUte de courte chasse. the distance to which the ball is struck. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). ' Fr. children's name for cat .. silkworm. E. cat is not apparent. seize. resono ictu lash. formerly called cliket. — B. from Gr. flap klatsche. predicament. a carter's Pat. gliong. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. i. OFr. ' ' word catch. klatsch. Gr. ketsoore. bicho. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. a whip. clap with the hand. klatsche and Norm. Cot. kletsen. ictus resonans. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. quincailler. and answer. Fr. snatching. from shutting with a click. Kil. caker. a little dog). whip. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. Chate peleuse.' CATCH Fr. . let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. a caterpillar Milanese can. Gael. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. Fr. Caterer. chacepol. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. chase. — Kiittner. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. Grandg. e. to snap. latch of.j. chasse. a smack. devouring mite or weevil. kletse. a pill. gingle. to teach by oral instruction. Du. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. verberare kUts. cache. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. catch. Gael. woodlice. an officer of taxes. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. In the XV'e. Rouchi clincailleux. * Cates. chenille {canicula. Du. chatter. Tutschek. millecaterpillars. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. wild-beast. Guernsey pilleure. to the crack. has both or of charming by sound. latch. to crack GATES cache. dainty vic- a form lash. catch-flesh. Wal. to take. Kartiyopta (/cari. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. called in Fr.V. smack. clatter. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. the elements of a science. claquer. a cornIn the s. catch. to chatter with the teeth cake. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . catc?u. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. called dog or Galla catchamza. — explained. head. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. s. de Bray. to catch strength.from Bard and ayopsw. KaTtix'so. compare G. a. clap. chassoire. an accusing. sound. cagnon (a dog). to harangue. On Catechism. to chat. chachara. klatschen. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. a whip or Kuttner. a — gatta. — . . . E.P. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. blow. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. to A bailiff.

whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. caple. and spareth for no perell. Lat. hollow. — — cavallo.p. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. 2. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. shaled or picked Fr. Fin. That he was ay before in his estate. and at the rich man's cost By sea. Boethius. minon. Bessie of Bednall. catkin Pol. G. causa. a The peel. choufleur {choii. Cause. little cat. Fr. achepter. Cavalcade. Ka^afriKOQ. caballus.Y\\Xea. Fr. Gr. otherwise written kell. from KaSaipio. fur in general. It. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. Chaud. Lat. . is Prologue. mudet. cale. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. and hence a skull-cap. kitten kotki. macska. Russ. Fr. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. It. a stalk. katteken. kaussijde. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. Palsgr.Lat. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. Causeway. Lat. kassije. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. • — — See Chattel. from caveo (p. chaussJe. Caution. Gael. lamb. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. kautsije. rete A — Prov. puss. flock. Lat. to ac- — Fr. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. Du. acaptar. . ' Gr. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science.^ acheter (Lat. a mare. Cave. Fr. Sx.willow. Cavalry. walnut with the husk on challer. Catkin. any Fl. kobyla. Provider. Port. Cattle. . Pol. cavus. Lat. kopano. Fr. — Cauterise. puss. &c. the. hot. a paved road. On the other hand. a branding from koiio. cabbage-stalk. calotte. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. Cathedral. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. accapitare Rouchi acater. Fr. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. It. make clean. kobuiV. Jaubert. kocie. CAVE Caul. what . is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . cale. apt to burn iron.' Elyot in Way. via strata. cautus). capull. hazel. OE. to burn. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. It. Caballus. Cavalier. Thus Bav. cautis. net or caul-work. from delf^gato. ce^l. a horse . mutz. Fr. Kavrijp. to buy. fur. Lat. chausser. Richly she feeds. Pr.Lat. reticella. to shoe . caudex . challe was ther of a temple. little cap is . katte. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. a kettle for heating water. the caul of the liver. A warm comforting drink. Palsgr. Gr. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. by land. chauderon. KaHSpa. chair. to shoe. chaudiire. deyntie meates. primitive is meaning a shale or off. Cavern. also to pave . calqada. a pavement. Mid. Dryden in R rete. KaPaWrii. kocianki. cauHs..^Hal. to purge. but the acates that are sent him. Fr. . puss.—— — 136 correct. catons. kin. whence cathedralis. catkin Magy. Kil. to beware. acater. a horse . Manciple's Tale. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. a horseman. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. kopista. cal^ar. Diez). cabbage). flue. calceata. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. hot. chatideau. the stones of a street. a road calceata. Kavrfipiov. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. is used in the sense of cat-skin. Gr. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. having the property of cleansing. despencier. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. Mid. cat maczoka. Caudle. chaudroii. koparet. Rete. catkins . The word — . caul is also a small net to confine the hair. a horse. calceta. accattare. klopfend knallen.' B. . Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. Wyatt in R. calidus. caldo. — . It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. . 4. w. a pulpit. Caustic. from chaud. It. Cauldron. . kdtzchen. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. a seat. chevalier. CATHARTIC sense. a kind of skull-cap. cheval. cabbage. to sound like a blow . Fr. Jonson in R. Fr. B. adcaptare.. Cathartic. KiwariKog. catkin mitz. quire. cavaliere. a receptacle for small things. to shale or peel. Du. Cavity. dumpf tonen. Delycates. green husk of a calon.

ciel is so unbroken. In the N. — komo tain). as. also a seeling of boards. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. a severe bridle. kommata. cabegon. B. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. or of a bed. door-sill J Sc. the inner roof of a room of state. Lat. cielo. komo. hivtmel. sill.' Hall. To seele a room. post. bridle. to seele or close with boards plancher. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall.. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. — . a boarded floor. to go forth. Sp. 32. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. a log. syle.'— Z. — — — toyour soverane. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. a canopy. excess. See -cede. a board. ceiling. 5. thiling. Wore. —Decease. -cede. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. . Fr. were met. The importation of Fr. &c. heaven. hollow. step away. the deck of a ship at thilja. Sherwood. Lat. The line of descent from Fr. thilja. Lat. thil. CAVESON kopera or kowera. flooring E. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. .' Cot. but hang around at the sides. Plancher.' Ordinances and Reg.' — Gawan . to canopy siled. a plank. . selar. a hut. Cot. a beam.). giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. the testern of a bed. board . served in halle Under a siller of sillc. E. coffer. Gawaine & Sir Gol. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. Fr. cessum.). decessus. -cease. kapp-zaum. dScis. In the same way G. Fr. a canopy. tester of a bed. succeed. a log. thili. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. . . wall.j have come from this source. selure. . It. dille. canopied. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. in Jam. wuoren komo. . . recede. Cede. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. The sense of roofing. Fr. sus-lambris. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. ciel de lit. exceed. sky. wainscot thiljar (in pi. Hence concede. VIII. koppeli. to panel or wainscot MHG. menuiserie. Sir 137 pit . in Jam. . cyling (W. beam. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. deal. to cut. a planking or boarding tkilian. . In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. &c. heaven. Boyd in Jam.' Rutland papers. is applied to a canopy. a fir-plank. cabega. little house. of cavezza. dayntily diglit.. caveqon. The It. syl. So from Fin. of E . del into English without ' translation gave cele. plank. that. A — A false accommodation produced G. as if from happen. a log. the roof of a coach. Lat. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. hollow. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. a head. and Gol. departure. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. p. in Hal. cedo. column E. crooked kopio. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. and then to gape. 43. -cess. cease. &c. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. Cam. quibble. lambrisser une chambre seeling. ceiling. . And seik — Cessation. semely on syll. a halter. augm. lambris. to argue capto tiously. to plank ON. curved. cavezzone. cellar. rafter. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. cesso. departure from this life. -ceed. — . Cease. Cavil. empty. . hung. seele. yield. applied to a canopy. nailes will begin to cling. . death. give place. to plank or floor with planks.' Marriage of James IV. jaa. thelu. and that from Sp. H.' del. Soc. &c. Ceiling. p. IV. 7. and zaum. with their substantives concession. thel. proceed. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . hollow ice . thil. dil. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. Hal. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. pp. komista. plank. an aquiline nose. sybire. cavillor. sill in window-sill. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him.

hollow. -oept. with transposition hence (of a day). or expression of Ennius. tax. sting. cencer. celeber certus. ' . a religious observance. a solemnity. Lat. sure. his office. single or unwedded life. to distinguish. a solemnity. cigliare. &c. -cipio. . then to rub without reference Cement.' Book of St Albans. caber. tax. Assess. sile.). Chafe. censura. mortar. empty. for building. cceremonia. To chafe is for wine.j 138 thill. to be regarded as one celebro. a Cemetery. dchauffer. Accelerate. and put it through the over eyelydde. the talk of men. concetto. It. cella. census. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. Sc. — .. &c. ciglio. cilibat.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. Sherwood. judge Lat. judge. Censor. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. Lat. point. In Celebrate. The term cilium. Take the nedyll and threde. Fr. a registration of one's self. a prick. — . being taken from Fr. cretum. riscaldarsi. Lat. thronged the participle cretus. value. abundance. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. — . to incense. guish. Fr. in comp. cot. deceit. Ceremony. to seal a pigeon's eye. Census Censor. distinIt. and — — — possessions. quarters for slaves. observe. in Marsh. the place where the de.unmarried. Lat. capturn. to take. -cevoir. Assize. to rate. /ctj/rsw. in accordance with the Fr. confounded ist from It. from censeo. a numerous con. decebre) . Celerity. camentum. but was gradually lost in conceit. {cori)cipere. is the opposite of disora virum. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. to heat. eschattffer. as entering largely into the derivative certo. Prov. chaufferette. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. Cot. an eyelash. . a storehouse Chafe. Cij(fe5j. is totally distinct from the foregoing. and so of that other. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. keep in It. — . the hollow the Lat. (and thence also) to hoodwink. assess. contend. Celebrity. we have a modified form of (of a place). to take. to burn incendo. to course of people. Cess. -cense. from Saa-rw. thence belonging to or connected with corn. Lat. Lat. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. centum. what to set in a chafe. to warm. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. Lat. goad. -cern.. Gr. Censure. judge. Centurion. and met. parted sleep. Cereal. Centre. irot\oe. incense. also grave opinion. deceipt. as in some places burnt. Cot. -ciper. See Celibacy. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. sift. concernor. Fr. receipt. Lat. Lat. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. calefacere. swift. census. decide. Incensum. rubble. — . Fr. oil. S. to separate. Gr. Certain. to concern. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. and thence censer. with the eyes. pick out. age. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. Fl.of the r. make angry. Lat. -i^oivre. Gr. to seele or sew up the eyelids .ing a room where there is not fire. and thence to conceal. to rub for the purpose a hut. oil. cerealis. of heating. 1. cillier. to twinkle darkness. to sepap rate. a valuation of every man's estate. to chafe. -ceptjun. or any bird's. the officer appointed to take such returns . ciller.' Celebritas. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. chauffer. candeo. zens according to their property. — — Cenotapli.cern. For sess from assess. criticism.— Chafing-dish. -ceit. to celebrate. Fr. — A . to set on fire. Gr. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. to contend. eyelid. -cebre ifoncebre. -civer {conciver— Roquef. Coehim. a tomb. -CEIVE a shaft. It. syll. family. Lat. a hundred of what- — . crevi. much frequented. OFr. a hundred centuria. To Incense. -ceive. to visit in numbers. conceipt. cenio. encens. -cess. Century. Ta^oe. see. festive. become heated with anger. to sleep). rough from the quarry. to think. the point round which a circle is drawn. a shaft horse. appertain. stones to the production of heat. concerner. estimate. to blindfold.). heaven. to attend on object with. solemn (of per. — . to -sum. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. Fr. -cepere. K^'ivut. sacred show. Censer. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. blind. Fr. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. See Cede. To seel or close the eyes. celer. materials It. ceremonia. Fr. renown be embodied with. KsvTpov. to glow. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. siller les yeux.— Cellar. calefare. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. Cell. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. Lat. Lat. to bury). capio. -cepire. to prick. in comp.

to call. with a:n arched roof. snort. any insect of the beetle kind. chawe.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. gewolb. To buy and sell. 35. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . grief. and signifies to consume with anger. call in question for an ley).. Fr. Chain. Bav. a goba rustling . limare. to pant. — — — . chayire. kaff. Due. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. ple^. to puff and blow. From the To Chaff. fern-chafer.sure carriage. grief. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. Cot. to move the jaws. to babble. shaIt. hordeum vel let. lime. matter by combat. Lat. kaff. 11. Prov. G. Lat. kuhina. . CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. also to prattle. keuchen. hiss. care. Gr. idle words. Ayenbite. dispute. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. a chough. cadena gives chain. kedja. havOFr. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. much blowing. Fr. Pat. crooked. . vis. often puffing. and as this was the beginning of man. in a cana. Piedm. cam. yap. chaulx. a rustling noise. tattle. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. Fr. calonjar. kahista. songe. Chayire. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. puffed or ruffled with ly. Prov. chaene. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. a vault or arched roof. Lat. of. chaine. kever. have a mind to parley. a jackdaw. P. Chagrin. calonja. quisquilise offence. dongio. to ner It. Kaiiapa. in a monstrous fume. Gr. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. Cheffern. chamar. Chair. Fin. thick and short. kuhuja. to calumpnjamen. talkative. de Brai. Camera. kahuja. B. cup. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. baras of ants. signal by drum or P. camera. p. chafeter. chatter. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. a double operation * Chafer. From to go to law. . preise. cathedra. cathedra. to institute anforensic action. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. place See Cheek. lime . — . to dispute. tronfio. far lima-lima.' Rayn. Perhaps Pm. rustle Challenge. Probably from According to Diez. Wall. ^Altieri. clamare. refuse barley . In vulgar language. Fl. ing a hard case to their wings. calx. The jaw chafty. now a chair. much more Genoese sagrind. calumnia. Came. cadera.— — . chalanger. tattle cheep. to chatter or talk lightly. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. khah. catena. to gnaw. contestation. kuhista. (ca'e'ra) to chair. Du. Adelung. without chap/are makiinde. to file. that leneth e per I'autra. Fr. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. — — — . ceaf. muzzle. to fret inwardtronfo. to action arose. chaffare. kauchen. rustling motion challenge. on. So from dominio. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. keffen. kiqfta. Halma. calice. chambre. OFr. Bouffard. Pers. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. kiaftr. sagrindse. Fr. Lat. leviter crepo Then. from Swiss kafeln. Lat. cadena. as. bargain. rally one. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. cauvette. to a seat. haggle. G. chicane. from of the G. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. puff. rustling corn. Du. ON. to tattle. a chain. Cot. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. Fr. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. sborfare. a pulpit Cot. calix. sagri. to claim. fa sagramen de calompnia. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. Fr. kahu. kdfer. a prattling woaction. or puff with snorting. to gnaw. Hal. . ceafer. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. to caw chawer. kdfelen. a pulpit. from the shark-skin. breathe hard. chafing. difficulty . green sagrin. De Ir4. care. swelling with anger.. avena vilior. kuhata. Pr. jaw. Chalice. In like manto huff. taubes korn oder hafer. kiamta. ing rapidly repeated cries. chaise. Fr. chaps Chamber. From Port. to bark. to buzz. hght Chalk. great chafe. &c. E. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. — — ' — — — A . — — — — — — . snuff. Prov. to sit. breathe KaOa^oiiat. chaire. Lat. cadieira. refuse. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. ckapfare. as a carriage is a moveable seat. charge with. fume. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. Lat. KoBiSpa. false accusation. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. Fr. Fr. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. chagrin. vel susurro. Kuttn. to Latin calumniare.nium. .

chanfreindre. chanfrein. wood. fighting place. at the railings. Dief. chanfrar. mesleiare. compound. which seems another form of the root. Prov. contest. hot. Lat. champ. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. Fr. kanip. surpassing. Champaign. to strive at games . hamper. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. chaude mesUe. Chancery. to wrestle. tsamtsogni. prize-fighter. a feat. chamble. game campio. campus partitus . chamfrain. dial. fray. Champ. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). The happening of things Chance. kampa. contention kappi. Campar. from chaud. giving rise to the as. combat. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. from Fr. escazenza. a scufSe. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. kabMe. chain. Commonly derived from campus. cazer. to hold . divided game. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. kiinp. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . to Hal. difficulty . Carpentier. excellent. ON. to slope. zampettare. campear. kapp. Chance-n3. Fr. calidameya. to groove bevel off a right angle. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . therewithal. Sp. kabintis. cample). to happen {ad and cadere. cancelli. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. It will. to — — champ. bickering. Meleare. . The G. to move the jaws kiamt. kabe. kabinti. Get campers a ball To camf . kibti. and acted as inofficers of . to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. pedilusor. kippo. to bevel. . Sup. — Ch-amberlain. who stood ad cancellos. ciamberlano. chance. Chamfron. champ parti. Lith. act of falling. champion Du. to be eminent. Magy. . attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. Fr. Sp. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. Gall. a hollow chanfreiner. received the petitions of the suitors. to fasten oneself on to another . a field of battle. a horse-race. fight. dial. jocus partitus. to smack the lips in eating. CHANCEL It. cameratus. is explained by serrarsi. Lat. champ. to talk. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. kimpUma. To Chamfer. to chew. dial. See Camp. to slope out the . . boys speak of capping verses. to debate. kimppu (Lap. keiiipe. kimbu. — KiL . Fr. cahir. cempa.—Charfron E. Du. to fasten oneself to another . a court of justice. kempa. schmatzen s. Lat. Partnership.Lat. kimpustella. gekrUmmt. campar. to fall. kampeln. termediaries between them and the judge.' ' Pr. Ptg. camerlengo. and mesUe. kriimmen gebogen. ON. M. chanfrein. rare. kempen. dispute Hal. When the to quarrel. a warrior. to fall). Prov. dial. e. or less ignorant. . from cheoir. hero Sw. — masterly Sp. to quarrel (comp. to excel. move the jaws. to wrestle. camp. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. kampen. To cope or contend with. camp. or player at football. ciambellano. E. — Hal. kablys. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard.140 CHAMBERLAIN . Chancellor. So in e. chance. chdance. Champion. hng. to stick to. kampeln. The E. tsammogni. accident. . accidere. Fr. to cample. luctare. champ. The word is preserved in E. Chancel. a hook .' melleia. chajnbellan . fight. ing. — ^Tusser. camp. Fr. zs jeopardy. cadere. G. . reusement — fight in single combat. slope of a bevelled angle. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . caer. dial. to fasten on.' SherI'altro ' ' . ON. Lat. nels. a game at football.—Tutschek. as in It. —Chamfrain. kappd). and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. to flute as a column. to tread The sound heavily. kinipen. Pm. to to chew champ. certare. an athlete. athlete. top of a borehole.edley. dricka i kapp. broil. . a bundle. jeu parti. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. s. i. the chafldn. champ. Champarty. Fin. to paw the ground E. pinch. To hollow out in chanPtg. to . calida et sans aguet. E. a jaw kianisa. head armour. Hence (with the nasal) w. gewolbt. kiammi. campus.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. bundle. sukibti. contend or argue G. to hollow out. as swine. to hang.

kvar kjceften. See Chant. Sp. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. ON. kjaakaa. kiceft. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. surfaces striking together. 140. hard bodies. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. chancellerie. chaps. . to coat. See Chop. jaw. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. Chap. while the broader vowels a. a small plate of flat metal. Fr. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. Hal. cambium. to paw like a horse . every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. W. or the cracking of one. kemma. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. cheek. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. skipta. to cut. Sc. exchange. a chap is a crack or fissure. . exchange. Sp. Chaps or chops. as chancery . waterconduit. chapa. to strike. — — —Marculfus in Due. to apply one flat thing to another. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. And N. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. to strike with a sharp edge. to deal. jaw. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. . exchange schimbatoriu. to peck. to cut up into small pieces. as corn-chandChandry. cobio. Fr. Probably from chap. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. Da. Channel. I. — : Lat. esclapa. and the modern canal. chandelier. Bret. 2. from canna. extended to other trades. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. . and also to chap or crack. chap. the gutter that runs along a street. to change. Hal. a money-changer. as skin chapped hands. muzzle. Chop. That wide were sentin their spicery. chop. chiappa. to break . kaupa. Chandler. ^Jam. or the like chapar. Man of Law's Tale. A fellow. the clappers of the scupper holes. Cheek. Commonly derived from capella. . Lith. a reed. to hack. to truck. is used in the same sense . — . Chip. to swap. Hence chantry. as those on a trunk. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. as to chap hands. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. cambiare. shift. properly in a hard body. Fr. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. —Chantry. to creak. to plate. chapear. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. Russ. chap. changer. chanter. the place where candles ler. Compare chark. cantare. —Ordericus Vitalis. wood. Da. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. esclapo. kapoti. a pipe. not a soul. AS. to cut off . kiceft as well as kjakje. a dealer in candles then. cangiare. to plate. lips of an animal. klepan. It is also used in the sense of the E. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. Chap. chapelete de una bomba. ceaplas. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. to strike. Fr. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. may be compared with ON. To Change. Lang. debeant conjurare. Chape. Chap. ceaflas. schimbu. a jaw. Aasen. kennel. prune. flat . Prov. schimbd. leather. E. a strip of metal plate. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. chapilla. also a clap. Molbech. Hence It. are kept. cambiar. gab. clapet. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. camjar. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. the mouth. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. to chap at a door. Chapel. Walach. Lat. kappen. to spht a chip. to sing. to — cut. from chandler. the loose flesh of the cheeks. any hollow for conveying water. a small metal plate Port. as It. like the knocking of hard things together. to peck. chapeta. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. chapeletas de imbornales.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. chancery. Du. from clap. In like manner Walach. hack .^. to put on fresh clothes. canalis. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. throat of an animal. chop. the chaps .

from cape or cope. it is my turn. from capitulum. Fr. krachzen). It. to load . kurkti. czurliwoti. chatter. czirbti. cabildo.whirr. for the same reason rosario. kurkelis. ject). condo il volgar francese. . a garland of roses. caritas. carmo. a riddle. a turn cerran. capella. Chaplet. czurksti. &c. capital. — a car. keeren. to love. return. tattler. Bret. gadka. Charcoal was ciarlare. twitter. that turned decken . Lat. It. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. See Cheap. babbling. To Char. AS. OE. babdistinction. Mundart. affection. w. charer. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement.. to talk . Chirk. Charlock. canne. From Norm. to sing or chirp as birds. Boh. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. gnash. the nature of a thing. See Charlatan. Charade. wood to coal. be- e. to . beloved. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. twist. Charge. to chirp. a cricket karkti (schnarren.' Boccaccio in Diez. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. carmen. car. decken. a hood. cedeleac. Chark. Sp. cha. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . cluck kirklys. Justin. 2. in turns. charade. used in the sense of magic Fl. a head or division of a book. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . called kedlock.). Chare. A weed among com AS. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. to croak as a frog . charger. seems to be derived charade. . . karout. charcoal burners. wreath for the head. to of the governing body. colliers that charred coal. Lat. to chirp as sparrows. chapel. creak. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. the turtle pitre. corona. to dove . one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. charlatan. a dispute . forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. cam. siarad (pronounced — sharad). In that work the verb is written caire. cerran. from gadai. Gr. from carrus. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. eyre. chara. ghirlanda seor garland. Hence carminare. Swiss. from capa. gaggle . and at line 2520 it runs Charm. chapelet. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. chat. turn. The crash. chirriar. called in Sp. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. char. eapitulo. as a beetle. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. cearcian. go. a verse. Lat. Fr. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. charitas. Inst. to creak. grave or make incised marks on an ob. jabber. dear(in both senses). Lith. to turn.charme. It. kirkti. caricare. chatter. a mark of a mountebank. clack. And damned be he who first cries Hold. burning without consuming the substance. charge an enemy is to lay on. to charcoal. capellare. charlar. * Charcoal. es ist mi cheer. carricare. to turn Gael.czirksti. Fr. Du. —— . ciarlatore. Sp. Ptg. bler. of chapel. which was incantation. Sp. w. AS. Sup. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. Fr. carus. as. Charlatan. a rhyme. The G. capitolo. Lang. Fr. to prattle. (eucharistie. a mark made on a thing. . to converse. cluck. An enchantment. enough. 370. Yx. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. talking. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. chirlar. chapitre. . hadka. Lay on. properly to place — . gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. a merchant. Deutsch. Prov. It. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. to chirp. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal.Lat. schreien. prattling quacksalver. carregar. Cot. to prattle. Character. cher um cher. ceap-man. a The OFr. pohadka. chirk. hiss Lith. Mid. as Pol. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. from Charade. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. turn about. tegere. in To ness Charity. Chapter. creak. to tattle. and in It. Macduff. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. occasional turn. a charm. a riddle. — spell. surris seu Lat. dear. — — — turned to coal. Chapman. dim.

an enchantress. xi'i-'^vui. Magy. To Chase. clean. a shrine for a relic. to chirp. is to represent the chamier. prattle. clatter. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). csaterdzni. Chary. — Yorkshire chat. a gap. Chaste. clean. or the cry of a bird or the like. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. — The . also a youth. Fr. Lat. as we speak of olive branches. It. whistle. whence a charm of goldfinches. carme and Fr. —Charter. i. chick. parcus. to make a noise. to talk. magpie. g. kata.. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. to cry as a chicken . snap. nome and . karigh. careful. shout OE. the young shoots . The egg is chipped. Fr. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. racket . It. See Catch. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. s. as in the E. to which it bears the same relation as chape. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. to separate in morsels. talk much . To talk. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. Cot. gazzogliare. speak . carmen is presented in AS. It. a flock of those birds. enchasser. Du. a branch and a young female. — Hal. to crack. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. — Fr. shivers. carnisj bones kept.— Chit. to chirp. cs E. Diez. Parallel with E. the noise of birds. charmer. . chaste. castus. Fr. ch&tier. Gr. — sharp sound of a crack. warble. ferire. gazeuiller. Chart. to enchase it . schioppare. Pol. flesh. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. From carinen was formed It. clap. or equivalent forms. gazzolare. Russ. Fl. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. kastaa. a branch.).). as from nomen It. —Jam. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. V. knatiern. — — . pure. gaddc. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. to set a jewel. limpid. pure. to cut and faggoted. a churchyard or charnel-house. Pm. chick. a chatter-box. a twig Suffolk chaits. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. caro. scraps of for fuel. fragments. chits. Cot. discourse. csatora (Magy. Chasm. a young man . la chasse d'une rose. clack. chip. root of the Lat. chit. gazzerare. chaste. kippen. splinters. B. To work plate as silversmiths do. ch). cearig (from cearian. jackdaw . noise. Fl. It. CHATS fit 143 to name. from pure. to baptize. %aafi. Chat-wood. See Cistern. chykkyn (Pr. to crack. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. crackle. karg. Chat. knacken. warble. in Jam. czysty. prate.house. To Chase. used to represent a sharp note. D. germinate .— Chatter. fragments or leavings of food. To chit. also to hatch. . from purus. a crack or a flaw . to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. cyrm. occasionally Forby. Pol. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. converse.a.ppen. from xoAn. as. nommer. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. Hal. —Chastise. blackthorn-chats. kata-kata. to chirp as a bird to cheep. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. cassa s. So in Gael. the calix of a rose. —Bailey. tittle-tattle. castus. niggardly. a word. — Palsgrave. Fr. chip. pure. noise. See Card. be wide open. charm. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. Kil. — = Chats. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. csacsogni. little sticks cudere. a plate of metal. the bird is iiown. or a bird out of the egg. a yawning. — We ornamental work the to signify E. the cry of the bat. chat. chikat'. to gape. gallan or ogan. csacsogany. G. make a noise as birds do. as turnip-chaits. gadu-gadu. chip. An imitative word. incassare. clear. chatter. Malay. Kil. OE. chisf. or suckers on rough borders. the handle of a razor . talk. In like manner Russ. or pop. geug. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. chit in the latter sense Du. to burst open. as purgare Fr. eclats. Lat castigare. It t. gazzettare. kna. clean. to clap. also to germinate or spring forth. to care). from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. to wet. chit-chat. To chip is then to crack. sordidus. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . to chatter or prattle . To Chasten. chary. Chamel. letters p. chair. tenax. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. To chitter or chipper. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat.

caupo. kaufen. kik. Soc. price. Chew. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. cozener. giving or taking in exchange. It. while it Bret. OFr. chuckle. capitale. Bav. kok. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. to laugh. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. koopen. Chear. agreeing upon. Cheek. which is the word in ceap. laughing. et juxta catalla sua. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. a dealer. to coff—Yisi. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. ceafl.-^. whence captale. . kikottaa. stuttering. Fin. Slav. . 'li^'opa jord i jord. to buy. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. sum in a loan.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. See Cheek. to stutter gigken. exAS. kek. kakaista. a cheater. giggling. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. gagkern. . a young boy or girl. to buy. with Dief. to chop and change. Gr. to — . Pm. and. entertainment. from AS. the face. jaws. to . snout. farm for farm. 144 the It. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. to cough and hence either buying or selling. welcome heartily. kaupon. chiere. look. cattle. changing. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. Bohem. chear in the sense of victuals. entertain kindly. mandibula. Chattels. ceahhetan. s. Pro v. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. truffa. The gutGoth. favour. sense of bargaining. cachinnari. to deal ON. Fr. a canting knave. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. in Fr. Faire bonne chire. cheeks. hawkmann. bon marche.. chaptel.' to exchange to gasp. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer.. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore.— Chaps. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. Modern Slang. from Lat. cara. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. &c. KaviiXog. any cheating.—Choke. chapman. aspect of a man. a rogue or person who used the canting language. stuttering.— Chole. — — —Chowl. kauf. — We ' . to nauseate (to retch). the countenance Fr. sale. kichen.kakot. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. thers.' kezen. syllables ^ag-. Pr. CHATTELS has ciio. the principal ' colloquial E. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. Cheat. society. ceap. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. a tavern-keeper. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. countenance. frown. to vomit. e. to clear the throat . CHEEK zitella. with the exception of land. in widely separated languages by the Lat. which is used in the to stutter.ing. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. It — Brompton in Due. See Chess. us. Sc. a dealer in horses. a piece of moveable property. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. Then. goods. chatel. prattlingchete. gagkezen. ceaflas. Du. the tongue. Ingulphus. to swap goods . force of the word. Sp. G. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. to negotiate. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. kakkaset. to cluck like a hen. Check. Cam. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. chatal. Cot. chire. citello.— Cattle. visage. goods. horse-couper. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. and hence the E. Fr. It. ku. the Lat. upon a checked cloth. sob E. NE. dchec. chavylbone or chawlbone.of the throat in coughing. keck. gig. a repulse. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. lower. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. — To check an account. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. to act as a rogue. OFr. kaupa. teeth . tradesman. lead to OE. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. Lat. are represented piti. Hal. to fetch the breath with difficulty.. Ek dry and hard. cattle. jaw. cattle. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . cera. . catalliim. a willing look and unwilling heart. Fl. retching. chop. cita. choule. . equiva.— . kak. to coup s. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. kaupiti. Hence to cheat. the Confessor. to make inarticulate sounds in . make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere.

cireggia. The Sw. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. CHE. hasten.cirieggia. ceg. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. gullet. e. As the board to gasp i. takes place in the formation of cheese. Fr. Hence chesten-nut. G. the throat. Lat. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. geafl. . Pm. mouth kek. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin.. for cheese itself.). — — . E. AS. cough. Cherry. w. Chess. jaws. See Case. Lith. as meat and butter. Fr. schach. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. castaneusj Fr. czypti. Lat. To Cheep. the The use of the word kcesir. cegio. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. squeak as a mouse. . F*-. cams. &c. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. Analo. Sp.pose of acidifying them kasadr. old bread. chiffe. to hold dear. /Ji2^/(W. Sc. by laying it in come to an agreement with. In these latter forms we see the transIt. rupted into chess. Fr. Fris. equal squares of opposite colours. then end. cherir. ost. Kil. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. cyse. to make a noise different word. N. cufd. cheken. a heap. Chef. kjcebe. ca' — . the hke. cisty G. condition of being taken. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. AS. to choke with laughter.G. It would Cheese. dear. G. to swallow. jaw. kistej Lat. rennet. frame by which the exertion is made. Chekenyd or querkenyd. X'C&s. chevir. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. rattle in the throat. Achievement. — — . Da. kastr. throat. cheek. Prov. to kep. to choke. made rancid koka. gill of fish AS. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. Chevaux de frise. xaque. a cricket. ceaflas. w. to gape gab. Sp. geagl. giffle. Du. carnium. Fr. by laying up in a covered heap. kces. kopen. throat. Fin. caseus. Thus "we are brought din. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. as. the final guttural is retained in writing. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. cheeks. kesten. skratt. chasi. whence kasa-leipa. It.their struggle for independence. gabe. treat with affection. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. kjceve. a rafter . kjakje. to kasa. Cher. mollium congeries.. kdkel. Chevisance. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. subacidus. — — . Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. gous forms are G. (Kil. achever. kikna. subjected to this process with that which the throat . kok. to gasp. chevron. the loose the game of checks. ceocian. incaseatus. See Chess. . Cherish. chesten. To make a shrill noise Chest. veluti piscium. ceac. — 10 . to bring to an end. Tutschek. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. to accomThis they call hdrsk. chAtaigne.perly head. practice seems to have been communiChevron. clear the throat. Lat.' to w. See Alchemy.Xo belch. jaw. make an end. caws. . w. to year. E. gapen. ON. accomplishment cayed. gap. king). to love. caru. like a young chicken. kasiiUPr. chaps. AS. nish source.EP CHEVRON 145 on. quoka. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. cerasus. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. E. prevail with.peep in the same sense. Jam. Pl. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. the neck. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . kdke. Chemistry. schach. chops. Lat. kapen. cabrio. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. the mouth. kikna of dorum coacervatio. food. the palate Chequer.D. rafters in heraldry. cista. to geahl. ichec.D. to belch. kaecke. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. From them the plish. a chicken. cabiron. The name of creak as shoes. cheek. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. to heap up such things for the purchoke. to prevent the attack of cavalry. Lith. dersen . scacco. chests in OE. Fr. . kastanie. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. Sw. Sc. ceaplas.koppen. Sw. whence czypulas. cheek. cerise j G. suffo. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. jouffle. jowl. ation. kirsche. kasa. quok. OHG. chops. jaws Sw. E. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. Hence kikna is identical with OE. Prothroat of an animal . things Da. jaw . when the king is put in the Schmeller E. Du. An imitative word. cese. acquisition. to boken. gaghel.

knit the brow cib-led. stake. Chill. term is ssaru fu. tiuk. caput. chillrar. chic. And hence. Chimb. capu. ]). capo..). Chitter. mountain top . Pm.^ to resound as a bell. to the brim. the throat. kimista^ .D. a small cask OFr. Palsgr. Pm. cabriones. tiukka. kauen. grelot). Pr. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. czypulas. chaps. kopf Du. Chime. W. a little bit. kime. chew or chaw. cica cica. pululo. tremble. queror. knirschen. to Du. chiquei. cabarach. De finger killet mi for kalte. a cup cibaw. Sp. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. Du. twitter. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. branchy. chillar. chef. creak. Probably from Fr. cild. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. choule. kieken. kauwe. a quid of tobacco. kibr. zitterti. and from the third E. Fin. kouwe. ' . The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. in Walach. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. Chigue. cabar beinne. chimb. deer's horn. a head. horn wood. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. tremble with cold. to chew. then as G. to crackle. gills of a fish.. to scold. lead through the synonymous E. kop. kuwe. cidan. rafter . CHEW . to twitter. G. the same principle I regard On birds. chillness or shivering. to gasp for breath (Hal. chol. the young of animals in general. keichen.peep. the Ptg. rafter. into a continuous shriU sound. chicoter. Fin. Fr. quivering sound which passes. Magy. ultimate origin of the Mite. kaau•wen. chieftain. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. chiler. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du.' my finger tingles with cold. or the broken noise of birds. kilderkin. To chitter. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. : — a lump. Bret. Fr. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. ach. to raise the rim. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery.— Gattel. hiss as meat on the gridiron. jaw. to titter is Du. acute. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. Halm. gosling. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. kimme. G. kidata. cebr. strideo. — — Mother Hubbard. are formed Du. greloter is to shiver for cold. then cold. Kil. Swiss kiden. It. the rim or edge of a vase. kinderen. Pr. tyuk. Prov.. to use the jaws. For the see word Doit. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. caprioru. E. kaw. chavel. a young bird. a cup. See Chimmer. Fl. 'Among these the G. Gael. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . tiukkata.^ Hal. tintelen van koude. . head. to contest about trifles. chikat'. kippa.-ill. a jaw. E. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. pipe. 146 brial. killen. kimia. Brezza. alter. signifying properly shivering. from the first of which is Lith. by driblets. The loss of the syllable it in Du. antler. has probably the same origin. Du. pip. from little to little. when the vibrations become very rapid. Fin.— . From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. kauchen. Lat. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. pipio. knarren. cabar. to pettifog. Imitative of a loud clear sound. kindeken. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. or qf people talking rapidly. Da. a chicken. The Pl. while the Magy. jaw. jaws . the cry of young . It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. a chicken. also the horizon. A To Chew. Chief.D. to chirp or peep like a chicken. klagend tonen. the head. — Fin. capete. Payer chiguet A chiguet. or as E. chavel. chin. beam. to go. De chic en chic. crepo. caferu. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. chawbone. to contest. a chicken. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. while didder is to shiver or citteren. a hen. k'imm s. pi. AS. cheek. kitista. the least imaginable jot. cap. — It. To Chide. Now gan some courage unto him to take. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. a cup. Walach. s. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. or chick. from the second Lat. rafter . — Du. Fr. Russ. captain. E. to smart. horns of the house. sonorous. chicaner. tiukkua. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. pipio. Chick. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. Child. a finch. and not vice versd. mouth. aner. Tintillo. . Fl. machouere.. as. chicken. chill. kind. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. the jole. to chime. killen.— Cot. Gattel. as pointing out the origin of the E. Pl. w. . cib. CHJME the radical form is unusual. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. Chaw. pole. — .

an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. hollow. E. to creak. chirp. Prov. Sp. to prattle czirpti. quavering of the voice.. crepare. Diez de.). CHITTERLING sonus acutus. AS.er.Lat. keich husten. a chap. To chirp or twitter. squittire. cheminde. to creak. esquena. ciarlare. as birds the mouth. It. Chisel. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. hiss Pm. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. bx-eak the back of schena. spina. chhint. komista. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . all these imitative terms being minata. to chink with laugh2. companied. Chymerynge. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. to sound. up and down. a fire-place. the mouth (jaws) . Du. vincially used in the sense of a crack. Chimney. — — — — — . zirpen. flaw Hal. the cheek (jaw) . a hall Mid. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. twitter caminus. kumista. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. from Lat. Chintz. backBut she withal no worde may soune. applied to tremulous motion. See Bright. resonance . caperd. chink. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. . Hindost. to prattle . clipping of coin. caminsects. the jaw. Cot. Sp. genou (pi. tremulous motion. plodere. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. kink hoest. cincel. chits. Bav. See Chap. Chip. Fr. then of a fabulous monster part goat. disCot. The desig. Fr. cisaille. Fr. to chirp. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. See Chark. yivtiov. hus. schrick. Chink. a chink or fissure. kieck hoest. The change from the sound ter \s. pare also Walach. hiss chirlar. the chine. . and light. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. To Chitter. Du. then to any narrow crack or AS. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. in Hal. klincken. 147 kimina. genawi. et garrire . and bodily movement in shimm. have been used to designate the spine. but or cry as a parrot. . part lion. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . It. fyr. kumina. A . to chirre. j^lf. epine. to sizel. to sound deep or the Gr.iron. clashing of weapons. Caminatum. quivering or shakyng for colde. ter. and from a similar sound to boil gently. the jaw. eschiner. Gascoigne in Todd. Gower in Hal. Huloet. KinneGr. G. to gape. which differ from each other only as Chirk. eschin^e (de pore). schiena. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. fissure. the cheek. to open chirriar. as the chink of money. tsengeni. twinkling light. It. It. esquina. sonants. verynge or dyderinge. as the/ is preserved tering. Chyrme or chur. zirken. representing connected together.' Phaer's Virg.czirbti.to divide or Du. a szemrcU. cheek. to chine. cinne. as a bell kommata. are In like manner E. It. caminata. or chyFrigutus. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. Pm.schricken. Chink-cough. spina. cleft. also vibrans. name Then. to tattle. ykvvQ. pork) . sparkle. from 10 * ' Chia. Kil. cisello. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. schina. Gloss. Chine. The small entrails of a hog. the chin . E. To Chimmer. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. — . tsongeni. simmer. czirszkti. skina. gena. to murmur. Fr. Chat. eschine. sound on beginning to boil. See Chats. the whooping cough. chick. sound. Chitterling. in the same crack. To chink with laughter. from the geon's lancet. is applied to the separation of the broken parts.sharp. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. tinnire. Sp. — . and the Du. ciseau (for cisel). backe. chatter . and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. Magy. schetteren. . kinne. Chitter. do. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. komia. to chirp . tschirpen. dial. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. Fr. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. to squeak in It. as a large bell . Lat. Chimera. Ptg. shiver and the chyver of Pr. stridere. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. — . sonus the backbone Lat. Bret. a thorn. a thorn. and chim-mer. sounding deep. chin . a surkik hosta. Sw. to simmer.to chirp.Huloet in Hal. — . Primarily a shrill sound. In the same sense. bone . Lith.. a crowing sound in recovering breath. gen. Chin-coug^h. i. Pr. Chit. Sp. cinan. to tremble. schetteringe. . a Kuttn. to chink. clangor tinniens kummata. G. rustle. killed by Bellerophon.

a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. experience valerie. signify to kiss. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. it is probable that the root kus. haslets. Warwickshire coff. from %u\i). Cavalry. ^S. kruszki. a ruff or frill. . to taste. to tempt. x^poc. then to try.freze. the inwards of an animal. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. of E. kusid. lead us on to Lat. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. coup. chawdron. chibble. Gr. crammed Choir. to palpitate . a wine taster. . to stop geschoppt voll. Chuck-full. cepa. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. Schmid. a fragment. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. whence Lat. causir. — Cholera. —Chorus. G. chimp. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. a ruff. and in this sense the * small pieces. whence choleric. to chap at a door . chatter. also calPs. by which they are Fr. Serv. taste. The Sc. schoch. Chives are also a kind of small onion. The . a scale or fragment P1. Equivalents in the SlaFr. To Choke. all seem slate . rare. Luc. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. cape. koren. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. okusyti. to taste. of an angry — — — ' ' — . a chive. to try . then to shiver. a blow. . ^euw.gust. chap hands. taste.' Verie coinme Cot. the small parts of the roots of plants. chives. disposition. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. the ridges prove. a small slice or slip of anything . xiv. kausjan.vonic languages are Pol. to strike hands .' who shall not taste death. are used in the same sense. — See Cheek. from chevalier. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio.ffrill. chiffe. &c. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste.. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . OHG. chattering. Goth. Chap. shoot . to wrinkle. wrath. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. Body and Soul. to chap. schiefer. fine threads of flowers. as with a blow. kaup. to try. to taste. prove. Boh. to ing is doubtless to taste. krussyi. ON. Gr. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. try. Walach. wein didder for cold. %o\ifa. kalbs gekrose. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. developments of the same radical image. or original meaning is preserved in G.. chippe. — Chock-full. to choose. cke. gekrose. to break off in small shive. shiver. As kushnuti. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. &c. Fr. bile. to exchange horses. ments of the knightly class.V)^x. to hack. . full to overflowing. 2. to taste . kor6n. Swab. to prove. chorus. coro. kiusan. I. schevel-steen. a company of singers or dancers.yEuffM. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. The I go to prove them. See try. skifa. to clap up Hal. choppe. anger. Yr. kbhren. curly . Choleric. called cMtters in the N. as green as leeks. friller. a calf's pluck or chaldron . propagated. kushevati. kiezen. Choice is probably direct from Fr.' At last he dwelt . Prov. and N. a heap. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. Chivalry. — — — . fresure. i. chaup. kiusan. kiesen. to taste. Lat.— B jag E. chife. kushati. ent quarter. To Chop. 19. in the same language. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . try. ON. from kraus. to turn. approve. ruffs. and Vf. civette. G. gusten. wkusit' prikushat. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. word is more likely to be from Lat. * To Choose. . The manners and senti. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. pluck. a twittering. Jam. a knight. choix. . Fr. gdnse gekrose. kieser. gustare. Enn Sigridur sem ' . g'schochet voll. to try. to ^cleave . . select. cive. chceur. Gr. and in kosten.D.ceosan. cut up into — See Chats. heaped measure. to taste. scheve. an onion. chock full. Swiss kust. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. to shiver. a young . a goose's giblets. to experience. Fr. specially with an application to theatrical performances. keypa. kustigen. pieces . a calf's chaldern of E. G. to try. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. arkiusan. Choice. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. caperd. CHOP kros. seallion or unset leek. to Compare also Pol. a rag. by the vibrations of sound or motion. full. keuren. Chives. and It. •- Russ.

short piece kubbug. ceo. chatter . dealing. plump. Borgoens happen. Gr. Lat. kaw. chouquette.• — . Fr. whence apparently the Sup. bearand aits. kowe. because she would not endure this husband chopping. gold. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. capita. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. cob. we find the following passage Dap. a thick piece. chevin. That Face. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. clogs. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. gull. of which such strings are made. . kauwe. Confounded with the bullhead. — Chrisom. choucas. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. Du. who took in the Turk- clack. kaufen. Chub. caker. In the Alchemist. to strike in the hand. capito. In Sc. — — — . merchant. as Du. AS. Fr. chouette. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. equivalent to the E. chrysalis (Plin. From the Turkish Chiaus. an offence against the fitness of times. If I discover. —Shakespeare. whence e. kaej Lith. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. Marin. to overturn. What do you think of me. A fish with a thick snout and head. to clack. e. capitone.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. 49. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. G. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak.). yiSA. Ant. cavena. in i6io. klopper. thumb Fl. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . dial. high clog. a small fish with a large head. the same word with the It. cangiare. to knock. claquer. Chrysalis. civetta. To coup. Kil. kolbe (club). xpi'^lia. Chord. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. fat.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. P. Cot.' They are forebuyers of quheit. to turn over. for to defraud.(. Nominale in Nat. klompe. a lump or piece chump. as in Fr. the intestine of an animal. Sw. E. OE. Peace. See Change. &c. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. cambiare. E. Sp. a The What dhy ^. I bring you the Cloughs.—Chuokstone. Picard. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. a trafficker in souls. See Chaff. To Chouse. slipper . journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. Du. Come. koppe. kaulhaupt (club-head. kobe. caphatenus. ON. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along.X. to speak thieves' slang. gobio capitatus. ' ' What's that? Dap. one who buys and sells horses or cows.\^s. the string of a musical instrument originally. chack. caqueter. whence the Fr. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. The Turk was here As one should say. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. or miller's kaycke . noble Doctor. Fr. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. cheviniau. chevane. chub. p. whence — E. cow-couper. gull. peace.— Landnamabok. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. cheap. . kubbr. to cant. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise.. cauc. Gr.povucd. Fr. Gr. Chronicle.sohola. monedula. — . a bullhead. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. chapin. Chopino. xop5>}. chuet. chronicles. applied to an owl in that language. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper.. by the Robert Shirley. Fr. forms are Chrism. Chuck. chapma?i. which was written 27. dial. Jam. A jackdaw. soul-couper. Madam. connected with G. chapineria. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. capitanus. — Dief. chop. XpvaaXic. To Chop logick.' Jam. and we actually find champman for chapman. xftovoq. — Quabbe. 4. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. chrisme.— Chevin. chevane. Anachronism. quappe. that will thank chiaus — you richly. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. E. to chatter. a messenger or envoy. time ra . Wall. Gr. cresmeau. cauvette j Fr. kubb. traffic. from kloppen. syllables chat. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. i. clat. Chough. kowej Sax. the teeth to chatter . ley in Giiford. overset. Alchemist. thick-set. e. chroniques. sent before him a Chiaus. a stump.). E. in Chaucer. prattle . -chron-.

to churn. but by way of explan. Du. residue of burnt coals. KaxXij?. comp. set kerti. or. ceffore. Jennings. whence church. in Sc. See Cheek. Church. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. ladre from Lazare. we have to chack. sindel. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. The spelling of chider has Chump. as Fr.. The origin ation. as a board. a fellow. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. to cut decide. to sparkle. kaerle. karl. to fall at or on. ciuffo. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. as water running over rocks or stones. Aasen.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. Sw.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. to To Chuckle. Lat. e. cendre. in the face. Chunk. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. Gr. ccedo. cut off. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. cinctura {cingo. ON. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. cado. Cieling. -cisuiri). to determine incision. chuffy. a rustic . swollen or puffed up Cot. -cis-. the kernel.for the residue of stone coal. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. as in E. to cause the milk to grain.V//a'6'?. geaflas. a man. Cider. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . or choice part of a thing . a cutting an old chuff. a pebble. -cide-. chack-stone. . . with It the Lord's house. has been impugned which it has really no connection. to form grains of butter. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. See Cheek. chife. a man. to jaw chack or snap. Lat. Du. It is certain. calculus. To chuck in the fall from. sindr. spuma metalli. Wall. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. i. marrow. tindra. to strike clatter. a cutting round. kiorne. to make a rippling noise. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. sintel. accido. kerl. kern. blow on the I io6 in Mur.— Chu%. dial. -eris. chaps. cidre. a husband. ashes. AS. a pebble .^. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . The derivation from Kvpiasov. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. sinter. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). to separate the kernel of the milk. however. that the word is an adoption of Fr. &c. Hence -cid-. a miser. pp. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. Lat. Lat. flower. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. to fall upon decide. Da. chops. Churn. kernjen. Diss. i. a man. — — A — ' ' — . Gothic nations. tie about). log of wood. chack or stane-chacker. from Lat. Sicerawry face ceffata. to fall. to throw out sparks. male person. kjami. chofe (Grandgagnage). an old man. . — . In Sc. in circumcision. Sc. a douse on the tores. Ir. ON. surly. casum (in comp. Fr. calx. cinis. joffu.' he adds. -cido. As AS. Chuff. chofu. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. -cise.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. from Lat. to turn from blossom to fruit. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). x^^i?. See Ceiling. Du. Gr. fat-cheeked. kakka. cinctus. Ka-^aiva. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. . sindel is although only this canon directly dis. — of the two words. so as to make the happen . qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. ChurL husbandman. whence deciduous (of trees). sindra. countryman. giffle. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. ceaplas. gffe. cheek. Fr. ceaflas. a resounding object.' And cold. joufflu. as Epkema explains it. pith. AS. KvptaKolg. a lump. Cleland in Jam. domhnach. cheeks Cincture. lamak. the snout of an animal. scoria. Fris. .D. to Newsp.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. 24. C^z^j^ churHsh. thence a belt. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. incido. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. Probably from It. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. G. cinders used disjunctively. e. sive piratiam facere sciant. ON. OFr. kirna. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. &c. Cob. * Cinder. .with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. Wall. have given rise. whence ON. jaws. klakka. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church.rendered by Kil. dust. a girding on.— . ceorl. G. chakil. then the on oh StX iv roXt. to him a sudden blow. sicera. ceffo. to make a aiKipa. to gird.

glam. to set in motion by means of the voice. a judgment cern. Comp. Fr. Gr. clangor avium . as caverna from cavus. ON. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. W. klump. in the frequentative form. to go. . lump of wood or with the nasal. citrus. klqb. to clack. lump . latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. sound- — hands figures. ciste. domern. a clod Russ. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. biw. klap. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. to call. compared with It. about. claquer crash. a reservoir Probably from Lat. the door was slammed J slamem. — (Dozy) ing blow. Mack. ball kloben. klemte. . a loud uksa slamketi. stimulate. a ball. In Fr. a knob. as in Sp. E. . klepati. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. slam. twig. forms — — — parent plant. Lat. CION See Tinder. noise. clasp. . Scion. bunch . a city. from chupar. cion. to cry out. is traced by Gr. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. klateren. klamp. a whip.. or clap-dish. clack. a rattle Fr. cion. claquet de moulin. —Circuit. klammer. a boss . Gael. a whirlwind. cieo. Gael. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. chest. kluV. to be empty. Cot. Clump. Du. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). To Claim. It. to cleanse. . trunk. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. sindri. to gnash the teeth. to chatter. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. Lat. gutter. to clatter. claquer. clapper. claquer. ter. belonging to cities or social life . Alt. a lemon tree. to toll . to bawl. Lat. crack. Clam. clog. and E. It. sprig. or quill to draw waier through Fl. suck). around. a'upiav. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. a for water. -cite. klacke-busse. castus). G. a circle. clap. prattle. Fr. may cite w. Excite. bunch. klappen. KipKog. circle. sifr. to call. So a light. chupon. . clack-box. clatCot. cit^. a kind of rattle. globus. The Gr. Clamp. smack. * Ciplier. cisterna. a shoot. uproar. a young and tender plant. clap. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. klopati. scion. chatter . Circle. a ball. 'mass. to mention. scion or sucker. lump. clamp. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. chupon. Gr. From Arab. a cleansing place. tinnitus . ern. whence cistiti. a. The syllables clap. kringr. —Civil. Hence Incite. Circum-. Bohem. to chatter . Hal. a block. kringla. outcry. cisterna.to suck. We . vociferation. to make to go. City. a cistern. . a citizen . a city. circum. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . cittd. a ring. Du. civilis. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . lump. Recite. E. ON. cittadella. Lap. Fr. clack. G. Citron. lucerna. klubb. citujn. ring. wasserkasten (water chest). clamare. a rattle . ruin. To Clack. The notion of a lump. as. the tongue. cista. a mass. See Crankle. We . clat. a pop-gun. the place of . KpiKoe. klekotati. clobyn. hringr. of citta. See Circle. prattle. Fr. to call by name. * Cistern. Lat. to clap at a theatre. . sip. clamras. lump. a kind of pipe. a circle. radical identity of the Fr.' sione. Sw. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. Arab. to summon or call on. Dan. a circle. klabb. klak. and clash. to appeal. rattle . crack. circum. cry. clump. lash . naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. noise — — a cistern. with an initial s instead of c. Sw. fall. cluster. See -cid-. . excite. circ2tlus. cifra. &c. or split with noise. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. klompe. a Lat. log. . glamm. accordingly find the roots dab. clamp. Lat. Citadel. clamer. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. to cluck. around. and. klimp. babble . lump. to knock. Cite. crack. civitas. Dan. mass . Lat. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. parallel root is slam. Sp. klacken. cittade. Lat. empty Golius. a split. Du. klappe. cry out . civis. klumbr. sound of blow. dim. cito. to strike. and Sp. creak les dents. sound. to chatter. area. for Cion. sajira. clack-dish. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. a clod. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. a block. clambar. klambr. a place See place hiddern.— . ON. a lump Lat. a Pol. It. glambar. . a lump Du. rattle. a hiding-place. sphere gleba. klater-busse. clot ON. chijfre. dob. claim. circa. city. clapping of klacke. Chaste. -cis-.

B. G. klebern. kleppe. to cling. to knock. Clap. tenacious. — Climb. from the w. Dan. a loud tingle. to climb. Clamp. celo produces Fin. clamber. Lat. Clang. B. klam7n. E. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. also to clog up. to do anything with a clap. as the clapping of hands. c). These words To are closely connected with damp. a rattle . A i. E. beat. resonance klingen. of money Gael. to hold to pinch. Clamour.er. Du. Dan. hands or claws to grasp. kleppe. offspring. seize. stick. a claw. adopted Lat. compress. and hence to pinch . to hook things together. a burr. The equivalent of Lat. to. a heap of stones or other things piled up . a stick. The E. . glambar. descendants . to patronus. children. nature . to pinch. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. dam immediate modifications — . &c. scendants. gripe. to beat. coagulated cream. — Cot. a hawk. dren. to climb. to starve. a craCmp. klepanie. gum. damor. cluster. Fr. rattle. kleben. to seize. take hold of. is used in the sense of secretly. See Clam. clap. ney. . tingle. buckle klamp. — — . a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. to knock. klette. klibber. knocking.. klammer. klamme. . solid. sound. Sw. whence sala. tight. Swiss kldbem.1. strait. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. pinching. Gael. clammy brace. dang. dial. klatten. dem. to climb . to dame. clajnmy. conceal. klam. clasp. klemmen. In like manner Du. . . clapas. contraction. to Sw^. originally a heap of large stones. — Lat. The root which gives rise to klibb. the in many languages. hook. Hence the Fr. to claw oneself up. clang. dam. Swiss kletten. salafa. a noose . to clap on. a place underground where rabbits breed. accent. to climb. Dan. dank. klynge. closely analogous to that of the fast. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. a claw . to daub pinch. to stick or glue. a whip. a heap of stones. and hence moist. anything hidden. tone. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. run to lumps Clandestine. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. Bohem. Lang. klavre. To sticky. to Hal. Russ. klemmen. klamm. to hide. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. sound object . daver. Clan. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. klappre. dee. kleppen. Dan. clear sound.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. Mampe. klappen. tremble . E. dienklebber. where- A — unto they retire themselves. klepati. Bav. clap. to gingle. with cramp-irons. grimper. dapier. a sound made by a lighter clink. dapi^. clangor. klopfen. uproar. sticky Hal. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. clink. to climb. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . sound of the trumpet . and that from celo. apprehend . dambar. klippe.' to take coals to Newcastle. cramp-iron. to glue. to clamp. dam.' klibba. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. To clap in E. to hold fast with the . klynge sig op. viscous. klem-vogel. To Clamber. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. tattle. crowd . G. dam. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. tinkle. strain . The Fr. chatter. AS. E. prison. from birdlime. Salainen. beating. a trap. hold. Clapper. to stick conceal. cleave. narrow. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. compression. dap up. clav\f. kluppel. in a hidSen place. bandage. — . yf. G. to cleave or stick. kloben. damras. to glue. or klamp-vogel. klappen. a sound made by a still . sound. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. cramp. OE. dink Du. grasp. privately. klank. but perhaps not directly from it. dapier. for tame conies. clann. klobber-saen. pressed close or hard together. Du. G. dientes. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. bond. klampen. to clutch or cling oneself up. is a nasalised form of gripper. children. salaan. club . chief. G. rumour. to clap. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. klepel. cream Manx doan. These are imitations of a loud. ancestor. Du. a bird of prey. who occuG. of the children. of which the locative case. klimmeii. Halma. Du. a sound. as the Lat. klang. holdfast. to climb. clibby. dandestinus. Clink. clapper of conies. ring as metal. klamre.p correspond- ' without order. cling. gliong. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . klettern. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. G. chatter. massy. viscosity . diver. klammern. substances of a stickydam. brawl. — with hunger. Clank. a stone See Claim. dia. klemmen. dial. G. klubber. . sound . clandestine.

clarin. klaterbusse. klampvoghel. — tells us. a heap. Mask ! plask ! thwick. Fr.). a clasp. sound of the foregoing description. insularum nexus . fracas. Sp. to fasten together . Wyutoun in Jam. a. to do anything with a .It. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. also a knell for the dead. Kil.oi. clarinado. a nail. clairon of a trumpet— It. Commonly made. applied in their harness. klot. the collar-bone. 269. Nightingale. we pass to the E. ghespe. clew.Gr. . E. — Clarinet. from clinging to the tree which supports it. klauw. klouwe (Kil. a claw. —Kil. Fr. it is called clamming. a clod. classis. a club or massy stick. and old red rose-water. Du. klatschen. vin claret. Owl and that by which cleave to. an ending. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. an on the one hand. clopa. Du. subrubidum. klouwe. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. gaspe. The collar-bone. is preserved in Lang. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. Lat. a key. to cleave. clair. or as G. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. forms are the Du. teren. chasguear. Sw. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. glcis. nawith stanis. seizes) . to ring in such a manner for the dead. a complete sentence. clausum. klaeret. vinum helvolum.\x\xvn. as G. a lump . globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. Clasp. a ball. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. same class with w. stop of an organ. cinnamon. a little hook . m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. KXeiSi.ck a whip. &c. From claudo. Russ. contraction. clairon. klaequivalent to clack or clap. The b readily passes into gleba. clavus. biichse. buckle. in the sense of a mass or lump. Pol. clatter. from the resemblance to a key. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . clavis. The form clew. somewhat clear. But clasp or elapse. globus. Clause. blab.— CLARET clamp. Lang. puUs. Lat. and shrill-sounding trumpet. a claFr. locket of a door. Lat. biichse. kletse. a kind of small. rion. to knock. ictus resonans. skeria-klasi. Eya-klasi. Analogous Jam. &c. to rattle . bawling. From clairet. klatschen. which signifies a ball in E. row aii/iaTos. klampe. from its use in fastening things together. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. in the sense of a claw. flap. the cracking of a whip. a. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. K\a. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. klase. klamme.. as it is written by Chaucer. ansa. In the same way is formed the OE. Clatter. clausula. a bird with powerful talons. pet. pellet .to cra. Nawith stavis. Dan. Gr. clew or fasten upon a thing. whence kleuer. klatsche. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. Eau clairette. e. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. fibula. kluczka. clump. assembly. chiarino. a distribution of things into groups. Originally clasis. a key origmally a crooked nail. noise. G.Z. climp. cloi. clas. to clap . hawk. Rayn. a lash. to animals Sp. Claret. Lat. to snap. schnalle. Serv . is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. klc^i. kleuen. chiarello. to shut. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. as Mod. klijven. to end. So Pol. is used in Sc. to draw it up into a bunch. waU. klaskad. mass. Fr. crying. sauna de classes. Thus from clamp. — Clarion.w or u on the other. klos. with a reddish tint. a water made of aquavitse. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. Du. Clavicle. kiosk bicza. dap. a bunch. chatter. To clew. klatscha pop-gun. vin clairet. globus. It. claret win e. diver. Identical with ON. claw (what fastens together. compression. i. mass. under three modifications dava. straight-mouthed. klucz. a buckle. and through v into a. Cot. to fasten. rubellum. a sphere . fragor . syrtium junctura. It. uproar. Thus from Lat. Prov. nail. Klatsch- a pop-gun . a lump. Claw. thwack . to clash as arms. Du. Du. — Kiittner. clamp. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. chiizjj-o. cluster. Clash. Du. and clavis. sphaera. kleeven. chiaro clear. . the primary origin clapa. Clew. he of white and red grapes mingled together. ivy. to patter. In E. hook. thence a definite head of an edict or law. klauwe. from scknallen. Class. a key KKtitid.

glor-mhor. Cleft. a plate. glitta. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. clibby. a cleft or fissure. that was a striking proof. Sw. radiant. voice. the two parts of Du. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. to fasten E. a mass. klirre. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . klinken. river. a noise. a noose.' was nailed to a rock. viz. glindse. The word is . Du. splendid pohshed. E. sticky. Cleat. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. bend in a stream. kloben. provinciaUy termed dout. a — — . the To Cleave. to stick or adhere . B. klirren. clemens. neat. a fissure or division See Cleave. . gleit. a one end. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. glint. dag. to shine. Mar. Lat. glan. holding together. klank. to clink or sound. Clay. nitidus. 154 CLAY dutch. dedgy. celebrated . or of a tree. This word is used in two business is finished off. to tear or cleave asunder. pellet. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. a key. klouen. This is probably one of the clean. . klafwa. the original . and Dan. lump. Dan. . kldnkelein. it cleave together. Bav. G. klceg. from the clinking of the latch. klag. gaklankjan. split. glan. kleg. klov. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. to dag ox dog. chaps in the skin. 2. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. clean. klove The Dan. clay . dams. G. a in that of sphtting. E. to fasten. a clincher. rivet. bright. to stick to. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. . doggy. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. kleg. pretty. cloven wood. Du. klyft. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. (Cot. to clinch a nail. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . Die zaak is zS. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. Sc. shine. clear. clink. Kil. rive. in two ways. kla:g. G. to shine . a cleft. Du. From clap. to Brilliant. AS.— Clag. glance . of iron worn on shoes by country people. cliquet. doff. See Clog. Sc. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. geklonken. ON. an object is simply cleft. Clear. deot. glbr. glorious.— . famous. daggy. dench. a latch. seem formed dial. Wilbraham. as explained under G. the latch of a door. sticky earth. to clench. W. kleevig. from nitere. kloue. The proper meaning of the word is shining. klincke. loam. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. clean. glandse. that was Torriano. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. viz. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. Da. . calm. as Lat. tongs. kluft. cleave. klijveii. From dob. speech . is fast and sure. glitnir. door-latch. a flash. to chink. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. kluftholz. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. glbram. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. To call. Halma. klinken. klinke. gingle. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. to 2. The Dan. polish . to sound or make a noise . klinke. as ON. dut. a cleft.— Claggy. a claw or talon. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. merciful. a lump. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. glan. Sw. Clinch. sticky . klutsch. vice. polished. Du. either by the coherence To Clepe. Da. to cleave. a mass. clout. dags. — : A rivet. Thus from G. Fr. as Fr. conserere antklankjan. clear. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. from diquer. clean. To Clench. klink. pure. kloben. kleben. See Clam. G. Clean. to separate into parts. pure . ON. a fissure. mud. pure. the fork of the body. kluyte. Axletree clouts. Gael. together . sleek. bogs cous. neat. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. rift. or from being divided into two parts. G. glatt. Da.Q. Omklinken. Clemency. gentle. klouen. as the Du. klinka. kluit. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . and. klieben. to be composed. explained from the klinken. clear. i. E. words applicable sight. clash. Sw. klinken. to clinch GB. found in other cases. klieuen. ON. kloben. clean. The word may be — . Du. a lump.). kleverig. klor. hook. klinke. danche. to glitter. Probably a modification of the word doitt. smooth. and E. glent. Lat. Du. diquetcr. give a shrill sound Jr. a bunch of When flax). and Celtic glan. . dial. A — A Clement. date is AS. dinquet kleeven. opposite senses. to fasten. vissticky . a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink.

klinket. Det er en Mover kerl. chatter. . babble. cave . declivity. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. on. -Toe (from KXivm. Click. deuch. de ripa. a baU of yarn. the dick of a latch or a trigger. CLERK sound of a blow. See AS. cliquet. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. AS. dial. klika. that is a clever feUow. dever. dichet. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. to confess . derecia. Sw. frap- per rudement une personne. rock. Clever. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. lively. kleppen.) Brai. the knocker of a door. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. a child's or clack . derjon. kleppe. and hence deik. call. klever. sonare. 3. diquette. Climate. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. call. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. a cliff. which is used in Scotch and N. e. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. dial. the clergy. crack. kliket. to cleave. chatter. Commonly derived from deliver. klippe. Clerk. or an object character- Clerical. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. —Vocab. as Lat. /cXi'fia. to cry. a trigger. cleft of a hill. exactly Gr. G. — have the notion of a short quick in E. a tumbril.). klippe. kloof. Rouchi cliche. Climax. cligner. a clerk . climate. to snatch. Clew. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. cautes. Boh. OE. has also deik. Client. temperature.. clep. In I Peter v. is NE. cliof. from Gael glac. clif. Sp. The Sc. to catch. klaiv. Du. gleg. deuck. Happen. chat. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. agile. a sphere. kliv. klinge. as a click with the tongue. cliquer. hamraklif. Clergy. a ladder. dink. cleft in a rock. a precipice.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. rupes . click. clyf. to clack. dergi. crepare. — — A . clever. to tattle. cleft. ready of speech. snatch. dexterous. Fr. a lot.— Clue. sink. G. would have been derida. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). to wink. . Clam. light-fingered. Climb. highest is attained. cleopian. in the sense of active. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. &c. duke. a figure mentioned. claw or talon to dek or deik. a cleft in a rock . had a form. Hence Lat. diofian. a latch. deudi.dergie! Wiclif in R. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. 3. verge). and hence climate. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . Gr. globus. syn. ravine. name. clerus. cart that tilts over. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. one admitted to the tonsure. score7i clif. klev. a ball of twine. klouwe. cleugh. on. pulsare. dob. to tattle. Bav. a latch . has kl'dver. We movement catch.' ii. Da. stein- kluppen. The origin is the Gr. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. which in Mid. Lat. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. a clew. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. whence Fr. an inclination. rapidus from rapio. deik. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . a hold. klok klep- crepitare. Du. CLINCH De . above the pole. klif. to rattle. cleke. . what so men clappe or crie. Lat. diver. klikklakken. prattle. quick in motion. Klover i munden. the clergy clericus. derigon. to sound an alarm to clap. a lump. Norm. Cot. with hamarskard. Somner. as from derido. glomus. clack. chatter. ginally from dob (extant in W. Cliff. precipice. and (with the nasal) — clincher. See Clamber.Lat. in rhetoric. speak. corresponding to Fr. quick of perception. rugged ascent. a lazar's clicket or clapper. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. d See Clan. a latch. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. region not observe it. clatter. a mill-clack . dicher. click. skard. a claw or clutch. dek. seize (Hal. expeditious. Claw. klinke. to teU tales. clap. deik. dough. catching. click it. ized . clima. to catch. scar. click. icXi/ja?. one of the clergy. it must be observed. to talk as a parrot. littus. pen. to move. from clifian. say. KkrifoQ. a hook. Du. to stir. precipices. clypian. derigo. to seize. klikker. dook (identical with E. dutch). Now the OE. clif- stanas. duik. in precisely the same sense as the E. cliff. abrupta rupes . nimble. IS5 Du. See Clench. corresponding to the Sc. to bend. crackle. as Sc. dial. or Sc. . Jam. neither as having lordship in the. rock. Sc. a hump. to prate. slope . a clicket or clapper. klaffen. But the Dan. clever. Dunbar in Jam. Lat. Chaucer.— Clicket.

Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. to knock. a faction. To cut with shears. N orman clincailler. outcry. a tinman. sloping upwards procUvis. or bagging clothes. also to wink . toga. G. cloak.. to bend downwards .' for a dry stick. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound.'— Shaks. kluppe. to pinch klupe. . Sw.— Clot. chcng. clato make a noise. difficulty.D. ten. to form one mass with. Bohem. to beat. Ang. hill . dial. fetter. to crowd or squeeze chingy. Sw. ON. pallium.. as to snip in the same sense from snap. The E. like cling. * Clod. a cluster. klak. clique. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. a clog or fetter for a beast . and so' to contract. to crowd together klynge sig ved. a lump. Fr. . ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. gang. a lump G. globulus' (Gl. sloping forwards. klaka. klepalo.ginglej Fr. hlinian. Clink. to lean backwards. to wither. to lean. Sw.— KSS. as thick or curdled liquids. klipa. 2. a clock. dial. Een kliks bolter. related to clock. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. -CLINE make pinch. at first probably on a wooden board. ' . clino. nip. Flem. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. Hal. Du. a hood. Lat. Gael. Du. a snare. clog. klunge. knippchen. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. Gr. See Clang. to wither. Swiss klungele. 156 -cline. kleppe. four of the bell. Sw. to strike. kolki-laud. iissura. incline. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. klynge. to sound sharp. Bi klik uti klak. E. clutch. from klepati. clangere. recline. claw. slant. G. gUong. dag. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. cloche. Serv. klocka. knippe. met. a bell. acclivis. parva ruptura. To Clip. verklungeln. to shrink up. in Schmeller) klunk. clock is a variation of clack. The notion of a loose moveable substance. To stick to. to snip. also to form a compact mass. to make a loud noise. ON.' From Pl. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. Esthon. I. Kil. to snap or fillip schnippen. toga muliebris. knot klynge. dial. klippe. klunker. klok. Sw.. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. to clip. klippen. Cloak. to resound. and 'E. &c. sticky. kluben.und zuk-lippen. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. kol- The word . kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. klungeln. whence E. Sussex peasant AS. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. to clap or clack. clingan. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. compress . G. . to snap kneipen. klippa. . hlinen. Decline. kliks. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. — a mantle. pinch. E. a woman's mantle . Swiss klokken.D. and a similar syllable without the /. to pinch. especially of something soft or clammy. glungelin. a rising ground. speaks of a ' clung bat. OHG. 'Till famine cling thee. difficulty . -cliv-.. klippa. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. clivus. . to cluster. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. Da. Cliofue. knippen. to slope or bend . The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. incline. disposed to a thing. klicke. to clunge. hluccti. to ring. a beU. a separate portion. glocke. sloping downwards . rima. a lump of butter. to clink auf. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. to shrink up. klungelin. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. To Cling. G. hooded . clinke. quincailler. — clot. by bits. a ball of thread . hluk. to AS. Lat. klocke. cochl. klik. to . is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . g. tuft. ON. ring clag. klinka. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. kolbe to E. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. . declivis. kima. Bohem. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. noise. as G. -atum. a bell. Fr. klocke. Walach. klippur. . as we now say three or four o'clock. klincke. clinker. bow. to beat on the board. . Du. klo^gen. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. . Du. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. Ir. Pl. klinken. clips. to snap tongs. kukla. G. club). to cling to a thing. shears. dial. klingen. S w. See Cowl. w. pinch. Clock. kldpp. brett-glocke. schnippen. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. straits. G. klupen. kXiVu.

to shut. we pass to E. slobbe. -cludo. klakken. klot. laggyn. is a blot on one's character. a dirty wench claggy. shut up. analogous plan to clod or club. slobber. kloteispaen. in accordance with It. lobberen. kleck or lack. g. dirt. clausum. E. klateren. klotzschuh. thick sour milk. to play at bowls. to bodies. schlott. Russ. to dash like heavy rain. ! . klag. Yule-clog. kloten. of something clammy or heavy. . Close. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. a log. to rattle. da- . cloth. gelatinous. motzen. the radical sylla. or E. kloteren. slop. daggerey. blot. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. lump of something soft . hanging loose and full. schlotter. slab. a skittle-ground klos- sen. . a clod Swab. lag. G. mud klcEg. dag. a portion of something soft and adhesive. schlattern. Fr. a babbler. I clodde. thick spoon . clos. Bav. Gr. truncus. plod. -close. . we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. to bubble.. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. a blot. fors. curdled. wabbling from Du. loppe. in forms like Du. inclose. m&se noch stain. to sup up liquid food. kladde. to flounder in the wet. a clog. lopin. motte. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. wide bagging clothes. lopperig. To Clog. to bedaub. be&c.). splash. to rattle. to paddle in the wet. spatter. bowl . TZoxapov. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. The game called ninepins. Pr. claggy. . kloden. a Christmas log. laggery. unctuous. and E. lump of butter. from claudo. lobbig. an imputation. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. lobberen.'^ Palsgr. dangle. Pl. IV. chiudere. Fr. closed. klac. fat. clogs for the feet klakk. Lat. . daustrum. kloster. Lat. and Gael. a monastery. compared with clump.dial. je amoncele. congeler. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. Clog. klod. chiuso. or Sc. .1a. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. with Fr. neither spot nor hang loose. a lump from Du. slabberen. aspersion. I doda clod.D. loose mud. is connected with pludder. . I clodde. Cloister. lunch. Du. . clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. to flap as loose clothes. klokotat. loose trowsers. . zoccoli. klunkern. to a. 3.. Hence inclose. mire. log.— Clothe. dirt. It. tuditare. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. • lump. a trowelful of mortar. doitre. to shut. . kleck. claudo. without. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). clos. Idppern. klakk. geschlotter (as E. MHG. to dabble. to cling locks. lob. clot. kl'dnken. tramp in wet or mire. terminate. and Du. dab. clotted milk klotte. paddle. and thus seem endowed . clatk. to lobberig. to spill liquids. loose. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. or loppern. foreclose. Klottermelck. a spot. Du. forbidden by 17 Ed. Closhe. clotted locks Dan. A — — A Thus from Bav. to shut up. In the same way Dan. enOE. . Klak also. He was a man without a dag.D. bloutre. rattle. slops). a blot. zocco. dial.' end. bespotted with mire E. separate part. schlettern. slobberen. beklakken. Pm. a bal!. E. like G. clog or overshoe. from Fr.rge lump. klotz. -clus-. . AS. klos-bane. His heart was franlc without a flaw. . boil. -clusum. a clod. miry laggerit. be found rattle. then liquid or loose substance. A .cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. to slop or spill liquids. . from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. Swiss schlott. in comp. paludosus. Pr. a block. lump of mud on the clothes . Sc. close. to wabble. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. spot of dirt. Fr. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. finish . or drablyn with separate existence. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. paddle or dabble in the wet. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. Mat. clammy loam. pattens G. klos. slops slodderen. a log. claque. shut up. clorre. bemired. to claggock. mud. to rattle or shake to and fro. watery. G. clausum. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. Fr. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. in accordance with Pl. we pass to Schlatter. . Dan. schlottern. of a body of any kind. pludre. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. whence klack. a field inclosed clos. loblolly. from Du. shaky. lumps of butter. clogs. klottern. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. dunch). the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. figer. tJokok. loppered (of milk). The origin of clod and clot is to . meat from Du. to dabble. to close against one. slob. to shut in.

158 . duthaich. to cleave. to stop. are often connected. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. Kiittner. warm. klieven. klunds. a log. botsen. a ball. dys. hebes (Kil.D. loggish. a patch. A division of a root of garlick. tuft. From dog. clothe. formed lump or thick mass. Properly that which covers and Du. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. lunch). clog. clavo di especias. Du. E. eine to slop. in the same sense. from OFr. kldverj P1. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. Then applied to a lump of mate. clot. knob. clotted milk or cream. kl'dnne. ON. kluppe. mire. To Cloy. cludaim. Du. diboter. a bousche. zolla. piece Cot. of a lump of earth and that figure. but confounded with cailler. warm clothes {dillad. Clover. of nagel. klubb. a fissure. ball of thread Russ. So Fr. a. E. to curdle. the terms expresssplit. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. bunch. Dan. The significations of a clod or lump. cob. klove. kluV. . a garthas. Move. dillad bumkin. dabaire. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. clothes). Sp. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. clump. a lump. klever. cobble. warm place . naegel. a nail. aglio. daggy. lump.). — . clot . warm. a ball. Fr.D. shel- kloen. G. esdaboter (Roquef. zolla dell' . klumba. sticky. dob. ser. klqb. Du. Imitative of the note of a society. knob.clod. to cleave or the splashing of water. choke or stop up. clod. sheltered . to beFr. cluth mhor. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). matte. and tapp. a bunch. cobio. a ball of twine . ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. a clod or clot. a clot or keeps one warm. chiodo di girofano. are also used in the sense of a stopper. clou de girofle. as Fr. wisp. strike. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. caillebottes. . klebek. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. klubb. to splash. of sloppy materials.). Clump. and clout d eudaich. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. make warm. indispalte knoblauch. and -the word Clove. clot. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. G. It. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. a cover or coverture . . w. w. Cloud. dial. lumps of curd. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . klubben und klicken aufgeloset. clothes ment. lump. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . clue. milk run to lumps. rustic. Gael. botch. and of a rustic unpolished person. Du. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. klumpfot. to a lump. when something has got into the touch-hole. dial. a bunch. dote. also homo obtusus. . Sw. sheltered up warm. Mabousfrom Lat. A kind of spice resembling Du. motte. CLOUD an awkward clod . . puddle. nourish . klubba. klcBdi. clod is used in both senses . 2. group of people Sw. a bobbin. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. stock. nagelein. to cherish. cluster. N. probably from daboter. of thumping clumsy action. clump of a clout on the head. klobbersaen. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. a sticky. Du. a knot of people. klump. cloud Delfortrie. unpolished.D. kloete. dash (Cot. a clown. klotzig. little nails. the air. Ir. a curdled sky. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. klotz.). dirt. tered . klonte. Sw. a lump. boucher. spice) G. Met. to strike . Gael. mass. to cover Bret. a log. log. a sky Cot. a clove of garlick. clyd. klotsen. and closely do conspire. a ball. I. Clumpered in balls of clouds. davus. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. clumhar. The radical sense seems to be an unE. from Du. . to tramp in the kluyve. mud (Pat. AS. (kruyd =. to strike. Rouchi dapoter. dial. clydion. To Cluck. clunch. kloven. from W. and clay. dabosser. del mattond. More in R.ft. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. a nail) Fr. clammy earth. Clown. a thick mass. Du. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. Cld. In the same way E. klaven. klubbe. to cloy. a blabber.Fris. block. de Champ. ON. with lout. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. cludadh. CLUCK rustic. lump. — — — . a breach.bar. kUid. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. a clubfoot klabb. The priClout. clods. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. a . lump of earth aria. G. Das volk hat sich in splitten. E.' Sanders. Club.). clobyn. dump. coarse. clunch. mary sense is a blow. lie clyd. G. to lump mend clumsily. een klaven kruflook. nelke (dim. klu77ip. a bunch. AS. eene ODu. blockish. a clod. dut. a boss. Pl. from kloven.

as clumper. Sc. esclaboter. klomje. Fr. dystere. clausum. Clump. a lump or compact mass. smart motion. See -elude. unhandy. with a quick. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. a clot klissen. Du. in v. -close. But clunchy. It. from laver. to curdle. as Fr. awkward. lump of soft mate. klister. Fris. klunt. eviratus. dial. koetsen. coucher became in unhandy. exclude. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. as from seken. klette. Sw. G. dumpse. dumps. klods. —More.E. wooden shoes. -olus-. awkward. klocken. wooden sole. -elude. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. klummerhdndt. algidus. — Hence include. The Fr. duke. benumbed with cold. and koetse. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. Hindust. ment. dumpers. klumpern. cleuk. cliboter. strum on an instrument. clointer. glousser. klontet. E. a lump. to squeeze. doquear. to tramp. a lump.P. Lat. dussomed (Wilbrabam). enervatus.D. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. might be reached from clump. seize. — Cot.' Wycliff. xXvariip. MHG. finish. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . Riwle. may recline. dek. properly to do anything Fr. inclusive. Du. claws. a ball.' Benecke.' Comfort ye dumsid. the word is more probably connected with OE. eviratus. The sense of awkward. Graff in Klamjan. klobber in klobbersaen. Lat. kichlemmit. to pinch. ball of snow on horse's foot . limp. Sw.mene tied. beklommen. koetsDa. * Clumsy. to curdle. — sen. and make ye strong feeble knees. calling her chickens. lavesen.D. tight — — . with E. Hence cleik. . Men bethe combered and clommed with cold.— — . ' Clumper. klikonosy.Ancr. Teulazy. Pm. wagen. klump. also a cluster.D. Coach. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. In the same way Du. paste. . unhandy. From the notion of sticking together. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. OE. to tramp or tread heavily. klonte. crooked inwards . to grip. Hence snatching. Ang.forklomme (Outzen). clumsy. Ray. hands stiff with cold. splash. a pinching time. 130. klamen.D. klos.pare P1. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. from klupen. -clusum. dial. close.' Vegecius in Way. to gingle. clutch. klimpern. cleche. Coal. and klotteren. Pl. acomelydfor could Pr. an instrument for nasal form e. to collect in lumps. * Clump. conclusion. fingers (familiar). Compare Swiss klupe. dek. log. cluster. COAL dumpish. a clod or lump. klamp. dial. to lie. differing only in the absence of the duik. clip or pinch. having the Pl. MHG. clabosser. Du. ON. G. ether comelia P. See reclusion. kol. eene beklum. er. unwieldy Hal. glocire. klemmen. hondis. koetblockish. bunch. a litter. klcise. viscous material. a clod or The noclot. to tramp. Analogous forms with a tongs. Champ. klisse. in comp. hooknosed. clook. ' . a noise. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. to rinse. beklummen. ' Thou clontsest for cold. Muster. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. klumpig. hand to cleuk. Beklummen van kelde. clump. Variation of clatter. Clutch. . clopiner. klunsen. heavily. claw. pinched. to shut. pladdern. Sp. cluntClyster. klont. rial. Isaiah. to benumb with cold. a claw. klummklummshandt. lay hold of. A group. &c. or aclommyde. Du. Cheshire. havi. to syllable click. ' Uorte (for clogs. a ball . Fr.D. through the senses of lumpish. Cath. kluntfrom KKvKdi. carriage in which you klodset. -clus-. Du. Pl. conclude. klonte. of garlick. Lincolns. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. a clod clunter. —To Clumsyd. verklomen. to wash. a coach. -cludo. whence koetse. klemma. coccolare. E. ill-made . to to snatch. dial. . idle. to klotz. to stick together . klikaty. plad or plod. klampa. — . clotted cream. cleik. claudo. klompen. from ON. to wash. kohle. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. of Du. ball as snow. klomen. a couch. a bunch. Com. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. Hesse. a clove Sw. to paddle or dabble. Clutter. Cluster. a nasalised form of club. obstructum. -CLUDE hen Du.e. clutch. Fr. a block. OHG. and klonteren. 159 E. n. verkommelen. are the nasalised forms of klotte. G.. koetsie.'— animal. thick and clumsy. unfashioned. Gr. or from Sw. — ' — — tonista. a clod or lump. G. to curdle. gelidus. Boh.

to Lett. things. a coat or frock. sweets and the other of poisons. . in Du. may be A found in Sw. Du.' — Thus from (Hal. cochinilla. — Cobbler. e. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im.. glow jvalaya. Pm. dial.. glow. bijamie. CooMneal. In the E. to form an union with another coalitus. to burn.). woman is said to be very ordinary. dial. to grow together. Fin. dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. To cobble. pock. pustule. dial. the one of thump. Flem. a rib. tuft. to kindle jvAla. pryf-coppyn. to be hot. a firesteel Lat. a knock. one Pr. Colina' the place where a fire is made. kop-ar. cacd). When the .). to cob. a similar According to Ihre. . Cobbles in the N. Fr. to stammer. says Varro. Coalesce. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. The wood-louse is still called sow in parts of England . or upper . . to peck as a hen cobyn. cobble. * To Cobble. to wheedle or gull vermin). and fig. klabbare. Du. a woodlouse. in Essex Jow*2c^. rivation are found in Sw. OE. — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. to stutter. Fr. to worship. a thumper. to speak or act confusedly. verklomen. a spider (/r)^=grub. to bungle Sc.). a cobweb. Outzen. Dan. used in — . and jval. It. a nest. . a kitchen. dial. to bungle . to glow . ridi. kolna. The contrast between the bee • Cob. as shown in dob and cob. Cocasse. koljarn. To cokes or coax one then is to make a w. cule cocosse. s. of E. a bungler. cotta. The Fris. . ignem. atter-kop. cobcoals. caleo. Formerly written course. Coarse. a great falsehood. the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes. of poison. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. s. side .the water boils. verkommelen. and hobble. cob is a dumpy horse. large coals. — — . viz. habble. The OE. or cobble. e. dial. Sanscr. then to work unskilfully . spinne-ivebbe. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. united.(pi. H^cart. and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. niais. niais. boil. 3. from bearing a bag. ailina or colina. from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . to beCoax. to stutter. The primary sense is doubtless koelA. frock. hakkelen. cluster. Coat. top cobio. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. COCHINEAL Cobber. and thence a lump cobnut. ON. The dirt. — Pr. walk clumsily.inflated with air or liquid. however. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. or E.— Cobble. a sow. coste. klabba. inflammation. to . blaze. kylla. a bunch. any kind of coat. w.' Nares. long standing. koppe. kop. and E. to be inflamed . cotte. itself is Nescock . It. haggle. to kindle or cause to burn . of E. k'dlla. flame.—Atkinson. probably left his home. is one of thump.. coalesce. cob. koppen-gespin. See Cot. ordinary as in the expression of course. that is. meaning that she is plain and coarse. an old idiot. Trevoux. pockbecility and liability to imposition. bredouiller. plaisant. and imperfect or unskilful action. to cobble shoes. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering. an egg. acomelyd or aclommyd. costa. to pdt with We may cite Fr. tempered clay for building. from a root signifying Traces of such a deto glow or burn. The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. from some fancied resemblance. burning. Fr.' And colo. The form attercop seems