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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. and. persons of different tongues at the present day. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. when neither name for the object to be designated. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. the closer we shall approach to the . mind of the of the animal. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. to the syllables which are significant to the child. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. with an initial m or I. and mully or mully cow is the . the baaing of the sheep. in language of the present day. in other words. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. The syllables moo (mu. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. and where we are seeking. muK) and mae (rfie. when we is represent to our children of the cow. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. by whom the be understood. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. come Moolls. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. but nothing she herself knows the animals. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. is given to a cow or calf. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. Molli. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. the present day. or Mollein. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. come Moolls (Mrs Baker).NURSERY IMITATIONS. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). name of the cow. or. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped.

who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. and some were very clear and distinct. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. became more perfect. when hungry. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. mumm. to For instance.' In ordinary speech mump. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. for everything fit to eat. for things.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. nineteen years old. We have. nim. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. hm. analogous to Magyar mammogni. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. and which we might express thus. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. then. as well as the mind of the utterer. He would now say good. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. p. I had watched the growth of this word. schipp. and nim came to signify everything edible. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. Gradually. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. &c. in children's language.. repulsive to eat. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. Gr. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. A member of my own new sfop. fiafifi&v (Hesych.). an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. Heinicke. by the natural humming sound. . . had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. he called to to drink. for bad.' he says. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. had nim. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. family. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. Finally an n was placed before it. his nurse adopting the word with him. to work over with the mouth. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. partly from sounds which the child caught. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. On one occasion he said^e nim. to eat. First. 72).

minis. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). . nvrnma. nyam nyam. buckra man's language the white man. eating. food (Tylor. delicacies. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. Swedish dialect gamsa. Nimm'd up. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. i8o. memmexen. we can call them so. jamsa (yamsa). Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). and the crab — p. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. to chew laboriously. to mump. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. lita. agreeing with Ein. aves tinnire. crab nam buckra man. clangorqae tubarum. (in chil- dren's language).ONOMATOPCEIA. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. mumpfeln. A negro proOr. Gothic niman.' says Quintilian. to eat. to move the lips in continued chewing. tidbits nama . the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. ut tinnitus aeris. savory. Africa) nimnim. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. aptantes adfectibus vocem. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. to eat mampfen. and some of them . or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. to Sw. as to . to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). greedy . Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt.' — Lersch. ' id est. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. as well as the Sw. Vei (W. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . p. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. make djamdjam). palatable. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. iii. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. Soosoo (W. nam. Primitive Culture. to fill the mouth.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. at hiamske i sig. jammla. i. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. yamming. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. Africa) nimi. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. the Scotch poet. or word-making. stolen. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. namnam.' And Diomedes. to taste . sweet (Koelle). and the fizzing (and Series. nobis vix permittitur. mumpfen. mumble. to be pleamind . Wolof nahenahe. snatched (Whitby Gl. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. mujnpa. on. Galla djam djeda. dial. to take. ' Motherwell. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. taken up hastily on the sly. 130-1. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. and thence to be tasteful. voracious. jumla. oves lalare. South Jutland hiamsk. j ing . 1 86). And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam.' says the author of Modern Slang.). to smack in eat.

yelping. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. purring or mewing of cats. bumping of bitterns. hooting of owls. grunting or squealing of hogs. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. when circumstances required. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. 'I doubt. croaking of frogs or ravens. und growling. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. or. not of a baa. dove and cooing. Indeed. sparrow and chirping.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. for the purpose of bringing the animal. cooing or crooing of doves. whether it deserves the name of language. snarling. might be used. chirping of sparrows or crickets. might be used as the designation of it. howling. barking. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. lowing of oxen. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. Yet we ing. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . snarling of dogs. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. anything connected with it. p. twittering of swallows. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. do not speak of a bowwow.' — We speak of a cow. not of a moo of Lect. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. baaing or maeing of lambs. bellowing of bulls. gobbling of a turkey-cock. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. that there is When Man. but of a dog.' he says. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. before the in other words. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. intended in the instance to represent the cry. cackling or gaggling of geese. yelping. a lamb. or thoughts of our hearer. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. We . bleating of sheep. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. 89) with less hesitation. neighing or whinnying of horses. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. between dog and harking. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things.' And elsevs^here (p. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. ^6^. chattering of pies or monkeys.

and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. kauwe. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. Arabic kdk. Kdrava. e. sound). and Bavaria respectively. caw kuhii-rava (rava. kdka. Manchu The kaha. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. kuho. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. it announces (Salaberry). 349. Bav. a bird that is be driven away. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. Hungary.IMITATIVE NAMES. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). a crow (Pictet). I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. Columbia kahkah. KOKKvi. ist ed. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. fi-om apakd- i. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. Barabra koka. is kuM) for the cuckoo. layitavya . kae. We imitate the sound with a modulated. Picard cau. and gaggele or gagkelein. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen.' common sense. 380. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. and the sound of that direction. Georgian quaki. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. caller. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects.. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. lion. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. having a general predicative power. Malay gdgak. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. In Basque. 'Kdka. Sometimes the hoarse i . a crow. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. ghak. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck.). a daw. in is Gr. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. in g. a a crier (p. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. Aoo-Aoo. according to Durga). when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo.' kd). In Lat. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. crow. and means a shouter. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. coccolare. 4th ed. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. gackem.). whose sound (Pictet. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. crow. or quawk. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. Sauscr. birds. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. Origines Indo-Europeennes). and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. He to is therefore derives kdka.

libufs. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. uhu. Arabic tdtwit.. in the North of England. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. name of its is the bird. The crowing of cot in Fr. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . German kielitz. tur. Walachian coucouveike. kurre. reduplicate form. tortbla. to crow. kraeye. Heb. to croak. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. or Gr. p. German luhu. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. tor. Sp. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. as well as of Sanscr. by the verbs gurren or girren. Pers. and e. Du. 6. the name for a crow. tbrtola. kraukti. Magy. giving turtur (and thence It. a crow . cock. kukko. French dishuit. koeren. to hoot. synonymous forms of similar structure). coccovaec. are represented. 219. Da. kraeyen.Gr. xi. Swedish kowipa. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. lUyrian kukurekati. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. Scotch peeweip. "Welsh hwan from hwa. Fr. to cry loudly. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. and sometimes both together. Esthonian kikkas. either in the same or in related dialects. yell. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. lilits. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. wood-pigeon. Ibo akoka. to crow. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. gugu. to howl or Lat. kukhuta. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. It. Hindi. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g.. gufo. Malay kukuk. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. a crow lish Lith. kruk. kirren. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. a crow. Mod. the name of an animal will gen- . the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. German and Eng- krahen. korren. while crouk. krahe. Du. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. The consonants p. coucouva. ghughu.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. t. Albacuculi a dove. Lettish kiekuts. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. Zulu kuku. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. to croak. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. lulo. hibou. another. kuku. tuquheit. So we have Polish krukac. turtle) as the Lat. teewhoop. krauklys. and e. Yoruba koklo. coqueri- Languedoc. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. girre. great variety of oKokv^uv. k. tbrtora. name. Dutch kievit.

whirr). Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. schwirren. from the humming. flight its sting considered as a horn. loud rumour. (Jieuschrecke) . buzzing. to be compared with Sanscr. growling. — Catafogo. and not from E. hollow noise. sound. to chirp J may be compared with . skirl. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. 'The natives call it tanand. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. zirken. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. Lat. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. Albanian tsentsir. little intermission. schirke. schrecke. succeeding each other — with noise.' — i. din. a sharp sound as of a 6. grillen. dhran. humming. to hum. as . buzzing. grille. thunder. cricket is from crick. a hornet. In the N.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. Corean sirsor. The Welsh chwyrnu. g. horniss and from the buzzing The. knetta. common. Arabic tantanat. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri).vf3. Naturalist on the tocano. ' — Pictet . oE. Northern Farmer. in allusion to its music. 337. shrill. give a faint sound. Australian bumberoo. resound. skryle. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. chirk. grylhis. the humble. of England it is to the b 2 . with or Fr. swirplys with 6. a bee. a drone. g. from schrick.' Amazons. bee. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. droning is . bamba. e. PofijivXwg. bambhara. German hummel. The drone peal. The name of the cricket indeed. resounding of musical instruments. Sanscr. gives rise to chwymores. the drone or non-working bee . which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. Danish dron. a fly (Tylor) . may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. Speaking of a cricket he says. We may cite Gr. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. ' Sanscr. Sc. skril with n. schrickel.or bumble-bee. which they make in their flight very . booming. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. Gaelic dranndan.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. Fin. i. to rustle. and probably indicates that g.' —Tennyson. German dronen. ajo. ta-na-nd. pip-pi-ta. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. words imitative of humming . The Arabic sarsor. North of England. to creak Bret. sirkka. Lith. and yelping cry. Danish gnaddre. glass cracking (Schmeller). representing a short sharp sound. to chirp . to sound. a beetle druna. German drohne. to grumble. and he kong-ko-rong. to shrill sound sharp. kong-kong. a small as hawk is . ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. there are infinite varieties. Lithuanian tranas. g. or a gnat fly.IMITATIVE NAMES.

bu. Cult. Manx booa. to low . and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. btibleti. to make a noise. a bullock. or formed Lat. to bellow like a bull. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. mamoo-heeheek. to shout. From the same lioao). a cow. bauli. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. to make a loud deep sound. to sound. representmake bow. Gael. bucula. Fr. 167. lulauti (to hoo-loo). The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. bugle. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. Norse bu. a Geiger. bukati. in same way. w. Lat. bullock. mae. baula. bugler. bo. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. the animal. that the imitative syllable are Lith. are (with a subsidiary k). a name preserved in our bugle-horn. to or bark. and from to ring. from the imitative moo instead of boo. to beat hard. representing the mew of a cat. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. With these analogies. bae. loge. Hottentot bou (Dapper). in a imitation of a ringing sound. to ba-L-are. to make. fivKaofiai. a bull. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. mugler. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. grumble as distant thunder . Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. Zulu lulula. a buffalo. as the Illyr. bos. to shout. cattle. mugire. bubenti. bue. to the uses goda. k or g. to boohoo. be-l-er. Da. Fr. On the same principle. amuse. a heifer. to make. is inadmissible. The Piedm. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. w. muJiati. Lat. make poo. bae. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. or moo.XX called booing. to weep. to bump as a bittern Illyr. say. From baa. and djeda. boo. Lat. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). to bow- own bawl. or bau-l-i. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. make to it laugh. whence baula. agreeing exactly with Lith. verbal form given to the say. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. and in Hottentot baa was the . Galla boa. verb is evidently identical with our shout. the Fr. maukati. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. bull. to . bubati. shoot . to low or bellow. bovis. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. forms a. bullus and e. Piedmontese fi bau. It. to mew. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. His analysis leads cow. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. or with on. and thence Lat. miau-l-er. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. — ^Tylor. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. The Galla lilbil. a drum . ox. bwla. Illyr. or a z to the imitative syllable. as that of the cow by boo. buculus. bolt. (iove. biibnas. has bilbilgoda. to from bau. Thus from miau. OFr. p. to low.

a grunt. meketati. kurre. to bleat. Gr. grumbhng. Kurren und murren. And it is true there between hog and grunt. as lou of an ox. to bleat. name of the animal itself. as the proper name of a tame sheep. — . The g. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. curmurring. to howl. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. hunt (gen. hunon. goats. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. cite as by grunt. mutter. and grumphie. . If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. in Wolof bae. and of (maelon). houch. Africa laa. to grunt. from hundama. From the imitative mae. grumble. Gr. and hoc'h. grugno. Illyr. a hog. or in any ! way ! persuading. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. a goat. purr). /xijeao/iat. this obstinate race. G. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. With gen. Illyr. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). a. Hence Breton hoc ha. . grogner. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. knurfisk. for the voice of the ox). leknuti. to rumble. a pig Fin. grunt. Welsh and Breton). grunny. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. meil. (iriKov of forms like Sw. lambs. to bleat . corresponding to ohg. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. a sheep or a goat. meckern. Among dog. a dog. Fr. rumbling. to grunt. to growl. meugler. Moreover. and with the subsidiary k or g. in v. from knurre. a sow. lekavica. guttural tone. oe. name of a sheep. and thence groin. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. and snorke. a pig. Gael. a goat. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. sus-sus. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. naskia. hundi). he would hardly. undoubtedly imitative.' Moor's Suffolk words. lek-eg-ni. lecco. kurren. a sow. a sheep. Da. grunlike a pig in eating. ^. hund. a sheep (Lowe). sheep or goat. Fr. It. ' In driving. although the imitation embodied in Lat. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. the snout of a pig. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. may with to snarl. hound. menAda (ndda. It is probable also that e. meigeal. we have Sanscr. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. leg-et-ni. mecati. a goat firixal^ta. Idgge (Rietz). nire. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. to themselves. signifying a snarling. cry). by which the shingle gives rise to It. a (Hesych. name. a wolf. may be identical with Esthon. growl. with the root ypaipm. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. 6. hwch. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. / The same Gr. /xj/caScj.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. the designations of a dog the term cur. Gr. Illyr. groin. grumble. grumpf. and Circassian maylley. hadg- Magy. does not produce a e. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. karra. a sheep or ewe. sound. Manx meilee. smack and naski. it and e. .). Magy. mekegni.

it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. 91.). hobben. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. such as cuckoo. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. So Sanscr.' 2nd Series. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. . to go backwards. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. hiine. hoppe. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal.. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. animal. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. Esthonian hoibo. as in Yorkshire highly right. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. g. If onomatopoeias can . In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself.root. without a — we root. coquette. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). Sc. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. like artificial flowers. a mare. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. coquelicot. the cry to stop or back a horse. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. to the left. houpy in Craven. to whine. from the cry animal. hobby. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse.). a horse. humma. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. a little am- bling horse. There are of course some names. hobin.' ticular bird. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). of the character in question. (Craven Gloss. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. turn a horse to the is In Finland. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. ^6<. when he found peculiarity. p. hottihuh. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. p. . But words of this kind are.. Thus we are led to the Fr. e. M). whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold.' — ist Series. cockade.

Lettish sweegt. hikkd. hresh. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. Bohem. ance or habits of the animal.D. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. groan. as sigh. hross. runniken. lapwing. Fr. horse. g. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. ginniken. goatsucker. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. Pl. signified It. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. swift. e. command of language was attained. Du. Irieschen. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. sol. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. titter. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. little speak for themselves. animals or certain kinds of sound. woodpecker. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. . moan. nitrire. cough. wagtail. giggle. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. to neigh. Sw. than to the sounds represented. frenschen. fehtati. redpole. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. wrenska. creeper. Sanscr. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. whitename in in- throat. nounced with a guttural). hresh. rinchar. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. xxiii ginal object. to Sanscr. hukkup. hennir. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. wiehern. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. wrena. Sp. form corresponding hresh. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. but whether there kind between them and other words. diver. turtur and its derivatives had been lost.

Wtb. DingBang. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. for a small one. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. ding. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. fitsche-falsche. klatsch. for the sound of a fall. to hammer . &c. knarr. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . knack. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. for the sound of a blow.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. Mei gbengben. hoo. haitshu. the dashing of the sea . thunder (Tylor) . Vei gbangba. hoo ping ping. to knock. Da. to throw violently down. root kshu. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . in a nail Let. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. Australian bungbung ween. strippstrapp-stroll. 1865. White Lies. are familiar in ' to every one. clap ! A smack Puff. shriek. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description.' 'Haw. atchian.' ! ! ! ! — dong. tlirob. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. ping came the bullets about their ears. a large bell. It is represented in e. debhes-lungotais (deifies. bangas. heart tick-tack. went the cannon. pump. heaven). or the w. for the sound of milking. snore. to sneeze. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. for the creaking of a wheel. a kind of drum. &c. scream. aritischane. for that of breaking. to drive on. banga. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. beat of a clock child . plitsch-platsch. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. snukkup). for blows with a rod. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. bang ' ! trenches. mer. —Brem. or tliat is accomit. haw. lumm. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. hang. tisio (tisho). wheeze. — Sanders.' So imac. bang. . Zulu bongo. beat. pit-a-pat.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. for the for the sound of . to ham. to beat. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. the God of thunder . banke.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. a more expressive than the e. for in such sound of blows. dong Read. an attempt would be made to by the voice. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . Of a like forma- drum .' it both sides went. snort. atchini. on the chops is represented also by pratx. oren : Klapp. ting-ting. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another.

a (young) pigeon. piou. a fowler's bird call is lost. to designate cavity and hollow. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. cry of young birds . pipe. pi. De Brosses. chickens (Tylor). young bird. is pfeife. pule. and whimper. Lat.sc. — . the voice of chickens (Cot. as k. mobility excavation and hollow ^. not- . but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. to cry like imrli^u). Gr. to peep It. which he added to intensify the expression. of a word will appear supposed to represent. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. and so forth. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. pipio. young child . piauler. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language.) a chick. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. In cases such as these. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. It seems to him that the teeth t. is of expression. pipare. peep. a whelp. pipelni. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. laugh. to squeak. a chicken or gosling. had been used laugh ? two. has been un- employed to designate fixity. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. Mantuan pipiare. ducing the sound. —Lyndsay. pipe. Magyar pip. G. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. calls S. as in other subjects of study. pippione. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. a fife or musical pipe. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. . to cry pi. piccione. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. He Yet asks. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. Florio. pigione. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. Fr. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. a or cheep. to cheep like a bird or a young It. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. pipegni. pipio. pipilo. The pi. pu. or the uneducated different consonants are man. pigiolare. peep. e. cry. and their relations. bleat.' instead. doubtless. part of the What consciousness has the child. or a piailler. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. as the simplest implement for proFr. Lat. pigolare. child. scream. used as a call to . piou. far pipi.

Poppopvi^to. a closed or obscure sound. of something fine and thin. to rattle. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. to pant violently (Colenso).Gr. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. in German. cricli. a sharp short one. be cate to go on laughing loud . sound of dry breaking. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). make wood a clinking noise. lachachen. to cluck. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. a prolonged sharp sound. where the variation. crack. kniks. bubble. to bubble. a short sharp sound. tintino. to gargle . Zulu raraza. to be compared with Sc. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. knuks. and lugh. {to It. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . turtur. to creak knirren. Pacific aka-aka. . rumble. knaks. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. preserved by Kilian.. to hawhaw or laugh loud. tontonare. like the noise of a glass breaking . cluck. to grate the teeth . rumble. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. ioriogliare (to make borbor).. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . garren.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. a drum W.) Mod. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. some small vowel or consonantal sound. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. to grumble). The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. borrelen. to thunder. a. is very common. girren. It. along with Du. Indian chack-chack. . kniks. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . gurren. tonare. &c. to cry pi. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. knurren. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. Manchu kaka-kiki. laqfF. when it force than biscuit. crash. the side of g. lachen. grumble. loud laughter. to gorgogHare rattle. murren. the clucking of a j hen . of a loud strong sound. to crackle like in boiling . or springing back. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. karkarana. kirkirdnd. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . u. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. to jar. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. as representing the sound made when something breaks. murmur (by . to ring pipio. rumble (Fl. Hindoo tomtom. vaake gorgor) . to growl. Hindustani karak is rendered. creak. along with tinnio. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. to fizz like fat in frying. to pant bejii- zela. Pefuxela. i. to gurgle. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). or kaka-faka. coo. pi . thunder oil . to grumble. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. to laugh. to clack. as the click of a latch or a trigger. kuruk. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. chack. sound).

caca and Finnish adkkd. djeda (to say tub). bent her head. clango. a drum . uproar. to knock. and e. for the clinking Lat. spring of water in the a bell. Sanscr. Calt. or of bells ringing. sound). Tiie Galla gigiteka. identical with g. to say chut. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. and Gr. clank. and Gr. awater* ' The Mme P. is based on the same imitation as the e. especially one who beats. Fr. jingle. halaidlac'h. . bubble up. agrees with g. as Fr. for a tTviror). tumult. cry. klirren. brings us to Fr. correspond to e. Magyar csamm-ogni.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. to whisper. kl'mg-kling. tumwata. drops of i. hala-hald-faMa (falda. The syllables lil-bil. the gingling of glasses. ding-dong. box on the ear imitation of the . Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. bad. clash of arms.* the heart. a smith. tubh. or the bubbling up of to a spring.' Member for Paris. a nightingale. Newman). koXiw. E. sound. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. coughing or clearing the throat. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. borrelen. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. chut. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. clink. at an accelerated note. and the imitative nature of tivgle. kiling-kalang. . and the same may be said of Zulu kala. noise. The whispering of the wind I. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. 1871. simmer. or to Du. Prim. rvir (in tvittio. as of Tamil muromurmur. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. muro and e. for the ringing of illustrate bells. the sound of a stringed instrument. to the purling of a brook. fumtu. quarren. call. rifiirayov. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. 192). The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. rain (Tylor. chinking of coin. Scotch sough or sooch. and bilhila. to ring or jingle. to be compared with g. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. shout. make djamdjam). to croak Manchu <juar-guar. compared with Gr. to strike. jangle. Turk. csam-csogni. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. for chut-chiit-er. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. 368). KaKog. for the sound of privy whispering. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . is Manchu tang-tang. croaking of frogs. chuchoter. a boy's whistle.and e. indicating the origin of Gr. disturbance (F. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . Manchu kaka. tup. Galla tuma. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. of keys or tinkling of bells. a workman. corresponding in e. are applied to the is excrements of children. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). bulbiil. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. to beat. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. a nightingale. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. word. and her heart went thump. wail. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. thump. champ. Maori pata. the tingling Ming-Hang. e. to giggle. while cacd / used in e.

So in Fr. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. Humboldt. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. Nevertheless. But although and also found in Lat. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. dabble. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. Fr. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. paddle. we have buffet or cuff. in e. rap. The use of g. thwack. flap. while e. blow. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. squall. at a door tarapatan. craunch. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. crunch. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. clack. hiss. puff. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. clap. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. chink. thump. smash.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. rumble. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. douse. or v^hether jectional. splash. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. tum-ultus. whine. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. squeak. tymmesll. chatter. crash. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . it is fallj AS. squeal. to is blow. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. a applied as well to the force of the bang. jingle. tinkle. ' Der puff. tingle. boom. whack. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types.' — Nohden. to fall. flop. whizz. hum. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. swash. rataplan or rantanplan. for (Sanders). and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. bubble. bang. sputter. splutter. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. guggle. answering to g. and Fr. mutter. rattle. without the intervention of orthodox roots. tumbian (to beat the ground). din. plump. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. brumberum. thump. thump. patter. snap. pop. ring. lash. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. The beating of drum is represented in e. fizz. tomber. 'pat. creak. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. dash. and the French pouf. clash. clink. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. tap. smack. disturbance. murmur. report of a gun. gurgle. clatter. parapatapan. clang. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. twang. souse. by rubadub. according to the strictest phonetic rules. crack. whirr. It. w. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. and Grimm. gargle. to dance. blubber. the Germans puff.. slash. clank. and soufflet.

or of any if wood. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. in the case of the animal or of the infant. are made known by an instinctive cry. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. but if we must not complain on the beach. and thus they become signs of despair. wringing the hands. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire.' If chaos. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. because they are spontaneous. by the nature of the cry. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . stractions. little who has time to want of her nurseling. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. hay.'. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. 94. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. p. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. or stubble is meaner name. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. every little pain. without a thought of symbolising to them. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. If. is Thus ah!. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. the inteij. At the first beginning of life. and found in the building of be burnt up. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman.' . attention of the simply to the mother or the master. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . Henceforth rational beings may produce them. the interj. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. of horror. that he has taken the step in rational speech. Crying. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. and uttering plaintive sounds. xxix on the contrary. the kind of action that is desired of them. ugh . of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. grief. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. an imitation of a sigh . the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. in the rushing waters. Grimm or Bopp. formerly cited. or any unsatisfied want. knows them. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side.

the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. coughing. be more powerful. 344. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. sneezing. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. of all the mouth. interjections. If I wish to make a person of an .. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. and the eye. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. ^6g And to the same effect 371. And again. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. more eloquent than a long speech. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. may become traditional. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. he cites from Home Tooke. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. more to the point. they are involuntary interjections. which are frequently so toned down cance. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. p. 32. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain.' p. the lowing of a cow.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. should be remem- .' — ist Series. and some of them the composition of words. to solve the I shall call first. p. Language begins where interjections end. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. One short interjec- tion may fact. them to exercise it. He says. shrieking.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. groaning. as who them spontaneous utterances. or which is of me as suffering pain. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech.

but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. then speech begins. and thus. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. I am not hearer. interjections. Gr. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. some kind of language might have been formed. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. hahota. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . bered. loud laughter. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. it them. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. cachinno. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. for example. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. in Fin. and more or less limited . And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. Lat. he says. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. and others from interjections. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. Kayxa^u). speaking. hohottaa. kahkahah. when I arp humming and hawing. but the less am at a loss what to say. Tooke in truth. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. demolishing here. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. in Magy. hahottaa. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. Koxafw. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter.

' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. like peewit and cuckoo. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. of the nature of this great movement. of the world. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. a Picture-language. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. What strikes him . It as has ing their most striking features. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. if taken as a whole. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. The following account is given by Kruse. words receiving the meanings they now bear. But here nature soon conies to his help. a deaf-mute himself. . "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs.' he says. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. the critical question should be. makes them stand and walk upon the table. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. and not. And so in the case of language. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. Though. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. and go where we now say stand. dumb is the language of signs.

for child. for the agent. or the verb to be. The of sign for left hand. and fully serves to j . or To pull and flap with the arms. it means little. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. The same sign stands and the act itself.GESTURE most. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. nay. to name. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. that signifies great . many when or but these. walker. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. it seems. for walk. that air. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. called Gesture-language. letter To hold the two fingers apart. signs are taught for yet. the whole secret. most striking outline of an object. walked. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. such as than the educated man. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. and we have roast goose. and forms further and further. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. thought is already broken. and it is flesh or meat. such objects. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. and to taste. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. for single objects.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. what more. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. his action. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. particular sense in properly so called. that. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. xxxiii him between one thing and another. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. he. walkest. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. And is. he. push it towards the person addressed for thou. among themselves. the lan- guage cultivates itself. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. can do better and more easily abstract terms. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. and And thus he makes himself a language. but if I depress it instead. as it now opens out.' In the Institutions. and with his thought. the sorecalling them to his memory. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. and gestures. becomes roast meat. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. like a V. thou.

might be the knife. or an act. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. and the as. or a passive scene of existence. or something of the kind. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. in fact. He gave door a bang. I say. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. . and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. qualifies the against the wall. The same word . The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. When I say. a number of alternatives are suggested. the garden. Do not bang the it is a verb. as But when it is meant door. in other instances sentence. as when Bang ! went the gun. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. it called an interjection. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. whether by additions or otherwise. as in die it is a noun. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses.' dener's knife. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. the ture of white term pink is and red. would be simply beginning of speech. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. when I say. putting it into his pocket. or action. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. according to the circumstances of the case. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. depend entirely upon the use. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. and so is an adverb. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. to indicate the action of a certain person. and thus performs the part of an adjective. When a verb. in expressing such relations as those indicated above.xxxiv asking. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. You beaten . or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. Who is has beaten you ? would be. a colour red. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. or a quality. substantive or adjective.

Thus tafu signifies a great man.. in the is indicated by the syllable y. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. contempt. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. &c. a sigh of oppression and . as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. that admits itself in of audible representation. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. which is an old y ting (use stick). some outward display of the affection. . that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. commencement of speech. with a stick. coalesces with the personal pronouns. grie^ horror. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. verb nor noun has yet been developed. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. or some relation between it and another object. whereof. that is. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. pain. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. or nei. as kuo cung. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. Latin. inquiry. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. middle. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. a groan. and may be used language. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. wherefore. whereto. wherehy. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . but often self-evident. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. or with elements expressing relations of time. greatness. wonder. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. the man is great. wherewith. 255. and to be great. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. a noun. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. in the sense of great. inside. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great.^ — Miiller I. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. Jii ta.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. as cung. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs.

however. oh. ach. vce. woe. miau-l-is. form. It. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. found in g. ing action I. weh. Let. ocAJ. ace. ach. the pangs of childbirth. achen. and to bark . och. to weep. w^wa. ahi. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. are ol-ire. wai-l. tirr-djeda. ochain. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). to make). 6.'). a groan or lamentation vir. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. as. guajo. Gr. misfortune. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. jaoh. or r. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. weinen. och. to . guai. j. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. ache. and cacak djeda (to say crack. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. to cry at. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. to lament. to cry n. ! ! Goth. grief. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . woe. vce. to weep. Such are g. probably a deeper groan. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. cece. A widespread It. wAwa. dchzen. gwe-l-a. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. seen in Gr. djamdjam goda (goda. suffering. gwae. vaj. It. waiidt. howl. e. to hurt Let. . Thus from springs otjucifw. misery. vei-a. grief] affliction. grief. ochan. to ache. is w. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. ai. mew. g. hei. oi. ah. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. to bewail oneself. ah. wd. as. e. to injure. has more kopfweh. first person. pain. It. oh. ach. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. Lat. representing a cry of pain. al. wai. la. die wehen. . w.ez. to lament. wehthun. to ache. ohi. Gael. on. The form corresponding to Lat. to wail or cry alas . 6. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. o'i. Lat. oimare.. lau-l-e. miau-n-is. ui. at the close of the radical syllable. Illyr. Gr. to gargle. &. to make bow-wow. Gr. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. to sound yapyap. to chirp. in Gr. e. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. n. pain. lament. aiai^to. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. Fr. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. to rriourn. jao. headache. wehen (Schmeller). w. In this way from the root guai. ochan. pain. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. I oi[iot. och. is Ay di me I Gr. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. guaj-ire. It. to groan. miau-l-er. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. . to yell formed e. representing Illyr. .-l-are. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. to do woe. lament from oimi. g. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. wai. . to cause pain. to wail. xxxvi grief. ohg. axofiai. mostly a ! %. Jar lau-lau. gwae. Illyrian vaj. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. oval. Bret. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. weh schreien. guaj- or cry out pitifully. on.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

saying : there the ad- Trans. da. Diet. Please. or carry me thither. Bav. more emphatically roSj)j that. we may translate this by there (it is). is we I believe. ToSe (or in Attic E. or wants to name something.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. according to Menage. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. implying the direction of its good will towards them. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. 'nay. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither.' this. the nursery da-da. Dr Lottner observes. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made.' all is is — their consent. child. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. I add) .) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. a specified were by pointing him out.' then points to his wife. a word of many applications in g. give. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. or give me it. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. that gratifies me. Sanders (Germ.' person. nurseries. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. . da. well as Goth. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. der da-ige. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. indeed. When we pointing. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. is-te). the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. The Fr. thata (ta-ta). as. this here. says da-da-da. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. But. Thank you. but the truth is. case. In the expression Da. • The child. when 1859. as it Dieser da (as Lat. and by a variety of expressions besides.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. or that it is. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. that is it. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. to here . ' sees an object. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. his trowsers' pocket. as to express. and so on. Phil. and may be rendered. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. give me that cheese. Sie. that. for instance. when he wants something.

speech. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. in every mode of expressing the idea. moving. sinking. or dalliance. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. tattle. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. to tion to another. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. make dadada). ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. the original is that which he places first. reality. tasting. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen.' says Lottner interior. to knock. standing. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. meanings. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. p. takes it — as When the soul. stutter. and one in particular must. then instinctively interest. to move step by step. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. pay.' • liv ANALOGY. to walk. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. to say to oneself. and shapes it into an . and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. dadee. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. childish toying. sounds. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. beat.^ its ' utters : a cry. The da is dodem. to chatter. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. of which any one may. or metaphor. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. strike. to beat. — Cot. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. Thus Gr. thinking. which thus exertion. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. its desire. .' says Muller.

a ringing . In the case of sparkle. Lith. 1654. snotor. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. snudra. a brilliant light kilid. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. noise. prudent. and. to glitter. schiteren. to sniff out. sprageti. for example. taste. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. So firom Lat. bright. firom the Gael. to tinkle. unlella. beam. to . The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. . ghsten. wilistd. tumult. also wise. bilbil). kiimottaa. wilahtaa. (parallel bilbila. to sparkle. while sapere itself. to glitter. in popular language. a rustling sound Gr. magnificence. wamara. to be wise. sense of brightness. In the same way the Goth. gnittre. &c. Finnish. to crackle gnistre. brilliancy. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. to snilF. scTiateren. a with kimmaltaa. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. splendour. same imitative root with Sw. Again. is used in the origin. think.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. to resound. sapere (which signifies the nose. smell. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. to shine. from the . and schmecker. to shriek with laughter . schmecken. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . savour. knittre. the equivalent of g. may be quoted gUt. snuff the sniiten. spraka. as. to smack or taste. to sniff. we have and the and beorht. man of nice taste. suspect Bav. snutrs. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. splendour. tinkling. — 1. to glitter. in the domain of movement. search . snot. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. to crackle. which in ohg. to shine. Heo Du. then to sparkle. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. It is The word bright had a similar In as. to quiver. clang. Bavarian bracht. properly a clap or explosion. scheteren. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. may be it explained . rattle. chime). ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. to 5 ghtter. wise. to ring. to glitter e. to glisten Dan. Du. make a loud noise. kimistd. to flash. a dis- cernment. . tintelen. on. The 6. extended to the exercise of the understanding. esclat). iclat (in Old Fr. and thence e. to sound clear In Galla. smell. to ring as a glass willata. judicious. and figuratively. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. beorhtian. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. pracht. air. knistre. as kilind. signified a clear sound. to have Sapiens. sound. outcry. bilbilgoda (to make . discreet. Fr. fiapfiaipw.

oily. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. to slide. in truth. flow and flux. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. the bleating of sheep. whirl. kvTOQ. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. inside. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. KoWiiSije. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. is felt Lana. soft. ipuKuv. 1. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. gluey. wool. sharp. the cross. he framed the words ivSov. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. extremely loose. The BpavEiv. the clank (stridorem) of chains. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. crux. rough. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. strike. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. Much of the same has been often quoted. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. . so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. then in rpd/xoe. of dressing loud. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. fitting the letters to the sense. shatter. pleasure soft to the ear . coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. we hear of screaming colours. pvfi^Civ. briars. discusses the tone of a picture. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. itself letters are felt as sofl. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. or . power of the letter-sounds. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. which The Stoics. eo ut res vol. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. the neighing of horses. tremour. within. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. accordance with the way in which by touch. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. And observing that n kept the voice within. Kep^arl'ieiv.' he says. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. mel. in of his works. he says. as soft by the ear. rough to the ear. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. \nrap6e. Acre. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. 6\tadaveii'. Tpa)(yg. v. rough both ways. rend. and vepres.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. &c. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. roughness. break. rough. smooth. Kpovtiv.

making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. jih. a rough and sudden . in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. or checks as they are called by Muller. p. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. stag (in stagger. and in the utterance of a high or or low. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. jog. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. to signify varieties of movement. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. shag. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. corresponding to the ineor. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. to jogj sac-cade. for exis ample. jig. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. rug. stab. ii. p. cular effort Again. shog. tug. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. 'and consequently form. k. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. dig. t. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. Fr.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. jag. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. degree of roughness sound. 138). d. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . sag-oter. as when. the case of the voice. A greater felt. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. g. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. dag. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. joli. to reel abruptly from side to side).

sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. chique. foot. a jog. Accordingly the g. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . cica. is lanese toch. The train of . Thus we have B. mik. The production of sound. to say a word . as Italian tocco. a cracker. that we never can be sure. tecche-tocche. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. used interjectionally to represent a . to winkj micati is Lat. motion. also to stir. a crum. lead to Spanish tocar. to incite by light touches. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. zack. to move rapidly to and fro. to beat or play on a musical instrument. sound Fr. Ene olde suksuk. however. to strike It. To tick a thing off. to glitter. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. tech-tech. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. or check. to stir. to have it ticked or marked on the score . thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . not to utter a syllable. it produces Dutch micken. The syllable suk is jerk. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. properly a small lump'of . to touch. Welsh cicio. a piece or bit of anything. Sukkeln. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. and It. Then. micare. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. mica. The analogy then carried a step further. an old worthless horse or carriage. figuratively. then. is so frequent a consequence of movement. chicoter. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. a . toch-toch.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. and analogous movements. mot.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. so to Italian toccare. to tickle. (mitsati). a jag or sharp projection zickzack. sound barely audible. to ring a bell. It. kuk. e.. tock. as tot. chiquet. Dutch kicken. The Mipen or pencil. Illyrian migati. to mark it with a touch of the pen . marked by the change of vowel from i to a. to On the same principle j we have g. Fr. &c. rough horse. a quid of tobacco. then. g. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. a small bodily object. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. passing to the signification of motion. for the sound of knocking at a door. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. a playiug-marble. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. Fr. Brescian toch. schuckeln. Bolognese tocc. is made to signify movement. movement. to mutter. kik. to pulses being knock. to utter a slight kick. zigzag. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. to take a thing on tick. S-panish miga. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. in cases like the foregoing. Hence Lat. a little bit. Mucken. like English tick. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. mie. chic. an infant . a good piece of road . and e. schockeln. a stroke with a French toucher. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. tack. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg.

for the beating of a clock. I. or the converse. So. mote. mossche. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. lix Sp. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p.) .n. a lad citta. here. and dot. we have e. as in e. a. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. to touch. not because the pendulum makes a different left. that iku. Cult. you. or the like its It. tit. a small quantity. to jog. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. . and a small lump of something. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. zitella. This kind. to make a slight mark. fait. . chico. of movement in totter. . a tot . to whisper (Pr. totle. Pm. a morsel girl . tozzo. tittle. there. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. In a similar the relations of place. mot. Malagasy to. motte. and toddle like a child titter. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. a morsel. titter. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. . little.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. tot. To jot. e. jot. neither moit nor an atom. bunch or flock of wool. not an atom . i. little j to that of a small bodily object. 0. at where the order is inverted. gni. a small horse.- a jot or little It. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. syllable mot. tot. iki. often entirely arbitrary. . The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. seesaw. The following table from Tylor (Prim. a whisper. and mite. to touch lightly with a pen. further off. taut. ri that. 48) cites from the African Tumale. and out there. tot. motta. mutter. ika. to movement of the pen . tit. to tremble. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . a bit. Du. here (close hand). fragments It. this . this. corresponding to the personal pronouns. 199). a light quick blow. a sparrow). lump of earth. a small kind of lark. Fr. Then. zitio. is shown in murmur. a girl. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. for the three personal pronouns. the vowel sound. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. subdued manner. a small bird. mut. titmouse (Du. anything . sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. tottle. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). or o toi. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. a certain conception. tiny. a bit. there '(at a short distance). a little titty. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. mutter j dust. ticktack. move slightly to . there (further of!) ao. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. eo. . small of kind. a small lump or pat. small titlark. n. clay . to e. a e. e. tot. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. citto. the same organ touched with the man. and he. . . to dot. gno. (Halliwell) Da. the least visible insect. not to utter a syllable. that. Halliwell. anything small flax. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. gnu. titilh. But the same is language has re Javan. to jot down or note with a fro.

I . young one. that. as the act of pointing was ta. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. . here 5 Yoruba na. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. Mm. mother.. an old .. there. there. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. . child. . and a for the female. j Canarese ivanu. nne. probably initial of distinction that the k. Lat. this . ni.. no constant rule is observed. that. Then. and origin. ne. w. mas cheche. ukko. this fi. that. km. ojOo. Ossetic am. this <t. that. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. respectively. thou. Japan ko. biii. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. . here this . /wo. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. . owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). ^. bi. that. Mutsun ne. here . for the male. that (intermediate) j wana.. . Chilian tva. that. Gr. ndi. here . Abchasian aSn. that. Zulu ajoa. ta to ka. man erne. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. Botocudo ati. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. ita. as in Italian Fin. minution further. child. ofj. Magyar ez. here j ka.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. here j abe. The vowels a and o sound of the voice.araM. usho. that in the distance. thou ni. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. this .e^. olo.) nna. father k . Fernandian az. that. Tamul i. me probable that • Vei also little. to. akha. there. you. he. /e«. It Carib lala. qu. mother. It seems to (fen. this . little. small (Pott. femina ama. ni. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. uta. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. as Mr Tylor remarks. 6. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. Dhimas isho. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. there. there. father. . is Here. . Guarani nde. ulri. Tarahumara ibe. there. tiiio. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. this ole. mother. Sahaptin (America) kina. /mya. there. thou . that. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. (tt). here feraa.) pronunciation of i or e. this . an old woman chacha. he. loo). is father. Carib ne.

The sound trapp . A little weeny thing. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. a little yellow beard. a child. nipple. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. for instance. titta. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. repetition It. pepin. looking through between obstacles. lift 8. as j money. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. sound of bells . knob. has tittafrem. to make its way through the bursting envelope.' — Merrv Wives. the idea is called. trappen. little. murmur. trap. to begin to appear . in old e. trippelen. . to sup up by and with j lips barely open. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. nab. to leap. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. 401. A little wee face with little. or chink. din-din. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. a step. Thus we have Wolof sopa. for the . The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. whence Fr. tion.) . Clank represents the sound of something large. And perhaps the E. the simplest mode by the g. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. to feet. wean. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip.' making the voice as small as possible. barking of a dog. trippen. the pip or pippin. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. as ding-dong. to teet. Top.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. for a succession of light blows low-wow. — Douglas Virgil. trappa. analogous to winy-piny. the nursery few j Sc. is to express simple continuance of action. of smaller things. little To sup up. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. don-don. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. and in the Pacific dialects. From cases like the foregoing. The Sw. wenig. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. the principle of reduplication. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. keeh. dance (Kil. Da. fretful. nil. to peep. trSpigner. or even. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. at pippe frem is to spring forth. to tread. just beginning to appear. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. to peep through. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. Fr. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. stairs. &c. i Sw.

but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. are echoed by the rudimentary et. the comparative degrees of greatness. So from clamo. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. to rock. little child (p. kamha-gamla. child . er. random . a cradle. . 99). ding-ding. very bad. racket. &c.Ixii REPETITION. loloa. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. rapidity and strength. mawhiti. Cult. kendagenda. tach-et-er. clash of weapons. the lungs. serves to show and in this way. or in Fr. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. The same principle of 196. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. smallness. keep spots. Thus in the Pacific loa. to skip. very long (Pott. 97). mawhitiwhiti. very great. could readily be conceived. And generally. rack click. sopasopa. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . or a little tee--ny thing. lololoa. hardness. to cover e. cliqu-et-is. to say pooh It is ! to. Malay ayun. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. puka- puka. rack. to pant. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. a spot. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. and the words express a continued sound of rack. properly speaking.' expression is — ^Tylor. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. a clattering noise. Again. bad . didi. a grasshopper. repetition or continsignify long. click. or very very great. the and clique. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. in familiar use with ourselves. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. Mandingo ding. or rdtchi. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. kenda. from Maori muka. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. tache. to vi^alk about for flax. . although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. to to call. to talk at to walk. clamito. and Fr. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. puka. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). is language.. calling. to or rub. to treat with contempt. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. i. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. or el. ayunayunan. or imitative syllables. if very young. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. child . ratsi-ratsi. instead of being actually repeated. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. (to use a to speak. amusement. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. to love. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. Susa di. mpolu is uttered. to call frequently from Fr. the agent in panting . Thus in E.

to hand-le. or omitted. as to handle.Jicol. a from ayun. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. jogging. bubble. draggle. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. he who rubs. from puka. are to cry mew and pew . crack. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. wagas ging. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. fickle. syllable clat . where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. to puff. kneel. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. The Fr. miauler and beler correspond to E. wancol. g. or in e. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. smack. compared with g. such asjlap. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. by the side of wanken. to wail woe . without the intervention of the frequentative element. wankeln. to crackle. or Maori puka-puka.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. in Fr. to continue dragging. or fi bau. to hand. is In e. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. or by association. which. and in as. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. dabble. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. mew and baa . to bark like a dog. to make bau-bau. to move to and fro. rynel. Jickfacken. Piedmontese bau-l-S. to make a succession of shoves. joggle. as mAS. In cases like these. a succession of cracks to rattle. others. wankel. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. wavering. itself. shuffle. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. miauler andpiauler. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. waggle. to make gug. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . the knie-en to E. bub. to rock. guggle. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. to rock or wag. to make a succession of grabs . The contrivance with any particular noise. Ihre remarks under gncella. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. the lungs (the puffers of the body). it. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. rubber. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. dab. where all direct connection with sound is lost. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. in some applications.

will continue to be felt in daily speech. which. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. which is the origin of the word. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. or how generally. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. on a moment's reflection. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. Dupe comes to us from the French. There is. to cry ugh at. or in mode of use. moreover. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. Breton. and comparatively few easily deceived. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. at was more familiarly known. or in aptness to combine with other elements.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. it is obviously a mere chance how long. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. to the separation between the broken parts. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. deceit. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. by a hard body breaking. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). the breach. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. Polish. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. known in Italian. A gull or a dupe same sense. although it is not difficult. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe.

if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. is. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. nor any limited of ideas. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. . or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. Hitl^erto. and the word is used in a secondary sense. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. founded in manifest blunder. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. however. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. life. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. language is . as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly.

the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. compared with the duration of man. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. guages in South America. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. out. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. 330. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. evique. unintelligible to other hordes. in the course of many years' isolation. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. of material things. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. i. French.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. change.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. and 'Russian. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. If English. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. I think it very probable. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . hearing. and vescovo. episcopus. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. Welsh. therefore. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. Naturalist on the Amazons. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. circle perpetrates a new slang term.

But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. ancient Greek M . a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. to be taken (Prim. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. A key must unlock more doors than this. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. 7. the actual it which would to represent. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . 6. as shown in the subjoined illustration. 9. The combination of the symbols I and 2. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. and . 8. it will leave figures 3 and 4. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. is MN. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. . as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. i. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. which are idenr Figures 5. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. Nor is there one of the letters. ao8). occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. Cijlt. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. or whatever the proportion may be.

Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. and the only safe beneficent Creator. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. in the shape either of direct inspiration. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. what comes to the same thing. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . his fellows. We must either suppose that in a civilised state.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished." the use of a change of vowel in as. had its origin in imitation of sound. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech.' should be discovered. or. leading him to utterances. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. which either by direct resemblance of sound. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. for instance. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. known to us as yet. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered.

of using imitative conduct . the conduct of Ixix life. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. or of their own reflected thoughts . signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . that he started from the lowest grade.COMPLETION OF MAN. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . as elephants. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. or else. and sooner or later. or not. for instance. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. and rose towards a higher state of being. until the progeny. by animal without a trace name of Man. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. and when we look back as far as history will reach. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. or beavers. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. in the course of generations. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. race were speaking men or not. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being.

1857.Nieder. or Dan. Fin. Dief. Esthonian. Cot. 1737. B. Bavarian. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. 1850. Bremisch. de la langue Cat. Carp. English. dial. Wtb. Dief.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Couzinid. Dutch. Anglo-Saxon. Bav. AS. Cotgrave. Catalan. Dueange. Douglas' Virgil. .-Eng. Infimse Latini- D. Dueange. Supplement to Dueange. at the end of Somner's Diet. Bigl. Danish. Brem. E. Carpentier. Gothischen 1851. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Cimbrisch.. Fr. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Due. Romano - Cas- traise. Sup. Esth. dialect of the Sette Commune. 1766. Provincial dialect. Finnish. Diefenbaeh. Dn. Elfric's Fl. Diet. Biglotton seu Diet. Diet. ^Ifr. Grammar Boh. Cimbr. Da. Teutonico-Lat. Diet. Gr. 1768. Diefeiibach. Baile/sEngl. Bohemian or Czech. 1654.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Castr. Supplement to Bret.V.



3 14 21 i5^//2 r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. (/ijtf r. plowied budowaer. puHti r. kilistaa bugiie r. r. Askance woud r.percurrunt kimista^x. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . woman r. buque 118 brodiquin r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r.. cti. sveritet Asknace r.5 ERRATA. r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r.nokkutama willekem. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. cruccio deyrie.>. katowai perairrantr. baltresca nokkutomax. Blob plowied r. ^i?^i2! r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. willekom Blab r. alUger ahaverie r. word allagerr. haverie crtOT r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. yjnaifia r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r.


Abaft. ibandonner. dominion. To abuse is to use iway. in a manner other than it should be ablution. on. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. on-bsec . particular 1 . a. from. away from. baftan. er.t G. Hence on-bceftan.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. A. said. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. 843. alike. ar. downwards. Thus ip N3S. OHG. of-dune. into the Romance ftrseg . to subdue. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. the er. AS. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. compounds. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. whatever he be. bandon in French.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. to sauff the king or spill. behind. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. vs. erwachen. —Bruce. implying a completion of J. Jvery man shewid baft. announcement. have entire dominion over. o/j of or . remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. rule. Thou spelds of mychty iction. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. in. Abandon. to awake. Lat. from a is to wake to abide. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. Abs-. and secondarily in that of command. off. on-lic.he Goth. command. us. In Lat. until the event jlace . sion of 'an abandoned character. ur. The word Ban is common orders. Parson's Tale. this word beand Spanish. an edict or proclamation. as. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. iway from. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. ab. a washing off to abstain. Passing tongues. power : Than Wallace thing. "rom a height. ifter. to hold . abaft. as. Again. among. onis aback. literally. 244. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. dominion. state of sleep . abs. K . ir. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. AS. . plesyt him. Dent posture. be-ceftan. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. to arise. away. his. Ab-. orders. Immediately from Fr. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. on. out of. but now )bsolete). and — Chaucer. a/tan. in the same sense.

Hart in Jamieson. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections.) . bawi. ne more vermeille. abbas. castle. astony. abbatere dal prezzo.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. uncontroUedly.fournir. terminedly. by Wall. merely the terminations ons. so common in the found in the OFr. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. to strike Froiss. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. father. Baba ! Mod. drink. baer. thing abbatere le vela. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. an abbey. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. abbatere. Wall. other. To Abate. to diminish the force of any. polish. weaken. esbahir. to bate something of the price abbatersi. and the verb was written in Eng. in the active form. effect of shame. burny was formerly burnish . to meet with abbatersi in una terra. 1520. of wonder. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. R. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. where custom (Grandg. — Neccham. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. beer. to light upon. to astonish.— R. Abbess. Castrais. from ravir. Hence Lat. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. ant. It. Custom. overthrow. depress. to excite admiration. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. impetuously. Abbot. Hence the OE.— — . esba. his mouth.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. et prirent terre. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. and sets them all agape. abbattre. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. Fr. See . astonish. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. to put to con. to The . More correctly written abbat. de. abaundunem-ent. as ravish. — — .polir. See Abide. or society of abbots or monks. at his own the lips. with or without a final sh. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. to ruin. of fear. And he thereof was all abashed.esbawi. Milton. d. and grooms besmeared with gold. and that from Syrian abba. c. esbahissant. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. his eyen shene. baba. abandonly.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. to abaw or astonish.Prov. or admiration. confound.' the surrender of a ' K. . In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. shame.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. of the Fr. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. Cotgr. son bandon. to overthrow. to beat furnish. 364s. person. vol. law term abatement. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. lish to abaisse orabaish. 1 1 8. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was.On princes. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. abbatis. esbahissais. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. iv. betrash. from Lat. Beat. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. Abbey. to happen. I was abawid for merveille. Originally.down. Bate. On the other in use as well as hand. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . burny. bandon. may be explained. faire tomber. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. In or. to hit. to make lower. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. ais. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. and it that that it — . abbatia. to gape. impulse. adverbial expressions at abandon. . to strike sail . to take possession of an estate. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. A. R. down. R. abate.

the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. Goth. regarder. badare. abidan. beter. to stay. beguile. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. attendre See Bait. look for another. F. beijden. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. deceit. K. to It. from Halo. . to be intent upon. ^couter avec dtonnement. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. baier. suffer b. ne chastised them.to wait. gridare. speaking of the Holy places. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. we sceolon ON.— Chaucer. listening. bida. to In great amaze. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. expectfamily. to hook. also to OFr. Q. desirer (Roquef. which is certainly related to It. badare. to desire earnestly. and in E. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. to stay. wait To Abide. . and alluring to his own destruction. —Raynouard.— ^richer. abeter. compared with (Bosworth). with the frequentative gueiile b^e. or do we AS. suspense. tarrying . . which the mind to an object. or absorption watching. to wait. beguiling on the other. Boethius. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. in Dan. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. inciter. wait. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. Abele. 1 • . baier compared with It. othres abidan' The effacement expect. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . endurance. The white poplar. tical with It.was formerly used in the sense of look. to open bader. Gloss. is idenwait. the verb of abeyance. gola badada. with badia. bada. m Abeyance. tenere a bada. Ducange. to expect gabeidan. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. Gloss. verbeijen Sw. were called Brothers.) abayer. qui iaaille. aspirer. forms with the d effaced are OFr. says. expectation. Norm. ne wist what way to chuse. usbeisnei. to wait. to open the mouth. open the mouth. desire. to attend to. The verb atwaiting. to suffer death in Du. abie. to remain or endure. inciting. endurArt thou he that should come. to expect. John. abet. bidan. to ance. incite . tity of E. to yawn. bana. . In We . waiting. — . bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. To Abet. Cat. de Berri) Prov. to attend on . to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. to tarry. Cat. abbadare. abaier. and Prov. beidan. or in Fr. a right in suspense . us. baier. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. Prov. bocca badata. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. guardare. . Thus we have It. to deceive. — ABELE Epiphanius. bouche bdante. OFr. delay. and E. Fabl.— Roquef. Norm. to abide . signifies the direction of tend. deceiving. abayer. — signifies to suspend action. pense. bder. Ni engigner ni abiter. Corant sens lui. delay. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. to gape . baer. intent observation. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. tempting. with open mouth . inhiare loquenti (Lacombe).Fr. bida. watch. badigliare. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. Corresponding to keep in suspense. literally white tree. to deanimer. forbearance. to wait. abeyance. to look. bouche b^ante. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. beidan. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. E. From abahier. covet. warten. on the one hand. while the monks under his control ing. abie. Guernsey beth. house. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. to be intent upon. bie compared with Dan. take care. to mind. 366. in Fr. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. syllable ba. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. bide of the d endure. aspire to. listen.. badare. songer. beijen. badar. (Vocab. delay. take notice. attendre avec en^pressement. beijen. ' ' . de Champ. b^er. abet. abSiance. Pol. bialodrze-w. expectation. See Abide. to desire. white. — II. abetter. lingering.' is in AS. abiiance. exciter. Abie. bie. have seen abide. a bay or opening in the coast. Quant voit le serpent. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. trick abetar. ceive. Thus G. bhr. Du.

from Lat. Lat. abie. abidge. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. to wear away. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. Wickliff in Richardson. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. on board . — e. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. Merch. was often used in the same sense. within the ship. F. —Bacon in R. i. him with che. is the verb abie. suffer the Jul. from AS. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. L. For on board. and Cr. 2nd Tale. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. Fr. when compared with Aboard. able. at kasta fyri bord. Fr. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. abilej Prov. or bie. habile. consequences of anything . For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. abie to Goth.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. to redeem. to pay the penalty. though sometimes confounded with it. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. expert. within the walls of a ship. P. ! ! Cotgr. abide. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. Q.^and to make his power knowne. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. at hand). willing to schewe his wrathe. Spenser. ON. &c. to dress hemp. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . atling hem to her proper offices. Dr. must suffer for it. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. to . sufficient. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. abicgan. P. Cassar. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. fault being simply clothing. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. habilis (from habeo. as habiller du chanvre. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. power. forbid for mother's children should abye. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. aboleo. abycgan. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. without special reference to the notion of retribution. R. to have . The —Boucher. in for any special purpose. R. to draw fowls. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. — P. AS. N. use. Milton. powerful. It. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. God — dear. beidan. God. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. abolir.ynes. O If tion. properly abuy. abigg. purpose. 2. being disabled in the highest degree. adapted . Chaucer. strong. to perish. and the simple buy. If it badare. Mids. abilh. and death for handsel pay. the Sir Tristrem. Tr. the Pardoner In the original. abeye. convenient. al- be found so some will dear abide it. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. Prol. a board. Boucher. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. bord. the side of a ship. Abie. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. bidan. durance in both applications. In this to erase or annul. fit. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. — Able. habilis is closely preserved. . the Fr. to pay the purchasemoney. as E. de la volatile. She shall abie that trespass dere. while in later examples As I . have-like. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. bide. Innan bords.

In the same brevis . disastrous portent in some passing oc. to let sleep. to bring up. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. while the sense of beget. s —Casdmon. a portent). Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). Fr. Thonne Abroach. to snatch. Melibaeus. giving birth to. ol. Severe the threatened evil. to awake. brood. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. and bidden him abregge. common in Chaucer and Abominable. abrcBgdan. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. and also to abridge. Gael alaich. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. ABOMINABLE adolesco. kindling. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. motion. en. OE. The primitive idea seems that of beget. abbreviare. OE. as withotityn and without. The radical idea is to feed the flame. . abbrechen.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G.) . to AS. heavy. about cockcrow.' Ymb hancred utan.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. below.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. to rear. AS. to break off. greu. ufan. to progress. vital PI. Abrdger itself. the identity of which with ting.' Parson's rence. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. See To Bray. and also. Kiittner. hard. abrdger. to aggravate. be-ufan. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. above. awaking. to grow together. ala is made to signify to rear. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. agreujar. for ligeth butan. Virg. abominor (from ab and omen. to feed. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. parent.the older form. that greatly agredge their sin. leading immediately to Fr. d. whence the Fr. alan. alere capillos.. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. alUger. to fatten. coalesco. explains soboles Lat. snatch In English we speak of away. his contemporaries. bufan.1. levis to the Romance languages.— Abbreviate.foda signifies to beget. Abray. Prov. AS. sec seftre — Chaucer. life. Tale. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. Above. to light a fire the Abraid. al is growth. boven. the hair grow. alan. as the duty of nourdisposition. gravis. which may God avert. af-oolden. Finnish stock. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. D. on high. and alere flammain. Du.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. is a ively. titan. oil. agredge. to main. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. outward. For on broach. To abray or abraid. gravity. but from Lat. ala. abracan. is not from G. while the verb alleThe root el. OSw. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. the OSw. currence. abowen. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. from . to turn. See -und-.. Goth. adolere. without. to nourish. to rear. Thence to regard greugetat. to cut short. natural ed direct from the latter language. Then. or cut short. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. the form a&^^. break out. of any kind . — . and to do something to avert abbreviate. . the vital spark. becomes leu in Prov. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat.ger. be-utan. the man dwindles away.ymbutan. abbrechen. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. abutan. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. full ofte his words for to Fr. progeny. nurse Lat. to beget or give birth to children. nurse. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. the idea of breaking about . af-oleii. butan. Sc. Of these synonymous adolescere. Quod abominor. pedigree from brevis. or young forth. to produce. to start. abufan. literally. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. nourish. and in-d-oles. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. Abundant. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. way Sw. Lat. breaking out in language. side. around on the out. So in Lat. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. by the to bring up. — ' — — preceding verb. from Fr. onbutan. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. To Abound.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. to grow up. which passed into English under Abominate. abredan. AS. as AS. to feed. seems aras. draw out.aboon.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


anapoz. to sound in answer. a few. bread. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. As the browcalled antiques. anfilts Pl. amboltj Du. Aperient. Anvil. eigs. and devils. Gr. gabeigs. what Roman civilisation. E. So Lat. before. work. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. a puppet or an anti^hona. one. as from as. Apartment. Lat. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. to strain. rich. a termination equivalent to Goth. a small quantity. to display pario. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. to go in strange disguises. choke. apertum. AS. Prov. villan Gloss. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. ab. burnished. wealth. inAgain from the same author cudis. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. set aside. Lat. In like manner. separate purpose. Thus from gabe. whence anthem.is to be given. should be received. Mannequin. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. before. one at the least. a definite . apanage. a block to hammer on. or in a ridiculous dress. : . from ante. Apartment. Gr. d<popi(xnbs. swaged. Antler. i. antifena. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. G. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had.made out. from in and cudere. to support.legacy of given against. to open. Apart. Fr. like a jack-pudding. Ful- Apanage. separate. were andouiller the second. left as the . d. as posticus. ambeld. the anticks — behind. to nourish. Otfried. something ler in R. such as savages. all of gold. which by anvild. to have. apatiar. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. Hence the applica. AS. fauns. transferred to the grotesque characters. aperio. Aphorism. Pezron fiUist. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals.. Antique. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. Gr. incus. panar.th centuries the recognised models of antic. Fr. from an. Any. . from. Antick. ReApe. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. Hall's Chron. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. Lat. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. some one. AS. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. were chiefly of the former class. Ilvtwotov. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. Lat. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. cenig. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. —Spencer. to strike. avri^ava. to imitate gestures. finally applied to a whether grotesca. from ango. and ig. from avTiipoiuia). verberas.— . At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. white. Antidote. Percutere. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. Anxious. or antique single chamber. strangle. from eigan. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. Jorioc. To ape. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. vex. three antike pillers.D. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. anticus. trouble. as the Italians. See Cover. whence Prov. from an and — - . from. younger child. Fr. part. but the expresent day. in Shakespear. anxi. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. to bring forth. press.—Aperture. aside. andouillers. to strike G. of. and claret wine. a gift. panis. on. anxius. plenteously with red. as we call it. af. one having wealth. from Stephanus. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. from the imitative habits of monkeys. stem. — — — . surimitation of the ancient models. post. antefn. To go antiquely. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. a preventative . The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species.

prohts. to deaden. to suit. ciously than nede is. i. proper time came. to deter- to strike. Parson's Tale. to make a thing Apparel. to commend. in good season prendre son d. to disable oftat. one sent out. Lith. Sp. to set a price on. in Chaucer. pertain or belong to. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. apropchar. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. 5w. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. to take away or lose the vital powers. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. Fr. kind of action. Walach. to learn. to lose one's senses. appellare. Cent Nouv. probare. to finish a controversy. prover. peace. decree. apin R. 23 . avail. iwKjToKri. A — . diroBrjKr}. Appease. Apotliecary. allow. good.propius). laven is used both as E. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. an epistle or letter. Yr. seiden of the stones. pronounce fitting). is a man who has lost his vigour through age. pronounce good. e. ON. xv. Epistle. For their acquaintance was not come of new .parecchio. habilUr. 'L-zX. taking. agreeing with "LtA. D. Fr. esteem. to call. to mark to define a bound. preparation. Hence It.prix.probare. value apprdder. agree. landmark. En peach. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. find Then like Fr. apropid. like. of. from. apprehendere. approver. plight. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. Cotgr. irpaiKOKiaov. like.pareil. — prehendere. fit- — ness. An old appalled wight. They were considered To Appoint. rise to \t. lAfiaam. prope (comp. to send off. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. one for his defence. a learner. off. . poind. to strike down. to come near. make a composition between parties. a crime. To Appraise. prize. known. to announce. Fr. 11.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. It.his giving evidence against his principal. Apostle. to which it is often referred. par. w. a price. Appareil. OFr. set a price on. From Lat. properly to join like to like. one is in. pragigua or prixcoda. to call for judgment. array. H. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. — Apprise. apal. become dizzy . Apo- good time. approcdare. S^. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. a thing for one's purpose. Palsgr. when the . a'^opi'Jw. whether through age or sudden teiTor. Formerly apricock. case. to learn. peler. quoth the frere. The Fr. to rate. or E. to approach. appris. . was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. apprentis. appartenir. ^wss. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled.parejo. in data. to — . appareo. despatch on some service. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. Gr. Fr. obolys. appareiller. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. Cotgr. trim. to accord. diroTrXriaatii. manner. from paix. To praise. apparecchiare. aptly. And among other of his famous deeds. to understand. Hence appoind. —^Apparent. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. to — — . Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. piteux poind. whence the e. Apple. corresp. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. word was specially applied to clothing. Prov. horror. — Approve. pretium. ai. to deem good. — dirondtfiu. and in the sense of condition. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. and also as appraise. Ir. Prov. oVooroXof. Gr. to be open to view. to dress in this fashion. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. to store or put Appal. near. and metaphorically to take the meaning. opportunity. APO sentence opoQ. —Diez. to Lat. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. ar. And whanne sum men Lat.t. They werin his approvirs privily.—Apprentice. Fabian in R. to catch hold of. from aTroorlXXu. Cotgr. Fr. to assign or grant over unto. consent unto. Friar's Tale. Mod. From Lat. to fit. dress. Fr. or the like. to send to. AS. Nouv. Apprehend. To Appear. away. praise. (cited by Diez from a late author). order. Fr. were formed appropiare ejar. appaiser. To cause to pall (see Pall). 'LaX. d-n-o. approcher. Approach. Yr. jabloko. Gr. aparelhar. The PI. From Gr. APRICOT off. one the MLat. Pliny. ap. apprise. habiliments. Gr. to seize. apar. after his mind . diminutive pariculus. — Appurtenance. in commendation. N. the good.— . purpose. . apal. in fact. I prise ware. apprendre. mine. : — — speak 'Lz. cepl. Apoplexy. poind. Lat. Fr. and appoinder (to find fitting. to approve. that it outfit. equal.

a lot. Thus we have natiger and auger.o. properly the arwella. scr. aa. la nappe. short. Lat. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. a cloth. . naperon. and sortilegus ation. OE. 2. From OFr. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. shortdr. Beryn. sorcerer. aha. She made. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. man. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. a lot. Prol. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. Now one of the points — — — . from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. Gr. . or eft. arwelo. to preserve it from stains. a pleasure-ground. and taken away before dessert. C. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner.) E. Hall. Now we find in Fin. grande nappe. arbitror arwaaja. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. the spelland umpire. auguror. sestimatio arbitraria. fastened close. 331. a river. arbiter. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. conjectura conjec^ra. aqua. Pr. symbol. or barm-cloth. nected. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — .] in the N. arpa. suitable. pracoqua was not an adapt. and a protection of the clothes. as an eye-witness. This path Aqueous.' —About. Arbour. ear. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. Flower and Leaf. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. con. Naprun. a lot. Lat. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. As is a pretty parlour. J. sortium ductor. — napkin is Naperon. of of divination arpa-mies. Freshly turnid Arable. opinio. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. herbere. conjicio.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence.sors. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. wata. ahva. ap. P. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. quod he. Maan initial . aptus. {mies ^=ia3.shrubs {arbor). aro. however. Arbitrate. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. hariolus arpelen. be That it inne groweth. and thence fit. Lat.. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth.meaning at Shrewsbury. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. a soothsayer. aestimo. From OE. is taken in is a soothsayer. water Which that benchid was. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. . Aquatic. Alban. doubtless is the origin of E. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. It is certain that the apricot oracle. P. . to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. nawl and awl. found in Fin. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. — . most conspicuous situation in the garden . and with turfis new Goth. garden. A. derived. however. arbitrium. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. OHG. as ihe diminutive. Marsh. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. words derived from arpa. The loss or addition of n very common. to plough. It may be doubted. delon. 31. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . to decide by lot. Pm. rofe and all. proper. tion under trial. arwaus. and the one who gives oracles. account for either of these significations. Albanian. arbiter in re censendS. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. intensitive of nape. ughe. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. Roquefort. divining rod.

Lat. erz in G. ramend). Lat. arcus.. man. signifies chief or principal. worker. the a brute. ardor. 2. fabricate). burning heat. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). earh. Arson. which has been referred to W. wanton. arm. branch. patus). difficult to reach. armata. a bow. Fr. . earg. un petit rusd. Sp.' the Gr. Perhaps erz-wticherer. Arch in composition. i. Area. G. as the arch of a bridge. ardeo. area. a bare plot of ground. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . raineno. arduus. . Arcliives. weapon may be simply an application of annus. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. a court yard. Fr.— Army. Aristocracy. shoulder. receptacle where the public acts were kept. det arrigste snavs. vocaveris. the best. Lat. Arid. whence the body of the nobles collectively. TiKToiv. an extent of flat surface. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. to be in comp. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. aridus. * ArchjAiTaxit. which is derived from it. Brem. Ardent. to rule.' Paul Warnefrid. erz-bischof. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. un malin enfant. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition.' Lex. Lat. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. 3340. morally bad. ^Argument. arga. apxtipfve. — Wtb. sly. curved. kpxi- beginning. to Arch. arsum. to arm. Gr. ardIn G. by Russ. Gr. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. forearm . Lat. arg. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. an arch-deceiver . . argvitugr.4 rir/. make clear or prove. arrant Arms. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. bravest. From the verb armare. apxh. ramo (pi. armada. a rule (princiruler. faint-hearted. an arrant rogue. and our army. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. bad. ON. to dry. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. ein arger knabe. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. G. from areo. it signifies roguish. AS. mischievous. aj-f. Gr. Ardour. erg. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. Du. D. gwyro to bend. to burn . — Architect. arm'ee.In E. Uo^a^. weapon. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. Arm. from nixa. There can be no doubt that E. first. a threshing-floor. government. adjective. lofty. a branch. armee. W. timid. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. Applied in modern E. apxtlov. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. contemptible. malicious. From apxeiov was formed Lat. ardre. apx^iv. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. taxed with cowardice. ancient. to demonstrate. the court of a magistrate. a burning or setting on fire. wretched OE. stuff. ars.is the natural weapon of offence. and Kpurka. Lat. arwe. as in E. fainthearted. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. . Langobard. shoulder Boh. mischievous. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil.. an arrant usurer. argr. a chief builder. arson. the most arrant trash. ' — Argue. and must be identified with Dan. arcA in e. while the Fr. arch-bishop. in Due. and not with apx. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. exercise lordship). Lat. bad of its kind. sluggish. especially shoulder-joint. rame. et vulgari verbo. an arch boy. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. gwyrek. Arduous. is essentially the same word. een erg kind. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. bad. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. arrig. to be on fire. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. curved line. apxri. archangel. the terminaGael. Sax. arm. sly. Arcadia in R. Gr. ill-tempered. The . ruling by the nobles.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. And thou as arwe coward. are formed the participial nouns. Lat. . Fr. ers-betriiger. a noble. vescovo. arma. Alisaunder. It. earm. a. Cot. troublesome. high. arguo.aioj. A construct. Dan. Du.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

bol. the beam of a ship. Dan. boleii. a water-skin dim. balkr. Sw. blister. Bret. says Ray. Wotton. a. to wave. ballar). a partition. balk. bolawy. TtaKKa a pail or tub . taich. It. ache. hooting. boll. ballan. a beam. balken. malefacGower in R. balge. may exhibit the original development of the signification. a clapping or flapping of wings. sick. a washing-tub. a continued noise of waves gently beating . a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. to bale out. ing. Gr.Fr. bal. balja. a ballot). a dance. beaten road. balloon. ball. a bubble. to partition off . i. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. to ache. Ball. * Balk. balare. a skin. to avoid it. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. baloier. G. pallo. bbllr bulla J. to grieve . Bohem. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . a clump . to plank. . to Not sparing wight. to on Holmedon's plain. to stir. shouting. . Sw. It. In like manner Fr. ball. balveins. as in a barn or cow-house. pallo. Sw. to see-saw. a ball. OFr. . To baulke the Sir H. baalie. from bacquet. other while. Pol. baler. a ball. . Bale. The primary sense seems as in G. vacillare. ball. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. Venet. with the perhaps from balg. a clod of earth water. a scene acted in dancmg. dial. to dance. F. G. Hence. to be balker. . Baulke of land. to be ill. a pestilence. 3. the object of his expectation. OSw. a pail.' speak gibberish champurrar. heap up. bielke. Ugutio in Due.Lat. Bowl. ballotta.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. See Gall. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). bola. a boil. A balk. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. ballone. misery Du. globule. to ail. bdlkr. lealo. on the shore. E. ON. palcare. maleficium. balka. vcdra bdlkr. and the dim. Russ. a together in the form of a ball. Du. ill. bolyatchka. uveirs bolk. Goth. Mid. weak liquor. balk. ban. sickness. to shake or jog. afbalka. 2. Boll. (Hesych. Sw. on. Ball. baalien. Balloon. bal. pilula. a But making way for death at large to walke. a globe. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. balle. Grief. separaison. OHG. It. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. wickedtorment ON.). to plough for a boundary between lands. a great ball. Da. a wooden partition . The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. Perhaps on. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. Sw. a dance. It. balle. wickedness ness . N. balle. package of goods. roof. a pill. balk. the breadth from side to side . Gael. to move. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. bal-daed. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. to signify washy drink. — A — — . Q. e. to by beams. Fin. To Bale out water. a ball. the ballet of the theatres. a ballad. Hence Dan. bollr.—Ballad. Du. bala. ballare. bold. cka. to speak an un. bjdlki. a ball. Fr. bolyaf. ballet. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. pila. Sw. grieve . floor. a ball balla. balle. a separate portion. palloilla. to dance. . torment.— Ballet. Ballata. as we say. We have then separate dial. hue et illuc inclinare. Da. are applied to a From the same analogy.of men . sorrow. to rock. Fr. chapurrar. ne leaving any balke. w. bol. at giore en balk. dial. Rouchi ban. bealwes.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . balk. calamity.ing. I. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. Fr. palla. destruction. Sp. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. ' is a piece or confused talking. maan pallikka. trouble. dial. bal. balken. It. a beam. balva-vesei. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. stage or scaffold. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. AS. Sw. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. dial. on. bacgtteter. mass. ballare. to cause another to miss pustule. pain. on. from the more general notion of moving up and down. a ball or pack. probably Lat. Ballot. and evil in general. pallikka. balla (with the augm. to pack Da. pallukka. to roll. whether of wood or stone. ballo. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. gen. Sw. balka bunge. similar connection is seen in Sp. plague. ballare. ball. to paddle in water . a balk of foul weather. a division of the old laws. balka hopar. . tum. bolker.

to preserve equilibrium. from bara or vara. Fr. To proclaim. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. inutile onus. balconies. because. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. a rod. Sept. Balm. little round and short pillars. Bamour. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. bam. ^a\Ba\iov. baltresac. a false tale or jeer. like Fr. make fun of a person. and Mid. a young babe. a nettle. lastagium signified not only ballast. When a ship discharges. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. To Bamboozle. ballast. paid for the right of carriage. Sp. The Sp. galleries. sorcerer. an Old dotard or imbambolare. &c. or ballast of a ship. If bambocciolare were child of one. Du.). balustrade barandilla. bag-las.. is in Sweden and Norway. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. back of the ship.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. lastra. dial. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. astonished. ballustre) is a corruption. forbid. bamein. Lest. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. bertesca. a small balustrade. bumbazed. To deceive. Baltic. Venet. baU. ^Arbuthnot in R. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. balsamum. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt.that the going vessels. i860. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. 1854. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. lestage. a useless load. but loadage. by met. Balsam. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. endormir par des contes. The Baltic sea. But Fr. 43 — Cot. A — — . from Lat. analogous to what is seen in It. It. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. more serious objection is . called Bait. denounce. It. . deceive. last. seems the original form of the word. in the first place. R. bambolo. Balluster. it is forced to take in stones or sand. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. ballustres. Bret. command. a battlement . blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. as he says. inutilis sarcina. 1. This is the backload. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. Sc. Said to be from balaustia. To make fun of a person. the flower of the pomegranate. age. more frequently than outward-bound. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. bambocciolo. for a load or goods (Roquef. enchanter. fonts. It is explained back by Adelung. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. lastre. mare Balticun. a duty on goods last. baUa. . the backload. also with flatteries and . Lat. to enchant. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. Bret. bag-lest. the act of walking. puzzled. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon.Lat. Mr Marsh whether the a load. To Bam. railing around altars. barandado. ranked on the outside of cloisters. a fragrant gum. lest. To Ban. Ballast. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. small railing. explains ballast. objects to the foregoing derivation. deceiver. &c. Cotgr. bamboccio. — — oltriga. or movement of one who walks. In OSw. terraces. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. baume. Fr.' And Kil. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. Dan. for want of other freight. Report Pennsylv. baranda.000 tons. curse. to walk. urtica. of balusters. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. barauste. Gr. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets.

That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. to ban.is further developed. Wyntoun. Assises de Jerusalem. whether by way of injunction or for- command. Band. Bandus. authority. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. bandi. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. in Fr. passing on from proclamation to command. to excommunicate {lysa. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. See Abandon. Thus the word is also used in both senses. 2. then the signification w. E. we constantly find the expression. bande. banda the colour or material. —R. etc. to form parties. banda. also the band or of marriage. G. to . It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. It seems this signification has arisen. to publish) banna. says Muratori.—John Villani in Due. from at the Lord's courts. to reprove.e. Ripuar. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. margin. &c. There is some doubt how Fr. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. 26. faction. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. The to . to follow a faction.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. It. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. change to the feminine gender in banda. Diss. To Bandy. border. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. — To partito d'alcuno. at his own discretion.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. to ctide. acquired the sense of proclamation. bandon was used in the same sense. bann. populum. bando. to take one to task. Baud. banns pany of footmen serve. Sw. In a special sense the term company itself. to bring corn to be fahne. Capitul. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. permission. Bandear. tener da alcuno. 19. Se il — Romance languages. Sp. a coast. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. and It. hoc est vexillo. 1. he bannede his ferde. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. Sp. ex. banda. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy.^ bandy. bande. R- He Translated by Chaucer. Spebifid. bannire in exercitum. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. fahne. bannum or bandum. a company. R.Lat. side. In Fr. and thence to any proclamation. flag. band. It. bound. — R. 813. the ensign or banner. bandon somewhat party. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. admolendinum. summoning to serve So in Swiss. power. banner marked the place of assembly. ba?idare. i. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. Goth. v. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. A. side. those who side together (bande. ligue Taboada). But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . bindan. OE. Les saiges avait et les fols d. region. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. sostener Torriano. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. band. in hostem convocare. Cot. D. . curse. he assembled his host. biddal. eiiseigne. Car. bandera ground at his mill. bannire exercitum. bundun. Goth. 'A son bandon. is That with which anything AS. Fr. Commun^ment son bandon. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. From the verb to banda. It. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. to side or to bandy (Florio). bande. parti. Leg. and in E. 15. to unite with a band. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. . theodscipe ut abannan. &c.. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. — excommunication bann-lysa. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). Mag. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. Fr.

a bench. . a long raised seat. hammering. the back. Bacon in R. to work in wood. a blow. Bank. to hammer in a nail. banish. Draw.^ knock. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. Ripuar. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. that the word is used by Romeo. It. eminence. Banner. follow a party. panca. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. of bandying words.HG. banja. AS. to join in league with others against Cotgn. Bane. Lingua. to knock. to cabal. de- party. It is in this sense nounce. language of W. to proclaim. banqueroute. 2. benk. to beat. Benchi. stir. desk. the former Fr. bana-sott. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. Dan. seat . . bench. beat. de sable. the same verb the It. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. a bank. But natheless wife at I bank. Fl. back of a knife. and bakki. Mid. The word is in E. The ridge of a hill is AS. — . banc G. a sand-bank. a de Vaud. and poise Their lighter wings. With many a stiff thwack. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. death-sickness. ON. eminence. Bandy legs are crooked legs. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). bench. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. to foment factions. se joindre. Bang. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . banditti acquired the like signification. Mercutio. bander tin arc. rap hatike et som The Susu. banca his creditors. When a man fails Lat. Fr. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. Roquefort. Sw. and therefore tied up. See Band. bank. roupt. bandire. banke. &c. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. bannire. . The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. from banc. Banditti. bent as a bow. — Fr. and hence. bane. among rotta. large dog kept for a guatd. se reunir. From a desk . Tibalt. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. bance.: . Du. —^Vocab. Hudibras. for shame. See Balluster. bakke. banco. to make a stir banke. beating. Fr. bank of river. banc.z. bankruptcy. Bandy. a table. home — Bandog. many a bang. Benvoglio. — Kil. destruction . . pastoralis. Your stool. counter. . ruptus. Goth. Diaconus in Due. bang. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. b'ang. Fr. bander. a bench. canis vinculis assuetus. Milton in R. — — whence E. and OFr. See Banish. forbear this outrage. N. bana-sdr. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. A Shipman's Tale. in the sense of a pirate. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. in the same way that E. s'associer. From Mid. The ing. a wound OHG. bana. a bench. death-blow . when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. ON. Banister. Brewer. whence the mod. standard. at canis peciiarius. to publicly order one out of the realm. a rising bank. in the sense of place of business. E. band-hond. To Bandy. banca fallita. It. in R. bander. the slope of a hill. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. a counter. Africa. a i. Bankrupt. AS. Lat. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. &c. — Paulus drive in a nail. dorsum was applied to ject. tumult bangas. bank of a river. outlam came to signify a robber. The child cries bang! fire. put under the ban of the law. Bantze. a bankrupt merchant. broken. clouds. bandi. Diez. bandear. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. bana. murderer. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. to knock. 45 — — Bandit. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. as of an explosion or a blow. distinguishes bekkr. to bend a. bank. banka. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. was formed the OFr. to slay. band-dog. It. has bang-bang. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. bank of Dan. bana. disturbance banga. hricg. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. ON. death-wound. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. shoal. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. bow. g.

uncivilised. jSa'pjSapoc. of wind. barre. to beckon . by a repetition of the syllable bar. bar. sbarra. According to Diez the It. either in the Gr. arineXov. i. E. bandiera. To mock or jeer one. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. rarii.hinder. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. &c. and from ensign or banner Prov. and it was accord. men. that the noise of voices Bantling. a war-beacon or war-signal. wrapped. brushwood. ON. To Banter. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. Fr. barbe. such as the Roman Eagle. Barb. inferior to a baron. barbarus. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. branch. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. .cruel. from reifa. barrack. milites bannarii. or of this bantering. Barbar. the word came to signify rude. Banquet. banchetto. indeed. ingly very generally known by a name branches. Banneret. ON. and he would seem to derive Goth. inur. BARBAROUS reiflingr. senh. Hence Fr. Thus Ovid. The barb of an arrow is the sign . of banco. It. signuin. a which the barrister addresses the court. benda. G.. ^oTrriKio. hence a repast. a bantling. Lat.— Swift in R. sign. Lat. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. knight Bardd. bandva. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. The spar. dim. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. probably corSymbol. barde. It may be thing. It. and with an initial s. says. OFr. ban- Baptise. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. In a similar manner are formed yearling. barriire. sparre. barrer.46 BANNERET . Barbe. A It. and the work is done. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. barbed or trapped as a great horse. a ban. iandvo. Gr. would rupted from Fr. manu anto make signs nuere. a bench or table . Leduchat. OHG. senhal. then branches. to wash. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. token. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. banniire. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. chan. senhal. &c. merki. Fr. Lat. jSdirTO).. a barrier or stoppage. from the same source. Hence ner. an animal a year old. remarked. a beam or long pole of wood. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. top. Fr. Fr. banneret. The origin is in all probability Goth. period vexillarii. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. branches of a tree {gwezen. summit. banda. Bret. Bap. out of a wound. senheira. bannereti. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. a tree). This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. of a sign in general. sparro. speaking of battle. in Gr. —Cot. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. barrou-gwez. 3. barba. — We A . It. nestling. to bend.aTa Kul nest. The original import of their own banner in the field. a. ing term appears in other languages. privileged to raise Barbarous. and even of calling it banter. a bearded or Cot. banne. to dip. Barb. OHG. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. barreau. banneret was a higher class of knights. Sw. Celtic bar. Duo. Fr. Gael. rod of any rigid substance. E. Fr. himself in Pontus. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. banda hendi. to wrap. as they call it. a sign. E. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. barra. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. 2. heri-pau. an intimation made by bending the head or hand.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. then fell among the foot.the analogous syllable viur. Gr. which is surely in barbed arrow.8ap6^o)voe. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. Flesche barbeUe. to having that signification. banner.

axilla. uncovered. a jetty or outnook in a building. Sp. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. and Sc. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. It. a shingle or small board. Sp. Barberry. Port. name Fr. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. Gr. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. OFr. speak confusedly. barbel. barbier. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. which was of talking. quarrel . small pack-saddle. borborinha. albarda'ah. barbarkama. bardd. Mod. formerly used in the sense of tattle. fortia —Strabo. or more properly (says fer. borboglio. a rumbling. Lith. to plash or dabble. bdsas. Hatt-bard. to stammer. and in Flanders to vociferate. muttering. Hall in R. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. baares geld. upper chamber. lb. Fl. open. — . Diez. Thus the on. barefooted Sanscr. powdered all over. Barbel. Gr. Barde. grumble (Lowndes. to make an outcry . /3£pjSepi^w. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. to bubble or boil. g. Hindost. barbeter.) . The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. skirt. bare baskojis. used 2. barda. to stammer. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. skialldar-bard. Bargain. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. Arab. baar. twattle. Cotgr. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. guaszare. ala. to boil or bubble up . in poetic language Bard for poet. Bardeau. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. Sp. Etym. — . ready money. to mumble or mutter words. barbeum. Fr. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. barda.' Cot. Barber. barbaris. the nakedness of a woman. bardes. — Cot. i. Port. Bard. mutter. albarda. Fr. Mod. to wash. scouthouse. tree. to prattle. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. haggle. An outwork for the defence of a gate. w. and the word was used in OE. also to wallow like a seething pot. barbulla. is lb. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . and flanks. Fr. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. berj G. . at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth.— BARBEL merit of water. the flap of a hat. G. borbotar. The Pers. But Sp. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. skirmish. unqualified. saddle-cloth. the edge of a shield hval-barct. bhasad. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. A shrub bearing acid Diet. bdsiis. in Fr. and foolishly. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. borbulhar. albardilla. to bubble or spring up. Bret. coping. to It. barguigner. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. . the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. Russ. murmur . to grunt. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. a long saddle for an ass or mule. barbeau. It. Barder. uproar. brim. brabble in the making of a bargain. bds. Applied in E. a bardelle. barbelin. barbar. borbollar. such as houses are covered Bardelle. the quilted with. the beard. dial. to barbe or trap horses. tattle. to rumble. baragouin. Exposed to view. Cotgr. Bare. as well as the modern twaddle. stutter. barS. barboter. Pr. /3opj3opwJu. Fr. back. in the sense of fight. Barbican. gibberish. bdla-khaneh. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. a tumultuous assembly. guazzolare. — — — men. border. Lex. — — Hence. barz. Cot. boil. berries.) to wrangle. Festus in Diet. to gurgle. bar. also to bind or tie across. border of a garden bed. a pack-saddle.— — Pm. twcEtta. Lucan. A7 to the and warlike. horse armour covering the front. on. as well as thwcEtta. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. barbacane. Etym. waschen. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit.— Fl. skola. barbugliare. to chafbargain. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. jargon.

to strive. commonly explained from bere. kani. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. lap. Uzen. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. berm hoys. as. but the woman for the man. barafustar.Barum vel feminam. to cheat. Swab. put to confusion. ON. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. berem. at barka. i. baron. Vocab. ThS man was not created for the woman. and the word. Sp. It. — de Berri. strife. bargain. barley. trouble. and ern. contest. a place. baarn. barretor. limpets. Manx bayrn. struggle. the A — Ihre. OFr. strife. bere. skutr. AS. varen. bcerme. tumult. also a boat . barajar. OFr. a baking place or oven. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. disorder. quant a perdu sa barja. Dan. E. bark . a lap. barja. (Ihre. bard). 2. bern. * Barnacles. baniffa. Sw. dispute. barn. dregs of oil. To Bark.^Voc^. baron)^ Fr. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. barn. beornt. quarrel Port. squabble. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. baratta. barnis. spectacles. Baron. entangle. barge. in the Brim. strife. barafunda. then the bows pectus navis. Camus. to scold. from an imita- Barley. Ibid. am. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. Bailey. the rack or manger. wine. dispute . Dan. we pass to the vert) barguigner. barnacles. and hence probably (by a metaphor. a lantern. So ON. barn. hay-loft. ON. barley. barley. bosom. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. On the other hand. v. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. . — Barnacle.. Provj bar (ace. bosom . dispute. AS. a beak. the or prow of a ship. is simply the Bret. Bemiques. barlich. . a cap . Of these meanings the second is probably the original. Alam. . the G. the fore or after end of a boat . have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. Lith. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. fray. and 1. ON. Spectacles. Antiq. the slimy substance brewing of beer. limpet. Bark. a stack.. bread-corn. baratta. baaring. dispute barattare. barone. and may therefore be an Eastern word. louzou.) lihtes-ern. prominent part of a thing. baarm. was barlic. bernac. bcern. to all the barca. dispute . borkr. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. barki. barizeins indicates a noun baris. to shufSe. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. quarrel. — battle. Acervus. a load. Barbour in Jam. adj. giving rise to It. border. berma. Kil. Barn. W. — Zeuss. barahunda. houbartij fsnile. —Bark. The Goth. dial. contest. baralhar. baaren.' bardagi. Barge. berm. bread. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. and is probably a true bartig. one who stirs up strife. barlys. aheap. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. As Goth. 2. and llysiaw. It. Tarn baronem quam feminam. The older form in e. confusion. herbs. Port. Du. barmr. . the which is equivalent of the lys in w. as. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. husband. skuta. Leg. barlys {bara. Garlick. a heap . Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. Port. baragouin. bern. to chop. mhg. baerm. The origin may be throat. in Nat. prasepe . bamagh. From Fr. plants). hlaSa. chaffer. ber (ace. Romance barsie. OSw. Sp. ON. beorcan. a. beer. also to exchange. Prov. as baces-ern. altercation. to rout. baimeach. w. barms. then honoured man. See Barm. a boat. a heap. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. name being given to spectacles. a barn. brenig. Du. Leg. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. a receptacle for barley or corn. Cornub. hladi. charlock. Isidore in Rayn. baralha. Ripuar. tion of the sound. Gl. corn-shed. Gael. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. Sp. astringent. Originally man. as in the case of Lat. hemlock. edge. limpets . See formed Yeast. to skin over barkandi. to wrangle. Bret. Rayn. meta foeni. as well as Scandinavian tongues. barii. So also ON. berm.

fortification. w. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. Sp. Fr. uncultivated. by early examples. beorgan. which would barragdn. barague. calico. gwr. the braw. AS. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. ibid. boar. as. a barrow.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. Formed from Fr. vair. Joshua vii. a castrated hog . an obstruction. baronculi.have been named from the haggling and gant. a barrel.. a. beorh. — Kil. sterilis. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. composed of dry branches ofer.root signifying confused noise. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. A. Russ. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. to * Barragan. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. iver. It should be observed that. G. became bidre. Barren. also termed bannerets. Bargus or moreland. habeant. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. change of goods seems. Barrel. whenever Barrow-hog. in the first instance. It. in Nat. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. mound. over him. cise formation of the word. bearg . Fr. a word is always used in the plural number. branches. ^Barrator. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. D. bark&n. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. a hiU. bara. The Sp. barBombicinus. strife. Barricade. The feudal tenants next Fr. braeck. Sp. baronetti. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. a horse. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. a bar. implement for carryAS. Bamnculus a baronet. (Schmeller). like bargain. and not from Fr. bredhan. It was not until the time of James I. from cavallo. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. StiU he shows conclusively. bouracan. the two names. brushwood. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. barrier. bera. baracca. gravis et authenticus vir. fallow. It. Bern. squabble. breinej Du.' Op. Bret. berwen. 2. bier.parchanttuech. barrique. nobles. man and wife. bara. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. from a tree to which a man is hanged. ^Vocab. and in several instances. barre. from beran. especially those killed in battle. baraignej Picard. barri. barile. AS. Barrister. See Bar. hut. OFr.— Gibbon. barraca. — — 15th Cent. S. It. a man. This word introduced into Fr. On chet — We — — their resemblance. to carry. Gael.' that Barrier. barrila. baroncelli. Gael. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. MHG. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. vel pretiosos burellos. berewe. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. a bier. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. heap. vir. a kind of coarse camlet. todtenbahre. to shelter. booth. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. a. fear. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. Antiq. bahre. sepulchre. semen non accipiens landiEL. OE. then traffick4 Barrow. — A . where baronetti is written in the printed copies. dispute. barchent. barril. Baron andfemme. See Barter. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. whence Barrow. Nominale of the from braeckland. barrack. alongside of barrow.. shed. litter. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. Barratry. garment still used in Morocco. baragan. cover. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. G. borov'. a hut or booth. E. facture. 1. as cavalcade. staves. 26. signifying. barrique. rolls of Parliament. Bohem. Goth. Sp. Barrack. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. perhaps through Prov. or simply bahre. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. seem to be radically the same with Lat. qui have not much light on the pre. man. beorg. An ing. were sometimes confounded. baronuU. tomb. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw.

fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. barley. beortun. Al is dai. Sylvester's Dubartas.looketh upon his eyes. HaUiweU. to cheat. baratear. curtus. It. lattice-work. low. Newman. bestan. /«r<fSp. pdrdt. Bast. basgod. Bass. come near. bast. basso. shallow. Lap. berewic. Bass. mean . hoops of a cask. as the diadem of the basilisk. Sw. descended of an honorable lineage. besst. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). basta. to bind hand and foot.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. truck. a halter. or wic. husk bast van koren. besst-u-b£nd&t. dwelling. low note. AS. cheating. the thin skin Dan. Kil. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. to deceive. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. G. of the same sense. embastir. aiKcig. HoUinshed. to long — a British word by Martial. baste. peel. Isidore. But according And Dan. humilis. Barton. submovet omne Lucan. . bdtir. fornication. A fabulous serpent. to baste. to cheat. bark. plaiting of splinters basged. HaU in HaUiwell. n' is n' is bacino. according from Gael. baxoj w. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. It. corn-farm. Fr. he. Bartizan. Sicamb. to stitch . Icegge eeii i baand og bast. ing for profit. back. bds. There is not one that. a court-yard. scale in music. him. barter. Apparently of Celtic origin. exchange. Bastard. Sw. crassus. to truck. also the demesne lands of a manor. to Diez. bast-maatte. a bastard. Du. BassuS. Sp. Fr. ' He was begetin o bast. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. bass-matting. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. The original meaning. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . bast. a king. bastear. which sets up its hood when angry. fornication. It is mentioned as . thick. discourse Nay. F. beguile. To Bask. Du. — hanging. but he dreth presently. bestcn. ohg. It. mock not. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. fraud. i. and tun. 516. at basta og binda. netting.' Papias. baraand especially teria. barter. flat. exchange. would be. baraet (from Fr. a bass rope. imbastire. to baste piece of cloth. unrighteous gain. chasa ogli a bastard. fits de bas. chasa. Basket. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. ibid. or running away with the ship. more noble in blood than notable in learning. commonly A joined with the word binda. Basilisk. OFr. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. to bind. See Brattice. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. partieren. the manorhousfe itself. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). baste. Swed.' Gl. tierer. It. mavult dicere Roma suam. foist in bargaining. It. Sp. oe. bassin. Fris. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. baos. pressed down. God it wot. found in Turkish . a tying. Lend me your hands. basg. inclosure. binding. Fr.). baratar. — Bassoon. stitch. a deceiver. preparatory stitching. the a wide open vessel. bas. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. — in Rich. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. but born in baste. low part of the Hickes in Rich. Barbara de pictis veni patch. Sp. and Bret. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. Bassus. piiiguis. over-reaching. beretun. To stitch. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. w. bast. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. Dan.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. ^Is de bast. bast-reb. leviter consuere. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . MHG. PaaiKhms. . imbastire. the — — to kill those that look upon it. Arthur and Merlini. low. To Baste. to bargain. Pl.D. lift me above Parnassus. cog. OFr. Gr. See Bath. to bind. as It. MS. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. The like property hath the iasilisk. . also to Cotgr. a ftiesh. lust. rope for — . basta. a ipgli So Turk. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. from bere. bareter. basso. said Base. bran. fhe outhouses and yards. from /3aR. MHG. on a. It. Halliwell. court-yard. Dan. a basket masg. then cheating. ' Bosworth. baste. which covers the grain Ger.

back. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. contrive. a stick. to quilt or stitch wool into it. bladier. 2. cudgelling. to beat. Sc. to Due. bastilde. in the use of the E. blatta. To donjon. It. to devise or begin. blakka. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. baston. worth (Nat. bastir. To baste one's hide . guerra bastir. ment. to lay the Sp. bakie-bird . to thrash . which in the E. — — — . to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. devise. Fr. Prov. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. bastir. It. badger. bastida. Sw. whence ledrblaka. To beat or bang soundly. All from bastir. E. basta.— Bailey. bastimento.— . which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. blakta. quelqu'un son roulet. Fr. bastonnir. stryka. bastia. Sw. ON. For the origin of baston see Baste.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. . and ditches bastion. aftonbakke. bast. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. erect.'CaB. stryk. to flap. bak.stick. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. club. — Bakke. a pad. e. Dieiif. to pack a saddle i. Florio. to drub. I. . Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. niammal. dial. baston. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. but this is hardly satisfactory. boste. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. 11864. to build. bastille. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. Sp. to spread bread and butter. contriving. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. a blockhouse. 'iJipistreUo. settiilg up. the E. a blow cloth for dinner. Sw. a barSp. vledermus. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. also the ricado. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. from Fr. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. set up. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. bastonada. business (Altieri). liiake. * Bat. is explained by Cot. Perhaps baska. 164). Supp. bastione. flyinge best. the bat . military term of a bat-horse). the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . dial. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. provisions. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. a bastion. vespertilio. blows. bdion. basto. bastear. packsaddle. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. R. Pr. pre. put it together. Pm. batta lucifuga.-^ Chaucer. Fr. frame. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. Fr. in the Romance languages. beating. blacta. vespertilio. to cudgel. like the owl and the bat. to set on foot a war Bastion. to stroke. That yche blak y dar wel telle. explains Sp. to teach one before. passage Imbasto. raise. iinbastire. beysta.fortress or castle furnished with towers. staff. as weU as besteau. and Arabs. a.baste or knock soundly. blaka. nade. natt-blakka. Cot. Bastinado.stitching in general. R. a things prepared for future use. to give him a sound bastingi 3. or implement for 4 * A . basa. a sconce. to build. Mid. set up. Antiq. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. and Cot. to beat. bastine. disposer. has bastine. Sp. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. a with a stick. Cot. a bird which. comp. blatta. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. to whip. to belabour. For the loss of the / in back. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. Dan. BAT neither. the original has corneille.. p. victuals. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. to rub. frotter. bat. 2. 2. ari instruineht for beating. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. iastir. Rayn. the clapper of a bell. Dan. night-bat. blakra. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. bastonFr. — — Fl. Derived by Diez from iasi. the winged . translation to a bat. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. It. compared with blakka. a packsaddle. which to rest the load. also to cudgel. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . Sw.Lat. to rub gently. a pad or packsaddle. the night-jar or goat-sticker.

bdda vidjor. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. to betake oneself. dial. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. altercation. tagUone. to toast bread. Battlement. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. gebdck. I bathe in water viz. bataille. cudgel. battle was used beath wood. In some parts of England it is striking. to foment with hot applica. ON. Batten. G. is a simple adoption of Fr. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. sich bakern. makebate. I baske. G. made of — A made by one Batcii. Strife. badda. term in falconry . a band of armed men arranged basa. squadron. to foment. to refresh oneself in language. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. for biia sik. more. to feed. was formed bastilU. dial. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. wet linen in washing. is in falling. in the case of a wall. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. a beating. adapted for defence.Hence in the augmentative form It. perhaps first used adjectivally. fortress or castle. Fr. batador. debat. lessen. Holz bdhen. From bat in the sense of rod . baquetazo. to bathe. baeddu. Bat. Florio. Hal. Du. an arrangement for giving blows. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. signifying to give repeated blows. and with staffslyng. trahtr to It. battaglia. To thrive. baden. tradire. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. Fr. howis. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. A batch as wood. Mgy. Ayenst the sunne. to beat se battre. Slav. bat. also. a main battle. to beath wood Battledoor. from battre. on. to be profited. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. flour. solen baddar. beat down. In OE. dial. basa. baz. To Bate. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. Pr. The bat with which a brot bdhen. as E. G. Hence pro. to get better. Battle. fashes basking in the sun squadron. of bread is so much baked zX one time. gabatnan. to beat. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . a stick. PLD. Fr. and as a verb. batte sig. the root of e. to heat . to bathe oneself. batir. Pm. Bailey. to cudgel. Chaucer. to for fighting. a battalion. Eggs. allay . to dial. to foment.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. to flutter with the wings. also a sun badfish. bdda. or break down. — Cot. . beat. From OFr. battere. Sw. e. Fr. water whether warm or cold. dial. To Batten. bdt. the heat of the It. a stirrer-up of strife. Bate. Baka sik vid elld. as E. solbase. bdhen. . hot. to warm oneself at the fire. — — — ' — . from on. Fr. Gael. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. a blow with a light instrument. bastille. heat. Barbour in Jam. pak. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. w. buask made like a fortress.— . battre las ailes. to heat. Flem. a washing beetle. Pm.' Palsgr. to fell. Batter. Goth. a staff. abate. bat-en. better. . to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. or a dry stick. as wood-en. to become fat. Pr. badask. Sw. Jeddris and covering. battions. whence the sun burns . a great seems related to baden as Fr. then to warm by the application of hot water. It. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. Batyn. battre. busk. Jurgor. — To . bake. to warm. A Bath. 2. to become convalescent. Sp. on the fire. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. as signifying warm baths.— To Bask. baka. made of bats. Bret. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. batterie. to thrive. beat. Fr. to beat. Battalion. quhar he suld assaill. quell. to beat. gebdcke. oneself at the A into faggots. to fight. bet. and about an inch thick. dispute. remit. to warm oneself. Battery. and milk beaten up together. It. Battery. See Better. E. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. Plkkis. battre. certain bend. strife. a from ON. batna. to fire or in the sun. in the sun. betten. Sp. I. battere. a Baiffi. bada. bludgeon. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. abattre. badda. to beak. or make debate. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. by projections or in any licoure. a blow. a battle. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da.Bathe. batacazo.

Ball-seirc. bau. BAWSON Swiss. The It. cluster. Irel. Cloth of gold.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. or sheaf of Bridel. dacchino.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. zano. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. It. exactly corresponds Fr.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. Beaus^ent.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. bow-wow. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. also the canopy carried part of his body. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. disgusting. represented by the syllable miau. s. Ball. faisceau. to the same origin. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. Pm. dung. fagot. It is all bawdy. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. Descript. filth. or toys. bausan. javelle. is used for a sented by bau. baugant. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). speckled. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. babiole. dirty. i. the white of his leg or foot. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. bauch. obstrepere. bow (as in our nursery Diez. fields. a lump or cluster babhaid. to make the noise Baudrick. Filthy. the face. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. dirt. c. bal. baula. bablyn or waveryn. bouaila. spotted. a spot. sword-belt. a plot of Chaucer. horse. tab. guigaw.' ' Pegma. as Fr. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. to trifle away ment. It. —R. excrement. to void the bowels. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. Sc. pie- . to vociferate. toys. — — ' Lydgate. sorry. Batylment of a wall. Lat. babbole. P. It. whence the E. a horse marked with a procession. a tassel. an — — — A — g — — — . for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. fooleries or fond To Bawl. miauler. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. the Swiss baben. librillo. Fr.guage). baudrat. also more Bawdekin. bad. Formed from baw. Cotgr. E. because made of cloth of white. OFr. Zalli. trifles. filth. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. Hal. baudrdj OHG. P. Bawson. vacillo. fe bau. bauU. a gavel. Cot.— P. E. W. ground. Prov. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. trifle. baue. Gael. and to-tore also. The word may perhaps be sticks. from Fr. an embattled wall. a horse with white legs. balderich. R. bal. From ! an interjection of disgust. in OE. nastiness. ish baubles. From Bret. balbob. baffe. child. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . collar. b \% bouala. an object. 2. mew.. — Pm. babsmall toy to play withal. E. E. Bavin. to talk Lacombe. a lump. Fl. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. In like manner Grisons filthy. dial. on the face of animals. baubare. P. or the animal so marked. propugnaculum.. Jam. tille. rotten. a belt. s. OFr. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. spot. divided between black and white. having a white streak down Bagdad. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. baban. balGael. a zan. Fr. A name of the badger. ballach. a dog). — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. is Bagdad stuff. ball. to 53 manure the To baw. lewd . brush faggot. instead oi s. Pr. and Sp.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. to low or bellow as corn. or Cot. from Baldacca. whence pouacre. scarf. Bagdad. pegma. baw. form with an initial seen in Fr. and authorities in note. Baw — . whimwham. expressive of disgust. to me-wl. Piedm. Fr. ON. dente. bobine. ! Bauble. to cry. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. 8. a tassel or hanging bunch . buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. An analogous noisily. bobbin or cluster of thread. to bark . Baldrick. Swiss Rom. a white mark Bawdy. Cot. Pr. to bark. was simply a field gold. to play the babby. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed.

baie. . when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. BAY marked with bjly. the step is the same as from It. bde. as if to signify a window of curved outline. stare. From Cat. bdcr. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. Bayonet. a hole. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. Sp. house . dehiscere . watching intently. baccello. window-sill. . bahia. Fr. 25. which however. Sp. or to have been first used at the Cot. bai. —Diez. Lat. trahir. baya. beo. badarse. to keep at a bay. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. bahia. berry. a cluster of bacon. living Ir. batibari. baca. Fr. Piedm.' — — 54 bald. from an imitation of the sound. is perhaps not directly from Lat. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. siege of Bayonne in 1665. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. Bay. Catalan hadia. w. grapes or nuts. bijel. &c. laurel of the ancients. or recess in an apartment in modern times. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. the cod of peas. Such Antaeus seemed to me. to amuse stare a bada. Sp. abbabayer. life. a beast. and zndly. Serv. baye. bilyejiti. a dagger. It. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. &c. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. a'uno. barn of two bays. OSp. by the term rendre les abpis. and keeps them in check for a while. at his last gasp. Prov. Swab. Fr.. BauSfi)/. Fr./^ bau. Gael.c. Fr. See Bawl. Lat. ist. large window in a handsome .. put to his last shifts. or window ' (in Fortification). badius. From the former verb is the It. Gr. Earth — By Nature made to till.' Bailey. badarc. waiting . beothach. Feb. and the To bark as a dog. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. he turns and faces his pursuers. buidhe. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. that from ba. See At Bay. baiare.— Stalder. a berry. bacca. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. baier. like a pie. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. corrupted into Bow-window. baionette. — A At Bay. baja. 1859. Holland's Pliny in R. as gazing. . . Swiss beie. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. AS. Bay. to split. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. bialo. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. or berries. to betray. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. It has been shown under Abie. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. bayo. dividere. Q. or at bay. It. * To Be. tradire to Fr. See Bald. to open as a blossom. yellow . Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. Bay-tree. to iiitent nected PoL white. bagaid. arose two forms of the verb. to stand watching one. Cot. To Bay. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste.—Journal Soc. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. bate. Arts. Drayton in R. window . Vielp. — Schmid. The word bay. S. to mark. stood watching him stoop. badia to Sp. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. bioth. ing-floor. to on anything. bay. bay. bajo. gate. &. from badar. bilyega. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. hddhe-dhonn. life. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. overture. to open. —F. expresr sion tenere a bada. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. white. beonj Gael. Mod. It. buidhe- The ruadh. open the mouth. so called from its bearing bays. the cod or husk of beans or the like. bayen-stein. |8i'os. aux dehniers abois. to keep one waiting. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. Abide. living thing . the world Gr. Fr. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. berries. BE Probably conRuss. baer. —Bay-windo'W. baca. The — Fr. Q. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. Gael. weary of running. baga. especially beans. husk. It. a mark. the laurel-bay. alive. F. baher. to gape. 1. A hollow in the 'line of coast. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. It. in order to keep the enemy in check. A stag is said to stand at bay. desiring. when. to be Bohem.

beic. atUndre. bauhan. . to wait-. To Bear. faba. W. a prayer. N. The immediate shore of the Menage. Bret. Gr. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. Be. Gael. Gael. fora-bauhan. The wild beast. Goth. bohne. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. nokkima. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. into France. ON. on. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. like most nautical terms. bar. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. a tree. Gael. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. prodigy bauhnjan. It is BEAR SI court. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. becco. bagms. a presage. bairan. — bedeau. Farrar. ffci. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. It forms a. bidello. bedm. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. bead. beugler. Du. bek. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. bakkje. tale of prayers or doxologies. bob. into a snjall river. Beacon. a hill. as well as f& or fav. backe. Hackluyt in R. bean. Trans. Sw. beacen. stock. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. bM. rising ground. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. It. Beach. beic. as. or any action done with a pointed thing. or beic.ad. a beak. beck. would say. Beck. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. g. fero. Beadle. a sign. which is. or breathing. fromthe danger. Netherlands or North Germany.fer-re j Gr. Bear. vol. or however. to produce young. Thus the final en. beacnian. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. bearti. a single bean.' Suetonius in Diez. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. ffaen. to nod . . Miss Gurney in Philolog. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. support. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. baun. W. a tree. Boom. See To Bid. and Lat. It. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. Moreover the name. G. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. Chapters on Lang. the part overflowed by the tide. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. to beckon. gebed. bdkna. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. . faba is Kvavoq. a nod OHG. OSax. Bret. according to of Sanscr. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. AS. He says.' adheres to the root. A two-year old nephew of mine p. Bean. was introduced from England sea. a single bean. The nutu significare. «va\ioQ. — Bellenden in Jam. Fr. bokan. signifying individuality. —F. E. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. bydel. Fr. an attendant. Goth. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin.fui. however. bakke.from AS. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. to nod the head. Q wait upon him. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. Beak.' Hall's Chron. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. signifying a point. Pardoner's Tale. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. The origin seems preserved in E. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. to bellow. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. 54. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. ohg. a curtsey. Beckon. Lat.to have a French origin. * Beagle. — to bow or nod . or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. bank. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. l^ax..fuis5e. ON. be. pierced for hanging on a string. post. bee. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. G. Slavon. pig. baum. to wait. — : Beam. vii. boom. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. not applied to the yelping of dogs. AS. bidan. -phxr. A Esthon. fd or faVf beans. badmr. to carry. beans. bohnej ON. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. salve his hurts. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. Catalan becar. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. as.

Goth. AS. proper. bedr. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. Thus OY. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. bel. Beat. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. talkative. to fall. 1. birth. taste. Fr. Slav. Bo. to carry. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. biivre. whence baveux. receive. R. obtain. godum with ON. Beck. fallinn. gefallen. Fr. barba. handsome. That thou mayest attain Goth. suitable.fit. to sleep on. which. while from Shep. to please. gabaurths. limpan. the ece thurhwuniath. opportune. as the babble of the child. G. AS. to happen. to bear children. bava. decorous. when up. place to lie down. riviire. byrcti. to those goods which endure for ever. pens unmixed evU. Sp. our taste. iida. limplice. Dan. bett. babrad. living. boroda. e. pleasing. Prov. brada. o. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. con. brook . See Bank. bavec.to clothe to slobber. produce. covered the face. beatanj It. gelimplic. from the same in the sense of bear2. The quadruped. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. R. bach.of being very angry. to the good hapHalbard. convenient. Bedizen. get J ' He got very angry. On the same principle. baurthei. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. bard. agreeable. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. The OFr. The fitting or suitable. tidy. bearing. a bank. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. comely. bekommen. — . barf. bequem. i.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. Beck. nothing to thy name make. Prick of Conscience. bello. Beaver. pretty. to fall mode of being. g. chin. bobr. Bosworth. It. nod or sign. G. burdr is used in the sense of a car. dushmak. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. Cal. blast. agreeable. Perhaps from Pol. G. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. and Fr. Beckon. the beard. befit. Lat. ziemen. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. bave. limpian. to come to or upon. to happen. slobber. now confined To Become. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. Do no To It fallith favour. formerly a happen. to dabble . ON. decent. bcek. bur. baba. to get. W. Secondarily applied to a hat. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. ON. G. duty. suitable. ON. happening as it ought. to be incumbent upon him.we call the arrangement becoming. and also in that of birth. biber. Lat. or special purpose. Fr. but now a river only. because made of the fur of the beaver. . behkr. Now the Beast. to hem. fiber. proper . tidig. Fr. connected with ripa. to fall in with our bavard. bebrus. As rivus. to attain to the lot of any one. seemly. See becymth anfeald yvel.AS. to happen.' ' He became very angry. Thcem. to be a part of his to. beauts. ON. a. becuman. to happen. gebank. ting. dress with unbecoming richness . riviera. and on. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. baviire. badi. bellus. brook. bart. Boeth.' are equivalent expressions. i. edge. E. judgment. a lip. beo. Lat. or river. rying. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. perhaps a living thing. befall. to shore. an notion of being convenient. Fr. OSw.— Kiittner. Lith. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. Diez.getiman. The moveable part of a helmet. E. bib or slobbering cloth. a bank. fitly . den. Chaucer. I do thee pray. 2. it is probable that here also the to become. Lat. venient. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. See Beacon. to G. to appertain. to wade through the water like a beaver. name applied originally to the bank then proper . G. to live. a brook. bave i. dize or dtzen. to assume a certain form or Turk. fitanimal.S6 fero. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. In like manner condition. e.' every way suited to a prince. bobrowai. becuman. E. byw. to arrive at. To load with ornament. to the brook itself. It. and to acquire. — A — A — . See Bat. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. battere. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. bestiaj Gael. to be fulfilled. Russ. He becom on sceathan. bring forth. Beauty. from beau. the latter are derived It. bekkr. if sound of a sharp blow. fit. border. from baver. to happen. or a feeling to be gratified. timan. as.

paralyticus. Fin. E.— JI14. the ox. crespir. drink. a mallet. tree. beest. Dan. Fr. to and ale. may be shpped on and off. Gr. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr.'— GL ^Ifr. I put the flax upon it to spin. to knock. water. which also 2. bibere is a re. P1. Grimm.' So Gr. sang vermeilh betatz. fagus. buka. badigeonner. Bed-ridden. biest-milch. speach. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. AS. bos. 57 — Palsgr. Originally. thick. cow has calved. . a pad or cushion). may be from K. bove. taglio. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. bossen. from blood. Pett. mars betada. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. to rough- cast. a bed-tick. Cot. prisons Venet. AS. imperative pi. to turn.^ drink. Gael. Lat. boeuf. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. prigione. beer. The first milk after a dizen. qui de lecto surgere non potest . to colour with lime-wash. cousin. It. &c. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. bletumj Gr. 1 to drink. AS. from leberen. beetle also signified the impiti. Fr.' the last word corresponds to cofly . close together as teeth in a venomous creature. But possibly bedizen 2. madhouse. Bedouia. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. thick. case. PI.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. . by the analogy of bedaivb. 1156. It. bytl. E.D. to coagulate. Fr. The meanpainting. a horse-fly . de Fierabras in Diez. bukva. bedde-redirj ohg. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. bet. Pl. cugino. buche. to flatten In OE. red curdled Arab . to poordma. pettiriso. curded or beesty. as the milk of a that purpose in London. ' MordiThe Lat. a agulatum in the original Latin.). ProBeer. a wasp. g. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. Bernese. . doubtless.. In a passage of an Old Fr. erroneously modified in form. beta. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. knock. Bee. Bethlehem. on. to fall. The beer al for te shenche bate. bedskiissen-bUren. cited by Diez. cushion-cover .ing of the word is curdled. bovis. bette or blettej Lat. betel. ir'm. drink. 'La Gl. a stinging bieUe. a wandering Prov. desert. ris.possible. door. For that was law of lend. and in driving piles. buk. a cup or implement for AS. in Nat. Fr. turn. beutel. . The honey-producing insect. of beatmg. translation beOj. garden-herb. biene. Lat. to drink. a Properly a cover that biiren. poculum. Confined to bed. G. beach-each. cogionare. wedges. and lebermer in G. piwo. Beetle. used for boull._t from the root pi. a pillow case. in Schmeller. D. Bav. whose face is clotty. blow or thrust.(paddi. the biter. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. briest. pital of St Mary. from the hos. Beet. 1. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. 1. calleBedlam. a bee.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. Arab. from Lat. biiren. a wasp. turn (a garment). comb. a malsense of drink. duplicated form of the root. Let. i. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. to beat bossel. sela que environna la terra. as. ^. Beef. bbtel. a pillow-case. beach. Ant. G. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. a drink potus. clog for a dog b'oteln. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab.D. to change . It. a paviour's beetle batail. stakes. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. to twist poorma. bedawi. an ox. also bienst. byst. a clapper. GaeL bior. KXlvoTTiT^e. vaar. to become Beech. from jtst-. waarin.cz//aj. from risan. Esthon. the loppered sea.ON. Fr.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. batAfter mete in sale. . trees in a forest . I A pillow-beer. an inhabitant of the desert. Fr. Rom. an Beetle. fall. boytle. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. extant in Bohem.— B. beost. beyki. a cover. bitela. cozen. bitel. also the bite or sting of a bees. Horn. the meat of spinach. pude-vaar. bably named from the destructive quali| T. by-flugaj G. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. as in It. briesch-milch. kiissen-biere. Slav. * Beestings. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. to curdle or lopper. Cot. I dysyn a dystaffe. G. whence familiar. . /SXirov. kivih. to parget or rough-cast . woman that is newly delivered.

in Lat. be^nnan. a beggar-boy. ykvog. ysgrepan. signifying to conceive. but probably erroneously. on the tramp.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. P. cans. He did alight. to get children . a bag. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. Gr. a bag . gan. but in the same language from poc. a wedge for cleaving wood. genus. chap. to arise. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. Florio. to take. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. It. Of brede full ycrammed. bertola. 'Aboutin undern monly. Bruce. to go a begging. touched with emotion — . gen. as alighting is a momentary operation. P. to reduce him to beggary. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. bag {baigean. ' . to be acquire. also called Bigots. is com. seizing. Goth. referred gan this Erie alight. ysgrepanu. 40. a little bag). bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. affected. yivwajcw. su with gold. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. beutel. yivtrri. begger.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes.' A. a scrip euXaiciJoi.3. ken. &c. 2.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. to be able. pose-pilte. to bear young. beitel. of Gr. & go a begging. P. in D. V. y/yvo/iat. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. to begaan. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. on further examination. Ancren Riwle. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. P. to begin. Beghardus. one after that other. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. and Lat. &c. To produce children is to acquire. Si'Xa/coc. 1430. P.' for ye shall lament and weep. 'Dz. aginnan. P. 1867. Lith. AS. So from Gael. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. two betels —a grete oke. tale. ken. a stone-cutter's chisel. ytyvwfT'Kw. When Q. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. begging. beginning. 142. P. 'ex quo. Skinner's derivation from bag. a wallet. Du. viii. It will . Deutsch. a scrip. yivofiai. V. a — wedge. Vocab. Du. steinbosil. vir mendi. chisel. From w. a chisel. iv. onginnan. kind. To Begin. at geta talad. a bag or poke. Nov. on the bag.bag full of the G. taking up. can. P. whence the E. beis- plement driven by blows. OHG. 168. giving in Gr. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. duginnan. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. to cleve.n. word. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. appears improbable at first. above quoted to get beaten ON. can. Schm. yiyvo/uat. ' Begone. krapszas. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . literally. 58 BEG BEGONE G. it is both to acquire and to beget. image is cleft out of the trunk. Creed. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar.pose. the fundamental notion of attaining to. to know. although it ' the future. a beggar . hags. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. air a . after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. — Stillingfleet. Lollards. Barbour. capere. 25. Du. beissel. beitel. in E. In Luc vi.— . is formed pocair. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. from whete G.' about undern he got down. V. gigno. covered with gold D. woe-begone. baigeir. ' ' . ornamented phoc. incipere. or Of a pure poor man. anfangen. Mod.quently used in OE. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — .D. beriolare. a beggar. to beg. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. not began to alight. Mundart. Into the are D. To Beg. P. lapidicinus. sel. Political Songs. The tother seand the dint cum. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. Cold-begone. Fr. ip AS. fangen and Lat. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. origin. — yivsaiQ. oppressed with woe. P. to be born.

is also found in the sense of looking. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. keeping. beperson addressed. beholden to him. and their senses intermingle. han- — js Kil. the distance of anything. to call. hafjan. adjust. The It. fixed upon any object). to lift. or the hence advantage. to be obliged to one. to bring forwards. injunccommand. to command. to turn one out . behold. To Behold. to lift. OE.).' Richardson. according as the * To Behove. AS. name of the head is used to express what hbva. And so from hania. to heave. Robert in Warton. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. to raise. The Lat. to be fit. behatan. hevja. to take away. healdan.to vow. gecall. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. gehaben. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. Aan iemand bid one welcome.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . is supported by many analogies. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. to be obliged to do a thing. G. It. guardare. the equivalent of E. gehouden. to hold. is on the top of or opposite to. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. betragen. to carry. to bers of the body. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. promise. at the tail of. commonly expressed. to the equivalent of Du. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . ward. to call. to vow. behind. behoof. hafwa. But. To place are most naturally ex.— . or necessary. a follower. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. hcefwa in seed. to lead. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. to command. portarsi. G. to be be named. holding is originally derived from that of looking. hces. zu etwas gehalten haitan. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian.for throwing it. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. to vow. to meet. AS. to gehouden. behat. to keep. to be suitable or becoming . hafwa. promise or a command. seeing to. heeten. AS. the name adapt. obliged. To Behave. to keep. what he wishes another to do . AS. observe. from tragen. what is so required. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. to hold. right. furtherance. habban. on. to R. to be named. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. G. to follow. Thus in Finnish the heave. habere. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. as in the case of E. behete. to tend. hofwa. to cast or throw. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. to carry corn into the barn . In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. garder. zijn. advantage. to look upon it as true . BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. Sw. heeten willekem. and (as Fr. hcef tig bort. To look steadily upon. K. — Behest. vow. nittaa. N. AS. behaviour. Plautus. exhort. Kiittn. us-hafjan.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. Sw. heave. gehat. to hit the mark. invoke. hantyri. the two verbs seem radically the same. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. to feed. to behave. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. to halten. to name. to regard. to carry. At the back of The re. to be well pleased out. hovast. ge' hatan. 17. Command. take heed of. bound. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. solicitum esse. gehalten seyn. to fit. se porter) to fare well or ill. —Hest. G. to promise. G. to look. to keen or hold. taking notice or care of (Gloss. to carry. Paladino. promise . take yourself off. tail. use. behces. to have. vow. premi curi alicujus rei. heita. keeping. Goth. when the verb will hoof. To be expedient. have the sense of calling or naming. G. The seyn. hatan. tion. hafwa ram. Sw. behefe. and the E. hevja. servare. R. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. hove. by the compound observare. hafwa bort. or purpose. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. laborare. ifl fact. ufhaban.the figure of throwing at a mark.

ley/a. overspread. Hence to simple approbation. to promise. 6o BELAY BELL loven. bertefredum. to be required for a certain purpose. distance to which a piece will carry. if a promise. a watch tower. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. belja. to to make A Templorum campana boant. leaf geleafa. range. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. to estimate them at a To believe. to sanction an arrangement. certain rate. Fr. are innate . is an easy progress. lov. bervrit. then. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . The principles which all mankind allcrw for . bell. . to fix a price upon one's wares.D. turris. and E. on. to resound. Fair sir and Fair lady. filu-galaubs. and Du. giving leave or permission. Du. In the middle voice hofwas. to a loud noise. ON. peal.D. belief . It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. . lyfan. to bellow. From AS. bealcettanj OE. a. stand. orloven. border. beffroit. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. portion. In Mid. reach. to give leave Dan. to belay. Det er ofwer er hofwa. praise. appearing in Mid. with the consent of the heirs. laven. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. to hit hafi. a tower for defence . AS. cela est audessus de votre portde. to bolk. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. The word be- Belfry. satisfaction. if a narration. to believe. to extol the worth of anything. leave . and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. battefredum. bylja. are other modifications of the same imitative root. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. praising. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. to believe. Northamptonshire. bialla. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. Sw. honoured. to befit. to praise. laubjan. for purposes of low estimation . bolken. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. beffroi.D. to protect. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. then.. a little shed. to sound loudly . to der swaren lave. to express approval. OFr. from mhG. aim. in nautical language. laven. P1. garnish. esteeming good and valid. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. See Gain. promising. bellow. Bell. met. beau sire and bel dame. To Belch.. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. and E. ungalaub kas. To praise is essentially Xo prise. locus securitatis Schilter. ornament. Du. or high estimation. to make it fast. consent. to boke. allow. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. To Believe. to roar. were civil terms of address. on. fitness. and. Then. — . ON. behove. esteemed . b'ola. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. beleggen. to praise. bercvrit. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. beset. Du. a vessel made for dishonour. to put a high price or value on. G. boare. galaubs. fringe. bettifredo. hesfa. It. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. or a sconce. glauben. or house. —F. promiser. to lay be- around. Q. lofa. loven.alyfan. verloben. a tower. permission. gelyfan. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . we have Goth. precious. berfroi. OHG. — Diicange. bounds. true. Another application of the same word is in Pl. loben. AS. bealcan. pro3. to cry out bell. To Belay. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. and bergan.D.Lat. bulken. under the forms belfredum. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. to give leave. legsel. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe..Lat. frid. galaubjan. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. Fr. resonare. to permit. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. . Goth. permitting or giving leave. bellan. moderation. is (Sternberg). to promise or engage. to give leave. reputation. tain a certain end. Pl. an implement for making a loud noise. to believe. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. to lay the cable round the bits. is used in the sense of approving. — mankind. loven. erlauben. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. to praise. measure. Pl. Du. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. mark ON. properly belonging to the church tower.

zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. . and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. volva. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. G. Benign. belliJ Lat. I say). pouch. to do good to one . Sw. belly. Dozy. leather sack. w. skin. gelangen. hem.pinuz. I soyle it or araye it. benefacere. well. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . benignus (opposed to malignus). — Ducange. . is The word balg. bimpsen. on.Fr. pertinere. a benefit. is a kindred form. Fr. binsen. bolg. J'emboue. one who does good. from Arab. — See Numb. are stripped off whole blase-balg. benedicere. To Benum. wallet. beneison. a bellows. pertinere. benedictio {bene^ and dico. to stretch it on a frame. bellows. Benefactor. to bless. pino3. Gael. balg. I araye. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. cod or husk of pulse.polch. fens et hie liraus. Ptg. a bellows . . G. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. binssen. langen. ball. The ing-skin. a accusative. bellows. bander un arc. as concerning that. an inflated Lat. Benediction. bolch. hence with ashes. to make bilbil. wallet Benefit. ON. To Bend. bell. a blessing. Gum benjamin.' Palsgr. G. balg. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. ^To Beray. benjoin. belgr. to concern. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. a kindness.' The term had been previously planation. Du. ON.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. ' . blast-bcelg. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. to become one's property . Quoth. bolg. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. Bret. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. to belong. attingere. Lat. OUG. to say. benjoim. Fr. becwathan. belly. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. — ray. kind. Eenison. Lat. bless.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. to attain to. belt. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. or a It is times the to signify services. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). needs no ex. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. In E. means seeds of plants. Lat. incense of Java. Gael. from benedictio. dirt. belch. bags or bellows. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. a water-bubble builge. bilbila. Benedico. rushes. I marre a thyng. From OFr. has assumed a plural form.' — Hie fimus. bienfait. border. a spring. because bcelg. See Nether. a speaking well of one. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. welt of a shoe. — root consisting of concentric skins. bellows. benehusk. to hold to one. gwaldas. Lat.— Belly. or simply djawt. Lat. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. See Bank. benejicium. loubdn djawt. bag. ' I beraye. a leather bag. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. a border. or sometimes louban. balteus . attinere. attinere. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. by itself. bene/actum. . the ipsi Caddono concessimus. to touch. pervenire. to. est matris in lucem editus. bcelg. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. to concern. Fr. ray. G. Bav. Bent." — — . Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. Benefice. rise against external force . By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. to arrive at. Beneath. as. to bend a bow . . the womb. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows.videtur. blister balgan-snamha. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. to ring. from which is also bulbus. poX^ri. disposed to oblige. Lat. a good deed. generous. se bander.. from another modification of the word for bubble. Benzoin. To Belong'. To belong is thus to reach up to. Benignant. to hallow. pod. . the word. to attain belangen. See Bind. a round or bubble-shaped root. To Bequeath. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. bilbil-goda. taken absolutely. to touch one. See I . OFr. to reach. benir. Javanese perfume. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. benaigon. from cwcsthan. to come to the crown belangen. Bench. vulgarly the belly. Belt. to exert force. bandoir. the skin of those animals that factor. fyle To dirty. bendaj as. welt of a shoe gwald. vulva. skin. or fyle with myre. . bimaissen. a blow. Kil. to use words of good omen. Was das belanget. bendan. was in Mid.

position. person to lie in. to fire a funeral pile of . as conversely a besom is called broom. barfham. to be-place. Tusser. supply.— VixHsm. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. — Chaucer. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. place. G. Du. to kindle the fire. Du. Ihre. R. Tha het he micel fyr betan. Du. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. Beit. besein. to stand one in good stead. stealth from steal. AS.• 62 Antiq. From abet. Beet.iooA. dirt. as. is to perform a serviceable office to him. encouraging. brem-bessen. So Lat. Devon. bdt. barth may be for barf. and Du. to defend. bal oppbota. stede. to the place boarded off in a. Hfence backing. a berry. besIn sen. from AS. what does it boot. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. bet. repair. To bete his Jam. roe. Besom. as bouter selle. as in growth. broom twigs.— Hal. hva mannan. arwe. but in practice. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. and on which the wager is laid.fish the other hand. berwe. ariierf to 113. as. To Bet. ship for a make amend. to make it. BETE dirty'. betan. advantage. as. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. To Beseech. The proper meaning of the bale. houseless. dung .X. making better. bat. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. Best. boutefeu. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. from grow. boeten. R. to cast. lewth. beseech. berry. what does it better a man.t. earg. scopse spartis. Du. When men of mekeness him baet. sweepings. basya. — bota. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. or to bestead one. buttare. put. . because used for making besoms. roju. an incendiary. of ffeed a fire. besmas. basjaj Du. bacca. sheltered from the wind. p. to exercise on a definite object. botesward. barthless. a horse collar. Sw. protect . the side bhakshya. baete. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. fyrbotare. make better . seems twigs or rods. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. from It. reparation. mud. fall with sound. jnore. as. bestow. Goth. peto. to thrust. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. to fall with roisto. Beere. To Bestow. berwham. compared with bargham. boeten. in the sense ctf beria. On the other hand. Zeitschr. preferably. . small eatable fruit. to To Bereave. rubbish. rods. to mend. I from lew. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . one who shelter. ropahtaa. het vuur The serise of Boeten. to word is shelter. p. Grose. The origin is AS. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. AS. buttafuoco. baete. fearful. OE. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. * Berth. dial. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. To help. boeten. bdt. besen. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. reafian. Fr. solicit. amendment. Bestead. * To Bete. So roto rattle down. bouter. Esthon. to entreat. bereafian. AS. BEREAVE Wall. to supply a want. The dry. advantage. sets fire to. lay out.bhaksh. supporting on the one side Lat. to make better. — . a fire. Sw. to light the fire . Fr. to to deprive of. Fin. boteith Goth. and also to entreat. profit. To Gl. eld up- On is to be placed A — . betan. to thrust. earh. put forth. to on the other Goth. or the space kept clear betan. a place . The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. bur-we. dirt . to amend. it seems hard to separate as. to seek. vi. vol. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. improve. — Biglotton. besje^ Sanscr.—^fake. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. Berry. but it is specially applied mister. roju. to give a place to. besnij Pl. stow. E. Rob.irova.D. same word with the provincial barth. — amendment.ot-i. E. ^•n. an incendiary. See Better. So too Yorkshire arf. as Du. the origin of which is to be found in ON. think more probable. might have been . dust rojahtaa. 3. better. Kil. To seek something from a person. the guardian . bota. beorgan. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. to strip. See Reave. or. It is the restore fyr betan. G. to put on the saddle. reparation. ^akka. burrow. noise.

what does It is forward him. deign. /alia. — of the authorities. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. Mich self a good glass of wine. more. Fris. betweox. is treason. AS. Golding's Ovid in R. The inflections of Fr. Now the stirring of an object. are there Regt R. Thus from dbahir. his eyen sheen. ziemen. betwuxt. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. To Bewray. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. it bewrays itself. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. moveable and compass branches. against. betst. to discover. better. betest. beva. Goth. Sw. betweoh. Fl. i. taemen. Fr. Percy Soc. ON. the being pushed to the frbnt. fallinn. be fitting or suitable. from invadere. Du. make manifest. Car son umbre si le trahit. betwuh. To Betray. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. of pheasants. From It. amiddes. an instrument opening like a a thing. R. In like manner from twain is fothied between. bevere. bouter davantaige. by two. verbs in ir with a double ss. Ik tame mi dat nig. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. fate. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. to fall Some call it a bevel. Fr. . become. not to have the heart to give up a thing. Fr. thy speech bewrayeth thee. A — drink. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. betera. batista. taemen.D. Slant. Best. find in one's heart. G. BETEfiM translated. roebucks. dir. Dii. as tlock. Cot. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. suitable. abash j from polir. Between. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. his mouth. spritigs from schicken. a bevy. — that schickiich. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. better. wrogia. to make forwards. a traitor. *Ah. zimet.— .D. Bevy. tima. It. OE. bet. larks. as trahissons. E. and thence twegen. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. to fall. E. awry. amidst. tweoh. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. which may be compared as to form with amid. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. or with again. 88. kein leben mehrin no signs . riigen. to Hence It. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. traditor. Pl. R. batizo. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. betweohs. has — In a like sense tanie>i. best. a different form of twa. Fr. E. deem suitable. beverage. roja. — See To Bete. To vouchsafe. two. trahissais. bedriegen. some attention. AS. to deliver up in breach of trust. Lat. e. G. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. To boot in coursing (i. as one would have it fall. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. zemen. to happen. Dit tungomal rendered in E. order. It. — Betwixt. Chaucer. Friar's Prol. Det sig sjelft. are commonly to one's lot. i. traitre. &c. I approve of beveau. progress. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. afford. find it good: Goth. ON. betriigen. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. to Teem. treachery. to stir. as envahir. gesiemen. to happen. ruogia.' Dialogue on Witches. Sahissais. e. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. sloped off. in the same way Lat. regen. trahir. x. of quails. by a final sh. in the middle of twain. From the former of these are AS. e. to accuse. bibere. whence beveraggio Fr. pair of compasses. To Beteem. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. to deliver tip. gatiman. from Fr. to drink . fitting. Buveau. Pl. G. tima. said he. bevde. obeish. evidence of life. Hence last G. to cheat. The as. from Lat. On the same principle ON. gezimet eines dinges. beuvrage. betaemen. twain. In the water anon was seen His nose. R. bet. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. baet. from. a brood. trakir. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. suitable. wreia. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. to deceive. dispose (whence schicksal. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. tradire. vrohjan. better. betray. bat. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. tradere. advance. trahison. Bav. springs from ON. -to appoint. G. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. lot). a drinking . In like manner folissais. obdissais. Ober D. in the middle of two. polish. Tinia eigi at lata eit. is used for the — R. Better. Goth. r'ojer dig. as from obdir. proficere. for measuring angles.

sbiesso. its clothes.{ioin dua. /3i/3Xof a book originally. Bibelsworth in Nat. bickelen. though such a change of form would be very unusual. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows.a. sbiscio. discover. bickel. to purl. bebble. to slaver or drivel. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). the papyrus. bisdare. —Bickering'. to stir up . to be a paring. whence Du. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. OE. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. is explained to clatter. Bisect. to make tongue Du. Oh when shall I bizzle. bark of which paper was first made. sbrisso. like guzzle. Prov. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. kwijlen. bisel. specially in a bottle. ice . Fr. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. (according to the Fr. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. . bibo. dial. to dispute.as in Biped. Lat. to well up with Cot. which good bibbeler. has a singular stone-picker. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. of the sliced off. Bib. I Wallon. rogge.D. Gr. crooked. poison. bending. notice. Sardin. Bezel. biascio. to slaver . pible. liwell. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. An inferior blue. biberer. edge of a plate of looking-glass. It is especially applied in Sc. to tipple. bring under ' Thy accuse. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. sbias. Cat. makes ble. or by any rapid motion. In comp. To Bibble. — Bi-. sbiescio. Sp. to glide or slip as upon. Jamieson. shows the P1. To Bicker. See Wriggle. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. Cat. to give signs of life. in two ways for duis. to shake. Du. to it evident to sense. The It. from pdd-. roggle. it were the mouth. per\'erted belief. pddzahr. wrangle. aslope sbisciare. 78). bes-azur.' bibble. sloped. Ci^. beregen. Fr. asure-bice (Early E. — crooked. a slabbering-bib. presence. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. Biseau. Fr.to drink much. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. Fr. whey count . sliding. It. To bicker in NE. and zahr. Sard. . twice. misFr. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. to stir. lips. sbieco. baverole. foul weather. or in and out. one who drinks in excess. Piedm. metaphor). stock still. sbriscio. . bezling or skueing. Bice. sbiasciai. biberon. bible. sik beregen. bias-wise. Piedm. love first begins to life signs of him. he is Wtb. sbrisciare. besanca. reveal. wraggeln.s bellum for duellum. Hal. Fr. Pers. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. the basil Sc. Lat. . to creep or crawl sideling. to stir. sbiagio. Pl. in him. 172. a bezle. Probably.or from obliquus. To Bib. snout. bickel-sieenken. Ant. to move. To skirmish. bihais. evident. a stone-hewer .— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. Bezoar. bibaculus. bestemps. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. him. to cut in two. Hal- — do something aslant. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. Mantuan. used in precisely stone . bickai. slippery. To Bezzle. To drink hard. wrogen. tailU en biseau. ber-laita (for bes-laita). to stir. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. it becomes (Jz-. E. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). . babbefore the eyes. inferiority. to the stirring of their conscience. to tipple. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. to Jam. as an eel or a snake. aslope. a Galilean. kwijl-bab. petit-lait. sbrissare. Misc. It. bavon. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. bickeler. bescompte. expelling or preserving against. beslei. Fr. biberen. in Fr. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. convicts thee of being drink. Bible. Diet. Uprogen. —Dozy. slanting . the word became bddizahr. winding or crawling in and out. dial. by throwing of stones. Fris. Dan. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. Yes. a bibber.D. bis. a sloping edge. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. Bias. two- footed.two. to a fight with stones. b&zahr. a fragment bieco. Schiitze. The train of thought is then.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. biaiser. kwijllap. biascia. biais. An excellent Basil. babbi. rogt un bogt sik nig. biax. to sip. oblique. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . In Arab. baviere. or kwijl-slab. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping.

R. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. are also used in the sense of asking for. — To Bid. called the tertiary order. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. from bidan. bugan. The ON. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. Bigamy. Compare also Sp. bugt. — prepare.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. — — — Halliwell. G. OSw. bolgna). repair. explaining the Sc. bulge. a suitor. to arrange. bidan. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. pressing on one's notice. ON. to move quickly. Jam. From Gr. gebodenj G. bis and in comp. . bolginn. swelling.t. be bug. A bjudan in anabjudan. Kil. from seek. besides the professedmonks and nuns. inhabit Du. and Gael. beadle. cultivate. praebere. belly. bilge or bulge. spelling seems to used in the N. Bickelen. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. ewes. by seek and beseech. With respect to logical pedigree. ON.' Addison. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. to curve. 1. Palsgrave in Halliwell. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. bi-. bend. bouwen. 2. AS. bo. AS. AS. The original Swollen. bidel. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. Analogous expressions are G. bieten. England for swollen. and consequently ordering or reGoth. from belgia. balg. bauen to cultivate. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. the belly of a ship. to pro- command. OSw. to inflate E. Einem einen guten tag bieten. bulge. has leta.Leta). buga. as tears from the eyes. ON. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. form. bat .' Pope in R. bath. bit- bidja. to forbid . related to big or bug.uddered len heart. bulky. abidan. To Big. to look for. einen vor Gericht bieten. bugne (answering to ON. bog. the meaning of bid. bug. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. which is stiU. an entire skin. to forbid . to offer it to public notice. who. The ON. to inhabit. qucero. beodan. beidast. . to solicit. bua. gebeden j G. to presimpler pare. to build. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. inhabit. swaggering. to have one called before him. to ask. to bid one good day. to build. BID of stone. twice. boa. bedun. ten. bygga. G. The . byggan. to swell. To bid the banns. The 'La. ON.peto. to bulge. or bad. offerre. bced. bidill. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. to build G. as G. or. bow. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. to offer one the wish of a good day. G. Wallace in Jam. belly. quiring something to be done. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. To Bid ' Big . to cultivate. to belly. iiQ. proud. biegen. to start out. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. to bend. Two verbs are here confounded. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. byggia. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. W. Bigot. becoming in Lat. to E. Hence Sc. of More ' in Richardson. biddan. bag. bidjan. to offer. a chip. faurbjudan. and the Sw. pray. to dwell. bead. verbieten. a flexure. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. BIGOT beidan. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. and yajiBui. to marry.. in the sense of ask for. rising up. praestare. porrigere. forwards. a swelling. consisting both of men and women. It must be observed that the word bidja. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. ' Bug as a Lord. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. or third order of penitence. Big-swol- . Big. bidan. A pose to one to come to dinner. P. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. to look for. may plausibly be derived from Goth. The loss of the / gives Dan. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. to pray one to dinner. bulk. bieden. as. to bicker. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. to bend. bigan." buque with E. swoln. Bight or Bought. build. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. Du. to abide or wait on. bolga. anleta. to ask. bend of a shore or of a rope. athird class.

a blockhead. alii de paupere viti. homespun cloth. &c. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. D. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. G. Francisci communiter appellabant. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. dark-coloured cloth. sed maxim^ in muliebri. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. all apparently derived from Ital. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. Bizocco. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. A.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. the nobles to Rienzi. Bizoccki. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. grey.' Matthew Paris. rustical. xx.' Chart. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. natural grey or sheep's russet. Augustini dotarint. bigio.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. the other form Per te Tribune. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. S. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. alii Apostolici. Beguttce. vol. They wore a similar dress. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. absque votorum religionis emissione. coarse woollen cloth. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. vocati Fraticelli. and hence the variations bigutta. Flor. beghart. and Q.' says one of of bigio. author quoted in N. clownish.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. ix. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. borel.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. to adopt a similar course of life. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. was formed bigello. 1243. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio.D. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. corruption would easily creep in.— Ducange. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. says. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. bigotta. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. 560.' translated by Muratori. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. grey. A. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. In the same way Fr.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due.D. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. A. Hence the OE. both men and women. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. biso. which must not be confounded with begardo. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. probably from biso. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. with reference to A. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. 1499. perch^ i Terziari di S. signifying bagmen or beggars. as well as bizocco. bighiotto. ac labores manuum detestantes.D. In a similar manner from bigello. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. begutta.a. a dunce. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio.' says an Venet. and also unlearned common men. beghino. Bighiotti). civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. aliqui Begardi. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS.— BIGOT bigardo. bighellone. Bighini. From bigio. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. honesti plebeii amictus.. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. face VIII. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . 15 18.

the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. Bill. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. Roquef. dziob. now A Bilboa blade. axe. AS. . Sw. billard or billart. a devotee. a negro. Deutsch. bolghe. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. Fr. bigot. a bigot or hypocrite. symbolum. a hypocrite. the swelling G. belgan. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. dissimulation . e. The Du. bill.' in Richardson. w. Prov. Piedmontese bigot. however. boia. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. to job. as craneberry. a man who rests on a stick in walking. a short note. bulgja. See Bull. blaa. So in Gr. to strike. tepati. Ludwig. bil. bulla. I. bigardo. a name given to a. procella Kil. AS. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. beghart. to swell with rage). The proper meaning bylgia. an axe. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. names bill-berries.' bilio. The origin of the term is probably from bole. and dziobas. that of swell. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. ferrese quam ligneae. Kil. to be angry (i. from the dark colour. Du. bigotto. bill of exchange. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. used in legal proceedings. the bill of a bird.— — — . and a billard. Langued. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). To Bilk. false pretender to reUgious feeling. Fr. to strike. obsolete. p. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. an axe . Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. Fr. a shackle. BILBERRY nated. an ingot. crowberry. Du. gan. Lat. a sword. Sp. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. beil. might be taken to express a hypocrite. Sw. billet is the diminutive of this. Mundart. Bojce. bull-berries. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. bila. 5 * . AS. Bilge. to peck. See Bulk. bill in parliament. bullet. buail. a of the sea. buie. boja. — — ' . . an adze . An instrument for hewing. bwyell. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. plog-bill. e. Billet. at sea Billet. as a bill of indictment. dziobad. 2. Thus we find in It. a seal. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. billot. a beak. of boja. horn of an animal. an ingot of gold or silver. bisoch. billet.' mariners.. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. from OSw. deceit. 3. Dan. 2. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. the trunk of a tree. bile. to pick a millstone. Billow. In English the meaning has received a further development. is properly a sealed instrument. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. blue . top. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. Lat. Dan. a floating log to mark the place of some. — bigardia. Bilberry. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. inscriptum. fluctus maris. the beak of a bird. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. topor. in the sense of a writing. Bill. Gael. bui. an axe. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . bizocco. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. Johansen. bigot. gleischner (Frisch). belghen. . a hatchet. loi. irons or set in a kind of stocks. the o changing to an i to express diminution. OFr. an axe. fetters. Bille. Kil. Billette. in the same sense. biilge. bla-berry. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. Tartuffe. b'olja. ^Billiard. A lorum tam in — Diez. and in Lat. a seal. — Cot. Bilbo. Du. buoy [i. abelthe fetter itself. genus vincu- Bilboes. G. seems to be rather the unda. Bohem. boeye. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. Gascoigne in R. A slang term for a sword. person of religion leading a loose life. 'tumidi fluctus. In the same way are related Pol. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. billard also signified at billyards. bulghe. clog to a fetter.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. whortle-berries. weapon . Sw. To defraud one of expected sinking. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. Bigin. NFris. of E. on. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. blamand. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. Aurelles. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. from Mid. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. bille.

nodus. Bisen. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. a corn. bundt. sc. Du. than vice versi. When compared with Fr. Bing. . — See Bittacle. to twine. pippione. Habitacle. bij sien. See To Bear. to hang. Bird. pin-ti. Lat. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. a bitch. Sp. in Swabia. binge. Bisson. a brood or hatch of young. Dan. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. is rendered in ON. bundle. life. G. beitsl. a hind or female stag. bundle. ON. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. hiindiiin. i. See Breed. berkas (z=:Fr. i. to plait.. betsel.. Fr. also a stone weight. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. It. bunt. biscotto. qui nisi propius Blind. pinnu. AS. while bind-wood. bund. E. Lap. Bin. . poule. where the compass stands. Goth. G. to bind at . truss. bunch. Bittacle or Binnacle. to bulge. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. H. a weight of 48 pounds. See Belly. hith. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. AS. bigne. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. evegue. poultry. We — A Birth. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. . a bitch applied also to other animals. piccione. expressed by Sw. viz. piiiti. lusciosus et myops.. or bin. overlooker. Lith. terial. by binda. — Surrey in R. bhurja. a female dog hindinn. G. I would derive the verb to knit. forth. To Bite. Then added division in a granary. . AS. bund. ge- from AS. a gallinaceous bird. to bring Biscuit.68 BIN Bio-. Bine. or petze. EpisETTiTOOTToe. Gr. to be derived from Ibfiaq. The proper meaning is a heap. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. Bailey. Bindweed. pittjo. Sw. Fr. a house. bord. binda nat. a knob. bindan. Lat. a bunch. and of Fr. and especially to a small poor horse. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. pundas. doubtless a stone. evesgue. an overseer. Sw. AS. Bind. j). bitacora. an eagle's young G. bundt. brid. Lat. AS. bikkia. bunga. Lat. Thus I suppose the Gr. Bitch. Fr. a female stag. a bear. burt. . bundun. which is expressed in E. to wreathe. band. a little dog. 'tumens sequor. fowl. to form a knotted structure. a weight. to cook). biccej ON. beize. wine. . Bisom. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. Goth. e. isfiw. to bear. habitacle. The bitol. biclie. bitill. pullus. bunki. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. — — . Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. In like manner from knot. by the verb knit or net. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. copus. V. propius videre bij sicndc. from Lat. &c. Lith. bin-wood. or ben-wood. is in Scotland applied to ivy. AS. G. Sanscr. ON. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. or baked. — Kil. admota non Bit. from Gr. properly a young pigeon. bita. biscuit. episcopus. To — — —D.' and the like. to fasten it together. beisseii. beran. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. beitan./«idere. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. a bitch. to bind together. bij sienigh. a heap. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. BITTACLE /Siof. evigue. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. Fr. a truss. to knot nets for fish. the young of birds . pinnii. bircej Sw. brut. the young of an animal. are commonplaces. a heap. to net. IV. videt. a habit- Binnacle. The term ON. earnes brid. bindan. beorth. from \t3\. Birch. to swell. Bizened. a pig petz. twice cooked. to build. a bump or knob. from pondus. v. vescovo. Fr. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. bjork. It. — properly near-sighted.

. So Fr. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. quick. things —Palsgr. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. light-coloured. ON. bitr. a large lip. out the tongue. to speak Dan. Bav. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. Goth. gabble. on the one side. blob. to loll it out. bites. G. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. whitish. It. ' plabraich. blake. blepLith. blab. bitts of Bitts. white lead. 332. leohte . a flapping. gulblakk. a continued soft sound. on. Sw. to bivouac. baitrs. plappem. iroxafealo. Black. whitish. AS. In a similar manner Gael. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. bitter. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . Cot. is placed. ' Biovac. blebberis. Deutsch. whiteness (candor sine It. mona mid Dan. . beiwache. brunblakk. I blaber.D. In Legrand's Fr. pale yellow . bird of the heron tribe. to To blabber blabber with the lips. dark. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. To Blab the anchor. a babbler. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. 't kompas huis. Mantuan babbi. beuni. mouth. blubber-lipped. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. Fr. blakki. to babble. shine. an additional watch. 't huisje. an edge is sharpest sword. Bivouac. Bohem. Mag. To or he can speake. term. from wachen. white. garrulous. Hal.€i. Gael. blobach.plab is used to . and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. Percy Soc.' by Haldorsen. small guard-house. bitor. Je N. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. ON. — Collins in Hal. chatter babbler . Ai-mstrong. ^chops. to babble. blabhdach. blank. babbling. obscurus. Lydgate. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. NE. buft". Hald. Sp. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. Fr. ^aj'/^r. The bitas.' It would thus acle. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. 156. mouth. maculS. bihovac. to chops. blabbre. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. blob. to watch. beitr. ON. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast.' G. Again. Nagt huis. blakk. bleich. "uivac. butorj OE. pale. discoloured . as in that of pale and white on the other. a* mast . In like manner E. Why presumest And laam's asse. apparently from its biting the tongue. Hist. as of a body falling into water. corrupted in Fr.. to let out whai should have been concealed. blesmer. unintelligible talk plabair. Alex.' by Gudmund. 'fuscus. — cheeked maid. night guard. his blacan light. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. blabbern. Sp. G. fallow . bittour. is apprehension of danger. bleikr. from whence we have adopted the. Bittern. Sp. a large coarse lip . blob. — Hollyband. Cotgr. white. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). blabaran. blac-hleor ides. thoughtlessly . shining. Se bleek. dusky. —Neumann. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. viz. faded. to the sharpness of a weapon. babbe. v. first. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. pale. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. A a rail. Mund. a shelter for the steersman. yellowish. Gael. x. ON. a fluttering noise. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. as of wings . . a childe dothe gasouille. pale. bleg. indistinctly. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. as of water gently beating the shore. baboyer. pale brown . plabartaich. biti. bitones. The Gz. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. fallow fawn-coloured. . a beam in a house or ship. Du. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. /ealo-/or. black. Wit hung her mourn. biacca. to talk much.— Blabber-lip. Fr. quoted by Ihre. Pl. AS. confusedly. blunt we say it will not bite. round which the cable is made fast. yellow . stutterer. Blabber-lip. to wax pale or bleaked. faded.. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. blanc. Fr.). synonymous with baber-lip. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. or water beating gently on the beach . even humour seemed and beuin. in contempt. Fieldfare. Applied in Hin ON. pins of the capstern. Bleak. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. as is seen in sputter and splutter. Sp. a tati. the palebleff. bittore. pale yellow. a stammerer. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. cut.

to bleak in the sun. boys. and Q. chatter. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. waschen. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. Blancli. blather. a leaf. blactra. blank. defame. borrelen. blanqne. blather. and thence to babble. speak impiously. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. blame. piatto. G. Blame. Dan. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. foolish talk. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. also white woollen cloth . blister. tattle. black. to blanch. and he shall be sure to have O. name originally given Blackguard. a bubble. Wott. smother. to make or become white blanc. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. Bacon in R. bladeren. with all other loose idle masterless men. to shine. blanchet. blanchet. D. a bladder or pustule. blasphemare. Fr. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. — . —We Bladder. Du. rogues and wanderers. to purl. See Blubber. irXariQ. blatt. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. leafy. bladder. PI. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. as Lat. blister. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. on. mud. The present forms then should be classed with blether. The old Dutch form of the word is blader.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. bladder. blena. . tree. pimple. G. 1854. Blank "verse. a boil. pXaatpiiiiHv. to glow. Sir. a blank ticket. the origin of . blanc. Perhaps from blegen. whitish. . or a mass of bubbles. leaves. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. cited in N. Jan. . blad. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. Torriano. e. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. p. as blader. It. imbrunire. roar. blatter. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. slush. madder. 86. Eadmer. coat. blaere. Du. probably ate. pladdern. as. vagabonds. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. to —Blaspheme. whitish. shining. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. Fr. pass over. gabble. blister. biastner. Cot. blanchir. and wandering men and women. bladre. Gr.. Blain. or of an oar G. To blank. pallido.—Blatter. or as E. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. Besides the examples of this connection given above. Now. blatter. white. vagrants. a white or unwritten ticket. Sw. mire. a pustule . blether. biasimare. mus-blackt. to To bellow. to shine. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. bladder . blein. plat. bladder. G. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. his meat burnt. blad. a. to Hence Ital. Blanket. reproach.— Kil. broad. a bubble. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. smore. blegne. Fr. which we . Dan. mud. chatter. Fr. or blafich. Play in Nares. to dabble in water. blinken. sheet of paper. most complete example of leafy structure. But perhaps a more Gr. and others engaged in dirty work. — — — to jabber. leaf of a. Du. revile. as. 5/^a/^ of colour. skola and thwatta. livido . branches . The radical bubble. Blank. leaf. I am degraded from a cook. as scullions. blahen. Bav. pluddre. on. plate. to vocifer- — Cot.— ^o thehotsun. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. 7. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. moere. linkboys. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. variable than the signification of words designating colour. Du. to glitter. &c. Sw. To Blare. blister. — Sw. Reliqu. to blow. also tanned by the sun. and the agitation of liquids. dial. Du. Blade. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i.. candidus. a buible. — rura. a blanket a bed. from candere. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. Hist. and G. contracted from bladeren. commonly called the Black-guard. is identical with Flanders borlen. to omit. bladra. the ON. Dan. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. and E. —^Webster. white. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. bladdra. polished. to disappoint. Sc. dripping-pans. to bubble. plat. blegen. board. also jabber. blaeren. flap of a Du.—Blatant. Lat. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. the leaf of a tree. in R.

Golden Book in R. a blast. blase. a loud noise. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. Blanches illuminies. Du. shield or surcoat. blcese. a MS. fire. whence Blazonry. to spread news. — ' — stroy. proflare tues. and. Sc. has also blencke. ill-speaMng their proper colours . to extol. With inversion of the liquid. to bellow. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. blossi. blaodh. a shield. blaser vid. or to the sound which it produces.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. to proclaim. and to make him word blaze. The origin of this exSp. oured. a coat of arms. also blazon or the blazSpenser. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. baladrar. a funeral oration . is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. Blaze. blesse. blesse. a shining spot. to cut off prematurely. Troilus and Cressida. Fr. used. quus. a voice Jr. g. Cot. magnilo. ON. an empty and two theories are proposed. gloriosus. To blast. ON. kept up. bles. Gael.— . in the same way as we 2. blason. ing of arms. I. But now. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. Du. to de. blason. clamorous. 2. might And sain. a whisperer. blast. much plausibility. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. a flame. blcesett. blysa. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. a lamp blasere. blatero. To blow AS. Du. blasa. proclaim the virtues of. blcest. 'op een trompet blaazen. how. splendour. blateroon.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. a flame . as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. by stripping off a portion of the bark. blcEsan. . to blaze Sp. in that of praise. She roade at peace through his heraldry. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. Dan. is from AS.' to fastum . laudes (Kil. i. pale. a torch . If armour. ther it was erst not knowe. G. Cot. light-coli. brasa. The AS. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. As Kilian. AS. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. to blow. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. like the in English. to blow. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. blis. blazen. beast. friend Cornelius. on whose behalf the herald appeared. bliEsan. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. AS. might spring from the same origin by a . the noisy. G. or blazening. blezo. loud . Lye. Sw. A blaze is so intimately Then. . declaratio. blcEsan.' painted or figured . Fr. braise. is used in the sense of manifestatio. of an animal. biter. A strong flame. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. besides blesse. also praeblczse. Du. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . commendation blason funebre. to publish. See Blare.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. e. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. embraser. blose. noisy blor. — — ' : bless. abroad. and which. magniloquus. somewhat different train of thought. is the imme. Kil. blaterare. oron-blasare. blorach. among other . Prov. blasoen. The other derivation. Sw. stultd loqui.whence the Fr. thraso. Fr. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. an conium.sound a trumpet. bawling. blass. Du. a flame.). to blow . blasonner. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. a shout. A gust of wind. each of boaster. Blatant. to trumpet forth. blaeteren. visui patet. also only pains and excellent endurance. to set on fire. — ^Jam. OE. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. . — Elazen. blaze. senses. First from the E. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. Gudmund. indeed. it is manifest. To Blaze. coloured prints. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. boasting. blase. blys. bldsse. as a verb. abroad. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. blus. brasa. blaodhrach. redness . ventosus. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. bleis. to publish the praises. the matter incendiary . live coal . properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. Dan. a torch. baladron. Du. blaesen. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. Blast.

novice. Sir J. — — R. guenchir. (faith or creaunce) Be war. Blear-eyed j having sore i. a blot or smear blanking one. to whiten by exposure to sun and air .— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. paleness. the livid colour of a bruise. blot. And now are these but mansbond (i. whitish. a blotch plerr. blesmir. a spot. Blear. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. geplerr. to wink at it. The term blear. pimple . a boil. drop of water. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. From the OFr. G.' the devil makes a vain back. souiller. to cast a mist before the eyes. Bejaune. a been distinct. in the expression reputation. To totally different from the foregoing. tutnan is a cloud. 242. plama. flack. sinen langen tranen. blac includes the notion of pale and dark.' God in his wordes. to soil. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. bleikr. c. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. color plumbeus bldma. a stain. Ancren Riwle. 115. to humbug. To Bleat. Blemisli. the formal equivalent of English wink. is Blench. Bleak. to stain one's honour or reputation. pier vor den augen eyes. to become livid. goda nainn. ' — — eye. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. to bleat as sheep. I chaunge colour. to blare been weeping. start vor den augen. As AS. . Richardson. blarren. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. on. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. to make him feel blank. blcecan. from the than schal I go. from on. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. to disgrace one's name. . to spot . as of dust or mist . light-coloured. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. blema. blench came to be used for a trick. wanness. See Black. inflamed eyes.' to deceive one. See Black. Palsgr. darkness of vices. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. tacher. a fault. N. bloken. livor. bleakness. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. Gower in R. while the agent ac- From . blister. to spot. ^Blencher. to wink the eye. Fr. dead-coloured Cotgr.'he cried till the tears ran down. wheal. which are blurred with the have shewed you. blesmissure. Bleed. blink. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. 419. confound him. And By a similar metaphor Pol. pale Du. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. ^Xiixaoftai. To salir. A Blab. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. sugillatio. B. A stain in a man's reputation. spla7nU sie.v. to bleach. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. . slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. like one that has long P1. See Blood. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. wan. blur before their eyes. p. spSt. Gr. Blancher. Bleb. AS. Bailey. or blemysshen — blaken. ' . avoid looking it in the face. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. tumanid. boggle at something. Schmel. Sw. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. . blakna. to start away from. — blink the question is to shrink from it. blemissemeiit. pale . splamii!. or blemish. a disgrace. Manuel de Pecch&. . to cry or weep. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. bldmi. a spot. a blemish in one's 2. a spot. to blear one's eye. So in Sw. ' He blarrede or roar. a spot. Pol. ' — — ' : — — . and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. what blenched him therwith. exposed. blot.filerren. Mac. livid. a red watery eye. and thence to a bruise.D. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. BLENCH obfusco.P. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. or to low as oxen. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was.

blent. AS. joy. I hold thee a grote thee. giving (Fr. to bluiter up with water. blican. To Bless. blazeny. blende. ON. to act like a — . — Goth. lighten. mix from blekken. fortunately. .eyed. blind. To Blend. to pro. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. the verb to bless is some. Blink. csecubrandish. plonsen.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. to rejoice. lightning sweet blago. to dazzle . to shut the eyes. to het dat Koorn is verblekket.blinken. AS. false windows. Deprived of sight. blind- ON. and joys of Paradise bliden. G. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. to dash wine with water. joy. . to glitter. blide. or nettle which does form. wink of sleep . Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. blick. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. a blick-ooghen. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. blidu. a gleam. sung. Du. the Slavonic languages.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. pockets. a glance Swiss blenden. lightning. AS. with or without the nasal. blissian. good. but by no means therefore a pre. blinzdugig. Thence apblinds. The sound of k before an s. to plunge. Biglotton. blithe. goods. blotzen. blahos. blago. joyful. to consecrate . blessed. to — make it thick and muddy. Blazena Bea. plotzen. Serv. in potters' language. to fall into water with a sudden noise. OHG. the sign of the cross while blessing one. III. pale. blanssen. blet. to shine. seems the simple netel. ^Jam. money. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. . ' Pl. well blagaya. blahoslaviti to twinkle. Kiittner. a wink. blendian. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. glad. G. blend. a dead nettle. . Pol. to churn. dazzle . — when he — Bailey. as in Du. .. Wtb. a glance. Needle. as a blind entry. sertion of the nasal. to make a rumbling noise. glitter. to dabble in water. bludder. blicken. . De Sonne ' verblekken. to bluiter. to be blind. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . to mix. to glitter ful . flash of light . whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. . . AS. pearance of the blighted . From the action of the hand making Sw. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. as in the case of blaze. j). to make happy. blindselen. be glad flash. Swab. — . representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. a. sweet. A . blatida. bleg. glimpse. to rejoice. a. mixing in general. tire. blogi. 375. to lighten. glance. . happy . blaziti. window-blind.blunda. to twinkle. livid. blitz. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. is I shall Gurt. to shine. Swiss (obsolete). Sc. happy . make these hands 3. to shut the eyes G. a look. blicken. wink. doors. OHG. to flash. Du. blessed. blithe blis. to blithsian. riches blajennii blicksem. lovely Bohem. Sc. a nounce happy.D. to shine.wink . . as a vatn i vin. glitter. G. Du. blitzen. . as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. bliss look . to glance. gives blinzen. also to wink. The term then self or others. Du. Russ.not sting thiiren. a blessing. joy . to dilute too much . bluiter. The inblissful. Blight. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. happily. moment. Tany. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. Sw. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. graceful. well blahy blick and blink. lightning. to stir or puddle. Nares. a wink With the bletsian. to merry. Bliss. weaklaveny. F. liquid filth to bluther. vious one in the order of formation. (=bene dicere).' To — blunge clay. blicksem.nasal. to glitter . although in the in the next article. thou knave. to bless . blund. happy . blinde fenster. blink. —Brera.corn. cascultare. blincken. blag. Dan. blinzeln. an entry which leads to nothing . blindr. — A A — .blinkard . glitter. the G. Blind. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. Du.blinze.Q. To blunder water. Owl and Nightingale. blac. readily passes into a /. G. tative source of the word is wholly lost. to bless. blinzler. blich-fiur. tless —Gamm. gladness. a flash. shine. blink-eyed. burn up. Paradises blidnissu. as taschen. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. riches . trix. .

a bubble. as blinzeln. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. whence blast. light yellow. — Sw. mass. or bleb. kostia. in bulk. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z.— Bailey. to bubble.pusta. — Blob. inde humiditate tumidus. Goth. Fr. Ibid. or blinde-kiih. as in E. merciful ON. signifying in the first instance to soak. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. must be referred to AS. soft. Fr. blote. Hence E. blubber. Du. . ^Jam. pimple. a blister. Boyd in Jam. soft. Blister. See Blot. a small lump of anything thick. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. blot. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. bloated. is also used in the sense of swelling . blot. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. blaud. to blow. a block or log en bloc. an unformed mass. soft. lagga i blot. Mod. and bouclette. bloc. a drop of water. Sw. blab. swell. boucler. blobber. buckle. I believe. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. blouca and Fr. Svt. cooking. biota. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. The blow E. it is must be observed. Blond. or is inserted or omitted. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. Du. round. frequentative. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. blautr. fish blind person. blister blasan. a .—Bloater. soaked. bausen. or the like. . blotfisk. blindsehn. to cure by smoke. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. expressed by cognate roots.. viscid. blcesma. Blob. pustula. A solid blouquette blisters. To a smoking or drying by the fire. to close it with a solid mass. blesme. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. blond. a dirty blister. blad. to to puff and be noisy. For this. W. bubble and blubber. fiustula. to blow. B. blijde. is formed squad. blister. to soak. blot. blide. orbicular. N. blidr. ON. A under this name was imported into England. speaking rapidly any . as if soaked in water. Blob. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. stone. . blindman's-buff. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. sloppy dirt. to desire the male. Thus we have blab and babble. to dash liquid. Lat. ON. a bubble. puff. taken altogether. Sw. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. as a blab of ink. Sc. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. while Lat. pusula. Kil. Dan. bluster. gentle OHG. or the mark which it makes. ^vaaa. and easily changes its place. repre- pusula. soak in water cured fish. a little blisg. a blot or spot. The roots /. to steep. a blister . mild. B. in Nares. shells. kostua. from blcsr. pods. Egillson. to blissom.— Hal. And so from squatter. Cotgr. Bleb. to block up the way. senting the dashing of water. busten. a bubble. —Bailey. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. blobbes or droppes of water. Hence. G. bluyster. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. to blow. Dan. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. to swell. having an unsound swollen look. Bav. mild. husks. in the sense of a soft tint. and F. a blain. G. buclde. and pisg. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. bleiths. strawclod. — . Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. — — — — — From blabber. any lump or mass of things. Block. the unhewn bole of a tree. Jonson. in the lump or mass of wood. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. It may be formed Blithe. to breathe hard. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. blithe. a ram. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. a lumpish head plubach. in gusts. Gael. Langued. weak. bloc. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. formed spot. blinzel-maus. pausten. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. To Blissom.plisg. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. joyful. In Fin. To Bloat. plub. must be classed with forms like Gr. Gael. The stem or trunk of a tree. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. and inarticulately. blaustem. also to set See Bless. separate portion. blod.—Bloated. . a See Blot. Of sheep. like clot. like manner the coloured.

Dan. couleur livide. It should be of filth blak-blatte. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. Harmar in R. to squat or lie close. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. G. wan. ])erly Du. to slap. — Blotch-paper. a flower. blond en blaauw slaan. blue . to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. blad. to strike . to slap. cow-dung. It. bluish. blysa. blust. a flower. blond. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. Stalder. to dirty. bloutre. to From .platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. to scribble. gloss. platt-voll. blase. . a The form platschefz. bleustern. Ein platsch milch. plotterwis. yellowish It's G. Jios. blaeuwe ooghe. ^lys. Erploten. fair in en blat vand. blatte. to strike with something soft or flat. G. Schmid. to blot the land was in a leme. — Cot. pladdern. plottra. to flame. E. blat. to spot or blot. white blatte. splendour . in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. Russ. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. AS. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. Sc. Blow. Pl. Blad. bloeme. Lat. blady. blooth. to exists in biadetto. blus. blosma. to patter. Sc.blauschlagen. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. pale biavo. bloemen. plet. lidmr. to dash down. bldmi. to grow pale). — Stalder . biado (of which the evidence plattern. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. as the skin or hair. Blotcli. bleistern. a beater. a drop of water or colour. to strike with such these objects exhibit. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. to be red with blot. blowen. blue. to sparkle. gammon. blond is used in blatt. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. to glisten . Du. Bloom. a blow. gfyssa. spots in the sun. bliise. Du. dirty spot on the cheek. bloedsd. blois. . blostma. to shine . probably connected with Pol. AS. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. colour of the cheeks. platz-regen. E. Schilter. glossi. D. Prov. Schwenck. blou.properly to scatter liquid . blue. fall down . pale tint. a lump. kobladde. ON. platz-voll. to glow. blosen. glose. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. blaeuwen. Wflz<^«. to dabble in water . mud. or the sound of it . of a blow with something lios. to blush . . bldts. dial. blose. See Blow. —Barbour. a torch blusse. blistaf. a flower. Du. . ^Bleed. Fris. bloed. lump flower. glasi. yellow. blut. soft or flat. Plots. The G. blauwel. blawels. pale. redness. E. Wendish blodo.platter. — — . — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. blue. en blau ach. Florio). a deli. to dash down Du.^ Kil. bloi. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. flower. plot of land is a spot or small rage. blotte. a pelting shower). from G. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. on. ' — . great leaf of cabbage. bliihen. ON.D. plants which prepares the seed. Sw. a black eye Du. a blaze.— . bit by bit. (of cattle) to dung. blotting-paper. E. the bright to blot paper morsels. Ir. to squander. Dan. PI. bloto. whence plader. livid marks. blosa. 2. S-wiss pladern. a cow-dung. Sw. sbiadare. a gush of milk . ON. E. to splash. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. plattata. from the bright colour which 7'vci. bloi. straw. to blaze . blomstr. Dan. bletister. livid . Fris. gleam. Blot. dial. to be red. blue. Sw. blotter. . lustre. Blood. parallel form with ON. blaeuw. to blaze. bloetnsel. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). the bright colour of the cheeks . platsch-voll. E. bfys. bloi. — gush. clod. to dabble in water. pladern. a blot or spot. . leme. See Blow. a spot or blot. . Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. OFr. Du. in v. Blossom. coloured (Diaz. . It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. Fr. blosem. blondheid.' the rain is driving and blue . proto shine with bright colours . spot pletter i solen. brilliancy. a Halm a. fall to overflowing. Hatch. skam. a Usaae. platschern. kuh-plader. bliithe. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. shine . a Schmid. light. glister . a. splashing full. blodelsa and blawelsa. a water ploutsche. glus. lump of anything soft to blad. j^ blottir. a nature.

heath. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. in E. -ii. to blow. bliihen. 1292. bluh. to show flower. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. To Blow. Blue. a paddling in wate r. flower w. is very frequent. Pludern. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. — . to Plodern. blois. G. to blow. 51. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. pludern. Danneil. to glow. Wtb.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. Chaucer. gUd. to blow. bloemen. to spot. withered. E. in rapid or indistinct utterance. Mund. The primary sense is to shine. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. blebber. plustrig. MHG.nify bubble. We . blass. especially with respect to the hair. Bav. The aUied forms. a blast. a bruise.Jlasa. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. bloeyen. to bubble up. bldt. closely difference in of blabber. gloeyen. blau. to fade. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. It is howbliuwen. blahen. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. blodern. to breathe G. ' BLUE or guggling. Gael. corre. to make blue. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. blady. glas. 2. Deutsch. bloi. gliihen. fqded. blue. Blowze. bloes. bluod. . glansj Ir. gloeden. Bret. glowing coal . glede. to'disorder. bloeden. a Blossom. is confined to the — . OHG. blodelsa. Prov. It. — To Blubber. G.D. to glow. flower OHG. .to blossom. to fade. where the word may be compared bliggman. a blow. Pl. y\r)yi»v. Jla-re. a continued noise of agitated water. sense. ler. blubbern. boasting. to blurt out. blau. and closely allied with Du. Tumbled. fied vowel. — To blubber. wan. and thence. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. red-faced bloted wench. bludder. P1. .D. disordered in head-dress. may cite for example G. Gr. blubonciti. glow. Lat. sound like water. dirty. to beat with a mallet. to flap like loose clothes. bruised Prov. Notwithstanding the We . a flower. the red fluid of the body . G. vi^ound. — — Mundart. The interchange of an initial gl. a gurgling . blow. Sik upplustem. a fat. B. toused. coup. blut. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. to gabble. to hard. tache. to gush.' Hamburgh Archives. /idXavoc. Deutsch. bliuwan. bliihen. disordered. v. 92. plodern. boil. grow pale. Langued. to exhibit bright colours. pale OFr. or gr. ^Jam. Du. to flourish. blava. blubbern. meurtrissure Roquefort. to fade. blduen.D. . 1.. to puff up. bl. marking some application from that bladder. blezir. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. fiubbem. a. like manner Lat. bledniai. to guggle. piusen. pale. glaodh and blaodh. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. Chaucer. — . to with Bohem. to beat. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. bruk. plubartaich. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. Kil. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. |8A)'. blaw j biavo. Raynouard. Blowzy. pale . grey. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). florere. grug. OFr. to breathe bouteiUis. green. to shine with bright From colours. . and the forms mentioned under Swab. In agitation of water. Du. E. To Blow. Her sweet bloderit face. blao. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. chatter. a herb Gr. A. to bruise Roquef. wan. sponds with Sw.D. AS. blawan. The radical sense is shown in Gael. And. blazir.xo'»'. pale. cheeks bedabbled with tears. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. br. blazi. —SchmelIt. . plubraich. d in Sc. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . blodyn. gliihen. puff. blosen. to inflate. blust. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. bliithe. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. plubair. — Bluther. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil.— . blue . glas. OHG. These are — Bludder. bloom. G. plusig. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. foam. w. bluther.' — Palsgr. to make bubbles in drinking. into flower. Pl. little apparent resemblance. jabber. fem.

to fade). Blaffart. G. superficie plani. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. a shore abruptly rising. and biavo (Diez). Lat. . Halma. Pl. Palsgr. is. plo-wy. OFr. blake (identical with AS. polterer. puddle. to agitation of liquids. falb.• BLUFF biado. contrasted with the dle. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. abrupt. sloppy drink. — . Pm. sbiavare. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. yellowish red. rustic. bullern. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. discoloured {plowiee. Bladum. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. which is rendered by Florio. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. an ill-done job. blunderhead. his business with much noise. bawling. flodderen (Weiland). a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. speech. and then generally idle talk. as well as sbiadafe. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. Blunt. G. a plain coin herausplatzeu. mistake. from an imitation of the sound. having a bluff forehead. to dabble Biglotton E. to dabble in the mud. pale) is provincially used in the. From G. tutte le semente ancora in erba. bloi. blave is moreover. bleu et blanc. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. Kil. a flounder. E. Dryden in R. herbe. Altieri. pludder. Supp. verdure. blunder. in plur. Sw. to fall suddenly on the ground. to blunder water. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. to mix it up with water. something. A bluff manner. Blunderer or blunt worker. blond. polter-hans. blaf. Ditton in R. blue. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. in the same way as from It'. buller-bak. Flor. Kiittner. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . non rotunda. mix It. poltern. blunder. a boisterous violent man. It then signifies something done at once. has donder-bus. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. corn. — Pr. G. to become pale or wan. and bustle . pale yellow. to become pale or livid. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. Analogous forms are Du. segetes virentes. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. earth and water mixed together. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. like Du. from the brilliant green of the young E. blandum. all representing the — . confusion. And blunders on and staggers every pace. Bodge. blue. planus. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. Du. fawn-coloured. used for the work of an unskilful performer. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . to plump into the water. See Blunt. blutter. a fore. to lose colour. devenir vert blavoie. biava. sense of yeUow. The Du. Roquefort. — — — . He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. originally growing up turf and water. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. and metaphorically. biavo. ploffen. blac. glundr. Hence we pass to Prov. Dief. biada. disturb. buller-bas. verdoyer. as well as biado. Blavoyer. fallow. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. bulmanner. Kil. from the Lat. and sbiadare.' trouble. or an abrupt manner. corn. blavus. find accordingly It. G. to blunge clay. glundra. tradire to Fr. It is remarkable however that the E. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. Pol.. pale. Then with the nasal. blahir. to work To blunder out a fronto. Dan. plomp. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. Biada. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. and Du. to become pale.— . I blonder. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. flav-us. Roquefort. without image or superscription. Du. The Du. 't — —Hal. yellow. jaune. To blunder is then. bluish. See Blurt.make a noise. pale straw-coloured. - reddish yellow.//aay. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. to confound. blunt. We Blunder. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. dial.D. Bohem. to puddle. . Bluff. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. blanssen. bUich. Hence a Slcelton in R. in water dobbelen. trahir. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. like the Celtic glas. herauspoltem or sloping shore. liebefactor. applied to green as well as blue. blue. The word is here synonymous with amplus. Hal. a blunderbuss. Romance bluiter. je perturbe.in mud or water.

to make a noise of such a Stalder. blatte. ineffectual reason. in Richardson. ang. Stalder. clumsy. plump. blott. Molof something wet. the absence of sharpness. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. awkward. — Kil. plump. Q. naked. plains The large bech.pludse. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. Bluntet. through which a man is so blont. as Sw. Then cometh indevotion. bluntschen. bleak. that the sense of bare. inactive Swiss bluntschi. forestis. Won by degrees. identical with E. hebes. —D. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. blutten. Chaucer. is thrown. — blunt. blunt. stupid fellow. and hath swiche languor in his soul. down. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. obtusus. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. wan. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. blait. rude. viz. Pol. blait. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. but of something soft thrown on the ground. rough. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. blunt. Kiittner. dull. —D. pressions. blunsch. . naked. used in both senses. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. void. plump. fling down . unfledged Sw. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . or heraus plumpen. Du. to blurt. of a knife which not cut. V. Now the Swiss bluntsch. Blaitie-bum. and an unintelligent. platzen. — — pidus. maol. Halma. blunt. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. heavy. V. homo stolidus. as cow-dung. Ford in R. blout. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. to blunt a thing out. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. blat. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. to plump down. pointless. edgeless. a blot. united in Gael. blunder. G. bare. as in E. platz-regen. plump J to plump out with it. unceremonious manner. obtusus. A light blue colour. poor Sc.plompen. fooUsh. It. Sc. heavy. Probably radically hlekit. insensible. that it not easy to discover the connection. absence of preparation. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. Kiittner. bus. rudely. a thick and will person. a simpleton. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. heavy. clownish. bloss. . like a thing thrown down with a noise. Plump mit etwas umgehen. duU. without Maolaich. silly. blotta sanningen. unwrought. massive. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. pale. Plump. to handle a thing bluntly. Dan. a bluntie. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. It will be seen that the G. Sc. exactly corresponding to the G. to bring it suddenly out. bald. and in the same sense. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. nis.to fall into the water. naked. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. bare or blunt. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. V. and. good plump person.— — — . A modification of the same root. G. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. unpolished. blockish. to make foliage. and the like. it will be well to point out a sense. biotto. More in Richardson. from the loud report a fire-arm. blue. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. Plontp. sheepish. Woddis. dial. plotz. dull. to plump into the water. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. inaKil. The syllables blot. plump. plumbeus. with or without the nasal. F. blunt. a portion To inquire for slaves. Bare and blunt. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. plonsen. Swab. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. figuratively. is The word dull. plotsen. or blab out a thing Kiittner . nature. biosso. The blait body. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. without horns. It is from this notion of suddenness. without preparation. naked. seems to be derived. without the nasal. thick. plutz T)\i. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. raw. azure. mit etwas heraus-platzen. Sw.—D. viz. bare. it will be observed. Sir T. Blunt. Dan. awkwardly.

blosken. Du. — — . bustuous. Wright's ed. Wallace. to bounce. to rumble. Halma. Pl. . Pull the bobbin. To move quickly up and down. ON. bludder. A large snake. G. both used in the sense of boasting. a tassel. bladdra. splurt and spirt.pusten. bhis. pfludern. To brag and to crack. bora. — a blaze. to puff. eber. baiag. to give a crack. and Du. blusse i ansigtet.v. primarily signify loud noise. an end or stump. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. To blow in puffs. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. and the latch . to blur. border. blaffen and baffen. to make a noise with the mouth. Boa. will fly up. be a crack or loud sound. BLUR Boar. Du. a dangling object. — From mouth. Fl. to disfigure with E. an ear of corn. ader. blodern. puffen. 9396. bot-voet. bur. to chatter. Board. bord.D. a blow . properly noisy. See Boisterous. a blotch. sudden. 29. — ' Dief. bobbin. to endeavour to terrify. whence bob. of the word seems . a torch blusse. bdd. a tassel. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. ever-swin. the Brem. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. bot. margin. pof. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. common. Du. — — — * Boast. bausen. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. 1. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. To Blurt. a smear. violent G. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. E. BOB 79 — To Blur. Supp. planks raised up outside the roofs. pausten. boord. E. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. skin. blubber. . It. to say bluntly. To tinct. table. Du. to render indisbhir. AS. 156. to be out of temper. AS. and swimmeth very well. borrar. to puff. to talk quick and indistinctly . to spurt out. and boisterous. Slur. cheeks glow. AS. blarra. to dirty. imitated by has also In like . as splurt to splutter. on. blaere. plump. bleuster.— . bord.plodem. puddle. gabble Sw. Explained by Jam. a small lump. to snuff. blurra. cocodrUlus. bit. blotch and botch. to puff. beacon fire. blader. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. dial. boot. a flurt with one's fingers. Wtb. blirt of greeting. bar. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. Gael. a mistiness. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. an edge. batello. fringe. then applied to indistinct vision . — To Bob. to blore. blaste?i. OE. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. violent. a short thick body. to crying. beer. chicchere. like the parapets (viggyrdil. blot. berd. to make mouths. outward edge. or backwards and forwards. lindwurm. a club foot . baban. voce intonare. to glow . From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. as in Du. Sc. bakke bleustern. aper. Du. and when applied to vaunting language.y. table. Dan. blunt. i. a. to threaten. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. to sound like water boiling. planks or boards. boa. cluster. a border. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. Boost is used for the boast. to dangle. Bot zeggen. a blot. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. geplerr. to blubber. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. rude. flat. bdtr. blasen and See Burr. or blurt with one's mouth. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. edge. blot. or bog also thread. P. . crack made by bursting open. Du. V. acre. . gabble. it implies that it is empty sound.—Bobbin. As the as. The elision of the d is very to chatter. bateau. a Jam. coarse. bludder. large. Hal. hot. short pieces of any filthy mud. The to radical meaning D.the syllable bot. bobine. to blow. Related to blutter. G. 'Ba. strong. my dear. Fr. Blush. a baU of thread the mud. rude. Bluster. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. to dabble. bliise. burra. a board or plank. botte. It. &c. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. mire. Hal. bord. to smear. the sound of a blow poffen. blast. Boa. G. pludern. blaustem. w. swagger. a grows to a great bigness. boistous. Lat. to blaze. brett. literally edge-wood. See Blossom.' — Red Riding-hood. . a mist before the eyes plerren. a bladder . De Boat. lacerta. To splirt. Kil. margin. margin. to jabber. eafor. c. pustern. dull. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. to bark. to breke. boccheggiare. Sverris Saga. pluddre. Gael. Fr. to guggle. a burst of tears.plerr. whence bordvidr. bluter. to blurt out. Du. stupid. to roar. to brag grande loqui. It. Swiss blodern. Schmeller. this root are formed Sc. bluther. Fl. 274. blur. ground. bdta. stellio. and E. edge. is formed Du. e. to blush. to make a noise in boiling. Sc. Comp. board. blose. dial. Bav.

to fail. bodig. of broken efforts or brokeii movements.gmh:t. To make bad work. gog. Gael. a body. to fail. bogadaich. whence Fr. to deliver a message. swelling. bog. to make a mow at. stuttering.! . mud. to dabble or paddle. body of a shirt bol. as a horn. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. Ptg. nodding. a round body both. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. an awl. barriga. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. 43. the belly. to blurt a thing out. To mock. potacha. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. precept. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. bod. corpset. the body of a shift gaguejar. Shakespear has badged with blood. gog in gog-mire. . . Schmel. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. baboyer. — Grandg. gagoula. so large a feature in the country. bodat. bogach. a dagger. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. And waves. anything soft. VI. a bog or morass. where bogs form Gael. Gl. biodeachan. French bouter. Crist. is identical with Fr. bolr. BOGGLE trunk and G. wavering. a prickle.' Bogglie. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . gogach. . bagges. to commit a blunder. moving backwards and forwards. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. stumpy. boftich. bodi. barrique. an announcement. Supp. to stir. as signifying anything spherical or round. We . move. to thrust. formerly bodies. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. nave of a wheel. Wall. agitate. Reliq Antiq. biodag. waving. To Bodge. pall. to push with the horns. Gael. bogadh. bottig. bodetz. to waver. rounded. In like manner E. Bodkin. calf of the leg.. moist mire. potahha. Bret. potacha. bayonet. Banff. To Bode. So BOB To Bob. a command. a spur. busti. the thick part of anything. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. AS. See To Botch. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. . shake. gago. speak of the barrel of a horse. bodilo. . It introduced from Ireland. '£. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. unsteady nature of a soft substance. belly. to scruple. or bag. bodian. toss. a . corset from corps. unsteady. gagei. to smack. . ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. anything protuberant. a cask. — as well as the body of an animal. to be uncertain what to do. Lap. and E. to be unsteady tich. gebod. — 2. 3. to stammer.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. to roll. a sting . Miracle-plays. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. With With this we charged again We bodged again.rabodi. shaking . to blabber with the lips faire la babou. bodi. and the word is well explained by Bailey. Commonly explained as if from Sc. potig. W. or a pair of bodies. bottich are derivatives. Russ. bodak. exhibit another modification of the root. corset. bodhag. to make. quakmg. daubed or dabbled with blood. ON. corpses pot. badyti. bogle. stitch. The signification of the root bot. * To Boggle. Ptg. boll.\\i\c\iset. a prick. a messenger . from fitting close to the body. round. Gael. is a lump. the boss of a buckler. body and G. To portend good or bad. or stem of a tree. thrust with something pointed. See Bid. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. AS.hollow. palleg. bog. bodene. arise E. bayonet . by the syllable patsch. bogan. Now unskilful action is conmire. e. Body. quagmire). patsche. to butt. . a cask. bob. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. Lith. bot. dies. — H. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. the body. expression hogglin an bogglin. whence paUchen. stutter gogmire. a ghost . fickle . message boda. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. as in stammering or staggering. . Bohem. Thy i. Ir. the trunk of the animal body. bo tich. strike with the horns. butt. a quagsoft. bodnu. See Baber-lipped. bod. . then from the yielding. bodies. bole. to stick. meaning the round part of his body. to start start and back as from a bugbear. The Sp. Bog. woman's stays. gag. to bodge. cask bottich. ^Jam. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. point. to prick. of which the E. needle.a (i\ia. the stem of a tree . bog (equivalent to E. bothog. unsteady. to bob.' A — Sherwood's Diet. Cot. Bodice. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. a puddle. goggle.

Pr. bul. courageous. to be prominent. bolzBold. Boil. Kit. tartalear. boggle. . insolent baude. Swab. Kil. Sp. Du. bula. Daring. boutpijl. bolster. obex. Properly noisy. A. ON. bola. as. stud. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . ^Vocab. bul. treated under Bowl. quick.w. Du. excellent. caput scapulse. G.). which are not used for a similar purpose. bSlstr.— D. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. (of Mons) b^guer. Chaucer seems Dan. Du. a cushion. from the branches. bullire. hero. up of bubbles. stramenta. may be identified with It. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. G. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. bok. Sw. Magy. bola. boll. to swell. and then applied to other husks. boss. bolla. To Bolter. puilen. ohg. wag.' Mrs Baker. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. whence bulla. Gael. * Bolster. glass phial. tar. scruple. Mund. to give a hoUow sound. bout. — — which the cushion is stuffed. Boystous. coarse. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. polc'h. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. strong. to stumble. rough. i.D. Test. tulum. bulla. repagulum. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. bog. pimple ON. to the belly as the or dislike. pusten. See Bulk. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. a head . bolc'h. a bump. perpendicular. Lap. Da. cheerful. bold. gluma. It. capiing into a cavity. notes. biiilen. Stalder. free. bout is explained by Kil. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. folliculus grani. blow. stameln vel bochken. bald. pall. 1430 in Deutsch. bolt. pustule. Fr. to waver or hesitate. pillow.. Chaucer. bald. Goth. trunk of a tree . warlike. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. to hesitate from doubt. to puff. the body . swelling. properly represent belly. Love. Pm. Bole. OG. In the same way Sc. and manace for to de. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. puile. a bubble. bealder. a bakazikni. bulla. the body of a man or of ter. This iv. balder. bollen (Kil. chatter. ^Boistous. baud. from Du. bouil. bulr. but that Bolt. G. furfures. buile. bol. Boll. w. then violent. Lat.palleg. boil . globular bod)'. To Boil. a quaking mire. bog. poppy (Bailey). Bustuous. the. prince. styffe or rude . cows the people from speaking. bol. as E. The round stem of a tree. . intrepid. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). he will speak out. round the first instance to the materials with . Bret. * Boisterous. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. G. a swelling in ice. brave. chaff of corn siliqua. swelling. strong. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. Du. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. gerade signifies straight to the mark. bal.Du. to tattle. courageous. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. ON. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. in the sense of handsome . a boil or swelling Du. . In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. bolt upright.— — . the gurgling sound of water rush. huge. as. bolle. sels of flax. confident. Fr. bold. in speaking. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. ON.rounded part of the body. bol. impetuosity. flax-boU. belc'hj. the lir. to stammer. 45. the husk of nuts. animal as distinguished from the limbs. also a blister. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. Sc. fiausten. bolster. Me doth awate. haughty. is probably a modification of boll. Cot. beule. ballr. bolstar. 374. to boil. The term applies in — — impressed . For bost or boist in the sense of crack. noise. proud. hollow. bolleken. bolzen. E. or the like. Fr. to be at a loss a shirt. boly. to stagger. E. Westerwald bollern. ON. a fastening for a door. tartajear. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. bold. — ' — tagliare. as baltha. V. bagaji. Wall. b^gayer. The bob. bochken (titubare. to stammer. . roydeur. bolr. bag or bog are derived Piedm. tartle. used. stutSw. balldr. 304). a bubble. tomentum. dint in a metal vessel. — 6 . hakogni. merry. capitellum. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . buller. boystousnesse. shake. OHG. see Boast. as those of nuts. by which it is moved to and fro. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. Lat. a bubble. bhster. strong. bald.

bolzaugen. brattle. a bolter Prov. a millpoltzet augen. bulstrig. by the representation of a racketing sound. uneven. buletel. zen. bulla. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. Sanders. gebolder.through a cloth of loose texture. a club-foot. abolter.D. to start out. In the next place. projections. a clod. . btilt. to form lumps. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. pultare. clump. OFr. vessel with narrow opening. Pm. Prov.noise {brattle of thunner.fe/2?. Du. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. to bolt meal barutel. to bolt meal barutel. we der Brocket).). Pl. protuberance. buUire. a clod cloth. buletare. burclct. crash. blotttre. Lat. we pass to Du. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. hulter de bulter. holier poller. kloteren. bulk or quantity .u. barutela. curdle. hump. in S'W plotter. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. Mid. bullern. have Lat. . a small portion. from G. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. uneven. bulk. a . barutare. to agitate. bultig. a bunch. Wtb. as above explained. to coagulate. ' — — ! ! : — . bultred. racket gepolter. ex•wagen. Bav. small heap. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. And as the agitation of cream in . croler. to significance of the term was overlooked. ' Holler poller / bulter. rugged. lumpy. buretter{CQ\. to clack. Schiitze. taratantarum. bolzen. . hump-backed (to be compared A ' . and to crash. tling or crashing noise.D. bluter.D. as Fr. barutela. ler. tuft. a crashing or racketing noise. hammer. the wheels groaned. Pl.. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot.) E. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. as a rabbit from its baritel. to start with palpitate.nature of the operation. pull. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. a sod (Schiitze). I boulte meale in a boulter. P1. taraabout. hole. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. to spring forth E. to bolter. Here the radical image is the violent O.On the same principle.clack. we see that the one consists of a words. poltern.by forms like G. to become lumpy. to talk pulzen. a rattling carriage. Sw. a rattle. tantara. beliitea.— . OFr. MHG. zare. sestuare. projecting eyes pul. . grasbulten. or a racer from the course. to E. taratarrum.as the essential element signifying the talum. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. 2. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter.). as snow balling on a horse's foot. rugged. — — — . It. . .Lat. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. bolt-foot. boss. Fr. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. the sense of right on end. Hence Palsgr. swelling. to shake. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. bulio. bolt head is a retort. On this account Mid. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. to knock. agitari (Kil. crod. staff which sounds tar. a bolter or implement for bolting. je bulte. . a clap of thunnences. poltern. cro. also to curdle. The ment and the operation. jolting. bolting to that of form.agitation of the meal in the bolter. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. or ill. hammer. baruta. loud and fast. then to knock. knob. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. Dan. . Pr.i5a//^«. buideln. bolzauget) Sp.D. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. with E. or the like. Supp. on the one hand. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. : ' — — . poll.. Du. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. we have Du. Champagne burtcau. So also we pass from Lat. pattern. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. a clump of turf. fied bot. / is transposed in Fr. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. mole-hill. Dauphiny a sudden movement. Lang. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. to bolt flour burato. tar. budeln daz mele . a round glass ending — bultig. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. Hence. representing a rat. bolt. bortelen. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. cruddle. Bulte-pook or bulstar.thump or blow.protuberance. one after the other. to come rattling downstairs. OFr. to make a knocking. tumultuari. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. die treppe pressed. and the Thus from So. Brem. The ulti. G. hulch. as of a trumpet. crotlar. beluter.

to boult meal. q. It. sije. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. to shake down fruit from a tree. beuteln. Bibelesworth in Nat. G. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. baun. gunpowder. bauniwolle. butteln. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. agreement. 155. and Mod. bombase. or trunk word in W. From builen. Antiq. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. Gascoi^e in R. thick-legged. Fr. the silk-worm. As cotton was used for padding clothes. and Du. 83 Gr. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. a drum bombammen. band pi. the contracted form of Du. and that from Fr. rimbombare. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. must be explained Fr. to thump W. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. a bone in general. .— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. Kil.). from teu. derivation. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. to ring bells. . a word of which we have traces in several English names. raw silk. to bolt meal. . Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. Dan. Du. It. bongam. Bone. gossipium. bombicina. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. and Bond. to thunder. assuming the of leg : special signification W. band. tie. &c. stump. Near 6 * . E. to shake (as to shake the head. a stock. bone of the . the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. bombasin. borel. i. Mid. cotton stuff. The material called by this name. sijde. ODu. buidelen. band. we speak of a gun to resound. beuteln.Su?. an implement of binding. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. bolting-cloth. boulenger. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . e. a churn for butter. builen. Moreover. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. bwmbwry mar. . HoUybandin R. produced the Pl. banitola (Fl. ^o/j. a ligature. bombast. bonog. bombdra. bombarda. as in . properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. bunden. bulter from It. — Bombard. OE. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. biire. It. term is appropriated in G. Du. beil'n. — having a stem or stalk. to which the leg. to beat a drum. bond. the Fr. . bonfras. and also the leg. bomba. sericum arboreum. bambagioj whence It. thick. breast-bone. buttel trueb (of liquids). a thundering noise bomre. is supported by the analogy of G. Bonfire. bambacium. bureau. a beacon.) . E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. . are applied to BONFIRE Bom. coarse. crook-shanked bondew. It. bureau. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. has repeatedly varied. from boom. baum-bast. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. butteln. G. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing.Lat. however. cotton. barate. Banstead. bindan. the leg. G. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. Fr. When ture. a stem or base. sye. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. burato. tree. also thick-shanked. — AS. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. lana lignea. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . Butterglas. tiffany. the shank the shoulder-bone. to bind G. . which requires stuff of a thin open tex. whence bomme. Dan. tie. booming over the water. Du. bambagino. as Banbury.D. bon. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. — bombast came guage. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. a hollow sound. PoUitriduare. silk. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. the murmuring of the sea. iuttern. basin. buidelen. bande. bombe. a string. Bomb. Schm. a —Bombasine. In E. thick from shaking. been. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. bein. bommen.bast. to resound. It. achsel bein. bommer. to shake. bras. brust-bein. d. Castrais barato. It. ties. and called in Mid. a boulter of meal. bombasine. again. In legal language. bwmbwr. to cast to and fro. stuff. a baker. silk-worm. bonds. and in fact we find the and Du. Fl. bopin.^Altieri. Need you any ink and bonibase. bombice.

wall hangings. ben. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. OW. — From the participle present. . a tree. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. set in order. Palsgr. and thence Rouchi baia. as a lying-place for cattle. head-dress wai^g. remnants of hay or straw. a. short boots. prayer. desire. as the Brecknockshire Banns. Boot. Mrs Baker explains bun. pig-sty. litter. letter. tall. by itself for head-dress. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. Du. Boot of bale. w. clown. chaff. See Butt. the first consonant of the alphabet. Bonnefyre. a simpleton. dial. . boo. boer. . wondering signifies not only straw. E. Sp. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. baier. dial. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. or Vanns. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. hu?idbusa. quest. To Boot. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. bdn. Du. G. to strew with straw. gaby. AS. booby. been. a letter Russ. blockhead. master of the house. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. bAkva. A peasant. Jr. from beida (E. bauer. inhabit. Kil. Prov. Hufwud-bonad. But bosg. gaping hoyden — Cot. reparation. . countryman. ON. writing bokos. nachbar. * Boose. Gael. which one gaping and staring about. beiSne. beam. high. . boia. to ask. Pr. bd. gehyred. bonaid. bas. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. pero. dress. a vessel for holding liquids. where a cross (or a gun. prayer. dog-kennel. till. 13. from gape. E. the mouth. the stubble of beans. bene. by arbitours sholde bote the P. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. bonad. badaud. . bose. Pm. G. stabulum. . or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. gawney. netis stall. Hal. one who dwells nigh. ty Gael. bosih. however. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. dolt. The character of folly is i860. Thus from the syllable ba. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . boten-shoen. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. to cultivate. but stall. bua. Boor. boubi^. bolt. The i. — . To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. ganian. A favour. succour Bailey. in Phil. babb^o. Thin ben Luke i. remedy of evil. Goth.^ —P. biikui. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. boutig. petition. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. — To boot. from Du. to set in order. feu de behourdis. build. Fr. build. help. b&ber. the name of the letter b. to gape. — — . bua. Fr. a hollow skin. b^er. Wall. relief from sorrow. babau. b'ukvdry. to litter bosu. In nautical language. swinbusa. whence ban-ffagl. — e. a silly fellow. . Schm. See Bown. at everything. Binau Brychyniog. Gl. from badare. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. G. the scriptures bokareis. boutig. bds. ass. N. . tapestry. bid). Du. is Du. a. a letter . The latter is the original AS. boubair. to prepare. a bag of skin or leather. ON. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. Basa. See Bomb. to yawn. A stall for cattle. simpleton. Fr.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. bos. botte. the possessor of the farm. \ais-band. bota. a good turn or re- meaning. It is commonly explained as identical with It.Boos.n. . a lying-place for dogs or swine. p. inhabit. The origin of the word is probably the W. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. in w. Swab. From bo.—Bootless. the alphabet. It. literally cow-house. till. bommen. Trans. and Gael. OSlav. the cultivator. botta. a lofty blaze. petition. boom. Bootless. babin. a bonfire. busu. bonad. and Ban in w. tigh. bonnet. fool. Hal. Busk. Bonnet. to cultivate. comes bondi. — Bailey. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. to gape. botte. and from AS. bote. Fr. bowwen. Bun. signifying beech. Ox. a head-dress. a scribe G. to dress. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. Booby. are formed Fr. a dry stalk. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. boa. bauen. boandi. Kil. buch-stab. lofty. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. ON. dress. Mrs Baker. to aid. bosig. and fig. although in the OG. ON. bobo. pole. Build. a stall. often cut for burning and lighting fires. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. foolish. Book. 232. Perhaps. bossen. house. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie.. without ad- . AS. betere thing werse. Boon. Boom. also called Brecknock Beacons. bobo ! interj. buandi. of wonder On the same principle Sp.

a borer . ON. limbus. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. It. both. To Bore. kvit-bara. dens mordens vel caninus. to expiate boeten den dorst. aid. a shop. purro. ora. But probably the E. The ON. limbus. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. Magy.. or the gradual working a hole in anything. Pol. making good again . to repair. . forare. baete. to boot. Sp. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. a border. BOOTH vantage. nor E. to bore. fire. bohren. ON. drillen. batr. scalpo. wine-skin. bordi. . puru. to pierce. lappolone. edge. to anything Neither G. urboro. Fin. a leather bag or bottle for wine. repair. furd. . to . scsdes-bod. mat-bod. and parrets. a granary . a shed. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. bdra. to hut.— Return from Parnassus I inR. beute. 3. Lat. bauen. in Lap. pu purro (saha =: saw . furni. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. . And so in ON. Kil. and hence to fine. OHG. yfirbdt. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. a. Fl. to build. ON. . In the Fin. a shop budowati. cottage. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. a sharp-pointed tooth. pi. puru. sawroot. chewed food for infants. a bladder. a hut. cure Sw. Gael. remedy. byte points to the verb byta. Burke in R. to bite. on. boete. chisel. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. and meta- Fr. 1. to mend. comminuted by either kind of action. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. are derived from G. It. . BoracMo. boards.. borracha. butin. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. a bothy. make . bata. Gael. in Ihre. admovere titiones. hem or gard of a garment. hut.. to to . boede. budka. to patch. bolino. cellar. A phorically a drunkard. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. purra. are parret. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. The cor. better. a great bur. betan fyr. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. struere ignem. terebro. bdt. bord. differs only in termination. a hut or tent. and thence to eat build. • — To Bore. N.por. swell bara. bardure. which are probably from the same root. to swell. bauda. to surge. Fin. to importune. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . wave. rof. The Fin. — ON. . puras. to build buda. See Bower. to quench one's thirst . sculpo 05\xiik. Fr. amendment boeten. a cupboard. Du. barn. Gael. recovery bata. from bord. to restore. exchange or divide. Another derivation from Fin. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. bora. Fin. extremitas Bore. Bete. to The Sw. a tusk. bud. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. as afford a satisfactory explanation. tent. a borer. butin is explained by Flor. AS. It is admitted that Fr. botjan. Palsgr. reparation. puras. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. a borer. baara. G. Bohem. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. cup- awl. boeten het vier. Booty. and E. an engraver's chisel. the . Esthon. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. Esthon. to bete the properly to mend the fire. a responding forms . boeye. Border. welt. Alexand. bite. bothan. See To We speak in E. Fr. bower. 266. piercer. to divide. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce.—Burin. biorag. abode. or anything pointed. is purin. Du. pointed. margin. See Burgeon. to foam. Booth. borracha. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. a shelter of branches. a chisel. Mag. bottino. terebra sculptoria purastoa. from borra. bothag. from deila and skipta. uzboro. to bite.par. . budowai. Compare Manx birrag. amendment. a word. to profit Goth. fimbria. p. a wave. &c. . to profit. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. to stick unto as a bur. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. of an edge that will not bite. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. dust. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). OSw. purra. lappalare. sharp. The as G. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. burin. borino. a booth or shed.

to save. plain rude fellow. striking. while Gael. — ' wind burya. In like manner It. &c. gesylle. knock and a knob . The other. . butse. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. D. one who sticks to you like a bore. bail biirgen. burh. hollow. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. Lat.bucklers. the Sc. botch. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. from their grey clothing. a giving rise to It. Bunch. is used in the sense of bussare. bussa coarse. plant. cormpted. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. a city . Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. Fr. as we speak of a thumping potato. baurgs. a citizen. from AS. or perhaps also To Borrow. V. or because a blow berga. cnag signifies both a clergy. and borough in the sense of a town. — — — A — . basse. a citizen. i. pego. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. Fr. the hollow between the Borsholder. to keep. The origin seems to be the Goth. to take in. cnap. bunch. Hence borhes ealdor. /3oraMK6f.. which now signifies a knob. borgese. bump.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. cob. (Bridel). beorgan. tive idea seems to bring under cover. pitch. destitute. Fr. grey). that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. bump is used in lump or piece. to protect. butsen.' if thou give money on loan. in instead of without. knob. borgo. to contain. borel. a boor. . empty. borough or chief constable. unpolished. ON. The primi. botse. I. bosseu. vain. borg. boussi. blow on a hollow object. was origin of the term is the OFr. nonsense. boschen. to give a hollow bizo. borealis. or perhaps it may be See Bury. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. a herb. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. borh. Hal. and thus could not shake off the old burr. viipyoc. bosse. It. a pushing or striking out. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. AS.any round sweUing. boss. bossen. storm. burgess.ribs and the side. Du. cnoc. the sun sets. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. Botany. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. that which biirge. Borough. burel.vr\. useCanterbury. knocking. boss or knob of a buckler . Turk. tuft. when that system was forgotten. G. borg. northern. a bouncing baby . bergen. And that unsittynge is to here degre. . (1867). pegou. secure.' Vegetius in Diez. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent.' or system of bail. boss of the side. beorgan. the North Wind. Goth. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. Jam. agrees with E. Altieri. connected. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. whence the burg. or head-borough. boss. to save. Russ. rude. in the body struck. a tower. So Du. Boreal. Newbury. borei.mass. to knock or strike. Borrow. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. E. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. ^o^^flj. . poor. a wen. rustic. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. Cot. gum vocant. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. coarse cloth made of the Du. Bosh. 106. Bailey. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. whether from the fact preserve G. f graauw. ' pledge. borough-holder. a blow. Swiss Rom. huschen. a knob. bos. to save Sw. a. Lang. primarily signifying coarse sound . Jam. botsen. Gr. to become is emitted by a hollow body. bos. Du. knur. Sc. bierge. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell.' every man be under bail. botch. a little blow. loan. bourgeois. AS. empty. without. undyed wool of brown sheep. to conceal. to give bail or answer for an. brown cloth. busse. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. bom. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. as if from the verb to hold. head. a boss. is probably radically Boss. surety. the must have arisen burgensis. Bos a surety. bttssel. by which of or belonging to plants. of bail throughout the country. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . See found in Bav. an eminence. into borsholder. bourg. formerly used in the sense of knocking. It. empty. bundle. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. ' — — . to strike so as to Bureau. boss sound. to protect. AS. bussi.' the chief of the ' borh. hollow bucklers. ^ma. tempest. bosh. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. projection. Borowholder. to strike . the N. to pick or cull plants. byrig. the ordinary a swelling. poor. less. Hence knot. clownish. a bunch or hump. a surety.

stock. Bailey. bundle. ON. bottigUa. schuhbosser. botel. And so we speak of an eruption. j3i/9os. in the sense of mend the fire. Canut. to smack. botm. — Jidwi. . they two. botola. burgi vel pontis refectionem. and E. and ajSvamg. — Bottom. AS. a waterfall. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. a lump of somebatschen. Botcli. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. a bott . and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. kessel-biisser. Parmesan poccia. corresponding to . gen. . Wedu. dial. we have Swiss batscken. Dan.' to the fiery Csedm. bdt. Leg. or plague sore . boccia. a root. hurly-burly. — Fl. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. a maggot. ing out.) . The Gr. bozza. disturbance. Here the radical image seems a bubble. to stir and mix together. bun. dim. Lith. G. btitse. Fl. Mudu. a botcher of shoes. to knock. to podge. To confuse with noise. pozzo. signify a in OE. bulderen. bozza. stump. a wisp. a knock. Fr. . tumour. * To Bother. to rage. Bottle. Bouteille. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. ledge It. . Boa two. Bouds. butse. pocciar. Podge. especially in Gael. to dip in liquid (to Gael. turmoil.D. boiteag. See To Bodge. blister. as Fr. knock. ON. from the dashing of water. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. to strike . Pl. shoes. bide. botel foenn. A bottom depth. of botta. a patch patschen. to dash about . Gael. — duj Lett. bottom. N. . the bud of a flower . Hal. to make a make a noise. to give a sounding blow. It. to make better. On the other hand. 212. — — belly-worm. butsen. bdsser. stock. ^kvBoQ. repara- — — See To Bete. Lith. buddeln. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. Both. bSn. abbu. Fl. a pit. to simmer. a plague-boil Kil. i. — Dief. podge. Du. a bump or swelling. On — Du. the lowest part. a cask. stem or base. mess. biissen. is also a bubble. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . boden . you two. • Bott. gling piece of work. blain. See Butt. both. mess. stroke. BOTCH understood). abbution. AS. Hal. Du. abbi. batschen.of a ball of thread. &c. a bubble. boss. From the dim. fundus. to work without order or know. a bunch. bulder. I. the first rough draught 2. whisper. ba. a pit. botus. Stalder. any plain round viol glass bozzo. for a bud. to stir and mix together . bAdtr. mend. Fr. Prov. bosser. patch. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss.^Dec. a bundle of straw or hay. the science or knowledge of plants. noise. ' G. putra. ubhau. potra. botte. the other hand. Ancren Riwle. buts. e. bluster. Again. a tinker schuhbiisser. gipuozan. to fall : with a sound batsch. buddl. puddle. whence the name ol pool to podge. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. bossu. botte. E. bethia. OSax. contusion . maggots in barley. a humpback. Judwi. pimple. an imperfect and bunbutt end. boiteal. nets. botsen. It. a bottle. a. bunch. fire-bote. G. baiothsj Sanscr. to mend. to botch or patch. pother. A horses. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. abyss. bund. disturbance to . the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. Lat. to mend (kettles. any round ball or bowl to play withal. thing soft batsch. Bret. was called a push. we two. is boteau. buazen. however. House-bote. bouteille. blow. by met. oba. botch. Diez. ixorapudder. a boil or swelling Halma. boil. to bcBta. a bottle of hay. AS. To Botch. bile. bot.— Hal. to from the root bot. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. an abyss or bottoniless pit. Gael. poltern. — . — — A 2. Butu. what pushes outwards.— . mutter. boute. a depth. botte.ments of the same root. noise. ambo. to we have OHG. a slop. ON. A — oba-dwaj Lat. See Boss. &c. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. a bottle. scuohbuzere. to put on a patch. empty or hollow. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. dabble). botse. abbi-diwij Slavon. bativa. Kil. a vessel for holding liquids. — . See Bound. a cesspool pass. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. boitean. a slop. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. — — . . butwo. .— Swift in R. to froth as beer . buideal. a cess. H^cart. bots. Danneil. round lump. bodem. Bochu. botn. Decorde. a pock. Jtidu. beggtaj Goth. w.foundation. pozzanghera. It. as a push or windgaU. a cobbler. Fyre to botme. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream.

Brem. A Langued. Du. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. buUersten. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. Bowlder. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. Ni gacha cor bondir. bodina. carpet. And the new stools set out. strapping. ing. from bugan. an occasion. a large stone rounded by the action of water. Fr. a button. a turn or time. E. gulf. To Bound. iv. From Sw. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . Primarily to strike. a blister. the verb bondir in OFr. Q. he fell so that it sounded. — No i ausiratz parlar. Bought. Coxcomb. Alpine Re- — gions.. to spring. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. Bret.>a bout. — strike. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. from volgere. to set out by metes and bounds. Pm. the larger kind of pebbles. bonndn. 2. language a * Boulder. baby. 136. Bonny. frequently used in the same sense with bound. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. in contrast to klappersten. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. to fix limits. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. Fr. suorum recognoverunt agrorum.D. bay.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata.'— Charter of K. — — Bight. boh. nave of a wheel bothel. 3. Dan. bend. see Boss. bunda. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. Probably from the Celtic root bon. a stock. . winding. The branch of a tree. bog. a large pebble. a bouncing apple. and Prov. the smaller ones. Webster. round. Bout. turn. bons. p. bumper. boriie. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. to resound. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. bounbounejha. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. to thunder. jungen. mcn-bomi. as that of E. of thread. volta. bend. bottom. Halma. Bound. has hot. Ducange. geration. the hollow of a bay. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows.— Cot. its kind. boss of a buckler. bonzen. Bough. bugan. root (see Bottom). to knock. whence buj7isen. Sw. signifies a sliort thick mass. to thundering big one hum.— — — - 88 BOUGH . a boss. to spring. Wtb. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. knock it sounds again. nor horn sound. bondir. Boulderstone. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . tnndo. bunsen. bullra. Pr. debodinare. to hum. by Bujns or Buns. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. ni frestelar. the bay of Benin. dial. Nor a centinel whistle. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. The Bight of Benin. till The dat et bunsede. a round body both. in the absence of actual e. as a nosegay. Bunche. . boundina. boujtce. dial. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. botwm. an de dor bunsen." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. contusi. jump.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. to bow. limit. like bobbin. pimple Richards bothog. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. to turn. I assure you. So It. See To Bolt.' round and round in similar circles. pothel. . To Boult. ni motz brugir. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. bamsen. AS. bouton. — — leap. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. to make a loud noise. and F. bonna. came home with his face all to-bounced. bone. Mid. butina. march. or Bow-pot. to knock at the door.— F. Bodinare. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. a bud. To Bounce. bugt. a bound. to set bounds. bun. a blow.' B. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. Bough-pot.— Boundary. The W. thumping. See Bunch. bolder. signifying in nautical coil of rope. Fr. from AS. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. as a bout of fair or foul weather. mere. Raynouard. — Take care my house be handsome. a boundary stone (men stone).

an arch. gurgling. Bourd. to tipple. burdan. sotich. Gael. analogous to Fr. g. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. biugan. Du. prepared for. a drone or dor-bee. purra. pre. different modification gives ON. hous^ Man in the Moon. brummen. a bow. G. crutch. to take deep draughts. beygja. As the Gael.. It is bov. Sw. buigen. joke. Burden. sense durd. bourd. Sw. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. belly out. to pre2. G. Sc. to mutter. Dan. Bow. bue. addressed to. ready to pike or spear . steady. and not in the sense of curvature in general. bovne. the Bourdon. taunt. Spenser in R. a humming noise. schenkelbug. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. Eown. epaule du vaisseau. Swiss bausen. a for New York. of the ON. buzzing of bees. saufen. bordone. bonitas. bogr. i. fresh* water. So Sc. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. to trick. Du. bov. deceit. potio. borne. Prov. the ting of a bell. from spring. spring. It is the participle past buinn. Gael. repartee. cheat. shoulder-blade. Lat. buzz. brunna. has also buirleadh. like quaff. a drone of a bagpipe. . lance. buys. bagna. Bret. ^<7r«i?. bwa. buga. ridicule buirte. ruption of bonne. in Fr. a prop. bugna. The foregoing derivation seems. Bourdon. G. jest. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. to take one in. a go to. . bow to shoot with. the burden of a song. to tope. to our bous. to bulge. or of an Gael. Dan. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. pot. to indulge in his cups . Gael. And there in mourning spend Sw. bog. flagon. Bounty. Du. Burgeon. to hum. a corToward the garden. burdan. A water. ing. a. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. that ON. A —Cot. must be referred to the same root. to tope W. puff out. to draw a deep breath. Gael. bugne. bending. — — — A pare. the fixed. their time -With "wailful tunes. it is probable that the It. to bow. — — . drunken. pausen. a sing-song. bommen. bontS. bogha. drone of a bagpipe. a pot. to swell. bogen. Dan. Fr. bourde in the same sense. to banter or laugh at. Chaucer in R. set out. to take breath. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. staff. beogan. Fr. to drink deep. Gael. a mill-post. the shoulder of the vessel. sausen. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. identical with E. — probably through this latter signification. bend. bend Sw. firm. drink deep. a — — . bunaiteach. as was for. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. buizen. Goth. address. game. bausen. to drink deep. to draw a deep breath. . spelling the word iox bound. pusta. Bourdon. a cup kroesen. a brook. biegen. Du. whether by sound or gesticulation. purlBav. hence musical accompaniment. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. Sw. burreti. a. souf. w. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. . good. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. curvature. It is remarkable that we find vary. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . are applied to the bow of a ship. bourdon. AS.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. schulter-bug. btiga. is. bourdon.bass of a stringed instrument. The meaning of bound. brausen. on the whole. Bound. bage.which see. bending of a joint knie-bug. It. fun of one . springbiirn. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. pared. Cot. a from Du. buyse. to — Hal. language of folly or ridicule. sport. bound. warbling. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. and that probably from a Celtic root. G. When used alone it . bdgi. Immediately from Fr. bug. the big end of a club. way ba7n. bugna. to bow or incline the . mockery. a well. bog. when we speak of. tinton. on. head Fr. burt. . a jibe Shaw bururus. burn. Comp. Cot. bugan. Dan. grumble Sw. also the humming or ON. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. verb bua. a humming noise Macleod. cudgel. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. bending. bogna. bordo. bordon. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. Sp. patesten. bonus. a jibe.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. . burlare. burd. whence buysen. explaining Sw. kroes. to hum as a bee. limit. Borden. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. Fr. ready. trick. .

G. tumour . to puff up. folliculus . bug. boucle. boxtree pusska. kuppelo. Cable. budello. Buckle. koziel. ON. boel. bol. crown of a hat. . a wine-can . . boudin.) to incline oneself . Boll. bugna. buga. an outhouse AS. Bret. boss. iri'iaQ. honse-bur. buchsbaum. a box. bollen. or in e. botulus. a boil. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. the head. spring as water bugya. ON. peated in Magy. a box. the bogna. bulcken. a box. ^o/a. a hen-coop . hollow wooden case. bulla. . bowels. ^o«/«. at the e. with inversion of the round. as in AS. . a ball. to stoop. a drop of pullistaa. or. (in pass . . round glass phial. bouzellou. to buckle G. signified by forms like Gael. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. give in to. tumour. Fr. then by the loss of the /. of a wooden ball to play with and — . . bukke. the barrel of a gun. utibur. busskai. globular body. a pot. Gr. Bret. bugy. box in both senses. Pol. Dan. swoUei) Lat. bolgna. and on swollen. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. pusspan. . bow. w. a polla. and to a coachbox in particular. ken. kupula. convexity. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. bolne. . is applied to a coach-box.a. bugyola. make obeisance. round bead. a stud. See Boil. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. wisp of straw . witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. to swell. pullo. a swelling or rising up. bubble. compared with Fr. prominence. a. a croft by a house. similar shape. Bohem. ne. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . bhuj. a chamber swefnbur. ask. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. Bav. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. biicken. spherical Dan. cumena-bur. the skull or brainpan . See Crab. Hal. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat.). bur. bow. to bulge. lump . . while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. AS. bending. zich onder jemand under to him. a protuberance. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. the head. Sw. Lat. a wardrobe . ON. bowl . Thus we have Esthon. a bubble. . a box Lat. budel. bowel Box. W. fata-bur. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. OFr. bucka. buigen. bwra. buello. G. Hence. head of a cabbage. &c. crooked. acsian. Fr. kupu. bent. . bubble. to yield to one. busse. buxus. a bubble bolli. biichse. bossola. OE. a ball . the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. bog. a parlour. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. bulne. bugyni. to bend. ttuJic. Bowl. bosso. different position in ODu. Du. a little box . It is more probably from the G. ku^o. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. intrenchment. anything globular. a ball. purse. to stoop biickling. hollow. a hump on the back rossbollen. belly. PLD. a sleeping-room . an inclosure. hill. polla. to guggle. From the other form are G. inclinare se (Kil. Sw.cup Du. beuz. gut. mausbollelein. . a bubble Fin. biisse. a round glass or bolg. . box. buckel. a bowl. bogla. a box. . bhugna. a knot. boss. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. a separate apartment . boor. . . belly. water pulli.). passing on stud. . bouge. W. to make crooked . as well as the name of a. . a sack. the box-tree It.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. the box-tree. . bulla in aqua. buis. a bubble. . beutel. . a bundle. bock. Bower. A Bulk. Dan. puffy. Sp. bulge. blister. A . The / a bow. Sanscr. knob From the former modification we have bolla. bugyani. in both senses. globe or spherical body. bolla. a thing of liquid. * Bowels. convex. the crop of a bird. without the and grits. sausage. bocka. swell. boxtree. bola. to bow buck. belly of a cask. pocket. to puff up pullakka. buckelig gehen.\s. The word may probably be identical with Fris. buk. Du.flask It. In like manner the Pol. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. heafod bolla. hollow place Fr.D. a bud. the box-tree and articles made of it G. as in E. stream forth bugyogni. bouellou. fyn. a buck. E. bog. Du. a iDubble. AS. . boil. to raise the back boll OHG. to bubble up.. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. See MHO.. trestle. bulka. dial. guestchamber . Fr. bulk compared with Sw. kupukka. bol. a black pudding. in walking appears in a . biiske. to bend down. bolle. . Sw. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. bulb of an onion bolleyield. globular. hiidel. bwr. bolla. painter's easel. bur. .

Rouchi Then as an adj. land batsken. Fr. &c. matter. break. It. a braceOFr. Swab. clay. defect Du. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. the arm. from a root brak. to fall. land spoilt Kil. OE. brack. Brackish. boy. whelp as. boiste. brago. or bracer Cot. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. . murmur.nated by dirt. Fr. to smack the hand batschen. root). breach. and then Pl. Swiss Rom. To fight with the fists. Pl. braca. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. — — . breach. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. Sp. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . confining. Gael. ON.. Ptg. Brack. To Brabble. It. ' — A — — — . s. refuse. mud. brack. rack. a comworld Rayn. bruxula. — . bracco. Pm. G. a sounding blow. want. Brack. brae. ghebreck. A — — .' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. spaniel. bray. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. want. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . brae. . The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. boussole. brakke Bracelet. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. brechen. corruptse. ratch. buah. brabbelen. a boy pupa. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . brae. merely in our mode of considering them. a bubbling dura del mun. Bracket. pus. his eyes are failing him). to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. brague. race. mud. OFr.with a noise. It. . to want. . Du. Pr. braecke. acidus. damaged board a ship. to burst. a girl. Fr. to stutter. Prov. 91 the Dan. let. dog Sw. bracer. Swiss bub. BOX To Box. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. salo sive aqua marinS. bracket. posh. . the word passed on to signify salt water in general. variation of babble. rakki. disturb. Kil. is a rope holding G. Sp. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. fault. fault . flaw. Du. . brassard. an languages. mud. priated to the original sense. moral or physical. baukscheht. bask. ON. a box. bracke. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. filth . Cot. bracon. wnzC/J. taneous talking. to stammer. AS. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae.. See Brake. Heligoneed. brae. flaw. Lat. Hdcart. — . bragos. braque. boy bouba. Prov. to crack. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. Brach.D.puddle. brek.— D." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. a pair of braces. G. MHG. to give a gebrechen. suppuration. lalear-eyed Prov. rakke. armour for the arm. to box the ears. Kil. by the same inversion of J and k. babble. The different meanings of the brageux. and F. In like manner the It. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. . See Broker. then from break. bresta. which sigof straining. thwack. . ing from a mixture of salt. I sal slyng. — . a guard to torf. beagle. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. defect. dog in general. con. isolated part of the text. To brace is to draw together. youth. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. odorinsecus. to give a sounding blow defect. need. Bracelet. pube. Brak-goed. One girl. . breptati. and string of his bow. wrack. brageuses. Fr. — . It is B. loud smack. Sp. breuque. Prov. braquet. wristband. unmarried man . braic. bouibo. Kil. brakke grund. bracha. bube. bitch Du. La ville ou y avait Brace. Thus brack.. jabber. to be wanting. A to halt between two derivations. want. or defect. s. in R.D. bou^ba. in R. braco. braco. pupus. bracil. a bog or pass Fr. dog that hunts by scent. a grown youth Cimbr. the first instancebya physical tie. brace on and Du. cramp-iron holding things together . brostia.. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. brechen ihm. parallel with OK. foul. V. rakka. flap. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. as noticed under Box. salsus. defect. brek. to give a blow with the fists. brec. Prov. bue. fuse. which has many representatives in the other Europe. brasselet. dirty. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. On the same principle from the buksteht. — . to Swiss batschen. compressing. a crack. Boy. baske. briche. Water rendered boubo. quarrel Bohem. by an overflow of sea water. OFr. Lett. to slap. to is derived brestr. A brace probis. strike.

Brag was then used brisk. braga. dhbrailler. . brav. smart. se donner trop de licence. to swagger. Faire le brave. or from braie itself. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). Fris. a roisterer. crash ON. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. Dan. to flaunt. Cot. as the type of exertion and strength. and it is very likely that the root brak. valiant The head are sumptuous. flaunt in fine clothes . braszketi. gay. —Spenser in R. binding anything together. Wallachian bratsou. se pavaner. ative fellow. braicli. brake is. bragging. 92 Cot. to crack. &c. Rom. flaunting. or by gaudy dress and show. brao. splendid. Bray. — A — . Brail. bushy . swagger. that will carry no coals. and that from e. was formed brayele. brave. — From W. bullying. called by our braggard.explosion. to stand upon terms. make a noise . subduing. noisy ostentation.%. . drawers. Cot. power. h-avare and Fr. Brain. See Bray. showy bravery. w. brag or jet it braguard. vaunting. braga. crash. . also insolenter se gerere . From Fr. riches. braggard also valiant. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . gayly dressed. stout. well-dressed. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . breyne. bravo. brave. vanter une chose.hy which this idea is con\eyed. Lat. i. a noisy talkboasting. Thus Bret. crack. Thus we are brought to the OE. fine. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. a carriage for breaking in horses . goods. . braguer. braka. boasting. Dan. excellent. compressing. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. It is certain that the word for arm is. braske. breghen.. spot. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. in order to prevent its catching the wind. The meanings included under — Bragget.^ Sp. braver. braw. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. to rattle. breghe. From brayel. finery. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. to sprout malt. braske. se parer de beaux habits. gallant. bragd. . A — Hal. To Brail. to brail up a sail. From sprouted corn. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. strength. brae. 2. to Rouchi brMer. Turk bazu are used in both senses. proud. It. de Vaud. about the hawk's fundament. Brake. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . the opposite of which. handsome. cry. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. gay. fine. blusterer. .breeches. also derived Fr. to make a noise. Langued. Primarily to crack. See Brace. brag. used in the sense of force. affront. — Equivalent forms are Gael. to shout.i5nz^. Hecart. bravache. — Chaucer. Sc..aburst. brabhdair. . Bret. subigere. brave. Walloon bress. the arm.Shepherd's Cal. courageous. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow.—— . bragging of his own valour. Fr. to strut. . brachittm. swaggerer. boast. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. bravado j Fr. confining. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . brazo. an inclosure for cattle . gallant (in apparel) also proud. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. in numerous dialects. also tion of this was brayeul. to cord a bale of tie up. to boast of his own worth. stately. The meanings of brake are very numerous. Cot. Hence E. brave. Sp. torture . be found. Fr. braegenj Du. AS. fine. Chaucer. idle talk. be noisy . hectoring. to boast or brag. brabhdadh. empty pride.^Vocab. slight modificajoining the two legs. braga. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. Brake. bra!. an iron for holding Zalli. bragaireachd. ^Brave. brave. in the sense of the Lat. To Braid. gorgeous. bragio. BRAG Piedm. Haldorsen Gael. bravacherie. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. brayete. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. brag. Lith. beautiful. breagh. braies. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. breach. expensive. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . The plant y^r«. braka. bully . fine. Bret. would be to brace. To Brag. is Cot. is identical with Gael. — . to unbrace or let down the breeches. the feathers ON. brails. vain glory. brake in the sense of constraining.

braquer un canon. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. braeken. pasture. Lat. broyer. thing is brought under control. In like manner Lat. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. murran. — — . broor bushy place Hal. glebas subigere. thicket. or A A ' . to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). a fen. any thicket of brakes. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. cetur. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. brogille. Brake. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. riguus. Biglotton. to bend a bow. bushes. brega. t° moisten. Pl. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. brake. Fr. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. brake. gebiisch. been confounded with the verb break.bracan. or a wood in a marshy place . as in Du. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. brage. —Bracken. to row. — Fl. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. brambles. conSo in G. gebroge. Swiss Rom. or overthrow of trees by the wind. broillet. Gr. brog. game. brcekke. iSpsx". break flax PLD. to fracture. it is not surprising that the word has here. brog or brake. to subdue. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. gebrUche. gilum. a stream. subigere. to bend or direct a cannon. signifying to sweep. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. watered. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. as well as in the case of the e. in usus braca. Dan. P&. breuil. for — Due. Corrfeze bredgea. to pound. gebroge. tnurdma. brog above mentioned. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. and G. gebroge. cover G. It may be sus- . bredza. as in the case of horse-breaking. breaking in the operation. a brace on board a ship. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. tris). brook. copse-wood. briser. a horse's a horse's twitch. have thus Du. OFr. word. to exert force in different ways. to brush. braken. brego. braka. brolium. braecken het vlasch. briers. marsh. to distinct.. In ON. dial.— . to bray in a mortar. and when once thrown down. break of such a kind. where from Esthon. brushwood. Dan. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . In the sense of a thicket. to The ON. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. casser le \va. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. properly braking or subduing them. In the case of the ne. e. in northern climates. brook. It. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. bregar brake. bush. 2. braca. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. de Vaud. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. a thicket. bruch. Voc. marsh or swamp. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. broilium. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions.' It. Brake. might come to signify a swamp. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. nemus. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. The Fr. brak is a frame in which strip. to rub. BRAKE to external force. to break or fracture. Sp. murtaa. ^raca. —Ovid. broil. bregille. to harrow (Lat. is formed murd. el arco. Gael. to break. Prov.D. the original meaning of G. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. brage. the lever by which the string was drawn up. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. farinam in mortario subigere. to knead or mix up in a mortar. Fr. frangere linum.D. bregar. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. Dan. Fr. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. brook. quarry from Fin. 3. To the same bend a bow. and Lat. a spinning-wheel. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. broken fratta. brambles. flachs brechen. . murrokko. to break. to head must be bit. to stiffen against Taboada). is braukti. as in Sp. a harrow. a marsh. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. referred brake. a swampy Mid. ing of flax or hemp. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. It. fratto. broeck. gebrUche. G. We — . bush. low wet land bruch.

gebroge. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom.. a shrub from Bret. brenna. brein. Port. That beareth the red hepe. It. Brancare. heath ON. Branch. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. . G. Thus in Lat. bruk. brarn. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie.D. bretnel. a dunghill. as. apiece orbitbrandone. Bav. brenda. bruskoad. from virga. The same form becomes in It. from brand. cabbage sprouts Fl. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio.). or with It. sawdust. Brank. bruk. is the draff or excrement of the com. ground full of briers. Gael. berneux. bran. a briery plot. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. Then by comparison with claws or arms. sedge burkni. a small deri\'ation . iii. brancas. In like hrst. thicket of brambles Cot. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. it glitters — — .D. Fr. So Swiss gaggi. or ling. cack. Gael. AS. braeme. brang. brass. stink . broem. to bridle. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. brandr. a shoot. also a marshy low ground or fen . pected that brake. gebriiche. bren. nasty. a firebrand. heath (Bret. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. bit by bit. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. A mark made by burning. brin. brano. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters." The bmno a • on . a thick bush. bramble Du. brouskoad. The naof strain. Bran. brin d. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. G. 2. — branca. Sir Topaz. a roA. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. Fr. . a vine twig Bav. branchia. restrain. compress. bromboli. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. to gripe. chaff. in the sense oi fern. brugek. and thence a shoot. bruk. hallier. the thorn apple or stramonium. ear-wax mud. from brug. snotty . piecemeal brindelles. clutch. a halter. brake. Bret. a shoot or twig. broembel-CBppel. breme j Sw. piece of anything. broom. a burning fragment of wood. Fr. Thus we have w. brushwood. broccoli. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . in the same sense. bushes. and E. brem. bracken or fern . brambles. brom. breanan.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. Pl. to burn. brejo. E. brug). Diez. pfriemen. briars. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. As ON. thorns and Gen. a single plant of heath. wood composed of twigs. from gaggi. branche. bronbo. heath. Broom. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. virgultum. sprouts. brosst. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. excrement. Piedm. young twig {brom-beisser. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. breun. brwnt. Dan. Bramble. dirt . that is to say. . It will be found that shrubs. Bret. brin (as It brano). w. as AS. . brenn. Rouchi bren d'orMe. bruch. young buisson fort epais. or other plants of a like nature. G. a heath. . to or iron. from Servian pnit. branco. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. broom. bran. brandmurk. sweet broom. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . what is cast out as worthless. brenn hesken. Pl. constrain. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. i. bren. may be so called in analogy with Bret. Serv. 1 8. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. heath. . heath. broust. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. a shrub . Bret. a bud. brug. brank. . Fr.G. the bull-finch. pfriem in the sense of an awl. heath. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. a rod or twig. Brand. G. and waste growths. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . a bud It. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. Grisons bruch. brank. brog. &c. It. brok. Thornas and bremelas. burning brennen. — . the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. brous. to -brugen. titio. also pfriemkraut. brughera. Bret. bruch. But we find It. —Ducange. a bud. pfropf. ordure . See Brush. broussaille. . the branch of a tree. w. brand. &c. bro7n. from Lat. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. brandello. to brank. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. prufye. . a bridle or bit . braam. Russ. brandiiialil.

crackle. brasca. brouir. live coals. Fr. It. Jam. to blaze. AS. was in use Fr. to rustle. to glisten or flash. So.. G. brustle. to sound of the Fr. 59. all. a brusler. bruzi. brazeiro. glowing embers . distilled wine. a roaring fire. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. is bntan. Manx bransey. plained by Florio. eldibrandr. bruire. given to the country. stake. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. Bailey. bragia. to burn. before the discovery of America in the brandir. ish. branler. Chron. Fr. to dash. or in stick. to totter. — ting to confusion. to braze or lute. braza. branler. make an outcry. — . In the same way the set on fire . perplex. to shog. bresil. brastlian. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. Hume in brand in ON. Chron. to Bailey. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. spirit distilled from wine. the spelling to kindle.well. as again by well as the blade of a sword. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. Brangle.^Brandle. brangle or brawl in E. as Jamieson explains it. make a — . forms brasil. G. brandiller. to brangle. brennen. WaUon. — . morsel. and branchis shaiand D. brasca. bracia. bruan. brandolare is exbrandish. not. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. to burn. a fragment. It. to brandle or The It. Brasil. apparently very distinct from each other. Brase. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. prasseln.pan of coals. brascct. to make sense of a bright red dye. to distil . from to vociferate. Milan. weinbrenner. brasa. Gris. fire-wood. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. conbillet. braise. to quarrel. to burn. bra?ier. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. brazil. De Goes. V. — . de Don Emanuel in Marsh. crackle. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. The tre brangillis. to crackle . Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. put. from used in dyeing cloths. comes from thence. to make shine with shaking. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. hot Fr. brush. as Fr. The name Brandy. ist. in Marsh. Fr. incendium. Sw. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. to shake. Lye. firewood. braise or hot coals. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. branla. Ija. bragale\ wood. a pan of hot coals. briiler. n. to and fro in the hand. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. Sw. Du. set on fire. flagrans. brasil. to hurl with great force. brus^. Guill. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. Fr. and scold. aqua ardens. brasa. With top trimbling. braser. bruciare. Thus the bound up again. Diez. to roar. to solder iron. Port. brin. totter. e. d'Angl. and bruir. Kil. To brase AS. brand. bum. bransle. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. Fl. to brandle. To brand. to shake The word brisil. bransella. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. billet. bracea. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. brane-wood. a To Brandish. shake. Fr. brandigh. to shake. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. braise. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. urens. gebrannter wein.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. to French brawl or brangle. a stick. a round dance. so. Braser. then brandr. Formerly brandy-wine. to confuse. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. bryne. brandiller. became ashes Pied. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. brausen. splinter. the colour than hitherto known. brandende wijn. N. De Barros considers vinum ardens. firebrand. to brustle. du Roi et laine. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. E. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. embraser. noise. Bret. to bicker 2nd. hoisting to the fall. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. It. to make display . And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . to murmur. faire fracas. The corresponding form in Gael. E.

to Gael. whether contracted from brabble. Brawl. It . braon. bmhon for brado7i. and bronzo. Betrax of a —^Jam. Jam. bronzacchiare. W. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. brailler. bartisan. a lump of flesh. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. at brasa. bronzare. &c. Gael. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. ^Altieri. calf of the leg. See Brandish. bratach. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. a rag . Brangle. Kil. So also See Brag. deblaterare. It. braoilich. neita girl). AS. saillies. ni autres choses sur Due. Bailey. fraiche. in the first instance of boards. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . braede. bruir. braodhlach. any piece. as rashers upon quick burning coals. borderinge. apron. bretesche. brat. a wooden tower.— Fl. breyon de kinds of . For the application to a^child compare Bret. bred. boarding being sbranare. frame of laths. Du. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. a lump. bretays). Hist. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. brdto (ace. a slabbering-bib. Sc. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. ON.D. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. A. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. Brattice. the calf of the leg. Bartizan. bretesque. cloth. contignatio.D. frequentative of braire. a plank or board. berd. le repasser un peu sur la braise. or whether it be from Fr. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. squall. The muscular part of the body. It. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). braser Fargent. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. cob. slibro {neita. flesh of a leg of pork. a lath.' BRASS BRAY et AS. A. or on the top of a wall. from Sc. bratid calf of the leg.D. a contemptuous name for a young child. Brave. ferruminare. KiL Prov. to scold . a — A from the confused noise. coassatio. bribe de viande. a. braeye. braion. a rag . the buttocks. to tear piecemeal. a Lap. esbraotier. 1224. ' A vraale. a rag. discord. Fr. as a brawling brook. bas morceau de viande brawhng.— Diez. —^Bronze. baltresca. as criailler of crier. then a parapet. strepitus 2. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. bralle. OFr. Many gambes. a parapet. brces. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. Pm. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. . bradlete. to solder. OFr. bratidone. I. calf of the leg. bronze. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. 2. a patch of cloth. a loud noise. G. Brass. Sp.^ — Sverris Saga. a clout. to cry. buttock Sc. Cot.' Hal. brat. rag. brettys. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. muscular parts of the body.brettysing. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. from Fr. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. a fortification. brat. as lattice. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. to carbonado. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. braiio. 1156. The verb is probably derived from the brase. See Bray. luncheon. — Deutsch. brass. from branler. boutures. bras. especially that used in the working of iron . a contempt- banner. lat'te.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. 368. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. breteque. A land of dance.96 Roquefort. brett. as scrawl from scrabble. Wall.propugnaculum. Cologne broden. bran. to braze. bartising. roar. breyon. brazen. burning coals. trul. is The word — uous name for a woman. ship.walle — Pr. solder. A dispute or squabble. equivalent to the Du. slut. pan- — Rayn. Cot.— Remade. Florio.— Braid. bratdn). a lump of flesh. Sup. pil. to talk at bralle op. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. brandillo. tasce. Brat. bransle. bradon. Fris. Circumeunt cibertesca. to copper. a battle-girdle. The same correspondence is seen between It. Paris. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. P1. noise. to shake. Fr. Lorraine bravon. — . Fr. Dan. a cloak. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. Brawn. Mundart. Swiss bradle. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. breyon d'chaur. —-Jam. slibro. a mantle. Math. Certainly a little girl. Pisana in Mur. branle. Westphal. slakker-bortchen. OHG. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275.

And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. brak. Breach. relation is seen between Lat. to start. The ON. to N. W. V. rogi. Beryn. rangere. to crash. bray. bregda. Bailey. to rub Fr. or wound. Bread. appearance Hal. e. — koa. OE. the sword was out break. braidar. &c. to pretend. bregar. Lat. twist. in Jam. I'll live and die a maid. Then. Prov. bragd is also applied nets.y. at a braid. &c. soft . crepo and E. to scold. breche.ch. . noise . BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. plait. to sound very loud and very harshly. and fracasously. Q. augnabragd. &c. iU-favouredly — in Jam. yell. a crash. bratsche. paste or dough. braea. the clash of ai-ms Dan. to smack or the eye. To Break. a brack. verb to break. Goth. breach. — . brikan. Cot. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. bru. to knead. The Lat. to snatch. vapna-brak. From the or brack in a wall. See Brake. R. to cry out. baiyl. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. ^p&xia. to The cup was uncoverid. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. abraid. starts crackling up. V. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. to crash. at braga eftir euium. paxog.g. to break. broyer. crackle . ybrayid. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. ser. kind. to t. ON. brugier. to braid. rattle. instantane. i. to rush. Du. to braid the hair. upbraid. to roar as the sea. or cry out loudly . make a disturbance. to roar. a breach Cot. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. Swiss bratschig. 2. to break. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out.ear rog. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. braid. F. E. braa.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. Then is simply. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. to resemble him. to have the lineaments of one's ON. 145. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. to bray in a mortar. a wink. at once. fractus j Gr. riAprjyvvfu. k. — — — explained motus loud noise. and to signify the fracture itself. AS. is . turn. with or without a final d. to bray like an ass. roar. brame. to break. Cat. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. D. will. brage. To rub or grind down Sp. imitate or resemble one. 7 . — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. braidir. broad. R. D. regi. explaining a very obscure application of the E. brechen. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. which has given much trouble to commentators. to cry Port. as the voice of the ass. to roar or bellow. to cry out. disturbance. and frangere. on. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. G. as the notion of turning crack. to tear Bret. bragd — ON. yell. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. father. Bret. ing. to rumble. to the seijauntes. . braa. And at a braid he gun it bende. a brake for hemp or flax. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. The same He might don us both a villany. Ppvxia. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. fragor.^ Fr. . Wal. bruire. brand. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. weave The ON. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. a . Fr. to braid acquires the sense of bend. to resemble. to braid.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. fish.' To Bray. roar. to work up in a mortar. and make a hideous noise. to break Fr. brice. D. father. rustle. crash. crash. bragr. Chaucer. And with a traid I tumyt me about. to bellow. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. to resemble. as OE. bradar. Fr.. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. a mill. &c. Gr. ON. Fin. the sound — of arms. brot. braire.fracas. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. resound . to bawl. Chaucer. Dunbar braessem. Prov. a rag f . mos. bregar. the miller's dog. Bread. G. gestus. brak.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. bruzir. a rent. V. breuan. cyprinus latus.

as the G. braich. We bragezj on. G. a cold and windy mist or frost . as. braga. chilly. bris. a crum Du. Prov. sprouted corn. Gael. brasser. briosat'. brezzare. Breeches. to fry Then from a Gl. brodel. fastening .vare. breme.'— Gl. then to broil. brusc. orts. and other rubbish dibris. bruise. to brew. dial. G. their stings draw . brustia. to bind. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. Du. Rom. rubbish. to burst. the dry spines of furze broken off. bratscher. Breast. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. broiiwen. applied to shivering. to break. Bret. to murmur. Du. — Brist. Originally probably the word signified steam. Du. brut.D. from brace. a gadfly. bragues. . cloven. are in like manner ' . Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. Compare OE. Bruise. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. to brew. brimme. brisciare. chillness or shivering. forms. Breeze. to roast. Briss and buttons. singing bone. brezza. Bret. Brize. Lat. brezling. subligaculum. Russ. The Teutonic verbs. . representing the sound of a blow. coaldust. G. a horse's twitch. corresponding to G. an into shiver. a girdle. a twitch for a horse. — Halma. as. bruc. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. of trees. braies. Piedm. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. forms analogous to E. braguier. brise. . a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. Breath. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. burst. de Vaud. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. bruzun. Dtyden. a crum. braca. to buzz. Isidore and Tatian. properly to crackle. and brought beneath between the legs. bremse. fail. braucn. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. — See Broth. point to G. malt. bresilles. switch. to shiver for cold. w. bandage or truss for a rupture. of E. breeze. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. peitschen.t. brijselen. grill. to bray. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. brew. or the blow itself. zare. sheep's droppings bruss. brdtschen. Breeze. brire. bruzir. — — strument for smacking. to simmer. brinisa. but more probably the E. Lat. griller.britschen. QNtsterviald) pritschen. bris de charbon. Bracha. bra. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. Fr. so AS. from AS. . braca. trusts. instead of being derived from 'La. i5r(Z^. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. murmur—Vocab. Sw. briig. Hume in Jam. braies. broil. braie. bris. Prov. also to chill and shiver with cold. brasiare. scent. simmer. and E. little bits of wood Berri briser. . brimsa. briosa. Swiss brdtsch. windy withal. morsel. brissle. an odour. AS. brumtnen. to crush to break. AS.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. to whip. siibligar. — And blood. to smack. —Briss. brosame. malt. to resound. brisd. bark Fr. briiz.). a cool wind. bretilles. simmering. brossi!. E. to rattle (as hail). the breech or buttocks. G. to feize or feaze. drawers. G. the bust. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged./ssus. brodem. to be misty and cold. briste. bridsen. broza. G^nev. binding. grillare. Swiss Rom. brache. Biglotton. breson. as in the case of twitter. may be from the wurh fesser. brugga. de bridse geveii. E. in Schilter. brasiuiii. breost. &c. one on the breech so that (klatschet). Gael. Du. braga. — . brcekur j It. — . Dan. fitzen. Hence the Lat. met de bridse slaan. brisoler. xyligogio castigare. Gl. a box. britze. The Breech (Prov. as by the Sc. So ON. to crackle. . body brostia. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. Fr. are related to Prov. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. brcEth. to breech. noise. braciarc. with It. Fr. See Brick. Dev. einem de britze geven. brist. brciz. from ligare. Fris. OFr. the soler. Swiss AS. murmur. Goth. of straining. broden. crush. to hum. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. bracecs . breinse. bre- I'os qui bresole.98 borst. Piedm. to fry . /esses. Breeze. remains of leaves. Gl. briosa. b}-as. clout for a child. polenta. breath. trembling. as commonly explained. braia J OFr. brijsen. brok. a smack. grillen. PI. To Brew. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. break. bryi^ga. a to lay fly-flap. braux. brison. It. vapour. rubbish. a cramp-iron for holding things together.

a sow. bryd-gutna. . Rouchi brife. the Fr. briw. It — is Kil. and ODu. imprint.Fr. If the foregoing were not so clear. ' . fastningar-ol. brittil. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. of burial. Bridal. twopares Lat. E. Lat.privatus. broken victuals. from the Normans. fervere. served (Patois de Bray). . Flor. bably contracted from brigantine. brocaly. It. Fr. to press in. brood. — . gf2o. to stamp. a lump of bread. Neumann. consort with. . brere. a fragment. as so. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. broken bread. brakes of high-grown ferns. AS. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. Gael. nurus G. a brig or priodor. to break to pieces bricalio. to pave. Brier. malt. to break.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. the newly. guma. bruarium. and berweddu. appropriate. collect bits of food. a boiling. bruk. AS. Ducange. married. brieden. bro. is still used in this sense. a beggar. G^n^v. frayer. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. arf-ol. a lump of bread briber. a crum. but to a paved road. a proprietor. bro is applied not only to a bridge. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. bribe de pain. bruk. w. A — A — . OHG. buckler J ON. to meet together. briiths. Walach. brutg. Brief. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. brygga. a married man guma. a bush. buskins. to boil. in the sense of OSw. Fr. pier. In the patois of briccia. AS. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. ' — . priod-ferch. Brigade. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. as. berwi. httle bit. piece of burnt clay. brughiera. privus. to tlie brico. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. a married man or woman Lat. bro. troop. to Isrew. brilt. to appropriate. from Bridegroom. conjux. AS. brukkas. feast. brigata. but probably Bricoteau. to beg one's bread. Bridal. Grisons bruch. son. Mid. to pave brukkti. Gael. has briguer. bread. Brick. AS.It. Du. Gl. one's ovin. Hence OE. to brew. brahi. pavement Lith. bride. two-masted vessel. any jot or crum. Dan. or brizo. thick appropriated. to circulate. brigantine. BRIGADE dead. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . Brique. grug. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. a Bride. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. bribour. Lang. bulicame. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. brasser. Sp. bridelj OHG. brA. ap. fraoch. . broosekens. a little king's writs. bridge. it is applied to the letter to OE. graf-ol. whence berw. bruith.rough with brambles and bushes. betony brulicame. from Bret. Goth. OSw. The origin of the word is the w. briwo. barren land priodas. Pro(merch=:maid). birbante. company. brigade. a cheat. stone-bridge bnikkoti. beaten way Dan. In the G. ibrukkti. broken. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. brar. Bribe. — — — — — — . bitill. and that from It. ment of anything broken. A bribe is A — — arval. funeral. bride. bruskr and buskr. Brewis.bergantino. ter-in-law. Ihre. a heath. a wedding priod-fab. Fl. Cot. betonica. groom (mab=:son). brice. a lump of bread. ON. corresponding or letter. fragment. bara briw. bricou. So It. daughheath. braut. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. In E. crew. a bride. Applied ous words derived from break. pavement. feast of espousals. — . lipdZu}.. to press. hlafes brice. birbone. bryd-eale. a quoit of stone. brique de pain. So in The Prov. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. a heath brughera. Due. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . masted vessel. from the last 99 of which. Fr. a bride Brig. E. Bridge. brau. bidsel. to boil. sugga. heath. a rogue. bricge j G.gfiugga. owned also propriate. briicke. jipaaaiii. remarkable that the Gr. W. . Diefenbach com.pritil . now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. berwedd. The Sw. a briole. to boil. bruyere. bygga. . a crum. with transposition of the r. peculiar. . E. breve or brevis.groom. to rub. . then the marriage itself. boiling up brocoliere. Thom. priod. AS. . division of an army. to prepare. a man. See Broth. a rogue . Bridle. a fragment. Diez. bretonica. fit. It. which however is undoubtedly from brace. especially to a letter or command. Pol. a bit. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. malt. jetty. pavement brolegge. Priodi. the equivalent of to the dial. bo. brug. sponsa. the marriage si in brigata. E. Hdcart. Trovarfor bride-ale. from bit.

A strepere. to make a loud noise. briga. The E. on his — own account. brcEhtin.' The sense of strife or combat express.' torum.D. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . a spark. schiteren. twinkling. So G. — Briganbriga. — Probably then to strive. is easily understood. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. to rob. It. to shine. a brigantine. XafXTTpoQ. 1654. representing a sudden noise. at a later period. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. rixa. brigare. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. pugna. Du. transparent.clare ^tinniens. Bright. manifest ON. 1351. Lat. 312. Adelung. Xa/iTTii). It. — — . bracht. praht. bregar. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. tinkle. clear.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. glamra. The primary meaning of Sp. the bench-notes resounded. biartr. cange has 'Veles. to piracy. labour. In Fin. and led it away. clang. Schmeller. Gall. the gleeman's song. seems to be to exert force gar el area. a small light pinnace pro. in the sense of a robber. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. Beorktode bene sweg. brebrigare. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. splendour. kii:'a. A. to contend with another. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. —Capgrave. brdgen. to shine. OHG. bairhts.shine. inde squammatus. and secondly. glamm. splendour. It. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. from hall. glir. beorht. to glitter. clear. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. outcry.Lat. In the same way to strive is. brigant. brigandare. briegen. and diligence. bryhtm. . tumult. a pirate. They or brigantini. — Due. a noise. braid. From ON. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. clangour. Mid. clear sound. Brigata. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. a glittering. speech. dine. The Ir. also called briganders. . briga. moment. schateren. Brigand. necessary business. brak. himself to serve men of merit. Goth. clear. It. to reservavit. riis ' — Chron. — brigante. bragen. to strive for.' The passage from the sense of a light. to cry. secondarily. to ring. brigare. Wilista. \oice. dine. may play the pirate or thief at sea. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. kilistua. splcnornd de brigandine. loo BRIGAND lor. hell. show the origin of Lat. clare lucens. — Beowulf. splendens . in later times a robber or highway-man. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. to resound. brawl. Gr.pracht. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. to shift for with care. clarus. squamma . Heo — song That AS. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. to glamr. and hence be explained glampi. strife. and to associate with them. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . — Brigantine. and. and the E.dorem clarum reflecto. wilella. etincelle. to cry 'Schmid OE. See Brake. Bav. Owl and beorhtian. tuilahtaa. there are many armour. — A A . to rove. a sound. the grew high. in the first instance. Due. and. to sound. glitter. brigan. noise. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. combat. that of Fr. shriek with laughter. rover either by sea or land. with respect either to sound or colour.— . tinnitum clarum movco. sound. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. bray. malandrini.' in Due. glbram. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. willata. — brigante. to bend a bow It.glampa. Flor. AS. jurgia. tinnitus. Florio. and ner me hit iherde. then. lay was sung. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. tion. Brilliant. bright bearhtm. Swab.

— — So Fr. to broil. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. hence the bosom. from bringe. Fr. to glitter . a streak. parched. striped or streaked. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim.— BRIM . ON.) brimi. brissle. to . brame. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. margin. edge Pol. The meaning of the Fr. . Tresiller. kimmaltaa. breziller. broiled. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. A . an apron. shine. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. bremmen. to wish or covet. clangor tinniens. as well as bl and gl. fire. s. to quaver with the voice. To Brim. to crackle. border. to make a crackling noise. rut. brow of a hill. breme. as in Langued. ON. brisoler. 154. to shine. Rayn. bryn. ous. barm. — g. voux. to sparkle. grdzil. the sow is brimming. Thus Lat. the eye-brow. griller). perent. Lith. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. of the eye.— Brinded. to twinkle. frequently interchange. to shine. a borDu. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. Prov. brummen. brummen : de soge brummet. griller. earnestly . E. brame.' Elyot in Way. brinfire. kommata. to long for a thing. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. and corresponding to these. ardere desiderio. bar. identical with passion. G. The identity of ON. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. brim Magy. Wtb. furious. vattubryn. Sc. glit. Streaked. grisler. kiimottaa. a border. vigorHal. leonum). to storm. to roar. sparkle. which seems identical with rim. sprainged. excited. bramer. bry7ie. to fret . crackle. grisser. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. Tutschek. to roar. Dan. to glitter. lip of a vessel. brmdottr. In Fr. s. komottaa. is used of raging. Sw. In the same way Sw.' d'etre marie . Brimstone. finds the Fr.). seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. Supp. bresoler (Gloss. 1 1 64. rym^. brdnnsten. — Rim. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. breme. a long. to parch. Rugere. 1. brunft. breziller. spraing. to burn. briller (related to each other as OFr. It. The E. Langtoft. kajata. to shake. griller d'impatience. fimbria) . bremas. brastlian.its vent in cries and roaring. the heat of animals. to resound. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. bremmen. . os qui bresole. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. brezil. Dief. as of meat in broiling . post. bramire. tience. also to reflect. whence bilbil-goda (literally. the singing of Sodom — — . burning. gresiller. brillare. brumft. cross-barred in colour. the edge. with an initial br instead of gr. Fl. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. brommen. brimmen. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. broil . a rod. to creak. to make bilbil). or violent action. to sound deep or hollow. chime). kimina. to shine. der. — — — . 754. ON. bray as an ass bramire. komista. to glitter distance . brim. have then in Fr. Closely connected is OE. — . Said of swine when in heat. barmr. surface of the ocean.D. ter. lap of a garment . briller. fringe (Lat. small gravel. Kil. gresiller. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. Subo. Swiss Rom. The expression is now confined to the sow. a stick. brant. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. Sc. rugire. It. burning stone. the heat of animals. AS. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. barm-cloth or barmskin. Brindled. dial. whether of desire or anger. border. lap. noise made by meat in broiling. brennistein. brandr and Fr. the verbs Flor. sonitum edere bremen.preni. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. ling noise and a sparkling light. bramar. to utter cries. grullo. pMiller. . It. greedily to covet Cot. ring. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. the meaning is transL' amour. border. brullo. Brem. rugire (cervorum. briller. glisten. fierce. (poet. to shimmer. FJ. that the original meaning of the Sc. beam. to crackle. Du. as is the case also with Pl. greDiet. the lap or bosom. Brim. : ' — bone). kimista. AS. bramar. originally the lap folding over the breast. Hence with an initial s. on. brand-krossottr. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne.ioTiviS acutus. to creak. reecho. from brandr. coloured in stripes. and 1. fringe . crackle . brama.

brusque. to break. Palsgr. brusco. brocar. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. sticking up . cK) the . Sp. the brisket or . bruckle. birs. birssy. brusk. brote. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. brich. bringe.). — — . bricho (with the diminutives. a stitch brocher. to break. ' breast. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. Prov. to set it a going.rcendij'i. a bud. and hence.' Nat. to spit. Mid. byrst. NE.'— Vita'abbatum S. fragile. to stick. rebrousser.). fierce. Bristle. a morsel. . 222. Brittle. Abroacli. brimhliod. Prov. fiscbryne. Hal. . Berri. Fr. rebursiis. broca.. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. strong itself. brimme. against the grain . brust. brytan. Fr. Swiss to stand out . a deluge. craw of a bird. setting the hair on end compare It. sprouts. to shoot. brockle. /3pE^m. harsh vin brusque. Salte sand is called brimsand. borzos (struppig). Hence ribrezzare. to goad. a rod or twig. the twigs of a besom. and forms on. In the N.procio. bros. brisk in taste. spricka. and Sc. briota. as. Russ. Fr. borstel. Bret. bryne. . i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. . stitch. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. wine of a sharp. a slip or sprig of an herb . to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. coli. 'V^. It. — . brioshko. p. bringue. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. bruched (Fr. brodden. brin. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. very salt brimi. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. breast. Da. See Spread. Fris. apt to break. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. broc. angry. emotions which produce it. crabbed. to crack. Formerly written brotil. G. Brickie. to roar. roar of the sea saltr. i. spur. the surf. borzen. Ptg. to stab Gael. brocchus. Cot. . Fr. brickie. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. brocco. brezzare. to broach a business. to birstle.Lat. Boh. Lat. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. is called a birssy day. borst. to burn. brijn (Kil. to put one in a rage . broccare. brisciare. Zeuss. Sc. a belly. reburrus. shoot. is to erect the hair. broccata. bryde. Brisket. a spit. humorous. an awl. brichet. Brine. brittle. brissle. a clasp. ruffling. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. Sc. brocco. of astonishment. to stitch. bronchus. chest. Breeze been connected with the Sc. Brym. from brande. It. as. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). Alfr. a button broche. Brooch. to spur. to broil. It. See Brand. brezza. braidsj ON. a morsel . a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. fantas'* tical. — in Due. like the Broad. whence may be explained the Sc. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. Walach. brim (poet. grim. e. Dan. brddj Goth. Bohem. ON. to scorch. ' . — bryme. saulmeure. Gr. the surf. expression. Antiq. Sw. breaking out into growth. Du. form bris. britar. bros. a projecting tooth It. and. flames. as unripe fruits. startling. as. Fr. a fragment. ribrezzoso. brim. . briocho. thick — A elastic hair. bringe traced through the brano. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. suddenly angry. bruskett. Du. to shiver for Sold or for fear. man's throat. b. to thrust. brog.g. briser. metaphorically. britchet. broca. flame. broche. Russ. sour. hot-tempered. — A . of E. smart taste. a shoot or sprig. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. rash. setting the hair on end. Compare also E. brissko). a brooch. brittle. has under It. brocher. Then as the effect of shivering. are used in the sense of brittle. sprout. brindelles de balai. from AS. bristly . briota. lively. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. brime. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. Brocade. aculeus. to break. breidr. brot. Liquamen vel garum. bresk. a bit . Brisk. a rebours. a brad or tack. Port. from break. birstle. Commonly explained as from Fr. prick with Sw. Fr. brandello. The Pl. breaking of the waves brim sior. brcit. to spur. eager. to begin upon it. to set up one's birse. Gl. a cold and windy mist or frost. a crum. or — . brocciare. a bud.. sprocco. quick. as a noun. It. a stormy brimsea . britar. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. See To Brim. trembling. birse. or the full • .D. sharp. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. Prov. brim. to turn up the point of anything. rude. birsle. Bret. to bud. Pectusculum. a peg sbrocco. a skewer.

But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. to burn. Ptg. blusters. brocart. border ornamented with silk. brindled. bruler. precisely analogous to the Sc. to streaked or speckled in the face. Contracted from Fr. Brocket. and w. speckled. border. agree in being the extremity of a thing. brusler. Surrey in R. to burn. stump. a point. parti-coloured. E. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. a brim. spotted. hart of two years old. brasbrasciuolare. to boss. bustling. Cot. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case.— B. to knots or loops. — brissle. brasolare. gresiller. brych. brouda. broice. motes. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. broil. frecSee Brawl. a badger. to instigate. B. with Sc. bordo. rinj'. So from Pol. a border. prod. rustle. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. speckled. broud. to prick. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. to crackle. AS. brodio. Thus brod. 103 embroidered. brustle. to crackle. From direct imitation of Brock. badger . trouble. prasseln. It. Cot. a confused streaked face of the animal. bordar. Dan. hurly-burlies. — — . and AS. to embroider. to crackle. brizen. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. broc. the line of development has been something different. grislement. silkes-borda. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. briz. brocach. the shoot of corn. of pointing out their latent defects. brucilare. broukit. thread. parch. — Fl. or salted fish on coals. Here to ornament with needle-work. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. — The proper sense is that of Fr. frocadura. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. here. Florio. — Gower in It. It of br the Fr. v. a brouhaha. grullo. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. piebald .. The Bret. q. forming to jumble. broighlich. birsle. Grisons brascla.tumultuous. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. a border ornamented with gold. Compare also AS. To roast upon hot coals. noise. brouFr. The ON. a mole.. a b?-ustolare. briefh. brucach. spots. creak. to parch or broil. trouble. borprick. Broker. a prick. W. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. initial . brastlian. tori shows that. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. ornamented with a raised pile. Ihre has guU-bord. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. gold and silver. embroidery. or snag. braird. freckled. to embroider. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. whence broccare. kled breac. a peg. to On the other hand the Sp. to stud broccoso. or It. Sp. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. Gael. brasiller. confound.sound. Icnotty. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. parched. broder. sparks E. dar seems derived from borde. Fr. Hal. a brecJi. storms. an edge. houx. Compare G. streaked. A fried or boiled steaks). carbonado. Bret. and bord or bred. brod. to crackle. It. Fr. brocco. knobby . a fallingThe sense has been out. Sc. atoms . margin. broc. breard. bramowanie. — . brasiller. brooked. tufted ornaments. parti-coloured. Sc. broiled. to crackle as a shell in the fire. froco. Fr. or roast on the braise. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). find fault is accordingly recognised To in . age was termed a pricket. has grisser. brasuole. scorch. brullare. from the white. broccuto. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. bmsciare. a To Broil. Gael. to darn. broccato was used to signify stuff . or glowing coals broged. a flock or Gael. onbryrdan. . shuffle. to scorch. broil. b?-od. broglio. fundamental origin. bram. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. R. bawling. tumult broighleach. to broil. embroidering. to spur. a quarrel. point to an origin in Bret. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. ciare. a freckle. a flake of snow sion. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. bj'oil. ToBroider. brychau. brerd. . A badger. brusuole. sting. noisy. a freckle.

ON. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. G. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. an . . hrak. dial. S. to nourish. 38.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. brokas. but from the primary sense of the It. goods damaged by sea-water. bronze. hraki. lack. vrage. Grisons brinzla. hot. Bret. . whence the modern courtier. et A. Bronze. briiten. faulty. an outcast or rejected sheep. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. or brascla. — a spark. mediationem quorundam J. to pick and choose. blur. to sort brakovanie. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. term was correcfo^ir. to copper. Per manus et old worthless horse. in the sense of rejection. The Langued. brae. to be wanting. inspect. matter of blame weak place. to spit .— Lib. brack. — point out the faults. braeck goed. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. brot. brid. . the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. reject. try . refuse Fr. damaged. vile. to sit on eggs. . fault censure. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. keep warm. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. G. refuse. the young of any animal . : ' . a cough Hal. brod. brwd. Sc. To blame mens ware. spittle . Brood. to hatch. hot. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. — broeden. brasa. brut. brak. w. Abbronzare. refuse brakovat. want. bridde. cast Lith. brass does to Sp. filth. wraken. Russ. brack-gut. Tooke's Catherine. bronze. to brew. dirty. cherish. in which sense the OHG. wrack-good. merchandises de rebut G. broiid. abbronzanchiare. from break. to hatch G. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. If to vomit . vile. try out. spittle. wrak. the spawn of fishes. a broker. brackefi. Pl.D. brieden. e. brokoti. Sp. OFr. It may be compared with It. to scorch. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. find fault with. Lat. i. bronzo. braken. bredan. bronze. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. ordure. Fr. sunburnt. and to reject the damaged and unsound. burning. nounce unsound. to be hot. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. brod. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. Pro v. wreak. Dan. Teutonic class : Du. refuse goods. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. corrector. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. brands. — Fl. Kil. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. bronce. Pl. insects. Fl. 396. raca. In the . from makel.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. tan. rejection Pol. This word shows the same relation to It. stain. racher. Alb. to pick. On • tliis principle the G. broen. to blame. brakyne. brumo. glowing coals. refuse. to garble. selection. Prov. fermenting. a chicken. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. embers to brund. Jam. to criticise. to braze. to sort goods . raquer.D.— — . and as an adj. with. couratier. The use sunburn. fish-spawn broden. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. See Brackish. to . brydio. In those countries the term braker. cracker. a breach or flaw.— Breed. inspection. bric-a-brac. buy and sell by commission. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. refuse wares. abject. correctarius. a fault. brak. . whnake. has exactly the force of G. warm. which E.D. to reject. make out. For the same reason the Kiittner. refuse brakowad. and fishes . G. rejected. Alb. find fault with. See Wreak. sort. a makeln. screatio Junfus . slaae vrag paa. find fault — — — fuse matter. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. bring eggs and spawn into active life. See Broth. brack-gut (Sanders). to pro- to reject . • . To correct an exercise is to Lib. to sparkle. to throw blame upon. an operation performed over hot coals. mud. . to — garble. sbrinzlar. designation is indkler. racaille. ODu. Du. Pl. as. damaged. brokers' goods. on. analogous to Bohem. a brood . pan metal. progeny of birds. Bronzare. brechen. brunds. phlegm. Adelung. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. tussis. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. embers. to emit sparks. embers.D. Du. It. brasa. to roast on the embers. trumpery. bracker. criticise (makeln). appointed to classify goods according to their quality. — . to hatch.

bruceti. briu. . sprout. grow brossa. eye-lash . brewis. . riviere. brothas. braussa. cabbage water. bros. circuindedit cum familia. brio. thick bush brousta. meal. spuma. surface of Broth. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. brosst. a little house or cottage of timber.spross. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. Serv. as Fr. Prov. of which the variety of forms. Tam de terrS.D. forms appear related to the Ir. breg. face. border. broo. fur Broom. warmth ch'an. (for brodem). bruithim. pottage. a . to boil. rage. shoot. . brov. buds. Gael.brink. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. brodo. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. — . It. edge. Kil. brosses. sense the Sc. brosses. brlgh. noise. eminence . brass. brawdj Slavon. 105 Brook. braces. grow into a bush. — . seethe. bruc. brow of a hill. brocco. Fr. broi. brstiti. bruitheati. brost. bryn. brushbroccoli. surDu. broieii. bratrj Lat. frui. bruno. brabruach. eye-lid. borda.brons. brushbrothas) gives the OE. brst. To digest. . broth the ocean Sw.D. Limousin broudi. brink. brous. Ger. Lat. brozia. branches. a shore. to spring . w.braubiti. . rerum decoctarum. to use. Sp. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. borde. to roar. sprout. juice of briars. a bruth.' Due. or shoot. . brouser. OHG. brpuster. a river. juice of meat. broeye. a hill. bordeau. to scald. — exiit et heath. thicket. Pl. bank. eye-brow. The origin is a re. G. briihe. breg. brwd. and also border. to boil. brmi. A — . brd. Gael. brun. from Goth. signifying twigs. Gr. to Pl. broth. brudi. to sprout. brodem. Fr. AS. . boiled . broth Brown. brukjan. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. It is Brother. bank. . a bud. Bav. Gael. Mid. bruith. Dan. vigour. sodden. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. pour boiling water over. sordes seu strigmata young branch. .) . Fr. augen-braune. Fr. to browse. G. properly boiling water briihen. ceales briw. broud. juniper. a hut or cottage It. broccola. bruich. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. bregh. . sprouts . the bubbling or springing up of water. margin. eye-brow. briar. bruach. to murmur. as rhododendrons. brouic. bruth. broth is sometimes used . breg. eye-brow. Sp. Celtic. mettle. riviera.— Overyssel Almanack. bree. See Bramble. OFr. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. Gris. AS. 'Lzt. bordel. bruich. Brow. to border. sprocco. pith. awl-plant. eye-brow. and It. broden. a little . and Slavonic families. The softening down of the consonant bud. G. G. Brothel. to browse. hot. Browse. infusion the barley bree. or broken up . Bret. . a derived from the boards. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. a sprout. shrubs. and Sc. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . It. Sc. braew. It. Commonly Teutonic. broit. bushes. perhaps burnt coloilr. . a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. Fr. has briw. eye-lid. strength Ir. in which brinnan. . on. broth. brotar. &c. shore. ale . brotar. enjoy Goth. brusmalt. Cot. brad. . brauwe. shoots. may be connected with Russ. Du. Du. sproc. broc." Serv. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. hut. to use bruks. chen. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. Pol. heath. of plants broust. Manx broie. &c. thairj w. Gael. frucius. simmer from the murmuring AS. Bret. broem bark. Ppim. brucan. browys. bntdien. brouter. The AS. brau. bank. iVlanx broogh. w. low The AS. edge. cia. brennen. Bohem. Catalan brossa. bor. bruddeln. Prov. waves. on. house of ill fame. steam from heated bodies. a confused noise of winds. Wtb. t— Cot. Bohem. bud. strength. spirit. shrub with leafless pointed edging. to bear patiently. breh. Russ. sprot. to burn. OHG. bryii. broca. broth brothaire. brew . bank. from ripa. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. Here we find throughout the Romance. Sanscr. heat explaining the Prov. vigour. bruscosd quam de arabili. a shrub broust. brost. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. a caldron. Due. useful G. braun. plants composed of twigs. dialects is very different. hovel. brue . brouskaol. broza. . eat. brouches. pfriemkraut. as small-pox. BROOK brook w. infusion. &c. verge. G. sap. bhratrj Zend. heat. heath. But the Walach. break out brewet. laissent Domunculum. brouet. the colour of things burnt. dumetum. to shoot. was originally used in the innocent sense of . brogues. a source Gael. Roquef. a spring. frater. to boil bruithe. bryn. — ' . a hill. kail brose. Bohem. brow. . bros. b7-un. a bud brous-koad. wood .. or bushes and scrubby growths. to use. Russ. brus. fabric consists. a sprig. cabbage soup . shore . to boil. to bubble up with noise. protecting the eye. brdtaj Gael. signifying low wet land (Brem. &c. who is steaming with sweat.

dust. Gael. Lang. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. E. Hall in R. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. brik. In E. brysan. abroncar. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. Piedm. chips. G. splinters. brosst. Lang. a bristle. NE. orts. brossa. It. Pr. bushy ground. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. Pm. OFr. Palsgr. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. It. bruis (sing. G. brosse. flax-comb brossettes. as It.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. OE. a crum. Sw. fragments. break. bruyere. .). bruiser. Gael. . brikan. To brush then would be to dust. brMt. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . . bruskr. tremely. to crush. bruito. field. crush. bris. It. a mote. and Piedm. brusco. brico or brizo. brustid. irruo. insultus. dust. brise. Gael. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. briketo. brus. 174. dust. bud. briiis (in the pi. brosse. desbrisar. — Fr. ling or heath for brushes. a shrub composed of small twigs .). Prov. to break or burst. coal See Breeze. Fr. brusca. and sighid therewithal. Brunt of a daunger. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. wood composed OE. brusg. crum bit . Sp. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. effort. . shoot brouskoad. brustia. bricalio. Port. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. Prov. an enmy. brusc (Diet. to cleanse. Bret. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. to make brusshes on. The Lat. a noise. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. Beryn. mg Cat. a bud or sprout Bret. bris. borste. seems named from burst(on. or sodenly comyn' dust. brust. B?-usske. a tuft of heath . 134. to break. sordes. brista) or breaking out . quasi twigs. brous. to make a rumbling. Text Soc. brisar. rubbish. quisquilise. Pr. tuft of grass or hay. a rumbling. bris. bruit. bruscolo. Brush. Prov. a little brizal. wool-card. Pr. bruc. . to stumble. Gael. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. of twigs. Alexander. escousse. brizeto. Bav. brusco. Castr. remnants of hay or fodder. — a bush. a bush of hair. Diez. borste. and actually come in collision. rubbish. Allit. borste. Bruit. brossa. and in the second place a besoiB. AS.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. biirste. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. wool-card. bruise exOFr. The Bav. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. broza. bris. brisd. brist. bross. a briser. brosst. Fr. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. and also Brush. but on whom it schall to brisen him. brunt. brustia. appearin Goth. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. brist. broust. Broach. ON. to brush. a brush . brushwood. to strike the foot against an obstacle. p. a bud. detergere . —Fabyan. burs. On the other hand.— — i. And that best is.— Palsgr. borst. broza. shock. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. fescue . briser. Cot. ca7-bo>i. borste. a flax comb. Brunt. Bruise. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. Pr. biirste. fasx . and . or shoot. E. The same relation holds good between G. See next article. britar. brit. —Chaucer. borste. a — — (Agea) said. bruire. to butt. A. brottcher. a brush . — those signifying a sprig. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. bruscia. brusca. and It. broustia. K. broken. heath. to break. . modification of the same root which gives the E. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. brossar. insilio. brugir. Fr. a bristle. Sw. That in all haste he wouli. Fl. twig. brousso. bross. a horse-brush. * Brunt. Prov. rubbish. Cot. shivers. dust. Fr. bruscolo. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. into a multitude of points. — OE. Wicliff. burt.). rods. a brush. bruzir. britar. Pm. brous. to break to bits . bush. a brush . Fr. a brush. wool-card. brist j Port. blow burcar. brist. Piedm. a brush . the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. . E. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. Poems. twig. 201. also a head-brush. a blow. a brush. a brush Swiss bruske. it schall be al Sw.

luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. to Gael. faire la lessive. Sp. — — ' A : ' ' . set of pirates in the spread. a push. to soften. Pref A. Illust.buchen. Sc. mokry. 1586. bucata. Fr. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. In G. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. bduclien. buck-ashes. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. Pol. the lower soak in lye. in which the flesh dish. soft. boc. The place of such a 2. and exercised their cruelties prin. tuft. to bubble. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. a bubble. a knock word. March 28. to soften. also applied Una. buquer. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. at a door. buck-ashes. to which in their language they call bou. boil animals. moczyd. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. a fescue. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. BUBBLE bruschetta. from colar. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. bokni. bubBuck. open lath-work. to murmur. It. boc. or projecTo Buck. The word was very generally Buccanier. bucquer. . . See Dupe. a bubble. soft It. the linen at buck. buerj It. lye. was called bucking the linen. bube. Bret. bukke. was called in Fr.steep or soak. a steep for flax. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. to wet Pol. to butt. mote. bugada. It. to stick. ac. drying of produce. a. bouk. The natives of Florida. I. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. blister. when soap was tion is commonly taken. knock. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. rap. a to the male deer. a hole. The male goat.lessiver. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). bubseti. bucking. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building.' Palsgr. boh. bublati. bucaIndies. . buchen. the first wheal. bub. pup. pokka7na. . to strain. This bubette. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. it is beuchen. de la Floride. Sp. lye. molle. Magy. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. very generally designated by the same puk. bwch. does not hold. of wind. plied in the W. colada. — . hump. bifbel. News. From an imita. boucaner. pukkata. bubbola. Pol. from weich. caned' Hence those who established them. buborek. bubiti. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. tender. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. Bohem. and Fr. says Laudon. designation of a knob. It. . Fr. blast or strike with the forehead. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. Bohem. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. tender. maban and baban. A . bugd. or mok. who resorted to the islands beichen. . a bubble . and as in and b so often infor cocoa. moist. 17th century. as G. to bump as a bittern. soft. to soak. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. — .D. different form. But see Bristle. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . not so plentiful a commodity. the upper for coifee.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee.-wtt miekki. Diet. wood. Formerly.tare. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. Fr. Bubble.wet Lat. Etym.derivation has been much discussed.to allow a free current of air.boukaat. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. bub. to butt or jurr Dan. to filter. watery bud. and as a verb. to a place used for the mouillir. a ashes. Dan. The term bocan is still ap. byge. Gael. w. bog-aske. and then to other wild tumour Lith. tap . from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. hump. as a buck rabbit. buquer. Esthon. bubauti. soft . They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. is 1. bouc. .byka. Magy. Fin. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. because bucare does not in Marsh). to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. to soak. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. erweichen. top. .biiken j Svi. thunder gently . to soak foul linen before washing. to butt. to soften . Cot. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. hog dressed whole). to buck. Bret. The cipally on the Spaniards. mieknad. The name. a. soft. and the bunch. 1857. mollire. w.— .

buachazlle. — . bugnir. protuberance. boiling. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. don't stir from hence. to move. to 'soak. Lat. pote. to un bout d'homme. bouprobably identical with inok. case of leather . and weichen. male or botzen. ON. bud butzen. ein. bucolicus. bullion. a little coffer or turgidus. bouk is a pail and with the dim. a budget. crack. in the beginning of to pierce holes. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. bulais daqui. bloquier. butze. belonging to the calling of the chen. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. bump. a stump buckle up. a bubble three thyngis. It. goat's hoof. bolgia. above mentioned. a shield. sboge. great pouch. clump.) . Pied. boss of a shield.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. a buckle or protuberance. to budge. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. a servant. Port. * Buckle. and the reference to It. of bac. pwtio. . a pail or flowers. bocla. . butz. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. budge. bouclier. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. boucler. and of the Lat. Du. boucle. no wheel bogeilio. II I'a feru desor I'escu. also a leather tuft . arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. call.) as to soak. bouton. a boy. loud Cot. Bav. Sp. Sw. Hence quel.). a tuft. a pustule bout. Swab. Bret.' Hal. bougette. K. — . blow. W. scion. explaining Fr.' And this sacrament bus have dial. bug. to graft or bud trees. no business to do that. bucherare. bloca.stumpy man. stir. bode. . boglyn. . rump of fowls . weichen. Fr.. It. bub. ble. a small shallow and open tub. a dumpy gin. bo. were To Budge. the radical image seems to be a set plants. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. bolgetta. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. call. don't a baby).' Boccaccio. bucket Fl. a bump. hump. — — . Bret. Budge. The entire train of thought is bucket. . Prov. Fr. To thrusting part of a long body. pulga. Buckler. a short thick man. call bo. Hardly identical with Fr. a boss. boqueranmis. Bav. Fr. clasp of a book. is to shrivel up. bod. Gael. Fr. is doubtless fallacious. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. bunch. It./a. bdden. bollire. boach. The knob or projection formN. child. — — . rabodS. bucherame. set of a plant in bulk. jSouKoXiKog. The word is a ddyn. a shoot. weich. a wallet. Prov. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. swelling. a ring. A buckle or fastening for botch.. mani. built. to butt. with a central boss. having a boss.n. a bud. Pol. Mid. Dan. ' . turgere buczendig. bogla. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. A water-plant with leaves and gille. a . bulb. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. imbuere. boccula. weich. from Gr.t-le!L{ * Bud. become bochen. a budget. Fr. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. boucaran. probably from the notion of bubbling. agreeing with Gael. wallet. Bus. the word w ' — . botzen. ' . * Bucket. put. bukke-blad. swelling. stroke. to bud or bocla. excrescence. OHG. w.r//'. a curl. water message. a fold ceilio. bouljein. boucle. pwt o Fr. Fr. bouger. of a surface. the root of the Slavonic words gran. as in Fr.poot. butzen. Budget.pode.stuff. boucle. NE. bog and G. It. Fr. brobrocchiere. Cot. a buclder or shield budge. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. gjeit-klauv. butt . buckel. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. bouter. a cowherd. bougette. bloca. knock. noise . Wtb.may probably be explained by N. seen in Hesse botz. from bo. push forwards. Du. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. Buck-bean. It termination is lost. Bucolic. bod. to stir.chissima. to word. The dressed fur of lambs. * Bud. to boss or swell out G. a leathern sack. dint . Behoves. Russ. a trough). boaLat. knob dwfr yn boglynu. potz. prick in a target. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. . to boil. bedde. a boss. bulka. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. G. bulga. stud. w. soft. boss. fur. OFr. dinted. bouge. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. skins pushit'. . the end or rise or bear out in the middle. knob .Lat. with which it was ornamented. Dan. pulga. bulla. ' . . butzen K. boulj. butzen (Du. with let.' Schm. like a bean. where the G.— . or male of to boil . words is converted into b. convexity. inboachen. need. to pen cattle. So on. of bouge. This expression boglire.goa. whom it is still much in use. ornamental stud. bul. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. dim. lump.anything short of its kind. to swell. Mid. from bugr. . butzen. to line with fur. In Lat. cattle. trunk of wood covered with leather. The Fr. botzen. to thrust. Prov. to poke. . thrust. macero. motus creber.. bunch . See Bulk. a navel.

Buff. to a representation of his voice. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. a budget. Lith. a buffle or a bugle. a jester. to blow . —Boggart. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. Fr. buffalo. also a G. deadened. buffeteur. It. wauwau. a dull BUG From 109 — A . buff leather. a hobgoblin. een duffen toon. as emblematically making light of an object. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. by metaphor. sounds. Pl. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. — La Crusca. bubach. confused.— Buflae. — Z. and in Fr. a clap. colour. things in Jam. tabernarius. to frighten . Buffalo. a side-board. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. w. smells . a cuff or buffet. to puff. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. bubiti. buMagy. for this purpose is very widely spread. often blown upon. buffet. Sc. cuff . rebuff. Buff. while in Sp. blurt or puff with one's mouth. From bulga.D. Fr.D. bo ! an interj. as wine that hath taken wind. him but Boyd iugges. tastes. bumann. Fr. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. buffle. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. From buff! of terror. made by a person. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. . buffen. The cry made to excite terror is then used. A blow.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. baubau. E. to signify an indefinite object of terror. bufogni. dial. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. Thus buffet would a tapster. bolgia. bubus. to puff. Romola. to bellow ./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . Fr. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. to blow souffleU. Swiss baui. Pl. Mid. A puff with — Fl. W. a hollow sound. bolgetta. yar^aa. Lat. often covering his E.D. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. dausa. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. a goblin). bw. A — Bug. puff. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. to marre often tasting it . stupid. ' They rether puffed at him. bw! It. to give benti. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. from souffler. as from Lith.' La Crusca. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . botffon. le reste emplissant d'eau. buffetto. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. Limousin bobal. a skin. The use of the exclamation children. buffet. Cot. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. bubaRuss. Magy. — Bogle. scarecrow . G. a In . The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. God's boast seemed feare children. buffet. The children were playing in an oppocomer. Hence the E. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . dausinti. word other cases. to excite terror in Macleod. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. leathern bucket. &c. bobaow. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. mingled with water. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. popo. Lith. thus be translated to tap. It.—Buffet. soufflet. bwg. to beat. — retailing buffeter buffetier. wine may The verb in taverns. to blow. mumming. — — — Buffet. bufogni. Bufetarium. — thence it has been transferred in E. the buffe. It. as Diez remarks. Esthon. either alone or with various terminations. Buffoon. bouffer. from It.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. or hath been Cot. buffle-headed.' perfield. caupo. bugbear. buffer. air. bugle. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. duff^ dull. Lat. human. of colours. bufHe. a bugbear. a block-headed noddy. boo. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. buivol. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. bau ! children. the place whence the wine was drawn. site The two — — iii. bauwi. made to —Bugbear. or wild ox. buffa. to rePl. bouffer. Cot. Fr. to give a as of a blow. to jest or sport. bugs. a puff. to strike face to represent the unknown. dull sound. buffare. btifetarius. Buffeter. Fl. buffare. bukow Ikow. also the skin or heck of a buffe. pulse . It. buffets. Gael. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. senses. Sc. Teet-bo. breath. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. boman. 265.

The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. with more or less modification represents bau. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. Swelling. buculus. tumble-bug. of pipes sewn on. of bugabo was given. as Buffalo. .Fr. threatening. Illyr. high. boeuf sauvage. provincially an insect. to take fright.. to take fright. bugar. a bug-bear. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. (Spurrell). . bug-bear. pujalo. b'dgni. bogle. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. bauginti. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. BUGLE Tentennino. pugaf. vermin. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. . bwgar. mask ' . Lap. Grose. Bug. bucula. a silk-worm. also a baco-baco. bug-bear. bwg and E. the Devil. ghost. Bible. — . bau (Pureiglia. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. to creeping things. The w.Lat. bobal. and bugle. Sw. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. gad. Same as buffle. baco. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. Parolone. a bugbear for children. W. coco. to origin in the expression bugs words. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. Sp. hert. an object of terror. Mundart. poggl. affright. is very common. Magy. bogil bo (e. to take bug. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. scarecrow . a.loud noise. shepe and gootes. the buggaboo w. insect. bug-bear. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. Serv.3uhtii&:. an insect. any disgusting animal. buggabod). See The name terror). also a bug-bear. and in child's Magy. used in the same sense. to bellow. a rabme.. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. fette. Lith. buffle. Lett. and in Lat. monster. forSc. A similar applica. to bellow. proud. and a boggarty ing. 1551. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. language any kind of insect. dial. also a bug-bear. bugler. bbgni. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. Swiss booggen. boa-peep. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. Stalder bog. disgust. Deut. a misshapen person. threatening. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. earwig bau da grascha. Fl. Fl. a buffalo. bugbear. Grisons bau. bogk. bug dung-beetle. superbire. high-sounding words. oxen. well as the terrific object. bok. Magy. to roar Aasen. insect. protuberant. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. . a bug-bear. rose-bug. It. pugalo. according to Coles. larva (a bug-bear. a proud overbearing man pujat'. banian boube. 3. — — terror. bwgwl. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . bukashka. Bogge. biignt. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. — — . or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. the black a maggot. bogk. bug. I. xiv. — — ' . il brutto Demonio. Hal. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. worm. Lesachthal. Big. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. — boogg. roo. great or bug words. E. Cheval de trombugti. and is Deutsch. a beetle. An ornament of female dress condread. saucy. It. beugler. paws the ground .— . a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. thus connected with bug. fierce. terrifying ward. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. a goblin. to frighten scarecrow. * 2. w. Mid. the word is lin) bbgge. fear. iv. Swiss ing. as an object of dread. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. quos what produces dread or disgust. bogil. buba. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. Bdronie. roarHal. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. bukati. Manx boa. Bug as a lord. bold. troll. then a horn for drinking. is the dim. swollen. Schmidt. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. Bugle. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. booggen. bugle. especially to beetles or winged insects. tion of the beetle tribe. long. a boogg. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. 493. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. The final guttural of W. 2. i. The name of bug is — . given in Chaucer. Russ. Chaucer. Hence bugle-horn. boo. blustering. : no BUG . big. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile.' In my time at horse is one apt to start.

of an inflated skin.' Palsgr. pod ON. on. The Walach. boss of a buckler. pocket. cumulus. bulka. bolso. balco. Melancholy. boulge. skin bag. compare Da. hollow. Bourser. bulle.' Festus. — — . tumeo. a stage or scaffold. habitaculum. Mister. OSw. Bulch. to spring. He found a country fellow dead drunk. mass. wallet. belly. jnake bulch. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. bulk. bol. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. . Dan. dial. nave or body of the church van 't schip. bubble. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. as well as is very variable. Boss^. knot in thread.'— Cot. herd^ swarm pulkd. MHG. buc. Lett. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. bulne. Mandeville. to throw out a convexity. bed of a river. ' . hold or bilge of a ship. Pr. belgja. to blow. Pm. Pr. bulbe. a straw corn-vessel. balg. . . vulva. or cargo of a ship. bolgna. bulg. w. Hence e. unevenness Sw. Dan. belly van de kerche. lump. belgr. to gather. bolgetta. boss. . I. In the representation of natural sounds. the womb. balg. OSw. ON. The radical sense is shown in Russ. boss. a bulb Du.' Cot. anything prominent. a bunch. body of an animal. body of a ship . G. PoXj3a. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. acervus. puff. 1388. the belly. bellows builgean. bua. as water beginning to boil bolg. ' . to puff up bolginn. Muratori. to break bulk. bolgia. belly. . bulk is a partition of boards. principal portion. knobby. bullka. bolnyn. a globe. balcone. bulge or bilge. bole. . From till. swell. the carcase. a tuberous or bulbous root . BUILD supra dictos bugolos. or of what is shaped like a bubble. a leather sack or budget Fr. . It. a water-bubble). ne. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. G. ' . ON. . belly. it again. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. . swollen OE. — . to swell. bwlg. bulge or convex part of a cask. turgeo bolnyd. blister. were a habitation. the contents of the hold. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). be protuberant. swollen. a.— . For the latter sense ' — My . bolle. bo. a bubble. Othello. knob. a. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. bulbe. pouch builgeadh. body. Bulge. blister Manx bolg. Palco. bukr. van loock. the head of an onion.d. The addition of a dim. to undo the cargo. (3oX|8oc. projection. — Bulb. bulwis. bauch. domicilium. . also the bunt or hollow of a sail. byli.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. Pm. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. . and put it home. With these must probably be classed ON. womb. Lith. bugue. to bubble up Pol. as it was merly written in English to bylle. husk. buk. the body Du. beuck. stuffed bag. snorting on a bulk. — . — — . leather sack. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. straight will he 2. in bulk. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. Bav. a round bulky body bwlgan. boa. bladder. bag. bulki. to bubble up. blow. of E. and N. a leathern sack or portmanteau. bubble {palgan tiisge. head . knob. bale. Lith. balgs. boss of shield. crowd. swell. Jno. skin of an animal. belly. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. See bollekeii next article. Bolke or hepe. pulkas. bubble. A — ' — Bulk. bolg. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. Lat. .' Anat. Ptg. to raise a habitation. Kil. in Sc. chest.pulks. to bol. Here stand behind this bulk. pimple. a heap. globule bolg-lhuingey. tumidus. To Build. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. a protuberance. blister. See Bulk. gebolgen. — — . belly Sw. . formed a farm. bulgen. belly Cat. or bear out as a full purse. bubbling up. bulgen. Gr.' Fl. bulked or bumped out. ^ — . bouge. G. trunk. trunk. skin flayed whole. to swell. bol. biilken. bug. a dint in a metal . bulbus. m um Placentiae. . In this latter sense the word is identical with It. swell. trunk of the body. Hal. belly. bulk or capacity of anything. bouk. See how this tode bolneth. or feminine termination gives Bav. or. at riufa bulkann. a bubble Gael. bulkaf. bol. a lump or mass. . and bulbukd. bauen. thorax buick. bulcke. mass. sedes. buhe. the position of liquids in the word In English. to belly out. cultivate. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. to build. . bolle.). a prominence. bolgan. in vessel. has bulbuk. Sp. bubble. the potato G. Gr. lump. hull of a ship. the capacity or burden of a ship. Bulk. whence bylja. . villa. bilge. ball. bunch or projection. Lat. inhabit.

bullern. The bullfrog. boulct. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. . bwla. /SouWivu. a hobgoblin. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. any embossed work. Bully. bolos Fr. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. Terriculamentum.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. round glass phial. boss or stud. — — Bull. G. signifying roaring. bulle. Du. bulloi. pimple. dim. as a mill-dam or the like. large of its kind. it is boulet de canon. Fr. biitzibau. which may probably be the origin of the name. of Witchcr. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. to bubble. bulk. bole or trunk of a tree. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . and thence terror. brass-headed nail ... Pm. to seal.D.D. Cot. bolla. witches.. ON. 3. See Billet. balgeting. coarse. also of the tadpole or young frog. — Fl. Fr. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense.Fris. Gael. as It. b2iggaboo. The final element tergeist. to emboss . bouillon. scarecrow. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. And The word bullerbak. bulk of a thing. of boule. but is more probably iden- palchetto. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. a tadpole. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. a bowl. bulke. 2. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. a stud. and vellon in Sp. bubble. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. poltern. from baula. &c. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. as geting. Bullfrog. bugbear. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. — A tition in a ship. a bulox polos. Bullet. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. whence Mod. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. eth and frighteth. pollach. This word is used in several senses. bollar. a noisy violent fellow. it may be observed that a bullet in E. any great-headed or studded nail. a seal. Gold or silver uncoined. is called a ball. Du. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. It. bollos de relieve. hhint. from the Lat. ba. bietebau. a hornet. is of a class with Pl. bolli. baula. bolli. BuUiou. poll-cheannach. the seal affixed to the document. 2. a sight that frayHigins in Pr.D. to boil.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. dial. a bull Swiss bullen. Dan. bauli. assito. a bul-begger. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna.Gr. stud. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. G. Du. bwlas. from Fr. large. on the contrary. Lith. bal. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. many to protuberant objects. bullus. urchens. in N. N. G. i. W. Du. leraures nocturni nigri. a hobgoblin. also a parFl. billon. however. blister. See Bowl. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. bwbach. a scare-bug. lumpish. w. thick. beams or boards. as the ornanails. a seal. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. It. a blockhead. bullocks. G. Bullace. boillon. to bellow. A papal rescript. sloes. boss. bullebak. elves. from the noise. Eullrusli. from the use of the equivalent terms. bellocier. bulla. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. tition of deals instead of a wall. bouillon. The wild plum. bollon. a framework of balks. of the ox kind. lumpheaded . stamp. a tadpole . The male W. poli-cheannan. I. spirits. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch.'— ' Palsgr. stamped money. bullos. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. a bull. a wasp.lle de fusil. in the sense of base metal. as in E. the matrix or die . Bullbeggar. child by the represents the hobgoblin. polten. bulderen. Pl. billoti in Fr. bellow. embossed work. pwl. bulla. A lace tree. a cow.' do not go by the dangerous water. stupid . a little fish nearly all head. penbwl. stud. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. blunt.. whence bullire. Scot's Deso. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. w. from Lat. Bret. Sp. a beam or rafter. BulUiead. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. to tical with Sw.

and similar restrictions were enforced in France. beat a — Hal. bottom. To bum.d. bombilare.D. biihne. Du. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. Fris. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. 1305. A. The Sw. Hence — . 2. scaffold.' Again. boulevard. buller-jaan (bully. St. then in general a rampart. propugnaculum.D. Kil. To bum. Kil.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. violent overbearing person. by corruption boulevart. — Boom. Bum-bailiff. 14. sound. a floor. blunder-buss. — — plate d'argent. The cry of the bittern. to terrify by noise and clamour. bastion. The decried coin. Hence bom and ban. furious man. bomtnen. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. intonare. vallum. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. a bumble-.' for the purpose of exchange. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. ierd-boeyme. buller-brook. block-werck. Bum. The Stat.. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus.the ramparts. To Bum. 1687). blaterare. Bailey. Miege in Hal. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. The 27 Ed. bolderen. droning. Fris. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. honunele. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . a boisterous. Etym. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. Bully-rock. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. Philip le Bel in Due. G. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. a. Fr. agrees with e. Du. is bullion — A — buller. It.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. up was termed monnaie de billon. poltem. Kiittner.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. ON. provides. bustle. bottn. but now is the central part of the town. violent. bulderen. to make a droning Du. — Bump. is called bumping or bells. perturbare saevis dictis. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence.. a stage. 'lega. AS.' agger. ^i^/«. a hectoring. to drum Lat.' Stat. 2. bommele. BULLY with which coins were stamped. D. polterer. IIL st. Bully. G. buene. ^Bully-rook. — bombam?nen. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. For bottom. John). minari verbulderen. To bully is to bluster. ierd-beame. a blunderhead. resonare. buller-bas. clamour. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. or a humblebee.' reals of standard currency. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. &c. 9 E. G. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. baluarte. botm. blunder-buss. to .' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. bodem. legaggio di metallo. c. 2.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. a noisy blustering fellow. Sw. or work of defence. III. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. c. IV. 4 Hen. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. and porter au billon. debacchari. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. Du. un faux brave. boisterous fellow. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. Hal. ground. hum. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. buller-bas. from boden. argentum and silver. provides. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. noise. buller-bak. to make a noise . billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. boene. From the notion of a humming. primarily the ramparts of a town. bol-werck. on the other hand. to dun.' ' mettre au billon. the soil. 10. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. — Bumto . c. Thus ' ble.

bugno. Pm.D. Kyx or bunne. stubble of beans. a large . bunken. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. a rabbit. to . lenten loaves.' he fell with a bang. from bunsen. Pm. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. calamus. il me pousse. to bang ON. — round fruit. a swelling from a blow. pwmpio. Li cake. a pocket Sw. bunka. bugnone. hdk passing and E.). bottom. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. bunkc. bonuach. poumpi. poumpido. a knotty stick) Sw. Hal. Daal bu7iseti. Hal. bulscha. Du. especially girls. should probably be a short tail. banke. . knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^.! . E. Hence E. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. stock. Hal. a rabbit. a.pummel. — stalk . protuberance. root. bungersome. strike E. or to the mass by which it is given. H. bunsen. strapping. Sc.. a knob. bumtel.S. buns. a knob. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. Sc. the tail of a hare. stock. bonge. bun. Bums it's hit. Manx bonkan. Ir. Pr. so the form btmk. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. bu<rnone. bulto. . Thus e. Bumpkin. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. callus. bunch— Hal. a dry No . Bunch. a bowl P1. —Bunny. Pl. knuckles. w. pwmp. OSw. . a boss Lith. any round knob or bunch. a. . He buncheth me and beateth me. Pl. explaining E. Again. nor would it concern the public if he did. bottom bun feoir. bmidt. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' .D. bunga. a bunch. foundation w. bonnock. Dan. pumpurras. a dried hemp-stalk. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. To bam. Bung^. . an old stump of a horse. bundle. bun eich. Pm. clumsy. any round knob or bunch. and signifies consequently a mass. &c. pwmpl. Fr. Radically identical with Dan. bunga. bum-boot.' Palsgr. BUNCH bum-bailiff. bung. while bulch was traced through Gris.-^Fl. a heap OSw. botn. round mass of anything. Bunch.P. 1. Fl. to knock . Bony. bunke. knochen. a bunch Magy. Dan. bunny. — Marine Diet. to strike so as to give a dull sound. a wallet. blain. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. Bunewand. pumpa. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. E. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. Roding. to thump. . Probably for bun-boot. butt end. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. bugnet. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. a pumpion or gourd. bannock. binge.^Cot. large. A clumsy. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. a button. Lang. as we have seen E. bulse. and related with ON. throw down with a bang. ner. to ' . a bag or sack. See Boss. a heap. Fr. bongie. stump. Forby. bumsen. signifying one who does things in a thumping. bans. trunk. . the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. Bun. knob or heap. applied to young persons.— Bunnion. cluster. bull. Bumboat. . . bund. one ever saw the word in that shape. Moor. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. Mrs Baker. gibber. Probably from bump. bignet. seems to unite Gael. Gael. — — Bun. hay stubble . bottom. to beat. bune or boon. noise. lump. bugno. forms. bunt. a hump. a person employed to dun one for a debt. a into Dan.' Bun. also for taking a pilot to a ship. a bump. stubble Manx bun. Bumsen. It.— Pr. bon. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. . as in other cases. bolsa. a knob . . gibbus. a bud. clown. stalk. a hemp-stalk. Dunchyn or bunchyn. See Bunch. stem or base. bamgetroffen. a round mass . Bump. a Sp.D. Related on the one side to Pl. lungeous. . . a purse . abrupt manbuns-wise. boi7ieog. a heap. a boil or blain. Holland and Flanders. or grete knobbe. stump. Gael. tundo. dial. truss E. S. root. to beat. to . a heap Wall. — — — — ' — knock.D. A Du.. bunnion. w. Bunk. Bang sen. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. — — Bun. a heap or cluster. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. See Bounce. a lump on the foot bunny. banga. bmike. to swell out E. — — de dor bunsen. He fult dat et bunsede. mto Sp. pompon. bunan. pompette. passes Sw. inconsiderately. a boil (punkos bot. to bang down. Hal. Suffolk bonnka. . dial. awkward clown. a swelling. a knock. to bang. bunki. from knock) It. the Pr. Then. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. bump. awkward. a tail (Macleod). bun with ON. are dim. E. ! — knocking.

modem bummle. whence bunting. Burganet. Pl. bourion. racket. to work at carpentry bangan. Du. properly a Burgundian helmet. . A load. bondelj bundell. bundt. the young cloth used for sifting flour. bimge. bouchon. clumsy performance. p. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. buove. klempern. to bear. It. borboUar. borgonota. a wisp of hay or straw. G. bove. noise. a water bubble made by rain. Cat. * Buoy. would be the earliest float for an anchor. banga. shove . specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. Fr. with the head. — . to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. fascis. to kick. See Bun. Compare G. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. rumble as the bowels. a botch. Johansen. boj. to push. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. dicimus rufum. ho-tapp. bondeau. To burgeon. banghagr. or used as a receptacle for papers. bury. Sw. to botch. shackles. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. bolting-cloth. boei. dark. knock. B. something bound together (Mrs Baker). to shove. See Borel. to bolt meal. bangla. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. Cot. biirde. bag to catch the wind. — — . then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. to gingle. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. from beran. of a song. however. on. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. and E. G. bourgeon. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. E. The word is flags are made. tap. byrthen. to pype. bonde. to Somerset is to sift. punishments for prisoners.— . Hal. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. Palsgr. B. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. bangla. OFr. bondir. Bundle. Burble. to hum. contignatio.punt. driving in the bung. bunsen. to knock. Fr. — — To Bungle. bongani. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. bourguignote. whence in bure. bouche. AS. See Barbarous. or tuft. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. tapp (whence tceppa. AS. Lat. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. that the primitive meaning of shackle . to hum. bongun. ' — work . russet. dark grey bura. Sp. Sp. Prov. gyves. OG. working in wood (especially with an axe). bundle. especially in wood. stocks or such OSw. coassatio et Du. buie. the loose open grow big about or gross. . Banff. and Du. loosed from bonds. a bungler. So Du. on. reddish brown. Burly. dial. Burden. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. burboloti. To Bunt. bindini. to knock. in is Fr. and now more Bailey. Bunny. Sp. — btiruii. the float of an bundle. anchor or of a net boyar. The stopper for the hole in a boia. are from bouscfie. a boye. guggle as water. to stop. The Italian buio. an anchor buoy. OFr. to in to stop the hole. to bungle. to float. and the Sw. Bung of a tonne or Lith. unskilful working. So in Pol. the middle part of it. stilmpern. knocking. bondel-loos. Bung. To bunt. a bunch. Muratori. a sort of helmet. N. bommen. The Magy. bon. bundel. to stnmi on an instrument. stiimpeln. Kil. tinkle. A bubble. to stop. bang. a cork. Burden. generally known as the material of which bud. buret. halm-tapp. buret. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. Russ. boucher. — Bureau. bond. byndel. is originally a wisp or bunch . clogs. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. bote. to push ghebondte. Fr. bummle. colligatio. to strum on an instrument. to push with the head del. Bret. fetters. Bunting. bunta. bourjon. klimpem. . bungande. and bomme. to bud forth. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. the noise of drums. bounta.D. The belly or hollow of a sail. . the bung of a barrel Lim. do a thing bunglingly. also a piinple in the face. to hum. Prov. . knocking. Sw. a bunch Burbulas. Fr. to resound. To do anything awk- wardly. bui. bonde. The Fr. was formerly pronounced buro. sprig. ghebundte. a bung. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. bondon. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. bang. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . boya. or putting forth of a vine. Rietz.' Festus in Diez. burion. racket . bou^e.Fris. Fl. to work ineffectually. Bunt. 202. Biu'geon. boil or bubble up. Sp. Sw. and van t' vat. See Bourdon. dial. the stopper of a cask). to gingle. to cobble. tinker . la Borgonota. A Dan. a drum .

to puff. Fl. OFr. tahkoa.latus rei angulatas talikoincn.. tahko. Burlesque.— . brAler. — Han to bruser op. as Diefenbach bud. a knob. de Vaud. . E. Dief. angular . a lie. tumentum. See Burgeon. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. an edge. — — . he rustle. to burn. and the Burin. ends of thread. Swiss Rom. bruzir. burgi latro. broil. pressa puret. brunnen. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. to roar (as lions. to roar. de Vaud. Fr.. like the wind in trees. Compare also Piedm. to tell lies. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. Bav. to roar 5. Burler. from the roaring sound of flame. is termed burling. brimmen. a jest. In the manu. a bubble. surge or dashing of the sea . G. Pr. In the same way ON. — — . Probably a modifica. brima. as of suggests. The in. tion of the root which gave the OE. Burly. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. brandung. bururus. . which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. pur (see Burgeon). Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. ^Notk. taunt. swelling borr-shuil. &c. Sw. and OG. a bud. bruse. from Lat. grancelli. sbornoi. brinnen or Also ein roar. a spring a robber. See Berough. sidiary element. leo Fin. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. the J in OFr. Pm. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. bururus. to bourda. ends of thread. a purling hiwe brennen. burgensis. to roar. jest of. The primary origin of the word. Burryn. Lang. brook. Todd. See under Bore. like straw or small . Hence Bridel. Burgess. borni. bremmen. to polish helmets. brinna. watery. 56.j'own. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. Lang. Supp. thence.). to burn. to swell oneself out as birds borras.' a jibe. Swiss Rom. From the same root E. brim or edge of anything. singe or scorch with fire. to give an edge to. a wine skin. toast. a bladder. Gael. bears. become big and proud. to polish. and the Burnish. as the / in purl. roguing beggars.). a blaze. joking. Castrais bourril. fires up. brunna. ' rugiens. briis^. to ridicule. . A legal term from the Lat. Goth. It. Fr. flocks. G. like. Bav. explaining Sp. water. burgeois. bouril. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. blow. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. brinii. spring-water bumach. schleiffen. brase. to effervesce. to ridicule. A burl. bourglairs. to bud .' Cot. condemnentur morti. repartee . burle of cloth. with Dan. to surge. to Gael. OFr.. with little iron nippers called burling irons. to fiy. to To Bum. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. crackle wood in burning Hal. swell up or strout out. the er is a dresser of cloth. — — . is connected with brim. BURNISH i5«r/. A — — . Burgher. lerre. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. N. ample of polishing metal. Antiq.ireui£r:e. purrata. protuberance. Burn. Sp. brausen. burgen. to burgen or wax big. to set on fire. brunnr. Pren7ien. has also borr.. sicut sound. to bouronna. . the flocks. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. to roar. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. a prominent eye borracka. boura. brynsten. language of folly or ridicule. Schm. embraser. abourioner. boure. brusler being a faulty spelling. ridicule. mockery. lorra. to murmur. brustle. borrelen. i5«r4 biiirte. So also Sw. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. brustolare. ii6 BURGESS Gael. and Dan. occupying much space. to sharpen on a whetstone. It. brun. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. from bryii. to grind on a whetstone. — .). which has given much trouble to etymologists. to swell with pride. to rub. borujon. borr. brunir. a margin. a gurgling ^. Bestiary. an &c. See Burr. a whetstone. Limousin bourdo. Cot. bud or sprout forth.Ps.— Pr. From Fr. a fountain. burn. 122. the word seems Pm. compared with G. the roaring surge of the — — — . explaining the E. to make a So from Fin.bryna.. to swell. It. burren.or bubbling up. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. OE. buirleadh. to polish. big. to have acquired the sense of polishing. to hum. It is probable indeed that Fr. a bubble to spring as water. warbling. ^ttsa. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. Probably. Fr. brasa. burlare. purling. bunch. fire. Walach. — . sea. bourd. a jest. to puff up borr^ . Sw.sharpen. is an Thus G. knob. Fl. j. a well. it of the knots. laer. The Gael. in Schm. borracka. Burgh. born. Prov. boiirre. bourou. dial. robber. Bouffer. Burglar. Nat. burly. OE. purra. must be explained on the same principle from G. to sharpen. as in cousteau. ON. barrel. Bret. to roar.

explained E. fortify. borsa.' The same word with burgh. borsa. also ' any such trash as chaff. Brun on bane. bres- — tan. borsia. a purse. shearing of cloth. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. an exchange. G. brast. root borr.— . Du. brittle. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. ' BURR AS. ultimately resting on the Gael. from whence we pass through Sp. briso. In a met.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. brisd. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. byrgels. to buzz. brokil and brotil. Swiss burren. bristen. Burse. brjota. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. skin. when they spring So in W. borra. 225. A rabbit burmotion. brist. a wallet or scrip. The root forms brik. bolgia. -burse. burra. AS. S w. Shelter. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . &c. Fr. preserve. Compare also OE. impetus.' edge grew weak. beorgan. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. borre. brit. moss. . g. byrstan. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. brest. ON. bourre. Burse. a sepulchre. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. from Fr. . makes the disbursements of the college. Sw. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. Burser. dial. To Bury. birigean. ber•whirr to whizz. talk fast and indistinctly. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. to burst. a place of defence. shelter. Burrow. its own protection. brizeto. whirr. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. as it is still pronounced in N. G. blurra. but it is more probably a development of It. bourrelet. a barn or cupboard. byrgan. verbergen. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. chips or anything else Fl.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. Gael. brist. bur. birgan. the officer who bears the purse. swell. iii. -Grisons bulscha. Burr. Sexy. purr. a. straw. Burr is related to buzz as protect. ON. break .. briser. brickie. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. brown. ' ' — — burren. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. bourlet. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. save. burre. caer is a — — — ' ' : . mentioned under Burgeon. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. and. &c. an annular swelling. AS. tomb. cover. This word seems safety. briketo. some people in pronouncing the letter r. Sw. bourrer. bris. peluca to Fr. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. brittle. Mid. and met. whirr and burr. It. from AS. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. shales. beurs. of England. — Clare. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. to bury . hair. Fr. be more in accordance with AS. byrgen. leather. In OE. byrigels. force. the — — castle or fortress. burial place. See Bulge. OHG. to stuff. preserve.' Harris in Todd. that birds make their nests with. Burial. I. E. a port. as for the protection of a child's head. a morsel. . dial. prsnuti. borre. borra. a purse. i5(7&a. barza. bristeach. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. Hal. a rabbit burrow. borrow. With a slightly different ghen. any kind of quilting or stuffing. pipaa. buscha. Jam. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. Fris. Port. to hide. bolsa to It. and thence flocks 'of wool. foretell great storms at 3. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. burgisli. idiom if 4. berstan. byrsa. britar. perruque. to P'air. brico. bersten. karborre. ptcrren. keep. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. and spelling. brisdeach. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. to hide . — Translated by Kemble. birr. brista. To Burst. bourse. Bursar. Hence Fr.Lat. coo. Du. bris. any rapid whirling biarga. 2. to break. bourse. bur. a harness or collar maker) . appears under the Lang. Fr. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. to mutter Sw. bergen. as in Northumberland. Cot. See Burgeon. OHG. cwning-gaer. shuffling. a pad. casting bullets. husks. stuffing. signifying protrude. as from Sp. Dan. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. also all such stuff as hay. to save. of a body hurled through the air. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. Beowulf. 5150. whence Kil. It.

hunch Du. apparently a secondary verb. thicket of thorns . See Bust. diminutives. AS. or — Busk. to dress. as synonymous with to inake one boun. berghen. Brunne. BUSH hreaw. Ptg. whence bouchon. and from the Fr. cluster. oneself. a wisp. boiste. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. brodiquin. Fris. at bua sig. bousche. mount. basse. abdere. bussare. ieorh. Thence byrigean. See Box. ' . lump. borseof trees. busse. grapes. the idea of knocking. So from Fr. a box. occultare K. Du. a tuft. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. make ready. a clot of phlegm sart. in OE. OFr. projection.' The word is explained by — — . borcegui. dead. then a tuft Sp. from the ON. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. which would later have truast. roquies. to keep. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. And her ful sone tuft. a corpse). foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. It. AS. induere vestes . a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. . Sibriht that I of told. Bush. bosch (a diminutive ?). iriCtf -ifoe.' sheath. beorgan. to enclose in a case or box. 2. In to Brutaine. buysschen. bua. Sw. Layamon. Thus Froister . 410. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. a been written buasc. a box for measuring corn. to sepulchre. Du. fiast. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. the Moors and of Morocco. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. bulge. bausen. bairgan. They busked and malced them boun. we have Fr. the past participle of the same verb bua. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . gave Lat. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. thicket {buski. . a bunch. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. bussel. Bush. . 'at bua sik. Brunne. Sc. verb. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out.gur bidst austur um EySascog. Prov. in the For Skirnis . brodequin tout noir. bosc. barsc in Heimskringla. to direct one's course towards. whence at bua sik. as boun is simply buinn. The bone in a woman's stays. bustellus. protect . Harold G. bos. Le roy Richard mort. van wijnbesien. bundle * Buskin. il fut couch6 l^jkema). to bow. bramble.-^Bushel. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. bousIn the other copy ser. . in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. to bury. boucher. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. box wood to bush. that the lend had lorn thorn. bosta. hjul-bosse. buxula. truasc. at buast. to stop.— ' ii8 {chreo. brake. bush.boisteau. rad. clusprobably Morocco leather. The word frequency with which to busk is used. a little box Dan. condere. a bush. boxta. the land. Gr.P. and he cites wisp bauschen.Lat. and not directly (as Du. bo7ich (Fr. Sir Tristram. for at buasc. ' —P. . Malberg.fiasc. a -tavern bush. ' .' The buskin is said Bret. signifying to entomb. buskr. buxida. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. boisseau. basse. and thence Mid. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. bulk. bustula. preserve. a bush. busk. tow. bousse. bussellus. . ' . boissa. or the like. sur une litifere. OFr. To prepare. defence. barst. bouche. boistel. Fr. -idis. besom). a gun biichse.Lat. a bundle. whente beorg. To Busk. a hump. a bunch of twigs. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. to bend one's steps. bunch. Bouchet. borghen. bush. Mid. : — . —Busk. to prepare. The radical idea is seen in Goth. G. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. to forest of Eyda. Du. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. to turn. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. bundle. to swell. a tuft. aheap of stones. R. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works.' a box. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. ch). bossida.) to hide in the ground. a box. ' . a tuft of hair. a troop. a tuft guini. wisp. The primary sense of hair . is thus accounted for. qualster-boscken. a rampart. It. buxta. bossen. busken. a grove bosch van haer. tuft. knot. biichse. and we actually find bushel. to dress. burial mound.

bus and Pol. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. a kiss. trunk. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. mosequin. a bust. 2l box. Fris. ON. btcc. busche. in Diaz Gris. small. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. 10. sera. betarda. mouth. ' BUSY 2. Fl. 2. body of a woman's dress It. its slowness of flight. thick end. a bunch of flowers . besoigAe. body. bulk. tuft.bezig. bust. buyse. utarda. or Cherqui. mons. AS. outard. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . Du. from jnund. — hardly be distinct from Fr. body of a man. Fr. a tree. a sleeveless truss or doublet.D. a busk. bust. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. windbutsch. a projection. 7o\. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). occupation.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. a bush. as in moharra from harbe. mouth. inde discurro et operosus sum. bacio. a kiss of reverence. The form brust. To Bustle. Business. Comp. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. geidha. arbor ramis trunGloss. Cat. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. bisg. stump. putta. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. Hal. kiss. busch. So in Fin. statue of the upper part of Fr. lip. knock. brut. and also a sounding blow. otarda. The proceedings of Parliament.Lat. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. business. bussa. Busitiess :c3iVi . an affair. abotarda. would explain the G. Busy. baiser. stem. — Thus we should have mocherqui. pussa. forms morseqiiill. also a It. buta. trunk of Cot. austarda. a great billet Cot. buc. The Prov. bysgje.d. a fishing vessel. Sp. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. the point of a lance. Walach. body . Bav. occupied bezigen. bruskras well as buskr. morsequi. Bust. I bustle. 1555. love gestures. busc. Busk. . sunt quas Hispania aves . a log. a blow. ViM. an ostrich. lips. a large cljest or particular applibox. bisgung. the long. body of garment. especially of a woman's dress. mogangas from gonj. I go strepo) . brostia as well as bostia. trunk of a tree. Nained from Proximse iis zia. busq. a blow. ON.' Plin. the trunk. brusc. crack . from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. buc. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. bysgian. or chest in which the vitals are contained. kupata. to Swab. bus. of the human body (Grandg. Prov. outarde. stump. to make a splash in the water. busto. signifying trunk of a the body. avuDiez. chest. . stir. ship Sp. body. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. mohedairova. B. Cot. Sw. ^A. Lindenbr. Prov. Sp.' ON. Lang. forest. 119 bi{tr. Swiss butschen. a stroke of wind. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. 1372. body without arms and legs. buc. work. Bulch. bustla. besongne. Rouchi. bisegung. worn to make the body straight . Prov. and by transposition morchequi. but. bus. basiuin. bussen. lump. ' bistardej It. biist. beezig. a boat or small vessel . To hurry or make a great B. — . borcegui. a kiss. butz. as in ON. busy. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. Bustard. a. bukr. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. a kiss. With respect to bust. I. Bust. ottarda. Edrtst. — — — — It is like the smouldering. putschen. See Boss. cata — . box. Sp. A A busquer (Sigart). smack. A wisp. Fr. busch. busta. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. a ship of some size. Xerqui. bnist. snout. bucha. — — difications of the same word. abutarda. a backstock. log . says. the body without arms busque. buquer. bist. bu. buz. On the other hand. to bustle. or avutarda. vessel employed in the herring fishery. and supposes that the common Arab. Box. also a flagon. — clattering about. BUSS Dozy from Arab. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. Fr. and then with avis again prefixed.— . made stiff. employment bisgan. Gael. biseg. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. Lat. Buss. the breast. to knock . Port. a Mid. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. knock. hipista. Namur — Champagne Fr. A great sluggish fowl. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. Hence probably au-tarda. 22.). of a doublet.> Also written buskle. a bulk or trunk without a head. Fr. So Wes- terwald munds. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. a mouth. lip. to occupy. also a busk. kiss. representing a blow. to make use of. Pol. I. tarda. plated body or other quilted thing. beso.pjik. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. fe^a. trunk.

bola. rumpf. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. . the name must have arisen before the within. ' There is leathern bottle. boucher. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh._ bitten j biiten door. outside that moreover. large barrel. tinction between but. a goat (and not besides . bolgia. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. Butler. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. Lang. belly. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. gives at least two pounds sterling. the servant in charge of the original object. besides that .' or ' there is not but one body of a man. the mouth). then hoUow trunk. are. But In Sc. bouz. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. bous. bol. botte. boquier.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. a butchery. Wall. those in beccaio. slaughter-house. the store of ten. Whatever is in addition to Butler. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. of the wine and drink. bountifully. butan ce. ox. a baiTel . OFr. binnan. collection of casks. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. we find ben. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. ways. ' Besides all that. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. equivalent of AS. beccaria. buta. viz. is put in a class by himself. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . bole of a tree. a butcher. beyond the Piedm. bounds of. beta.The Sp. without buiten-man. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. young mais. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille.' Thus Chaucer says. add. a cask. wooden receptthing to be done.' there is really a negation to be supplied. that which would be translated by Fr.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt.streets. bute. bag. the present day we should say. butan. as Pantler. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. Fr. But It. "PLT) . bouteillier. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. If that where now we should compiler. botilla. It. the principal apartment. hull of a ship. the precise correlative of but. biitait slaughterer of goats . a butcher . a budget. Du. is well explained by Tooke. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. a goat. also a hollow vessel . AS. calf of the ' say. and the real origin of the and within . original sense of without.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. my is called the adversative use of but. bochier. belly. bout. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. from boc. without punishment . The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. or what in in charge of the pantry. Sp. — . being wholly unten. and with It. the belly. able. Butt. which the word corresponds to the Fr. to-boot. trunk. (children) boc. bolr. calf. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. Lang. moreover. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. in addition. Butcher. Sp. bocin. . The E. be out. As a conjunction but is in every portion. ont jhi^ton. and bot. body of a shirt w. the bottles. Tooke's dis. botija. an outlaw from bouche. Prov. without law. a small winebag. Ben-house. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. beccaro. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. the body of an animal. from as. hollow case. barriga.jamin. the trunk or body of an animal. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. by the mode in which he is treated. So in Italian from becco. bodifie. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. the body of a tree or of a man. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. a barrel. skin-bag. Buttery. bitten dai. — we acle for liquors.in which his brethren are included. without care. boteria. sup- meat and drink. boccino.' ' write. properly a butan wite. without. Where at an earthen jar . without the house kept in bottles. the full expres. G. viz. belly. Here the but implies the existence of an. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. mais. but one thing. except. Fr. bitlga. Sp. bhcciero.' — — ' . the jug and in E. A A . a wooden cask. a bottle. rotundity of the body. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . earthen which the debtor has adverted. Fr. similar train of thought is seen in ON. the Perhaps besogne — . bisgung. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. a leathern bag. But when will you pay it ? the belly. ' 1 am that I may have but a but .

a scope. thick. butte. stump. of the present day. nourrissons. See Butler.' thick from shaking. clunis. by boE. So in English pimples were fora clod. the edge forwards. a stump or club foot. bott. Boutje. bout. a mound of turf in a field to sup. a buttrice. so as to make a sounding blow. give way. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. Grandg. and the true derivation boar. leg of lamb. end . oir spike with a k coup . thrust. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. Lang. a large belly. lams-bout. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. rabodd. a bot. butt. butt. boutis. bodi. able that Chaucer. the store of while bottich. boutoir. the prick in the middle of a target. fle>(ible. to throw . From the noise of drinkables in a house. a wall butor butt on. trapu. botten. to thrust. botto. a but in the W. Buttel-triib. Kil. . i. bouter. a button. strike. tress. buhsom. butter. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. Fr. Fr. pwt. Boutant. Bav. an ox. any small projection. Schmell. butte. both. Fr. boter-vliege. to touch at the end. butter. Hal. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body.— BUTT leg . Gael. Gris. bot blijven staan. nursling. boter-schijte. short thick thing pimple. boiUer. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. To Butt. Button. is formed the augmentative buttatich. fowl. a blow. as if from Povg. — — — — . courtaud. to bow. clumsy . A — — — . the thick end. to be con. Bav. to so close to the Fr. Schmell. as in G. botwm. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. bouter. put. boteria. a dle . as rejeton. the thigh of a goose. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. a bun. butt. Perhaps corrupted Lat. boding. an etwas anstossen. pied. G. . a thrust the thigh-bone.against another which needs support . Bout van het schouderIt. to abut on. a barrel. from bouter. buttock of beef is called butr. butteln. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. a ribbed glass for dient. — A . To come full butt against a butts. W. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. a. to thrust . W. at. poke. but. geboogsaem. boter-vogel. to thrust. a cask. waste ground. pwtiaw. — . Du. coxa. to strike. — A . a stroke di animal. Butter. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. — . botta. . bout. having a rotundity . Kil. It. obeto shake backwards and forwards. potacha. a mound. suddenly . Buttress. a blow. submit shaking up salad sauce. to boult flour. a button. &c. a bolt. bodi'. Sp. from bugan. to blad. bocsam. Du. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. any short thick thing. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company.to push. the trunk. a boss. to femur. a boss. The Bavarian potig. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . stump of a tree Fr. bottig. e. nourrisson. grease that sets by merely standing. to butt. Btetter-schmalz. bottich.. thrust forwards. -ez. to heap up earth or ihrust. Fr. bud.thum and not button.. striking end. Du. Buttery. from the large knobbed head of botto. of E. a hill. a heap of merly called pushes. Buttock. a leg of mutton. buter. then the thigh or leg of an to push . obedient. Cot. Buttrice. from notirrir. bocgsuin. a. Fr. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . * Buxom. An erection built up as a Fr. the Butter-fly. to abut a stone roof. From Du. Kil. &c. the rosebud. caput scapula bout van f been. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. butyrum. hillock . boil. to thrust. butt of a person. aim whence to make a support to a wall. buttare. or or shore post. Fr. from rejeter. povrvpov. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. To strike with the head bags. buttals. AS. The word body itself seems identical with G. a little push . tout seat or breech. from stossen. what is kept in a blow. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . gigot. bata. are the strips at the edges of the field. Halma. a flying buttress. a buttress Cot. w. large head. a corner horses' hoofs. bot. on.rejected thing. Butter-glass. Fr. ment being supposed to resemble butter. a button. or person Schmeller . butz. but this is probably from Fr. signify a cask or tub.arbre. to push earth . botta. in the R. R. a tub. bouton. Du. butter un. dripping. humble. bothog. Du. From Grisons biitt. to cast. buttern.putan. bouton. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. Hal. Fris. to thrust Fr. Mur-buttant. Gr. bot. botte. : .

—gracious of speech.busardj Prov. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. A ful benygne buirde. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. bei.. to wit. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. byr. village.P. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. gracious. son. ii.— P. tions by one. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. It. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. G. good-humoured one. bycgan.. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. Many good mological explanation. Then applied to speaking low. Cabal. Du. to whisper. groat in token of his good heart towards him. and boxome of speche xviii. also say. buteoj Fr. bar. leges urbanse ON. iii. bauhta. byar-rettr. & Q. a meke thynge with — alle. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. train of thought which has become obso. bygge. Buzzard. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. indistinctly. byar-log. bohte. OE.— Diet. a by-path is a side path . called Cabala or Tradition. Originally the law of a particular town. \s\xy. frabttg- To Buzz. and it is of good will. A by. confusedly. . The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. The ON. favourably to a petition. Mercy hight that mayde. bozzago. harty prayers and God speedes. lb. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. bugjan. Lat. to pass by. to stand at his side . to purchase for money. a town. A A We — — — days' wonder. bylag. lete. bij. bylove. to swear with him by . 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. buzarg. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. bees. . abozzago. 21. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. blessing me with their of side. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. Sw. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. cow-house. P. big. 200. p. jus municipii. The sense of buxom. as heedless as a cock-chafer. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. a borough. stall. 519. — 122 BUY P. buso. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . a beetle. 116. Dan. and would have been lost in E. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. To Buy. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. to jan. buzac. from whom it was addressed. AS. Sw. See Abie. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. as Fr. a buzzard or puttock. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. to buzz. to sell. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). . AS. bi. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. By-law. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. 3. town having separate jurisdiction.in N. Goth. It. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. CABAL Goth. Verstegan in R. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. Byre. Etynj. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. from by. favourable. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. as in Da. depends upon a esteem in falconry. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. buzzicare. Pecock Repressor. farm. who makes abigg. bi. ON.

Gaggle. cacare. and Ptg. from trabocco. caable (in legal language). string. Etym. whence Lang. &c. gatsch. maim. round or great headed. — . and as we find stones Mid. to chatter. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. Du. a headed cole or cabbage . Sp. overwhelm (Diet. cable . Common to Lat. covering. to put or pack up in a frail. Due. It. giiare. caable. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. Cablisb. a car- We convasare. would correspond to cable. or rush basket. as Turk. head. especially shepherd's frock. cadabalum. vile. cabuyskoole. Sw. deponat a store closet. . akista. OFr. Antiq. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . ceach / exclamation of guages. Capstan. band. Coticesserint Swiss aa. stercus. traboccare. geese. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. cab.Lat. laitue cabusse. havyar to caviare. aak! tandi like Fr. dung.Lat. as Diez supposes). overwhelm. properly windfalls. a cabbage . cabo. kakla.Lat. It. case. come the Fr. cabo. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. cabaii. OFr. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . Fr. signifying properly a rope's end. Cot. chadabula. a booth or hut. cab lis. brassica — capitata. dirty. Mid. filth. — the ON. To steal or pocket. cabbage. Du. name of the projectile engine. a frail. to hurl in Nat. disgust cac. to keep or Du. and the Arab. gaggi. OSp. kabas. surripere. kakaloH.Gr. vincially used in E. it would seem fundain children's language. chaable. Neckam — by the wind. — Ibid. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. Cabin. to strain in such a manner . The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. kabane. a tunic. precisely in the sense of the lari E.. mdhaigner. form kactal. or cadable. It is remarkable that the Esthon. hoard together. gaggele. chabla. Celtic. Lat. Tugurium.' Due. aakkat'a. has kabbel. cabas. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. Mid. — . cabre. a rope or cable. cadabola. aeggi. Mid. Katr-iT-aKt. &c. Fr. gabardme. agge machen (in nurses' language). main. for the origin of which see Carabine. — Kil.. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. . a rope. Cappa in OSp. The double a in the OFr. 'habl. E. Cabbage. The name of the engine. accablcr. caqueter. cacare . a rope. Due. an engine for casting stones. dirt and the Fr. kabaSsen. : — from violence without blood. Choux cabus. Finn. . hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. is probably unconnected. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. headed or cabbage lettuce. It. — Tarbe. agge. Castr. to hurl down. bad. originally an Gael. and Finnish lanLat. a cloak of felt or Cack. manticuKil. wilful). (ca/coe. headed. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. . engine of war for hurling large stones caca. Item habeat vocant. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. Fr. E. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. . caables. cabacho. Lith. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. To Cabbage.. gaban. Fr. calabre. Very generally used. cables. heady. a head (whence cabochard. ckaable. serious injury — In like manner It. caable. —Diet. lactuca capitata. cdble.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. in which sense are explained The the OFr. capuccio. . Brushwood — — B. a shed. origin is the OFr. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. agga. a covering. forms indi. ! — . From It. OFr. signifies down. and Or. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . cabasser. It. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. prostratio ad terram. Imitative of the cry of hens. the Slavonian. a rope. Lang. cabulus. to crush. cadabulum. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. Cabinet. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. nasty. Fr. cadabula. the bowels. cabane. caboche..). or as an interjection of disMod. Du. chaable. Sp. as an expression of Gr.ticula. Didot. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. from manganum. manganare. whence Fr. disgust. cabus. the Prov. Kil. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. capo. hovel. su/Furari. cabuccio. cadabulum. Cot. capanna. as it must have stood in French. Ptg. The Sp. dirty. a jacket Fr. cabarino. cabre. kabat. hut. disgusting such an engine was exerted. w.

— — — Dan. little chief. Lat. Calendar. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. coll. a small stone. Caddy. Calocli. Cot. caliche. a common cart. Fr. a corpse. Fr. A — fall. From lerie. It. ben- kalf. Du. cageoler. calx. cha'cmie cadence. Lat. javioler. an inkstand . Gael. frolicsome kaad mund. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. hot. In the same way Fin. Originally from a Slavonic source. kail. a counter used in casting accounts. for green fields. Dan. cadenza. Turk. bad . one that is brought up by hand a petted child. a falling. the lump and the increase. It. kolesb. to — Fr. coop.— . Sw. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. kaad. the calf of the leg. a low note. Cot. En kaka br'od. Sp. Fr. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. incolumis. kola. a reed. chattering. to throw themselves into the sea. kage. calibre. kalfvan hout. a vessel for heating water. cabdillo. a hollow place. Gascon capdet.Gr. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. the bore of a cannon. cadaver. gabbia. KaKKat. gabbia. calendrer. Lat. Cot. lindrus. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. Fr. Tea-caddy. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. kdtr. gaggia. principal and interest. to gabble. caldarius. Calf of the Leg. caioler. a tea-chest. so gabble corresponds with Fr. Mrs B. a car. kolyaska. Sp. Russ. Roman reckoning. As Du. * Cade. Due. hence musical rhythm. from the ink-bag which it contains. calibre. a loaf of bread. taking it Sp. a wheel. Calc-. naXaiidpi. a roller. hot . to treat like lime. Fr. calentar. cage. calidus. kaka. joyous . * Calibre. Cage. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. a circle. or smooth Hnen cloth. calessa. wanton. The Lat. Flo. A hooded carriage. signifies a waggon. an ugly waggon kolaska. on. when they are said to poor. caldaria. loss. rattaat (wheels). calba. chetif. and troublesomely attached to. kakulla. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. to . Cadaverous. of oxen and similar animals. Cajol. calamus. Calp is riadh. a wretch. kat. the pi. ever and anon. a wheel . cykevie. Lat.— Cot. babbhng. pen Mod. capitetum. or colpa na coise. from the Chinese catty. the pith or soft part of wood. colibro. to prate much to little purpose. calentura. A . without loss. The Calf. whence calash. capCalenture. Fr. gavia. Lat. (in the augm. limestone. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. Cadence. calf of leg. Sw. calesa. pi. Cake. kalb. cadence. lime whence calcareous. collop. lord. kukje. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. The young G. cage. gaggle. kolo. A cuttle-fish. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. a cake or loaf. kolo. from calendcE. ratas. cavea. See Kiddier. jabber. kauwe. Lat. To Calender. Calcialate. . to compute. kalem. captive. N. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. —Atkinson. Lat. cadere. koeck. a wheel . marrow. calpa. ON. loss. Lat. master. Fr. Cadge*. wretched. It. is probably delusive. especially of something soft. disease of sailors from tivus). of the nature of lime to calcine. cattivo (from Lat. . pith. to cage. Serv. calamitas.warmth . gabble. unruly . kdfich. to cackle . misfortune. It is another form of the E. Cauldron. Calamity. the younger son of a family said to be from . It. To Cajole. cauldron. ' . reed-pen. calidus. prate. a wheel . safe. frisky. Caldron. a lump or large piece. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). It. a calesh. to heat. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. dial. kolo. Lat. cadet. calculo. a waggon . Fr. roller. a calash . Sp. a dence. a cylinder. kolesnitza. from Gr. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. Cadet. Du. Calash. Arab. . KxiKivh^o^. to sleek hence a den. chaudiere. . Caitiff. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. Sw. kolasa. Perhaps from w. a caFr. 124 prattle . just falling. a fever. Du. calendarium. boy. kalfi. Lat. of which. kaeckelenj Gr. Calandre. G. An open travelling chariot. calcis. Turk. dead body. pet lamb. chaudron. G. gabberen is identical with E. &c. form) calderone. desire of land. Pol. cake. Du. It. cuttle-fish. — in a kiln. whence Lat. B. Lat. a mischievous dial. kolyasochka. its mother. one unduly indulged by. Calamary.uv. or prattle. . from calculus. Dan. kuchen.— Calliper.

ram. — — — — — . Caliph.' But it is hard Du. chatter kallen. sence of wind. koluvre. a drab. to prattle. quA librd. and E. a. Dief. .piicede Lat. calleting. 'A callet of boundless tongue. Antiq. faint. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. moso. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. calcaich.' Slange. Diez. kol. The reference to heat is preserved in. and heat. voice. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. cahna. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. given. vulgo Coluvrine. to cram. calicot. u to an I in such a colubrum. caluw. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. harquebus or handgun. or languishing drought is . Unfledged. a good calling. AS. kil-u-kal. colubrina. Indies. to call. calare. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). or mould. calca. saucy. * Callet. heat. but is only a jda-kallo. skin hardened by labour. calc. kael. culverin. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm.position is much less common than the geschut.— .' Chaucer. to callet. Lang. trull. to call. Ibid.. form. a round of abuse.meaning of the word. callum. CALICO Calliper-compasses. whehce it was first brought. calat of leude demeaning. To Calk. longior. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. diameter of a ball. a last. khalif. colubraria canna. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. The primitive colubrina bombarda. cauque. Heb. Mid. however. bombarda Cauma incendium. done with heat Alt. heat. to hear.from Ka'tm. the Fr. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . Due. fistula. coluber. calma. kal. caillette. and sometimes a handgun. B. To century was Squalibre. an adder. kahcwe. by many that the weapon Callous. It. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. water-tight. sestus. — — — — — . calibre. which has its memory preserved in Du. qAlab. Among these were the turn. serpentina. Call. whereas in troth it is not. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. the scalp or skull. calvus. or caliever. having a thick skin. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. to burn. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. depreciatory term for a woman.' Whitby Gl. Mil. Gr. Hard. Fr. E. * Caliver. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. can be distinct from ODu. glotton. drive. a successor. of the bore of a firearm met. kallo. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. try. Lat. hallottaa. calme. serpens. moist. To drive tow or oakham. kind heat of the sun. calk. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. nautique). femme frivole et babillarde. quiet. a feathers. Du. to proclaim. calclover. to tread. which is as much as to say. calcare. callus. quality. Turk. — Fl. Sc. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. Fr. abto suppose that E. sclopus. Sp. coluber also. The origin is Gr. Fin. kalla. ' rine. Ca. whence couleuv. a soldier who the It. scold. Gael. Sir John Smith in Grose. oldire from audire. brawny. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. dial.(jaa= ice). Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. hot.en~ kinds of firearms. harden by pressure. prattle. Calico. gossiping. 125 Prov. Mahn derives it from Lat. Lat. to say. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . Diet. to be of a good or bad quality. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. word of mouth . overscalmaccio. tapulta. According to Jal (Gl. the Fr. on. kal. KaXka. Sp. ' pert. sound. from Calicut in the E. The word was also written cawme in OE. caliver. Fr. Ptg. the heat of Now these Du. Kavfia. licht stuk The change from a. Kil. Callow. dragonder. and dragon. Calm. cauma. . bald. the hard surface of the ground. To call. Bi. calor. scalmato. overheated. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. NE. ululo Turk. the day. Fin. i. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. donderbuchs Sp. to affirm. So It. to calk. alta voce ploro. klover. Fr. to rail or scold . calibre. to abuse . hollaing.' Winter's Tale. Kil. push violently. piece of bigger circuite. them &c. faint. Sup. CALM to press or stuff. calma. chatter. coulevrine. tittle-tattle. of a column. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). calgua.Lat. Derived by some from Arab. couleuvre. calo. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. people's remarks. the latter of chamber. cotton cloth. form in the kalib. dragoon.

champagne.who their language. campo. a large drinking . It. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. the heat. camafeo. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. fresh. mg Canister. Palsgr. Mod. Bret. arched. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. a. to warp. canalis. Lat. when its substance appears inter. cancer. a caught. unwater chamelot . a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. camahutus. candidus. chamold man. good. campo.Gr. co7nbar. campagne. Cambray. campus. field . a. From fluting or furrow in a column . camelot refuge from the heat of the day. ation. Canker. hooked. It was distinfrom work. Cancer. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. died in 1526. calutmiia. Ptg. Campaign. from xaXbg. a basket. cainahelus. Calyx. Canal Channel. Caloyer. clothed in white. An eater of human flesh. B. to avoid enemy in their shirts. an eating.— Hackluyt in R. the salmondis faillis thair loup. to bend. open and level ground. a' Sc. cambre. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. chommer. camelus. nia. Gr. catmneo. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. camiscia. se cameloter. to the force of the wind. Lat. It. chaitcre. Sp. samon. From campus was formed Lat. aged. canna. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. Lat. Fr. cup. Fr. would plenier. lie level. — B. Cot. Fr. E. cambren.. ko/utuXoc. Kakoycpos. a crab. KafitjUe. camisade. champ. callour. candela. Camlet. is Candle. arch. camisa. Sp. to bow. Sp. Sanson khanda. arched. sugar. crooked. the calix. Calumny. It. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. chandelle. cancello. Fr. See Canker. In a different application It. Lat. canistrum. to glow. cAouma. Canine. Camel. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. Cambrav—Cam. It. frank and sincandidatus. crooked. Cameo. — Lat. Cambric. Mid. fair. to jut. camber-nosed. Properly calver in the field during a war. to bend. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. camp. the space of false imputation. Arab. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. salmon.— Chandelier. a field Greek monk. on. Fr. The Grisons cauina. campagna. higher in the middle than Fr.— B. Lat. — — — A — — escume de saumon. at the ends. a may have acquired that signification from plain. a piece. — Cancel. Or the word Lat.—Jam. or Caribs. India Islands. crook. different sections of the like the Chinese. properly good country. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. cere : Lat. brought from Fr. It. . a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. Pers. Candid. cambr^. KafivTu. E. Cambrel. bis. water chamlet . to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. B. campagna. a night attack upon the enemies' camp.Lat. Lat. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. Fr. the type of a hollow pipe. Calver of cane. kanna. whence the Fr. white. Fr. the spersed with white flakes like curd._ kamm. camiscieia. spot for cattle. canis. Canibal. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. cambrer. Fr. across — Bellenden in Jam. is Cambering.—Cambrel. a dog. whence the noun signifying an applicant. having an aquiline nose. cup. monk. slander. Lat. from candere. camaien. to break. Gr.' Forme of Cury in Way. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. w. the bed of a stream. paign. calj'x. or hollow of a flower. ckaouma. E. aspirant. also an eatmg sore. campaign. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. Candy. callar. a goblet bud. whence Fr. . icaSoytipoe. had no r in de bric— Cot. Peter Martyr. lame. camelot. toile some of whom. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. and yspiuv.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. Turk. sore.' ' Quhen a lattice. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. Cann. crooked-stick. lattice. Camp. campren. It.—Candidate. cam^e. A — the Cannibals. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. Camisade.conduit-pipe. crooked.

was formed Kavtiiv. hemp. canonici. a corner. a reed. a drinking glass. . corner. leiwan kanta. kand. Fr. A piece of anything. Sp. cappe.^on. a horn of the moon . cane. canoa. kantr. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. able to receive. pipe. as. canteau. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. Germanis kdppen. chantel. It. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. kapamak. The word seems to be taken from Gael. can. Gael. quito curtain. . ON. regular. signifying cover. a tube. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. and the sex- &c. Sp. speech. the heel. Lat. cane. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. capevole. Again we have Lat. Probably only the augmentative of canto. a torch. astrology. Canon. schlapp. It. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. is found languages of very different stocks. shut. &c. Du. schlappen. and met. cannevo. being a yard or thereabouts . It. Schwab. cape. Hence Lat. Gugel. Cant. Canopy. trine. From Gr. cane. a wine-cellar or vault. hood. cappe. region. Mod. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. canvas. Swab. cainnt. the heel. a boat. lump. The meserseum and the mesentericum. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. Diez. and hence a gobbet. also a measure. Fr. Goldast — in in Schmid. Cope. &c. N. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. a side. Kil. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. a door .. a cloak. Fin. A . See Capt-. cane. to put upon sacred writers. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. . hamlet. Kavt\. edge. hirnschlapple. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted.— Cot.n. and tref. Cot. B. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. canto. side. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. Fr. gnat. a straight rod. kaput. See Chape. To canvas — . Wtb. capace. capello Italis. from canna. A slow gallop. a reed. cantle then is a corner of a thing. to shut. a division of a country. from . capax. coarse hemp. Capacious. or cantell of bread. Esthon. which is not the case.CANNEL vessel. contain. cannevaccia. canonicus. a scull- — here. Canoe. If the word had been from cantherius. a hunch of bread.Gr. kandt-broodts. or hold. from a Canter. Coal burning with bright flame. chanteau. a ship canot. Sp. cheese. caparazon. kanta. Palsgr. Picard. Mod. as a cantle of bread. measure for cloth. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. Cannoii. quarter . like a torch or candle. W. cantred. Cape. haitt. a cap. To Canonise. Cantle. that the G. cappa. clqse. Jonson. has kahn. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. say. covered. the part easiest broken off. carcase . OFr. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. properly a large Prov. root cap. quarter. language. Canton. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. To his judicial And trowl the tile. cannabis. canapaccia. It. to sing. capa. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. coat. a ruler. canon. Capable. Canteen. kq. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. From Lat. border. part. cover kapi. the quartile. a cloak kapali. kwvwxIi. a cantle of bread. cannone. the tried list of saints. name. a cane. a cover Turk. a hundred. canapa. a small boat. a gelding. to con- rummer.Gr. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. cantref. kyndel. rumme. tain. cannu. from Dan. a rule or standard of excellence. territorial hundred. a Fr. chape. Prov. border Dan. Capari. It. coarse hempen cloth Fr. kynnel. But it may be different source. It. The — . Alamannis. Of vena cava and of vena porta. cover . he discourseth of dissection. hemp. it would have been found in the continental languages. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. canevas. . It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. margo panis diffracta. canton. It. from cant. cantone. cantina. call. Canvas. a — A — Cannel Coal. KCLvva. to contain. a pipe. cope. KaTTiram.

Acad. frisson- ner . It. I have shivered with love. caj)o. according to the Hindoos. Mod. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. gives rise to brezza. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. the principal part of the debt. It. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. The same imitation of Capon. airoKOTrrw. p. then to shiver or shudder. a buck. Caprice. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. arricciarsi. capar. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. Lat. of a tremtdoiis sound. See Chief. bruco.— Fl. belonging to From caput. or goat's leap (done by a horse). Cot. as in Lat. Griller d'im' patience. wriggle. heath. a kid. of a fowl. shivering. to parch. cut off. algabr. caprice It. also the capriole. Fr. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . chief. Capital. as the means of earning profit. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. It. fansuddenly angry. with joy' Vikram. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. a caper in dancing. compared with Bret. a goat. then to be in a state of vibration. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. as Fr. cut. Caper. The true derivation lies in a different direction. frizzle. frisser {frissement d'un trait. Sp. It.' — (Supp. and 7tucc. A headland. prickly husk of chestnut. brug. castrated cock. eruca compared with It. brissle. Hal. capriola. brisciare. To treat Capitulate. . for which he cites the Comask nucia. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. the hair to stand on end. rihrczzoso. principal. h^risser. kid. knis-hujwud . where Burton adds in a note. to twitter as birds. toy. as Fr. So from Sw. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. to crackle. w. — — A a hair. capitalis. to broil. capriol or caper in dancing. grisser. herissonnement. aggricciare. horror. grug. the initial mute of forms like Gr. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. grillcr. or other things. arricciarsi. abridge amKoTroq. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. of a coach. alcaparra. Hair-like. cappriccio. 75. Genevese bresoler. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating.' Cot. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. a hedge-hog. II bresole (Gl.) grezille marid. and OHG. Lang. explained by Diez from capra. castrated. a . shivering. Fr. A . to broil. chattering of the teeth. Capillary. or represented by the syllable e. greziller. and with an initial gr instead of br. a separate division of a matter. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body.impressions on the ear.) d'etre The It. brisoler. caprice. a caterpillar. curly. It is probable that Gr. a young kid met. they longed extremely to see it. to shiver. frissoner. brisciare. to fry. cover of a saddle. greziller. ericius. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. s'hdrisser. hedge-hog.Gr. horripilation. or Lat. hair. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. ziki. is either wholly lost. and his body bristled We to castrate. to . to shiver for cold. ^piKos. gricciare. caper j caprio. crackling sound Cape. hi. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. CAPRICE twittering. Hence capitalis the sum lent. It. a chevret.'— Trev. Arab. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. capitulare. bristling. gricciare. It. or. Fr. ticchio. knis. G^' Many words — ' ndv. to desire earnestly. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame.standing on end. capillus. capparis. a little head. bristling. end. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. humorous. frort^Lat. Capers. And similarly to yearn. to crackle. brisciare. the hair to stand on end. rissoler. curling. the head. brezilia. shrub. It. ribrezzo. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. erica. a ch illness. It. sault.). to shudder. Lat. — to yearne. Fr. curl. then find the symptoms of shivering. as Fr. cApre. the singing'bone). a yearning through sudden fear. roughening of the skin. Lat. upon terms Sp. Lat. gives rise to Sc. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . riccio. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver.— 128 CAPE a rustling. to ruffle the surface of water. Torriano. a capriol. Unexpected pleasure. grisser. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. Fl. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. to from capitulum. capriole. the head. birsle. <I>pi'?oe. a head. capro.

seize. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. deceit. Passing on into E. crepo. to please. chevre. — —Diet. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. a capuchin. Cot. cabra. calabrino. recipere. Carry. Lat. to creak. Cot. a cloke) capuccino. to this is It. Du. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. was a kind of horse soldier. — — Capstan. karren. In the S. Crab. capitis. Castr. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. commander. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. to carry . It. except.. to receive receptio. Capstern. calabrin. precept. Caseneuve in Diet. concipere. carabin. fancy. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. carretta. tnoschetta. and has thus descended unaltered to English. caricare. recevoir. Fr. Etym. Thus the musket. Lat. Fr. capitano. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. a sudden will. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. The It. also to carry on a car . Capriole. Fr. a coffer. as in accipio. cabrestante (whence e. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. Du. to take baclc. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. karista. It. It. See Caper. a taking back. caprice. Capuchin. case. whence capture. It. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. . capp%tccio. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. Sp. Fr. or the (capo-riccio). conception. accept. It. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. a. cabreia. dim. Cart. &c. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. intercept. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. Carabine. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. was originally a missile . also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. of the Sp. shivering fit (Altieri).— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). and has accordingly been lost in E. Lat. crab s. Nordfoss. carro. kerren. concevoir. desire. Sp. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. recipio. also a kind of rack. captus. concebir. a sudden fear apprehended. a windlass. from head.). It. a sawing-block or trestles. recibir. a she-goat. Lat.or -cib-. acceptus. Carabin. to take. Fin. a hooded friar. deception. decepte. &c.. cabestan. concept. Fr. one odd. It is a standing crab. cabestrantej Fr. charrier. Fr. bock. charret. contain. charger. cams. box. a cart. and tropically. i The meaning Car. karrende waegen. It. however. recepte. -cept. to creak. to load . man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. caThe hrestante. an engine for throwing stones. also tresFl. captive. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. oisr. Kiittner. chirriar. de- price. latterly. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. -ceive. capio. perceive. of capsa. karra. as the dragoons (Du. as in OFr. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. strideo. Capt-. Captain. captivate. where it forms a very large class of compounds. sels. to accept. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock.s. a kind of torture. hold. Carbine. Capsule. and of captus to an e. a fantastical humour. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. Fl. Neumann. capra. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. chirrion. receptus. Derivatives are Fr. di cappa. krul. caput. &c. conceit. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament.of these compound verbs. 129 — receive.). the -cevofthe Fr. capuccio. a hood (dim. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . In cases. capsula. verbs gives rise to the element . Fr. -cept. G. a. at least. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. char. fantastic. conceive. OSp. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. to take to. trestle. a creaking waggon. a head man. a reception. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. was converted into -ceb.

See Carpenter. and so could not have given its name to the carboy.. carabba. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. Sp. Sp. skeleton. casso. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr.. Sp. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . fire . ON. wool card. kard boyd. turning. Carcase. properly a siege machine. I. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. karszti. Cot. Fr. Fr. the name might naturally Mod. boch. krciti.' From the same source are SicU. to draw in. Bohem. Card. to turn. carduus. to comb. a quiver . Exot. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. eit. a collar or chain for the neck. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. caracal. in the same way that the Sp. a crane. carbh. tcapKaai. Mod. an ulcer. It. the shell of a torcarcasso. burning coal. for a gun.Gr. KtpaTwv. carmiiiarc. eitar. cardo. &c. Venet. chevre by the name of the goat. Pers. carquois. constraining . But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. a thistle. Carboy. wine- bottle. of the same Caravan. a winding staircase. an engine for hurling stones. a prison. carcame. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. Gael. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. the trunk or chest of the body . There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. carcasa. Derived in the first edition from Mod. caraffa. to card wool. designated in the case of G. a gem resembling a live coal.— — — . to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . carcaij. ' Vasa vitrea. the core of fruit . Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). a coffer. quse vocant karabd. restraint .. garafa. Fr. Lith. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . silique. coming to four grains. case. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. a small weight. the . to hiss (as gee^e). cerran. Cat. carcanada. quilato. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. winding carach. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. winding. carabe. to card wool. also a small weight. poison eiz. kerwan. shell. car. carta. Gael. a quiver. and catapulta. a lock of wool . Gael. . mural attack. carquan. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. a he-goat.. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. p. is the word used in modern Lat. a quiver. a machine for casting large darts. a twist. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. to ripple flax. . Carbonaceous. the carob bean. carcanet. Gael. a skeleton. cabreia. From the battering-ram. decanter. to comb wool . vitriol. a ripple for flax. the dead body of any creature. W.. AS. carate. is the chine. «capa'|8i. Carbuncle. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. Gr. Parmesan cassiron. contract. the carcase of a fowl. &c. Arab. copperas. military engines made for hurling stones. a thistle. karri. a firelock. espi7igarda. card. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. black dye. skeleton toise. Carrob. kirat. a case or chest . carch. carbunculus (dim. Lat. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. skeleton. OHG. cdrlag. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. carbo. Carcax. a battering-ram). cabrita.Gr. a dead carcase. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. seed of carob. a quiver . Cot. a card or comb . a ship. — seems to be something holding together. It. caravela. carquasse. or framework. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. . avSpaS. The Trjg xeXwwac. word is only an adoption of the Turk. . a wool card. It. a goat. &c. cramp. Caraool. also (as Gr. a snail. The radical meaning .z. turn of a horse. of carbo). Caravel. ancient springald.charcoal . matter. Ptg. bend.applied to a battering-ram (G. curry-comb. alia sunt majora. . carere. to creak. karra. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. Carat. Gr. It. a kind of ship. the husk or cod of beans. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. An implement for dressing wool. Comp. cassa. the case of the flesh. Sp. confining. caraffe. Lat. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. Fr. It. cabra. bock and Fr. to curry horses karsztuwas. Sp.

to distress growl. and compare Bret. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. carian. fleshy . Bois crolant d'un ladre. carener. It. Cot.— CARD karr-kambar. — — Diez. gakaran. . Trin. Fr. to shake. careless take care of. compared with Fin. carnavale. Care. Cark. graller. AS. to fry. kara. OFr. record. a highway. essere in carena. one of those ac- 9 * . cearig. four. at murmuring. Sept. Peas steeped and fried. to love. W. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. 273. whence carricare. . cdrle. 8. to load. asper.. from the keel to the water . Fr. quarreG. to fry or broil. is This however Shrove tide. carcare. astutus. Carnal. 1S66. Gael. tremble. sorrow. caricatura. also a career on horseback. the load of a ship. mutter. hoed. as carminare. charta (Gr. to scratch. AS. Properly a car-road. to load. as quadrivium from Carnaval. de Parthenay. G. care. sorrow. A mod-carag. like connection may be seen between Fin. . the keel. crawl. msstus. carriire. grief. chartre. morosus sum. charger. road. carnalis. voce strepo stridente. . sensual. a deed. kribina. the old theory of humours. Caricature. Fl. see Garble. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. Coll. meet at a head. charnel. cardinis. moeThe Lat. surrata. carnasciale. an endearment. It. to scrape . Roquef. karl. Cot. kargr. in Carp. 2. from Lat. care on. It. the time during which to Rom. a turn. carnis. carnal. to rumble. act of moaning. Chart. — — . crosier. ress. morosus. niggardly . The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. . — — — Caress. karista. an overloaded representation of anything. Probably the origin of the word is the . For the root of carminare. place for exercise on horseback. cearian. to care unkarja. A quirito ut infans. that Fl. and sum. G. carrefourg. It. grolU. Fin. a man. to comb wool. Bret. Carled peas. Fin. principal. charie. Fr. clown or churl. winding. Sp. Translated in MS. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. caresse. — To Careen. appertaining to the flesh. weyes. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. in St Jerome. caritia. kroU-erbser. the keel of a vessel. charag. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. cargo. stingy. Carlings. No ' place there had. giierlir. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. — — — : Cardinal. strideo. carina. cardo. charnage.Lat. as peas. charneux. to clean the bottom of the ship. Groler. cura may be ror. charg. fundamental.. or grumbling —Due. It. karry. to growl. caMid. carezza. to load. . zanken . . carch. to lie on its side. tuorfurcm (Burguy).— Charter. from caricare. to whirr (schnurren). regar. It. Lat. Properly. Carminative. wool cards. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. crowl. w. karout. A place where four roads Mid. karrig. the hull of a ship. ignarus. kummer. Card. croller. camovale. Venet. dear. in N. bottom. Cath. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. and G. Dan. Charnel. male person. Sp. beans. piger. car. Cot. and thin. Carenare. . Fr. ON. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. to comb flax or hemp. caricare. intrasset caro. carminare. Ptg. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. Bret. a hinge. quadrifurcum from quameet. murahtaa. sgritudo animi. to parch. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. carriera. & Q. Fr. a card. It. x'»P'"^s)) paper. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. &c. AS. immediately before the long fast of Lent. Fr. W. kumra. karg. karantez.Lat. the flesh of animals . is to say. OHG. murren. to card wool. to eat flesh. combing them out like the knots in wool. the several meanings of the words above Rom. cargar. or street. Cargo. rixosus. p. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. Fr. kurista. that on wliich the matter hinges. carena. affection. murista. and murhet. Cartel. carFrom carrus. be anxious. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. quaver a lazar's clack. scharren. E. Mur. from carus.' Slceat. soUicitus OSax. caru. Fr. from carrus. ceorl. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. A medical term from line —Boerio. love. carcus. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. cura intenta. ON. — Carfax. W. Carnage. Farewell flesh. what is felt as grievous. tenax. carena. Lat. Carl. Champ. solicitous. stridere. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. From. parched or carled. to take Goth.

all aus). 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out.: . Carpyn or talkyn. Carnelevale. as Fr. Carpet. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. pluck at. is erroneous. permitted in anticipation of the long fast.Why give's some wine then. 216. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. carpenta. bier. Mediol. carpenticre. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. Properly a round dance.— R. of Guiana. or a carouse fully drunk up.— Patriarchi. at midnight which derivation from kroes. carpere. Here's to you still my captains friend. A. The karole of the stones behelde. chatter. as E. used for stuffing mattresses.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. on that.gonnella. W. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. Fr. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. yede tham about. CarTo quaff carouse do use. Other names of the sea. to talk. Bret. linteamen. All out B. Lat. skraf. Cot. to pluck. whence the form carnasciale. Pm.' Raleigh. gar aus / all out is correct. carpia. carpo. chirp. The word seems of Celtic origin. carnelascid). maker of waggons It. 2. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. i. Ant. biheld without. On this. lint. Analogous R. Sp. Carpenter.Lat. Carpitam habeat in lecto. Pref. worker in timber Fr. as the Lat. ship. in Nat. — . From Lat. koroll. to pull asunder. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. Beggars Bush. and Carnem laxare (It. ON. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. cxciv. carduz. Teut. charpie. Gower in Way. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. 1 1 30. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. sense. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. quoted by Carpentier. and F. ! Carouse. Ein we find the signification transferred from . krapanj. zimmerspan. . or loose as a couch without further preparation. in Carp. Palsgr. i. Pr. Carnevale. differing To Carp. 760. querole. The ' ' a chariot. Alluz (G. charpentier. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. to dance.— Neum. Shrove Tuesday. garrulo. peta. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. Biheld within. to rustle. Chanson de carole. course. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur.' Ordo Eccles. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. fabulor. To pledge them thou refuse. carpetrix. Lat. culcitra.— Drant in R. vel coopertorio carebit.'— Stat. gonna. in Due. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. carpenter only in the latter sense. zimmer. e.Lat.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. Mid. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century.]e bois Carnelevale. Nomin. carpentum. was formed Mid. Fr. a drinking cup. Mid. 2. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. as carnaval from carnelevamen. I drink all out. . Dief. Olr. carpetam (a quilt?). a song accompanying a dance then. a plank. act of drinking a full Eq. The custom. to find fault with. a dance. pluck. chatter skra/a. I quaught. Discov. a carder. chariot carbad. So gone they forthe. Templariorum — ' — Due. carpita. In a MS. litter. carpat (Stokes).D. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. Carole. Sup. ballare. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. carbh. cardos. to gather. cited by Marsh. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. 94). ' ' — . Lat.Lat. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. . garrire. to reel. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. krapati.' says Motley (United Neth. a car carpentarius. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. On the other hand bumper to one's health. The tippling sots. a wheelwright.' Reg. to dance. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. a wheelwright. tymmer. In Dominica d'autant. Bohem. balade from It. Gael. qui sacco. tattle. carpende fast Carol. to chatter coroli. — — ' ' — — — I — — .

a canonry or slaughterhouse. casitiste. It. The Sp. a fall. casuelj Fr. Sp. des rideaux A'carp^ie. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. cascata. shell or carcase of a house. Cartel. — FI. a chance or accident. of carro. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. CartOTicli. Rouchi carpHe. a of water. Lith. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. long man's gown with a close body. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. caroach. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. fall It. augmentatives of carro. as we . an augmentative from Lat. Fl. caro. mord-keller. cassa. a merchant's cash or counter. vault hole in a fortified wall. As defence from shells became more important. from casa. charrier. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. from Lat. hull of a ship. abrogate. Fr. Walach. where Fr. void cassare. paper. from the sound it makes when Alban. Fr. carrosse. hollow. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. Cascade.' Bailey. fortuitous. one who reasons on cases put. kirpti. a loopscale the wall. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. Fr. Fr. to cut or carve . It. ignominiously exposed. something that actually occurs. to notch. Casque. cartoccio. Preparatory drawing of a It. cascar. to an- — Kil. carretta. augm. charogne. and the OE. To quash an indictment. to shear. card. carretto.' Cot. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. Lat. corresponding to the G. Cask. It. It. break to pieces. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. — Cartridge. bitten. coffer. casa. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. kerpu. Case. cassus. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. for the security of the defenders. It. To Carve. from It. a long coat. OE. case-maiej Sp. Fr. afterwards any written challenge. Rouchi carone. Fr. Probably. kasseren. hung up in some place and to be removed. properly to convey in a car. Cash. to bear or carry. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. tion from Sp. cassette. casser. AS. to fall. ceorfan. casag. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . Cart. gristle. — — nul the proceeding. casa-maita. Du. charrette. cancelled.to annul. casso. AS. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. Fr. cartilage. from It. discharge It. casco signifies a skull. a chest.. Fr. caisse. slaughter-house. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. to dash. crush. Hence a challenge openly hung up. casacca. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. like all the names of tendon. a hut. Lat. turn out of service. To Carry. to — — also casse. cia. to convey in a cart. Fl. a coffer or small case for jewels. Lat. empty. It. To duash. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. Flor. — Cartoose. It. cartone. Rouchi carter. cancel. Case-mate. Du. luggage. caisse. Case. It. made void. cut with scissors. house. casus. Fr. Carriage. caisse. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. blotted out. carota. krat. Cot. helmet. ' Casa-matta. coffin of paper for groceries. kerben. kerven. casualis. To Cashier. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. Lat.— Fl. Fr. an act of falling. Fr. crown of a hat. cassere. and that apparently from capio. cartouche. to slay. carroccio. discharge. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. Cot. Fr. of carta. carroc- carrozza . dim. See Gristle. casaque. Casual. Gael. bag and baggage of a camp. carogna. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. packing ' cloth. to hold. pasteboard. annul. Cassock. carreaggio. Carrot. cascare. Casuist. and matar.' — Hdcart. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. Ready money. Casket. to break. cartella. See Card. Cartoon. mord-grube. See Case. Sp. carriaggio. caroche. Carrion. It. Rouchi caroche. case. G. capsa (Diez). to crack. Hence casket. the money chest. the charge of — — Fr. not reaching to the height of the ditch. also the carriage. mata.' Fl. cascade. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. The carrying of anything. caxa. subject for a picture. cassa. a paper case. quash. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. to fire on the enemy. quasser. — — . a car. cashiered. a car. gristle.

In the dialect of Picardy. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. Cot. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. chat. and KviilSog. ON. It. kottr. casser. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. first made ordinary Fr. cat. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . the earlier sense of catch. . stilts. cojz^/a.. of castrum (castra). The E. It. koshka. dash. kat. ating. catch. or Rouchi cat. torture. katze. V. . artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis.Lat. To Catch. to lash. 134 CAST Catacomb. kasi. castellum. cacciarc. Castle. down. cat-o'-nine. an enumerlist. Thus we have Caste. sue. speak of dashing a thing down. Hence castaneta. Fr. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. to fall as over a precipice. like that of It. represented by the syllable quash. B. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. a whip on the other into latch. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. Gr. So also from It. Fr. KaTaarpifm. kissa. Others explain it from Kara. signifying breed. was introduced. klakka. to crackle. race. handle of an axe. and tomba. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge .to drive out. by the loss of with several pitched cords. Yz. cascar. V Lith. second chase. cast. . Fr. burst cascare. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another.the / or c respectively. to bring to an crack given by the joints. to drive away. Fr. Roukind. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. Brunne. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. castro. from water Karappaaaiii. a Cataract. fer toTa. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. shaft of a 1 push. punch. n. tails.— Fl. castello. mino. drive away. Fr. follow after. kic' kicil are used chasser.Rouchi Scaches. a chesnut .out cacciare . Gael. which. rack. KaTappaKTrjQ. Isidore — in Diez. away. to hunt. kaJoivad. KaraXoyog. execu. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. in the fire. probably from an imita. casulla. OFr. bot-kotis. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. kasta. under chi caleur. Catalogue. to turn overturn. to cast or beat to tioner .. to scourge. a little house or hut. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. chasser. casupola. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. ecrevisse. castana. chaleur. the stalk of plants. ichasses.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. cash. cacciuolo. a cat koshki. casipola. R. to break. Catastrophe. Cat. Lat. kotas. kakka. a thump. to look at. cassa / cry for the same purpose. Fr. however. 'Vaaaw. cacciare fuora. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. Etym. of sarabands does Gr. a cat . — We a cavity. Castanets. dashing it out of the window. Lat. Pol. heat . to crack. image accasciare. to Fl. chasuble. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. chasser. perhaps from which we have E. down. a vault. 120. . arpi^m. Fr. Pm. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. castanetazo. on. force j Rouchi equerviche. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. to drive Cat o' nine tails. casule. to make clean or chaste. Fr. Sp. while kiss / Pol. crush . ' Catchyn away abigo. to dash. or bruise together. &c. from the first of Castrate. to torture. being Fin.'— Pr. Cast. squash. KarapaKrr]g. puras E. It. same word with break. which has been retained in E. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). is not satisfactory. The Diet. dashing it to pieces. Gr. and from the castus. coming to us through different dialects of French. puss / for calling them. name. Chase. kotas. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. to hurl See Awgrim. Pic. squash. a fortified place. accastiare. Lang. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. or comba. . to close. catar. the castanets for or implement . Mid. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. to clack. _G. dim. to end. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. to is Essentially the Sp. lance. Fr. the ground . fall. a garment for performing the mass in. Sp. Hal. To It.

woodlice. clatter. klatschen. i. pedes.' CATCH Fr. instruction in forms. clap with the hand. which all . — tinman. gattola. On Catechism. resound.yopl(. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. Du. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. to take. predicament. caker. to snap. chenille {canicula. Cates. — B. — Kiittner. Gael. apprehend a person. has both or of charming by sound. a — gatta. the elements of a science. Gael. Guernsey pilleure. to crack GATES cache. children's name for cat . from Gr. Caterer. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. latch. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. klatscherei. Cot. to chat. Guernsey chafer.j. quincailler. head. chasse. ecachoire. the OE. to catch strength.' ^Jam. lash of a whip corresponding to the G.P. . 135 — Aasen. bichano (pussy). but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. a cornIn the s. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. weevils. from shutting with a click. Grandg. klinke. 'Bxn. ictus resonans. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. chink. fragor kletsoore. the the same principle he was Fr. resono ictu lash. a little dog).from Bard and ayopsw. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. ArbaUte de courte chasse. to clap hands. formerly called cliket.V. or any kind of relishing food tuals. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. caucht. e. c or ^. whip. a. worm. clap.V. a carter's Pat. to teach by oral instruction. Fr. sound. flap klatsche. klatsche and Norm. icarrix'Ki^. GaUa catchiza. Kariicatching one a box on the ear.) . called in Fr. E. devouring mite or weevil. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. door when it is shut. a smack. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. Claucht. snatching it with a any one. Gr. kaetse. cache. a caterpillar Milanese can. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. bicho. de Bray. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. . catch. * Cates. ' ' word catch. a whip Rouchi cachoire. P. wild-beast. to harangue. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. Fr. Chate peleuse. Cot. — with a whip. in order). chatter . to snatch (said of dogs). G. — . the distance to which the ball is struck. insect. Du. ' Fr. chassoire. smack. seize. klatsch. Sc. Metivier. to chatter with the teeth cake. gliong. chacepol. a whip. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. kletse. Swiss Lombard G. catch. a. . 'Horxa. kletsen. * Caterpillar. In the XV'e. Du. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. is said that he got a claucht of it. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. blow. to the crack. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. a pill. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. Ptg. .. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. glcu. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. . of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. gingle. with and without an / after the c. ketsoore. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. compare G. a whip. catc?u. Sp. e. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . happe-chair. a clap. Kartiyopta (/cari. latch of. snatching. an accusing. chachara. Tutschek. cagnon (a dog). Rouchi clincailleux. OFr. to A bailiff. s. claquer. silkworm. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. an officer of taxes. Wal. — Catcli-poll. companaige. dainties. — explained. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . verberare kUts. and answer. a whip or Kuttner. Kil. E. snatched. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). cat is not apparent. E. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. chatter. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. to kythe D. Kil. as of the latch of a As ! — . catch-flesh. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . millecaterpillars. dainty vic- a form lash. chase. Fr. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. called dog or Galla catchamza. Diez. KaTtix'so.s.

caul is also a small net to confine the hair. little cat. mudet. quire. by land.p. CATHARTIC sense. despencier. Lat.—— — 136 correct. Caballus. Fr. KaPaWrii. Fr. to shoe . klopfend knallen. ' Gr. chausser. Cavity. to shale or peel. a horse. catkin mitz. calceata. a mare. shaled or picked Fr. koparet. Caustic. Pol. Palsgr. calidus. from caveo (p.' Elyot in Way. a seat. On the other hand. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. KaHSpa. kitten kotki. mutz. calceta. otherwise written kell. kopano. minon. hot. Richly she feeds. Fin. is Prologue. Cathedral. Thus Bav. catons. the stones of a street. .^Hal. It. caudex . A warm comforting drink. Fr. flock. to beware. lamb. a stalk. &c. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. Du. Cauldron.^ acheter (Lat. Delycates. a pavement. Caution. caldo. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. Fr. Manciple's Tale. Cavalcade. catkins . Kavrfipiov. chevalier. but the acates that are sent him. any Fl. KiwariKog. and spareth for no perell. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. to buy. from KaSaipio.Y\\Xea. kobuiV. CAVE Caul. Provider. a pulpit. G. Gr. — — cavallo. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. chaudroii. walnut with the husk on challer. cavus. Gael. caballus. to shoe. Palsgr. Russ. calqada. . That he was ay before in his estate. It. hollow. to sound like a blow . katte. via strata. having the property of cleansing. to burn. Lat. Gr. Pr. Lat.. deyntie meates. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. accattare. rete A — Prov. hazel. Kil. cabbage-stalk. kocie. chatideau. Jaubert. apt to burn iron. Cavalry. Chaud. capull. a kind of skull-cap. . a kettle for heating water. . a The peel. OE. chaudiire. Cathartic. Cavern. to ac- — Fr. cautus). green husk of a calon. fur. kobyla. a receptacle for small things. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone.' B. accapitare Rouchi acater. what . kdtzchen. a horse . and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. flue. the. dumpf tonen. primitive is meaning a shale or off. 4. Port. Mid. acaptar. and hence a skull-cap. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . from delf^gato. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. whence cathedralis. fur in general. puss. also to pave . Diez). whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. puss. Bessie of Bednall. cauHs. choufleur {choii. The word — . • — — See Chattel. macska. chaussJe. Sx. reticella. Fr.. challe was ther of a temple. a horseman. . cat maczoka. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. It.Lat. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. cautis. chair. Gr. causa. Cavalier. — Cauterise. Caudle. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. B.Lat. . Fr. 2. Lat. little cap is . kaussijde. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. Dryden in R rete. puss. cavaliere. Du. chauderon. Catkin. Fr. hot. kopista. Mid. a paved road. . cheval. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. kocianki. It. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept.willow. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. cabbage. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. Cattle. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. and at the rich man's cost By sea. achepter. Lat. catkin Magy. Fr. kassije. cale. w. Cave. catkin Pol. acater. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. Fr. Boethius. ce^l. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. It. Lat. Cause. — . is used in the sense of cat-skin. to purge. Fr. cale. the caul of the liver. Ka^afriKOQ. cabbage). Kavrijp. caple. a horse . katteken. Causeway. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. adcaptare. calotte. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. a road calceata. Jonson in R. cal^ar. Rete. make clean. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. kautsije. a branding from koiio. from chaud. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. net or caul-work. Wyatt in R. kin.

Wore. to argue capto tiously. an aquiline nose. Sp. dayntily diglit. Boyd in Jam. jaa. 43. excess. wuoren komo. koppeli. thili. . and Gol. dil. Sherwood. thelu. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. but hang around at the sides. So from Fin. yield. -cease. board . little house. &c. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. syle. cessum. ceiling. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. — .' — Gawan . a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. a hut. Hence concede. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. selure. nailes will begin to cling.' Cot. Lat. thel. lambrisser une chambre seeling. tester of a bed. rafter. Fr. sill. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. a board. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. and zaum. semely on syll. coffer. a log. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. plank. CAVESON kopera or kowera. hivtmel. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. . See -cede.' Hall. departure from this life. thiling. . bridle. decessus. in Jam. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. -cess. . cavezzone. the testern of a bed. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. komo. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. flooring E. caveqon. menuiserie. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. 5. plank. &c. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. IV.. &c. hung. . proceed. in Hal. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. Cot. exceed.'— Z. syl. -cede. deal. death. cellar. the inner roof of a room of state. . departure. succeed. a head. &c. also a seeling of boards. were met. and that from Sp. . Ceiling. to panel or wainscot MHG. . the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. cabegon. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. crooked kopio. augm. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. a boarded floor. del into English without ' translation gave cele. seele. Plancher. . is applied to a canopy. .' del. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. cielo. Cam. lambris. hollow. -ceed. a log. It. step away.. a fir-plank. a severe bridle. Fr. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . column E. Lat. B. give place. dScis. sus-lambris.' Marriage of James IV. And seik — Cessation. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons.). Gawaine & Sir Gol. sybire. curved. recede. The importation of Fr. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. 7. The It.' Rutland papers. Cede. thilja. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. The sense of roofing. of E . sill in window-sill. in Jam. komista.). canopied. to plank ON. cesso. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. that. Soc. selar. to go forth. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. a halter. a log. . to plank or floor with planks. quibble. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. dille. H. — . hollow. sky. p. kommata. cyling (W. Fr. cavillor. E. thil. heaven. —Decease. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. hollow ice . heaven. To seele a room. Lat. as if from happen. VIII. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. empty. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. cease. In the same way G. and then to gape. — — — toyour soverane. a canopy. as. The line of descent from Fr. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. wall. Cease.' Ordinances and Reg. a beam. 32. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. of cavezza. pp. beam. Fr. to cut. or of a bed. post. ceiling. to canopy siled. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. Sir 137 pit . . A — A false accommodation produced G. the deck of a ship at thilja. wainscot thiljar (in pi.j have come from this source. p. . In the N. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. ciel de lit. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. a plank. Hal. ciel is so unbroken. a canopy. a planking or boarding tkilian. the roof of a coach. with their substantives concession. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. to seele or close with boards plancher. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. — komo tain). Lat. thil. cedo. applied to a canopy. cabega. kapp-zaum. Cavil. door-sill J Sc. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson.

sting. See Cede. deceit. To seel or close the eyes. and thence censer. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. eschattffer. to seele or sew up the eyelids . cillier. tax. -CEIVE a shaft. with the eyes. Lat. Sherwood. Take the nedyll and threde. . For sess from assess. . is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. hollow. cot. -cevoir. to take. Censure. It. to distinguish. to twinkle darkness.unmarried. see. -ceptjun. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be.' Celebritas. as in some places burnt. chaufferette. capio. sile. &c. caber. ' . mortar. Fr. abundance. cenio. cigliare. (and thence also) to hoodwink. to seal a pigeon's eye.— Chafing-dish. — — Cenotapli. judge. to attend on object with. Gr. — . to take. camentum. a registration of one's self. Accelerate. Centurion. a storehouse Chafe. sift. concernor. from Saa-rw. Lat. — . Lat. oil. renown be embodied with. to bury). -i^oivre.. receipt.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. the talk of men. census. estimate. -cess. to course of people. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. a shaft horse. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. to warm. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. -ceit. pick out. blind. {cori)cipere. Assess. to concern. judge. the place where the de. tax. observe. from censeo. crevi. Sc. value. Lat. the officer appointed to take such returns . The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. The term cilium. S. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. quarters for slaves. Lat. the point round which a circle is drawn. -cepere. Fr. cella. contend. Censor.' Book of St Albans. ciller. K^'ivut. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. cilibat. and — — — possessions. stones to the production of heat. Cereal. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. Cell. decide. -ciper. Assize. sacred show. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. to celebrate. — . Cess. Cij(fe5j. Lat. to chafe. Censer. to rate. eyelid. to separate. festive. — . age. a Cemetery. point. swift. Incensum. — . chauffer. being taken from Fr. appertain. calefare. concetto. to be regarded as one celebro. Coehim. decebre) . to rub for the purpose a hut. single or unwedded life. OFr. in accordance with the Fr. 1. Fr. Lat. a prick. Fr. Celebrity. -cense. solemn (of per.ing a room where there is not fire. — . to prick. become heated with anger. In Celebrate. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. /ctj/rsw. criticism. Lat. Fr. sure. to contend. a hundred centuria. Lat. Gr. See Celibacy. a valuation of every man's estate. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. the hollow the Lat. to glow.j 138 thill. to set on fire. capturn. parted sleep. Fl. calefacere. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. Gr. what to set in a chafe. to blindfold. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. Ta^oe. censura. to sleep). candeo. of heating. or any bird's. riscaldarsi. and put it through the over eyelydde. — A . -civer {conciver— Roquef. Lat. encens. -ceive. incense. -cepire. Lat. deceipt. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. thronged the participle cretus. It. guish. rough from the quarry. in comp. much frequented. celer. Chafe. Fr.cern. concerner. ciglio. Cot. -cebre ifoncebre. distinIt. Census Censor. an eyelash. Lat. empty. in Marsh. a hundred of what- — .). keep in It. and met. dchauffer. Gr. materials It. make angry. census. to visit in numbers. cerealis.). To Incense. irot\oe. to heat. judge Lat. Fr. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. to -sum. cretum. celeber certus. we have a modified form of (of a place). and thence to conceal. to sepap rate. but was gradually lost in conceit. -cern. as entering largely into the derivative certo. oil. thence belonging to or connected with corn. Cot. a religious observance. family. Celerity. syll.of the r. his office. is totally distinct from the foregoing. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. and so of that other. to incense. or expression of Ennius. also grave opinion. KsvTpov. goad. Century. a numerous con. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. in comp. siller les yeux. conceipt. ceremonia.— Cellar. centum. To chafe is for wine. -oept. &c. Centre. cencer. a solemnity. then to rub without reference Cement. for building. a solemnity.. with transposition hence (of a day). cceremonia. assess. Certain. Fr. a tomb. to think. to burn incendo. Lat. rubble. Ceremony. zens according to their property. heaven. Prov. is the opposite of disora virum. -cipio. confounded ist from It. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing.

from the shark-skin. Chair. rustling motion challenge. Fr. with a:n arched roof. kever. kauchen. cauvette. ckapfare. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. chaulx. Kaiiapa. Ayenbite. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. Lat.nium. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. difficulty . idle words. puff. place See Cheek. a chough. dongio. songe. to a seat. chamar. 35. chambre. contestation. cadena gives chain. p. cam. G. cathedra. much more Genoese sagrind. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. To buy and sell. snuff. . often puffing. to file. fa sagramen de calompnia. a prattling woaction. lime. kuhata. Chagrin. snort. . as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. and signifies to consume with anger. calix. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. to ner It. kahu. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. breathe KaOa^oiiat. De Ir4. Pers. Lat. Wall. baras of ants. From the To Chaff. &c. as a carriage is a moveable seat. Bouffard. green sagrin. shaIt. chatter. Prov. grief. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. chayire. Fr. Probably from According to Diez. a pulpit Cot. limare. sagrindse. to chatter or talk lightly. Fr. to claim. kiamta. to Latin calumniare. to fret inwardtronfo.. Perhaps Pm. a double operation * Chafer. to bark. to action arose. Fr. Camera. to caw chawer. vis. kahuja. de Brai. chaps Chamber. B. of. ON. Bav. in a monstrous fume. — — — . ing rapidly repeated cries. Du. kuhina. thick and short. grief. Fr. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. Piedm. khah. calonja. Lat. leviter crepo Then. Fr. lime . Pr. cup. also to prattle. haggle. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. So from dominio. cadera. . cadieira. to gnaw. Gr. — — ' — — — A . kiqfta. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. cathedra. on. Cot. refuse barley . as. Gr. chafing. from of the G. from Swiss kafeln.' Rayn. G. to call. matter by combat. kaff. Fr. calx. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. a vault or arched roof. — . tronfio. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. avena vilior. Chalice. to babble. kdfelen. chaene. any insect of the beetle kind. to calumpnjamen. call in question for an ley). to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . to tattle. In vulgar language. to buzz. a rustling noise. The jaw chafty. dispute. signal by drum or P. Halma. Cot. sborfare. Lat. Fr. to institute anforensic action. keffen. clamare. without chap/are makiinde. Chain. fern-chafer. ple^. 11. kahista. ^Altieri. hiss. vel susurro. to gnaw. a goba rustling . to sit. ing a hard case to their wings. Du. In like manto huff. a jackdaw. quisquilise offence. jaw. chaine. chagrin. rustling corn. ceaf. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. Lat. swelling with anger. breathe hard. chaise. OFr. From Port. sagri. In this application it is the correlative Chaise.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. Kuttn. — — — — — — . ceafer. preise. puffed or ruffled with ly. KoBiSpa. yap.. much blowing. to dispute. Fr.— — . chalanger. fume. kdfer. From to go to law. calice. chaffare. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. rally one. far lima-lima. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. Prov. (ca'e'ra) to chair. talkative. Fin. taubes korn oder hafer. rustle Challenge. refuse. that leneth e per I'autra. or puff with snorting.sure carriage. camera. care. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. have a mind to parley. Lat. kaff. tattle cheep. charge with. Fl. cadena. hordeum vel let. crooked. kuhista. to pant. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. Pat. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. kedja. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. — — — . Due. bargain. havOFr. P. and as this was the beginning of man. great chafe. kiaftr. false accusation. Hal. tattle. Cheffern. Came. calonjar. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. in a cana. . calumnia. chafeter. E. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. Chayire. now a chair. to puff and blow. to move the jaws. Fr. Lat. hght Chalk. a chain. catena. Adelung. keuchen. muzzle. . de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). Prov. chicane. care. chaire. kuhuja. gewolb. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. a pulpit. chawe. As the loss of a ^ in breathe.

gekrUmmt. cempa. from chaud. Fr. luctare. Pm. pedilusor. G. game campio. to paw the ground E. to wrestle. camerlengo. ON. sukibti. E. campear. — KiL . When the to quarrel. . dispute Hal. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. Chance-n3. to slope. keiiipe. . Prov. Dief. kabMe. kimpUma. to — — champ. or less ignorant. the chafldn. jocus partitus. Carpentier. pinch. — ^Tusser. from cheoir. is explained by serrarsi. The E. boys speak of capping verses. escazenza. It will. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. Sp. surpassing. to talk. The happening of things Chance. broil. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . dial. received the petitions of the suitors. kriimmen gebogen. chajnbellan . the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. cazer. kampeln. Chancery. chdance. Fr. ciambellano. Gall. to flute as a column. to fall). nels. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. chanfrar. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. —Chamfrain. a jaw kianisa. chamfrain. accidere. ON. champ. contest. Chancel. M. hot. campar. fight. ON. a field of battle. dricka i kapp. kiinp. Champ. hero Sw. camp. a warrior. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. to chew. kampa. kapp. to groove bevel off a right angle. e.' SherI'altro ' ' . difficulty . champ parti. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. caer. tsamtsogni. The word is preserved in E. wood. champ. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. gewolbt. campus partitus . origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . to strive at games . mesleiare. dial. s. . chance. cahir. kiammi. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. . i. kappd). kimppu (Lap. kinipen. ciamberlano. schmatzen s. bundle. therewithal. as swine. Sup. The G. Fr. fighting place. Campar. Partnership. a game at football. champ. To cope or contend with. To hollow out in chanPtg. kimpustella. zampettare. . hamper. and mesUe.edley. Fr. Meleare. compound. . Commonly derived from campus. slope of a bevelled angle. kabinti. Lat. chanfrein. dial. cancelli. Hence (with the nasal) w. a bundle. act of falling. tsammogni. zs jeopardy. to fasten on. to move the jaws kiamt. chance. hng. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. to fall. who stood ad cancellos. dial. chain. E. a court of justice. termediaries between them and the judge. to . Champaign.140 CHAMBERLAIN . chanfrein. reusement — fight in single combat. calidameya. kampeln. To Chamfer.Lat. accident. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. kempen. Get campers a ball To camf . kimbu. — masterly Sp. top of a borehole.' ' Pr. a hollow chanfreiner. to wrestle. kippo. cample). Prov. Fr. champ. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . jeu parti. Lat. to tread The sound heavily. kempa. So in e. rare. to be eminent. Lat. head armour. Lat. fray. camp. to fasten oneself to another . to Hal. a scufSe. kabe. certare. or player at football. ing.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. chanfreindre. cadere. to fasten oneself on to another . to bevel. See Camp. Sp. at the railings. giving rise to the as. to cample. chaude mesUe. contention kappi. Ptg. to smack the lips in eating. Champarty. to excel.' melleia. combat. CHANCEL It. divided game. Du. campus. Fin. Lith. camp. to quarrel (comp. Fr. to slope out the . — Ch-amberlain. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). kibti. calida et sans aguet. Champion. Chancellor. to stick to. contend or argue G. — Hal. from Fr. an athlete. move the jaws.—Charfron E. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. to debate. to happen {ad and cadere. champion Du. fight. . athlete. as in It.—Tutschek. to hang. chamble. to hollow out. and acted as inofficers of . kabintis. bickering. Magy. . kampen. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. kablys. excellent. a horse-race. dial. a feat. prize-fighter. a hook . which seems another form of the root. Chamfron. to to chew champ. to hold . cameratus. kanip.

to — cut. ceaplas. See Chop. chap. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. esclapa. to sing. Sc. Russ. to cut up into small pieces. chop. kappen. changer. Hal. from canna. wood. — : Lat. Prov. kjaakaa. also a clap. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. may be compared with ON. kemma. Hal. chapeletas de imbornales. as corn-chandChandry. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . Aasen. chapear. esclapo. Lith. a strip of metal plate. the place where candles ler. muzzle. — — —Marculfus in Due. any hollow for conveying water. a small plate of flat metal. Compare chark. Sp. Da. shift. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . It is also used in the sense of the E. . —Chantry. That wide were sentin their spicery. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. Chaps or chops. Chop. the loose flesh of the cheeks. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. A fellow. kiceft as well as kjakje. to hack. to creak. to strike with a sharp edge. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. like the knocking of hard things together. Chapel. kvar kjceften. See Chant. Hence chantry. I. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. hack . chanter. Lat. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. chapilla. to swap. . chapa. chapeta. Hence It. ^Jam. skipta. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. chap. exchange. 2. the gutter that runs along a street. schimbu. Chap. to strike. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. a chap is a crack or fissure. exchange. klepan. to plate. —Ordericus Vitalis. chancellerie. chapelete de una bomba. Chap. from clap. to plate. Chap. to peck. a jaw. Da. to paw like a horse . — . is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. . Sp. to strike. Du. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. Fr. from chandler. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. to truck. Commonly derived from capella. is used in the same sense . Man of Law's Tale. chop. a money-changer. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. cambium. throat of an animal. ON. chandelier. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. as skin chapped hands. to cut. Chandler. as those on a trunk. surfaces striking together. cobio. to put on fresh clothes. a pipe. and the modern canal. Chape. gab. canalis. not a soul. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. W. camjar. Fr. to peck. and also to chap or crack. to change. debeant conjurare. 140. kennel. E. Fr. to break . Probably from chap. prune. as to chap hands. as chancery . the chaps . to apply one flat thing to another. cangiare. jaw. cambiar. cantare.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. Channel. cheek. To Change. to spht a chip. to cut off . but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. And N. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. Molbech. chancery. ceaflas. to coat. a small metal plate Port. chaps. chiappa.^. while the broader vowels a. waterconduit. leather. or the cracking of one. hard bodies. Bret. the mouth. extended to other trades. clapet. kapoti. the clappers of the scupper holes. properly in a hard body. Cheek. Chip. exchange schimbatoriu. or the like chapar. Lang. flat . lips of an animal. are kept. . kaupa. to deal. schimbd. In like manner Walach. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. a dealer in candles then. AS. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. . The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. kiceft. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. as It. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. jaw. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. cambiare. a reed. Fr. Walach. to chap at a door.

equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. Charade. the nature of a thing. hiss Lith. the turtle pitre. a garland of roses. w. — — — turned to coal. AS. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. es ist mi cheer. twist. Fr. a mark made on a thing. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. Chark. cerran. Charlock. schreien. a rhyme. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. from Charade. it is my turn. car. a riddle.. to love. turn about. Charlatan. chat.charme. czirbti. canne. from carrus. karout. Mundart. cha. be- e. charade. enough. Fr. 2. Hence carminare. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. carmen. kurkelis. from cape or cope. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. Chare. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. called in Sp. . wreath for the head. charcoal burners. corona. chara. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. Sup. chatter. return. a The OFr. Chapter. for the same reason rosario. and in It. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. carricare. Fr. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. Du. go. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. czurksti. It. The crash. wood to coal. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. charlatan. to . charlar. hadka. OE. Prov. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. cluck. . bler. chirriar. cearcian. babbling. chirk. charge an enemy is to lay on. to talk . occasional turn. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. Inst. decken. a dispute . Ptg. of chapel. Deutsch. to converse. capitolo. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. to sing or chirp as birds. czurliwoti. gnash. siarad (pronounced — sharad). from capa. to of the governing body. It. ciarlatore. carus. to load . Bret. grave or make incised marks on an ob. beloved. cedeleac. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. dear(in both senses). Charge. * Charcoal.' Boccaccio in Diez. a merchant. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. . —— . to creak. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. caritas. 370. a riddle.whirr. turn. surris seu Lat. Boh. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. in To ness Charity. which was incantation. From Norm. cam. Chapman. An enchantment. w. as a beetle. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. dim. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. twitter. Character. Cot. Lat. Chaplet. Mid. gaggle . seems to be derived charade. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . to prattle. to chirp as sparrows. To Char. to turn. See Charlatan. A weed among com AS. ceap-man. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. a turn cerran. that turned decken . pohadka. carregar. ject). kirkti. keeren. Macduff. . chirlar. a head or division of a book. gadka. cabildo. chapel. prattling quacksalver. babdistinction. carmo. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. Chirk. clack. to chirp. Lat. charger. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. Swiss. char. It. a verse. &c. chapelet. used in the sense of magic Fl. capital. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. tattler. It. Sp. (eucharistie. chatter. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. to turn Gael.czirksti. cluck kirklys. dear. See Cheap. Lat. AS. The G. Yx. creak. a charm. to dove .). charitas. Sp. to tattle. — a car. to croak as a frog . talking. caricare. from gadai. Justin. capella. creak. . cher um cher. Gr. Fr. in turns. In that work the verb is written caire. properly to place — . kurkti. charer. Charcoal was ciarlare. condo il volgar francese. a hood. affection. burning without consuming the substance. — spell.Lat. to prattle. a cricket karkti (schnarren. Lang. And damned be he who first cries Hold. capellare. as. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . to chirp. jabber. colliers that charred coal. tegere. Sp. ghirlanda seor garland. called kedlock. eyre. chapitre. to charcoal. a mark of a mountebank. Fr. Lith. krachzen). Lay on. from capitulum. eapitulo. as Pol.

An imitative word. chip. clean. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. caro. Gr. Pol. germinate . blackthorn-chats. from pure. czysty. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. — The . — Palsgrave. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. chip. pure. knatiern. to set a jewel. crackle.— Chit. shivers. Kil. whistle. make a noise as birds do. V. tittle-tattle. Chart. letters p. a gap. pure. a crack or a flaw . warble. In like manner Russ. chit-chat. limpid. fragments or leavings of food. It. karigh. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. an enchantress. —Chastise. To talk. charm. little sticks cudere. See Catch. CHATS fit 143 to name. — = Chats. cearig (from cearian. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. D. castus.ppen. root of the Lat.a. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. carnisj bones kept. Chat-wood. castus. a churchyard or charnel-house. gazeuiller.. To chitter or chipper. gazzolare. clack. as. kata. i. sordidus. to gape. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. The egg is chipped. Kil. ferire. Lat castigare. knacken. csatora (Magy. chick. carme and Fr. Hal. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. See Card. gazzerare. nommer. a branch. snap. or the cry of a bird or the like. karg. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. racket . Fr. — — . tenax. chaste. jackdaw . chat. to crack. to make a noise. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. Lat. to baptize. speak . pure. cassa s. kippen. Chasm. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. chit. enchasser. to crack. fragments. Du. carmen is presented in AS. Fl. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. Malay. It. shout OE. —Bailey. eclats. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. a word. cyrm. chaste. schioppare. warble. scraps of for fuel. careful. to cry as a chicken . csaterdzni. to burst open. as turnip-chaits. the handle of a razor . From carinen was formed It.). incassare. nome and . whence a charm of goldfinches. G. kata-kata. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. a shrine for a relic. chykkyn (Pr. prattle. magpie. to talk. Diez. a twig Suffolk chaits. be wide open. To chit. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). chick. la chasse d'une rose. clatter. as we speak of olive branches. cs E. the calix of a rose. csacsogni. converse. Cot. So in Gael. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. or a bird out of the egg. or equivalent forms. Cot. chits. The origin seems preserved in the Fin.— Chatter. To Chase. talk. clean. Pm. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. csacsogany. —Charter. To Chase. also to germinate or spring forth. to chirp as a bird to cheep. — sharp sound of a crack. a chatter-box. or suckers on rough borders. a young man . also a youth. gazzettare. It. is to represent the chamier. B. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. noise. To Chasten. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. chip. — We ornamental work the to signify E. Chaste. It t. . Chary. gadu-gadu. gallan or ogan. as purgare Fr. a flock of those birds. to care). or pop. the noise of birds. discourse. the bird is iiown. Fr. Chat.). chair. noise. clean. to chatter or prattle . s. — Yorkshire chat. a plate of metal. gazzogliare. Pol. used to represent a sharp note. It. to enchase it . Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. —Jam. Magy. — Hal. clear. kastaa. to chirp. as in the E. as from nomen It. Chamel. Fr. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. See Cistern.house. — Fr. chatter. To work plate as silversmiths do. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. in Jam. from xoAn. charmer. to clap. flesh. parcus. . talk much . a branch and a young female. Parallel with E. the cry of the bat. clap. to chirp. a yawning. from purus. to wet. occasionally Forby. also to hatch. gaddc. to separate in morsels. splinters. ch). Fl. geug. Fr. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. xi'i-'^vui. chary. to which it bears the same relation as chape. the young shoots . OE. Russ. chit in the latter sense Du. ch&tier. chisf. kna. g. chikat'. To chip is then to crack. %aafi. prate. to cut and faggoted. niggardly. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing.

with Dief. syllables ^ag-. lead to OE. Ek dry and hard. hawkmann. citello. while it Bret. Lat. cattle. to make inarticulate sounds in . to buy. Fr. the tongue. Faire bonne chire. entertain kindly. . to vomit.— Chaps. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. kikottaa. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. favour. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. a canting knave. cara. a young boy or girl. in Fr. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. the Confessor. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. snout. kak. retching. kaupa. Sc. a cheater. chiere. prattlingchete. cheeks. goods. Check. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. CHATTELS has ciio. sum in a loan. ceap. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. tradesman. to deal ON. the face. horse-couper.-^. ceaflas. farm for farm. chaptel. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. a rogue or person who used the canting language. Bav. to . price. changing. Fr. with the exception of land. sale. 'li^'opa jord i jord. Chattels. Gr. capitale. Pr. agreeing upon. OFr. et juxta catalla sua. See Cheek. goods. thers. Slav. giggling. entertainment. lower. Soc. to chop and change. society. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. countenance. chuckle. The gutGoth. to coff—Yisi. upon a checked cloth. kichen. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . frown. chavylbone or chawlbone. us. Cheek. the countenance Fr.. teeth . where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. chire. cattle. welcome heartily.. kakkaset. ceafl. gig. any cheating. to — . to fetch the breath with difficulty. &c. giving or taking in exchange. cera. a dealer. jaw. OFr. to buy. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. Bohem. Hal. from AS.ing. chear in the sense of victuals. caupo. Du. cita. and hence the E. Sp. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. kaupon.. gagkezen.kakot. Then. . cattle. equiva. Chear. Ingulphus. Chew. Pro v. a piece of moveable property. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. truffa. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. cachinnari. — To check an account. and.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. to coup s. the Lat. choule. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. It. mandibula. KaviiXog. kakaista. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. a tavern-keeper. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. a willing look and unwilling heart. . dchec. NE. .of the throat in coughing. ku.— . — — —Chowl. bon marche. which is the word in ceap. cozener. from Lat. CHEEK zitella. to act as a rogue. to laugh.— Chole. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. G. chop. kok. aspect of a man. Fin. Cam.—Choke. to swap goods . e. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. chapman. — We ' . stuttering. koopen. a dealer in horses. sob E. . chatel. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. to cluck like a hen.' to exchange to gasp. Hence to cheat. kaupiti. are represented piti. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. which is used in the to stutter. in widely separated languages by the Lat. keck. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. kik. to clear the throat . kaufen. gagkern.' kezen. sense of bargaining. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. catalliim. Pm. s. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. chatal. 144 the It. laughing. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. to cough and hence either buying or selling. to nauseate (to retch). stuttering. kek. Cheat. It — Brompton in Due. a repulse. whence captale. jaws. Modern Slang. visage. See Chess.— Cattle. Cot. force of the word. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. the principal ' colloquial E. It. to stutter gigken. kauf. Fl. exAS. to negotiate. look. ceahhetan.

F*-. It. Cherry. kok. make an end. jaws.EP CHEVRON 145 on. made rancid koka. kastr. xaque. Du. dear. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse.perly head. throat. Chess. chiffe. as. Analo. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. to geahl. cabiron. gill of fish AS. for cheese itself. cams. like a young chicken. by laying it in come to an agreement with. condition of being taken. ceg. suffo. Fr. to make a noise different word. E. equal squares of opposite colours. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. Lith. X'C&s. giffle. a heap. The Sw. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . gous forms are G. E. mouth kek. to gape gab. Hence chesten-nut.D. See Chess. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. To Cheep. geagl. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. accomplishment cayed. as meat and butter. jowl.. E. See Case. AS. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. to belch. The name of creak as shoes. skratt. N. cheek. king). the loose the game of checks. Pl. jouffle. CHE. veluti piscium. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. to hold dear. the throat. scacco. old bread. kces. kastanie. to love. Cher. kopen. OHG. to swallow. jaw. the palate Chequer. ceaplas. jaw. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. gullet. kistej Lat. practice seems to have been communiChevron. schach. caru. caseus. E. cheek. Sw. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. Da.cirieggia. Jam. w. kdke. ation. gaghel. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle.koppen. Chekenyd or querkenyd. kjceve. czypti. kapen. Pm. jaw . chasi. — 10 . gapen. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. From them the plish. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. cough. ceac. a chicken. chaps.G. Hence kikna is identical with OE. cabrio. kikna of dorum coacervatio. Fr.Xo belch. geafl. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. rennet. kesten. Chevaux de frise. kirsche. subacidus. . clear the throat. ca' — . It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. a rafter . AS.pose of acidifying them kasadr. Sc. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. w. kjcebe. castaneusj Fr. to accomThis they call hdrsk. Fr.. Du. Lat. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. quoka. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. kdkel. &c. cheeks. treat with affection. prevail with. things Da. food. ceaflas. incaseatus. gabe. Sw. rattle in the throat. cisty G. kikna. In these latter forms we see the transIt. to kasa. An imitative word. — — . quok. to bring to an end. Sp. acquisition. chevir. the The use of the word kcesir. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. mollium congeries.their struggle for independence. carnium. to heap up such things for the purchoke. cheken. cista. cherir. to gasp. Lat. cese. rafters in heraldry. cegio. the neck. rupted into chess. squeak as a mouse. /Ji2^/(W. ost. Fr. AS. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. to choke with laughter. . — — . Fris. hasten. cerise j G. cheek. subjected to this process with that which the throat . bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. by laying up in a covered heap. Cherish. Fin. Sp. Thus "we are brought din. e. . kaecke. the mouth. ichec. whence kasa-leipa. whence czypulas. cerasus. . chops. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. (Kil. Lat. chops. to kep.D. cireggia. chesten. schach. to year. kjakje. Fr. Lith. Lat. As the board to gasp i. Prothroat of an animal . gap. kasa. dersen . It would Cheese. to boken. cyse. to prevent the attack of cavalry. Chemistry. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. the final guttural is retained in writing. G.peep in the same sense. w. a cricket. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. ceocian.' to w.). Sc. chevron. throat. Chef. See Alchemy. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. frame by which the exertion is made. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. caws. achever. cufd. to choke. kasiiUPr. chAtaigne. — — . nish source. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. To make a shrill noise Chest. takes place in the formation of cheese. then end. Achievement. ON. Kil. G. the hke. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. . jaws Sw. Chevisance. Prov. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. Tutschek. chests in OE.

the head. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. chef. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E.— . s.peep. alter. quivering sound which passes. kuwe. to twitter. by driblets. Du. The loss of the syllable it in Du. keichen. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. Now gan some courage unto him to take. kimme. to titter is Du. or the broken noise of birds. 'Among these the G. chikat'. Chief. cidan. Pl. kindeken. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. CHJME the radical form is unusual. or as E. It. pipe. or chick. chiquei. into a continuous shriU sound. chew or chaw. to gasp for breath (Hal. Magy. stake. the least imaginable jot. Fr. chicken. kaw. cabarach. caferu. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. twitter. has probably the same origin. : — a lump. cebr. tremble. kime. cabriones. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. to contest about trifles. head. Gattel. a head. pi. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. as. Imitative of a loud clear sound. rafter . chimb. Chill. Sp. W. acute. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. chill. AS. chavel. sonorous. queror. machouere. the chirping of a sparrow Magy.^ to resound as a bell. k'imm s. CHEW . to chew. pole. from the second Lat. — It. the same principle I regard On birds. then as G. a chicken. chillrar.D. chic. as pointing out the origin of the E. Chaw.-ill. a young bird. tiukka. a jaw. knit the brow cib-led. crepo. a finch. chin. grelot). a small cask OFr. kinderen..). chicaner. The Pl.. kimia. while didder is to shiver or citteren. to chirp or peep like a chicken. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. from little to little. kop. cap. strideo. tiukkata. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. pip. See Chimmer. killen. w. Brezza. chol. a hen. rafter. G. . to contest. kimista^ . Walach. E. a cup. capo. Fin. Du. E. chawbone. to chime. tiuk. the cry of young . pipio. capu. ach. choule. Tintillo. also the horizon. Child. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. gosling. killen. Swiss kiden. Prov. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. mountain top . or qf people talking rapidly. Kil. kidata. caprioru. capete. and from the third E. cheek. horns of the house. signifying properly shivering. Fl. chillar. Lat. knarren. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. kopf Du. knirschen. Fr. E. — — Mother Hubbard. kauchen. captain. — Du. A To Chew. tiukkua.' my finger tingles with cold. pululo. chillness or shivering. horn wood. cica cica. a chicken. the young of animals in general. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. to smart. To chitter. czypulas. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. are formed Du. to use the jaws. Chigue. G. branchy. the Ptg. tintelen van koude. kind. Palsgr. Chick. kauwe. kibr. Fin. to scold. Pm. the jole. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. And hence.. . 146 brial. Chime. To Chide. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. Fl. creak. chaps. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. — . a cup. and not vice versd. chieftain. cabar. Pr. Pr. term is ssaru fu. Gael. the rim or edge of a vase. Fr. kilderkin. Pm. a quid of tobacco. Payer chiguet A chiguet. aner. zitterti. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. antler. ]). caput. in Walach. Fin.. a cup cibaw. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. klagend tonen. Halm. to Du. — Fin. Chimb. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. cib. tremble with cold. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. ' . chiler. deer's horn. De finger killet mi for kalte.^ Hal.— Cot. For the see word Doit. jaw. tyuk. when the vibrations become very rapid.— Gattel. Bret. cild. jaw. kouwe. the throat. from the first of which is Lith. rafter . kaau•wen. greloter is to shiver for cold. Chitter. hiss as meat on the gridiron. then cold. gills of a fish. lead through the synonymous E. chicoter. chavel. . while the Magy. jaws . kauen. to go. Probably from Fr. to the brim. a chicken. beam. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. Da. kieken.D. pipio. to raise the rim. De chic en chic. kippa. Russ. mouth. to pettifog. cabar beinne. ultimate origin of the Mite. a little bit. to crackle. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . kitista.

a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. flaw Hal. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick.Lat. komista. Sp. gena. but or cry as a parrot. to simmer. cheek. have been used to designate the spine. sparkle.. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. Sp. sound. kinne. as the chink of money. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. Huloet. a crowing sound in recovering breath. chirp. ciarlare.czirbti. esquina.iron. the cheek (jaw) . chink. tsongeni. genawi. The small entrails of a hog. fyr. Lith. companied. Magy. squittire. to tremble. skina. then to any narrow crack or AS. a thorn. as a large bell . all these imitative terms being minata. Gower in Hal. the chin . Du. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. to creak. backe. KinneGr. verynge or dyderinge. chatter . It. tsengeni. The desig. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses.' Phaer's Virg. komia. rustle. Chisel. in Hal. caperd. simmer. G. are In like manner E. pare also Walach. . also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. the jaw. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. hollow. See Chap. twinkling light. See Chark. chits. Chat. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. i. hus. tinnire. a chink or fissure. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. to squeak in It. 147 kimina. from 10 * ' Chia. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. . and the Du. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. gen. chin . to prattle czirpti. Chit. do. clashing of weapons. G. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. and light. spina. dial. Chimney. To chirp or twitter. the chine. Du. a fire-place. Kil. or chyFrigutus. keich husten. sound on beginning to boil. a Kuttn. To chink with laughter. a szemrcU. to tattle. part lion. as birds the mouth. Fr. Pm. Chink-cough.). the jaw. quivering or shakyng for colde. ter. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. Fr. yivtiov. genou (pi. Sp. to chine. eschin^e (de pore). Cot.. Bret. Sw. zirken. To Chitter. chick.schricken. kumina. twitter caminus. and bodily movement in shimm. Chine. applied to tremulous motion. czirszkti. epine. chhint. eschine. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. the cheek. et garrire . schetteren. cleft. It. killed by Bellerophon. AS. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio .to chirp. cinan. Gascoigne in Todd. Prov. E. the mouth (jaws) . Pr. cisello. also vibrans. Chip. cisaille. Chyrme or chur. hiss chirlar. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. a hall Mid. Bav. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. In the same sense. schrick. sonants. It. tschirpen. Caminatum. eschiner. to chirp. esquena. — . clangor tinniens kummata. schetteringe. tremulous motion. fissure. shiver and the chyver of Pr. spina. to chirre. and chim-mer. Primarily a shrill sound. schina. ykvvQ. Lat. a surkik hosta. cinne. — . is applied to the separation of the broken parts. to sizel. Gloss. the whooping cough. from the geon's lancet. plodere. bone . sonus the backbone Lat. Chitterling. then of a fabulous monster part goat. j^lf. Hindost. to sound. It. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . . in the same crack. . caminata. to gape. to chink with laugh2. kieck hoest. — . disCot. which differ from each other only as Chirk.Huloet in Hal. Chitter. caminsects. as the/ is preserved tering.sharp. kumista. vincially used in the sense of a crack. to prattle . See Chats. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. kink hoest. — . The change from the sound ter \s. It. klincken. bx-eak the back of schena. up and down. representing connected together. Fr. resonance . Chin-coug^h. crepare. Chymerynge. a chap. zirpen. pork) . to sound deep or the Gr. to creak. schiena. cheminde. sounding deep. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. — — — — — . to open chirriar. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. Chintz. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. Fr. hiss Pm. to chirp . a thorn. name Then. clipping of coin. from Lat. Fr. Chimera. quavering of the voice.to divide or Du.er. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. to chink. See Bright. and from a similar sound to boil gently. A . cincel. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. . Chink. to murmur. Ptg. ciseau (for cisel). E. backBut she withal no worde may soune. stridere. Sp. as a bell kommata. Diez de. To Chimmer. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat.

whence choleric. to clap up Hal. ruffs. taste. chatter. rare. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. a rag. Choice. a small slice or slip of anything . Fr. . Schmid. are used in the same sense. in the same language. civette. &c. Equivalents in the SlaFr. to strike hands . — Chock-full. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. Enn Sigridur sem ' . OHG. to stop geschoppt voll. Jam. anger. pluck. chiffe. Serv. . to try. krussyi. chattering. to palpitate . approve. Warwickshire coff. as with a blow. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. the small parts of the roots of plants. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. Prov. to try . a fragment. to break off in small shive. whence Lat. from kraus. from chevalier. the inwards of an animal. chippe. Cavalry. or original meaning is preserved in G. cepa. word is more likely to be from Lat. seallion or unset leek. and in kosten. to hack. The . to taste . crammed Choir. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables.ceosan. The I go to prove them. Chives. x^poc. kieser. of E. to exchange horses. and Vf. kalbs gekrose. •- Russ. * To Choose. kiesen. a chive. full.D. Yr. . choix. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. i. a calf's pluck or chaldron . — See Cheek. curly . G. a blow. shoot . shiver. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. to choose. try. lead us on to Lat. okusyti. by which they are Fr. gdnse gekrose. caperd. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. to shiver. gustare. to tempt. an onion. The Sc. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. coup. signify to kiss. and It. koren. chaup. to try. kiezen. a scale or fragment P1. kruszki. Swab. as green as leeks. ent quarter.. wein didder for cold.freze.. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. select. %o\ifa. friller. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. to experience. wkusit' prikushat. bile. keuren. to Compare also Pol. . to ^cleave . The manners and senti. ^euw. chibble. Gr. kustigen. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. Fr. kushevati. coro. Choice is probably direct from Fr. a wine taster. As kushnuti. to prove. Walach. to chap. To Choke. chife. choppe. chock full. kiusan.' who shall not taste death. to wrinkle. to taste. to chap at a door . from %u\i). 19. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. kiusan. schiefer. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. — Cholera. a ruff or frill. then to shiver. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. Luc. CHOP kros. 2. haslets. called cMtters in the N. chimp.V)^x. specially with an application to theatrical performances. a twittering.' At last he dwelt . — — — . Chivalry. chives. fine threads of flowers. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. keypa. a heap.vonic languages are Pol. cut up into — See Chats. Chuck-full. full to overflowing. kor6n. developments of the same radical image. experience valerie. &c. and in this sense the * small pieces. a young . ^S. a company of singers or dancers. heaped measure. cive. a goose's giblets. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. disposition. then to try.' Verie coinme Cot. kusid. to taste. a calf's chaldern of E. causir. schevel-steen. ON.— B jag E. ON. xiv. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. Boh. try. ments of the knightly class. Goth. Chap. schoch. taste. the ridges prove. cape. pieces . to ing is doubtless to taste. it is probable that the root kus. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. a ruff. also calPs. kausjan. chorus. Gr. . kushati. Chives are also a kind of small onion.gust. to turn. G. a knight. chap hands. kaup. by the vibrations of sound or motion. kbhren. Lat. cke. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. to taste. propagated. To Chop. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . all seem slate . the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . prove. gusten. Choleric. and N. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. . to taste. Body and Soul.yEuffM. of an angry — — — ' ' — . to try. arkiusan. See try. scheve. —Chorus. I. to taste. . Gr. skifa. chawdron. wrath. Fr.ffrill. Swiss kust. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. chceur. fresure. gekrose. G. g'schochet voll.

kaw. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. as in Fr. clogs. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. 49. ON.(. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. a thick piece. capitone. bearand aits. —Shakespeare. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby.sohola. kubbr. ceo. Gr. Gr. kowe. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. That Face. AS. A fish with a thick snout and head. the intestine of an animal. &c. I bring you the Cloughs. cauc. a messenger or envoy. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. Fr. Cot. sent before him a Chiaus. Borgoens happen.X. Confounded with the bullhead. peace. syllables chat.' Jam. kobe. Fr. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. From the Turkish Chiaus. caphatenus. who took in the Turk- clack. a The What dhy ^. koppe. capita. for to defraud. cavena. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. chuet. to overturn. chop. kaej Lith. chevane. E. chapineria.). From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap.). whence e. chevin. chrysalis (Plin. OE. chouquette. — Dief. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . Nominale in Nat. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise.. a trafficker in souls. Lat. Chord. Come. Gr. Fr. cheap. Ant. Sp. P. overset. Marin. Chronicle. klompe. capitanus. Kil. caker. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. in Chaucer. to speak thieves' slang. connected with G.' They are forebuyers of quheit. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. 4. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. gull. claquer. chevane. Du. To Chouse. cheviniau. If I discover. In Sc. E. chapma?i. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. time ra . chrisme.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. by the Robert Shirley. a small fish with a large head. — . Fr. Sw. In the Alchemist. chatter . E. slipper . to clack. Wall. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. to turn over. capito. ley in Giiford. XpvaaXic. as Du. cauvette j Fr. Chopino. cow-couper. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. dial. chroniques. xpi'^lia. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face.— Landnamabok. cangiare. chapin. chub. one who buys and sells horses or cows.— Chevin. yiSA. klopper. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. thick-set. monedula. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. i. traffic. in i6io. prattle . whence apparently the Sup. choucas. merchant. because she would not endure this husband chopping. Fr. chronicles. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. to knock. See Chaff. — Quabbe. What do you think of me. Chuck. whence — E. kauwe. a bullhead. to cant. Chough. high clog. Picard. . kaulhaupt (club-head. a lump or piece chump. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. xop5>}. Chrysalis. dial. cob. cresmeau. short piece kubbug. which was written 27. clat. To coup.—Chuokstone. -chron-. to chatter. G. Alchemist. See Change. or miller's kaycke . kowej Sax. of which such strings are made. equivalent to the E. Jam.• — . cambiare. applied to an owl in that language. civetta. gull. e. e. fat. plump. forms are Chrism. xftovoq. .\^s. To Chop logick. gobio capitatus.. a stump. we find the following passage Dap. Chub. that will thank chiaus — you richly. The Turk was here As one should say. kubb. chouette.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. Peace. — — — . chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. gold. Du. kolbe (club). A jackdaw. the same word with the It. and we actually find champman for chapman. noble Doctor.povucd. p. to strike in the hand. quappe. E. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. whence the Fr. caqueter. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. kaufen. thumb Fl. dealing. Madam. — Chrisom. the string of a musical instrument originally. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. from kloppen. Gr. the teeth to chatter . soul-couper. Anachronism. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. an offence against the fitness of times. chack. ' ' What's that? Dap.

cinctura {cingo. pith. G. Sw. sicera. e. pp. cidre. a husband. residue of burnt coals.. whence ON. . and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). a douse on the tores. casum (in comp. Sicerawry face ceffata. ciuffo. whence deciduous (of trees). Wall. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. cendre. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. It is certain. ladre from Lazare. calx. cheek. or. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. has been impugned which it has really no connection. from Lat. Cleland in Jam.— Chu%. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. to sparkle. — . tindra. i. — of the two words. dial. however. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. log of wood. KaxXij?. to fall. we have to chack. domhnach. Hence -cid-. * Cinder. Cider. Wall. Cob. cheeks Cincture. OFr. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. Du. chops. in the face. to gird. to strike clatter.rendered by Kil. cinis. in circumcision. chaps. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . G.— . Du. cinctus. i. kakka. incido. ON. klakka. male person.' he adds. as in E. spuma metalli.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. AS. tie about). Lat. to cut decide. a fellow. kjami. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. joufflu. surly. as a board. See Cheek. Da. geaflas. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. . as water running over rocks or stones. to separate the kernel of the milk. AS. Fr. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. C^z^j^ churHsh. calculus. to make a aiKipa.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. Jennings. to To Chuckle. To chuck in the fall from. a man. The spelling of chider has Chump. sindr. swollen or puffed up Cot. chakil. ChurL husbandman. -cise. ceaplas.D. Gothic nations. with It the Lord's house. 24. the kernel. giffle. accido. chofu. ccedo. Chunk. Churn. an old man. -cide-. have given rise. a cutting round. a pebble . See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. lamak. as Fr. Fris. ashes. to throw out sparks. cado. chack or stane-chacker. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. Fr.V//a'6'?. &c. The derivation from Kvpiasov. . to determine incision. -cisuiri). Probably from It. ceaflas.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. &c. chofe (Grandgagnage). e. scoria. to turn from blossom to fruit. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. Gr. to make a rippling noise. Sc. Du.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. Gr. sindel. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. kernjen. gffe. from Lat. comp. kaerle. countryman. The origin ation. a resounding object. a pebble. See Ceiling. . Lat. blow on the I io6 in Mur. to him a sudden blow. Ir. thence a belt. ceffore. to form grains of butter. Chuff. kirna.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. fat-cheeked. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. a rustic . Diss.for the residue of stone coal. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. . that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. then the on oh StX iv roXt. cut off. that the word is an adoption of Fr. to Newsp. See Cheek. ceffo. ON. the snout of an animal. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. a man. joffu. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. kiorne.' And cold. a lump. to churn. -cido. Aasen. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. to fall at or on. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. KvptaKolg. Lat. in Sc. x^^i?. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. -cis-. chife. In Sc. sindra.^. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . to jaw chack or snap. . or choice part of a thing . — — A — ' ' — . marrow. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. a man. karl. to cause the milk to grain. a cutting an old chuff. a girding on. a miser. sintel. dust. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). sinter. Lat. Ka-^aiva. so as to make the happen . cinders used disjunctively. sive piratiam facere sciant. flower. -eris. ceorl. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. kerl. chack-stone. jaws. to fall upon decide. Church. As AS. but by way of explan. whence church. set kerti. Cieling. as Epkema explains it. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. chuffy. kern. ON.

rattle. . Bohem. or quill to draw waier through Fl. creak les dents. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. to bawl. castus). forms — — — parent plant. Circle. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. a ball. domern. Du. noise — — a cistern. to call. Clamp. prattle. We . around. slam. See Crankle. as in Sp. Lat. clot ON. KipKog. klqb. circ2tlus. —Circuit.— . to cluck. claquer crash. Chaste. to mention. and E. glamm. to chatter. to strike. Cite. sajira. city. klamp. Lat. Sw. a young and tender plant. cion. cry. CION See Tinder. kringr. a whip. noise. clasp. -cis-. crack. E. area. kluV. clack-box. Sw. clamare. Lat. to knock. claquer. chupon. In Fr. lump. lump. It. klubb. klappe. Fr. . biw. clangor avium . a ring. To Clack. as caverna from cavus. circum. a knob. a circle. klacke-busse. klappen. circum. We . klambr. a shoot. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. bunch . twig. Du. Du. a Lat. Hence Incite. scion or sucker. a hiding-place. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. It. klumbr. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . trunk. Citadel. . sindri. * Ciplier. lump of wood or with the nasal. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. to chatter. lump. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. Gael. —Civil. suck). to summon or call on. civis. Lat. . sound. clapping of klacke. a whirlwind. to appeal. dob. clamp. a kind of rattle. to be empty. sphere gleba. lump . a lump Du. a lump Lat. or clap-dish. See -cid-. . -cite. empty Golius. log. to set in motion by means of the voice. ON. globus. clap. a city. excite. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. clamras. klacken. crack. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. a. cion. Citron. a'upiav. It. klateren. babble . to call by name. klopati. claim. 'mass. klump. the tongue. cittadella. a judgment cern. Dan. dim. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. City. a lemon tree. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. sprig. a citizen . The notion of a lump. clamer. clack-dish. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. The syllables clap. a clod. cit^. for Cion. and. and clash. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. a boss . Fr. compared with It. Fr. ring. . klak. Hal. claquet de moulin. chatter . to cry out. ciste. To Claim. cifra. Cot. a rattle Fr. and Sp. to clack. sip. about. * Cistern. a for water. klimp. a place See place hiddern. klompe. klekotati. Fr. The Gr. Alt. lucerna. clambar. cittade. civilis. mass . to clatter. Mack. to gnash the teeth. as. G. clog. clump. Excite. to make to go. cry out . klepati. ern. a reservoir Probably from Lat. Dan. to clap at a theatre. W. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. a split. — (Dozy) ing blow. Sp. around. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. chijfre. ON. .to suck. parallel root is slam. a block. clapper. gutter. a Pol. Gr. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. Lat. prattle. in the frequentative form. Scion. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. a circle. civitas. From Arab. cluster. ON. outcry. a cistern. Arab. scion. clobyn. is traced by Gr. So a light. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . glam. belonging to cities or social life . G. glambar. clamp. chupon. from chupar.' sione.. cisterna. wasserkasten (water chest). sifr. &c. the door was slammed J slamem. lump. Recite. . Gr. clap. to toll . may cite w. fall. sound- — hands figures. E. hringr. a mass. KpiKoe. . with an initial s instead of c. ruin. to cleanse. cisterna. circa. claquer. klap. clack. cieo. a loud uksa slamketi. ball kloben. citrus. klater-busse. radical identity of the Fr. a pop-gun. a cleansing place. cito. a kind of pipe. Circum-. cittd. Comp. to go. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. Lat. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). the place of . a block. . a clod Russ. to call. Clump. cista. crack. stimulate. a circle. ter. tinnitus . a city. klabb. sound of blow. Gael. or split with noise. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. Lat. a ball. kringla. . of citta. klammer. lash . clatCot. See Circle. chest. rattle . to chatter . clat. klemte. bunch. Clam. circle. whence cistiti. a rattle . accordingly find the roots dab. Lap. citujn. uproar. smack. clack. vociferation.

anything hidden. . B. To Clamber. sticky Hal. klamre. a craCmp. glambar. the in many languages. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. to Hal. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. klem-vogel. ancestor. Dan. Gael. Fr. to hide. Clang. Bav. to glue. club . a whip. descendants . klemmen. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. to beat. klammern. dandestinus. Swiss kletten. of money Gael. B. bond. — — . chief. to starve. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. to patronus. dientes. — Lat. a burr. cling. The root which gives rise to klibb. . to dame. Clink. Dan. compression. dapier. tremble . to Sw^. to do anything with a clap. a bird of prey. In like manner Du. to claw oneself up. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. clangor. Clapper. klepel. Swiss kldbem. pressed close or hard together. klappre. klippe. salafa. clapas. klibber. beating. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. hands or claws to grasp. clear sound. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. children. Clank. from birdlime. a trap. strait. dren. Mampe. clink. yf. klepanie. and that from celo. as the clapping of hands. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. . to daub pinch. of the children. kloben. a noose . for tame conies. to climb. dee. gum.' to take coals to Newcastle. to. The equivalent of Lat. celo produces Fin. Russ. to glue. children. rattle. klampen. sound object . — Climb. c). also to clog up. clapper of conies. is used in the sense of secretly. klettern. a stone See Claim. a claw . klatten. clann. a sound. a heap of stones. apprehend . clandestine. clang. klappen. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. accent. gripe. . klemmen. G. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. klank. to cleave or stick. gliong. resonance klingen. nature . a stick. klammer. E. dienklebber. Dan. tinkle. to seize. dia. Dan. tattle. adopted Lat. clammy brace. Clamour. ney. klobber-saen. kleben. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. or klamp-vogel. to cling. from the w. AS. and hence moist. a rattle . G. clap. grimper. cramp. G. These words To are closely connected with damp. clibby. with cramp-irons. to climb. dem. dang. G. viscosity . is a nasalised form of gripper. Lat. Halma. dambar. a loud tingle. The Fr. klamm. daver. tingle. clajnmy. kleppe. beat. chatter. offspring. to hold to pinch. hook. a sound made by a lighter clink. The E. Clan. ring as metal. coagulated cream. pinching. Du. rumour. klebern. to clamp. cramp-iron. dapier. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . scendants. Lang. to climb . Pourta las p^iros as clapas. holdfast. klappen. dapi^. Sw. a hawk. viscous.er. but perhaps not directly from it. Clamp. conceal. cream Manx doan. to climb. a claw. to clutch or cling oneself up.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. Du. cluster. brawl. grasp. to gingle. Du. to hook things together. run to lumps Clandestine. — . dial. Du. klam7n. bandage. klette. hold. klemmen. uproar. to climb. strain . clav\f. sound . dap up. . who occuG. klynge.' klibba. where- A — unto they retire themselves. clamber. in a hidSen place. kluppel. to knock. of which the locative case. crowd . These are imitations of a loud. klopfen. stick. to hold fast with the . clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . to pinch. privately. E. to clap. massy. klang. Bohem. To sticky. sound. E. cleave. dam. dam immediate modifications — .1. kleppen. dink Du. klepati. sound. whence sala. Salainen. klubber. See Clam. clasp. klamme. take hold of. G. solid. klynge sig op. tone. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. &c. — with hunger. buckle klamp. to knock. to climb. closely analogous to that of the fast. originally a heap of large stones. klam. clap. chatter. dam. to stick or glue. Hence the Fr. knocking. a place underground where rabbits breed. a sound made by a still . contraction. dial. as the Lat. tenacious. prison. klavre. compress. E. To clap in E. damras. substances of a stickydam. to clap on. and hence to pinch . a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. — Cot. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. . to stick conceal. sound of the trumpet . G. kleppe. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. Clap. G.. damor. klimmeii. narrow. seize. A i. salaan.p correspond- ' without order. dank. tight. diver. OE. dam. a heap of stones or other things piled up . as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races.

kleeven. &c. klos. kletse.oi. clopa. claret win e. Clash. Gr. glcis. The form clew. Nawith stavis. hawk. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. Kil. to snap. to rattle . Prov. is preserved in Lang. kluczka. to knock. — Clarion. a buckle. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. a lash. — tells us. in the sense of a mass or lump.It. a lump. from clinging to the tree which supports it. globus. contraction. clarinado. klampe. klampvoghel. Du. clamp. Du. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. Lat. Claw. is used in Sc. kleuen. syrtium junctura.ck a whip. klase. waU. 269. insularum nexus . In E. klc^i. as G. klouwe. Serv . Thus from Lat. a kind of small. — Kiittner. In the same way is formed the OE. clausum. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. clairon of a trumpet— It. Fr. Wyutoun in Jam. a claFr. The b readily passes into gleba. to animals Sp. blab. a. To clew. to ring in such a manner for the dead. Pol. . Du.. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. as Mod. fibula. a club or massy stick. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. hook. the primary origin clapa. Fr. E. klatsche. uproar. to patter. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. From clairet. Lat. Nightingale. vinum helvolum. Mask ! plask ! thwick. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. It. clair. clausula. rubellum. Rayn. ghespe. compression. claw (what fastens together. a nail. klatschen. to end. a claw. klauwe. diver. klaterbusse. to clash as arms. klamme. nail. &c. vin clairet.to cra. But clasp or elapse.Z. a distribution of things into groups. or as G. Originally clasis. — Clarinet. Analogous Jam. we pass to the E. and through v into a. Thus from clamp. clatter. crying. seizes) . globus. biichse. a heap. climp. mass. K\a. as it is written by Chaucer. the cracking of a whip. Eya-klasi. somewhat clear. a water made of aquavitse. klouwe (Kil. Fr. clavus. Clew. dap. and shrill-sounding trumpet. klaskad. an ending. with a reddish tint. from scknallen. a. pellet . Owl and that by which cleave to. clew. a key KKtitid. cluster. straight-mouthed. puUs. in the sense of a claw. Sw. locket of a door. stop of an organ. chasguear. So Pol. clas. Lat. biichse. clarin. klaequivalent to clack or clap. subrubidum. gaspe. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. skeria-klasi. a key. a key origmally a crooked nail. to shut. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. thwack . Lat. a complete sentence.\x\xvn. Class. chiaro clear. klatscha pop-gun. Claret. nawith stanis. fragor . whence kleuer. clavis. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. chatter. i. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. thence a definite head of an edict or law. he of white and red grapes mingled together. Clavicle. Dan. KXeiSi. kiosk bicza. to draw it up into a bunch. to fasten. clairon. assembly. Cot. to clap . ansa. chiarello. a bird with powerful talons. and clavis.— CLARET clamp. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . chiizjj-o. a ball. From claudo. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. chiarino. sound of the foregoing description. ivy. a lump . a clasp. Clasp. It. flap. from the resemblance to a key. sphaera. rion. teren. to cleave. also a knell for the dead. klucz. Eau clairette. e. a little hook . to fasten together . which signifies a ball in E. vin claret. Du. buckle. a clod. Identical with ON. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. Du. applied in their harness. clump. row aii/iaTos. Sp. G. classis. mass. klot. same class with w. Clause. from its use in fastening things together. —Kil. Lang. klaeret.Gr. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. it is called clamming. cloi. pet. Du. klijven.w or u on the other. Commonly made. clew or fasten upon a thing. The collar-bone. schnalle. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. and old red rose-water. cinnamon. klatschen. . bawling. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. under three modifications dava. the collar-bone. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. an on the one hand. klauw. forms are the Du. fracas. a sphere . Klatsch- a pop-gun . to do anything with a .). Clatter. sauna de classes. a bunch. noise. Russ. ictus resonans.

Da. to clinch GB. conserere antklankjan. it cleave together. pretty. merciful. Thus from G. rive. smooth. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. a noose. E. Sw. doggy. tongs. viz. glent. found in other cases. mud. clear. Du. clean. to cleave. a one end. kloue. a — — . date is AS. Cleat. door-latch. kluftholz. gaklankjan. klinke. klincke. clean. glint. Omklinken. From dob. pellet. klinken. viz. Probably a modification of the word doitt. This is probably one of the clean. klieuen. klinken. (Cot. This word is used in two business is finished off. loam. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. sticky . To call. either by the coherence To Clepe. or from being divided into two parts. . to shine. polish . give a shrill sound Jr. Mar. shine. from diquer. Da. a flash. Du. E. kla:g. an object is simply cleft. hook. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. kloben.— Clag. river. or of a tree. . a lump. the latch of a door. — : A rivet. from the clinking of the latch. Clean. to shine . to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. explained from the klinken. cliquet. glitnir. 2. dut. the original . clean. glorious. celebrated . gentle. clear. rivet. Gael.' was nailed to a rock. neat. glandse. clout. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. to sound or make a noise . that was a striking proof. lump. as the Du. gleit. to tear or cleave asunder. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. G. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. The Dan. a bunch of When flax). kloben. Du. glitta. E. glbr. seem formed dial. Axletree clouts. dedgy. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. Lat. glan. daggy. dial. cloven wood. Wilbraham. klyft. glindse. to fasten E. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. klinke. a latch. vice. cleave. See Clam. words applicable sight. to clinch a nail. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. A — A Clement. kluit. a fissure. Cleft. and Dan. ON. and. To Clench. Dan. sleek.). a key. gingle. a plate. nitidus. Halma. glor-mhor. klutsch. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. ON. clink. polished.— Claggy. kleg. Clemency. glbram. ON. glatt. Du. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. dag. clay . a mass. radiant. to stick or adhere . as Lat. Du. rift. split. klouen. Sc. as explained under G. to chink. klafwa. G. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. kleg. Clay. and E. The proper meaning of the word is shining. Lat. dinquet kleeven. speech . to 2. dags. dams. klirre. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. as ON. pure. neat. From clap. Du. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. chaps in the skin. kldnkelein. splendid pohshed. the To Cleave. deot. klinken. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . pure . The word may be — . klove The Dan. i. kluyte. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . W. geklonken. kluft. is fast and sure. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. clean. . klinka. to stick to. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. clibby. Die zaak is zS. bend in a stream. sticky. to separate into parts. a mass. Sw. klirren. clemens. kleben. a clincher. a fissure or division See Cleave. G. of iron worn on shoes by country people. klijveii. glance . to clink or sound. a cleft. kleevig. from nitere. Clear. klouen. and Celtic glan. klinke. to fasten. a noise. klank. klag. Clinch. Fr. diquetcr. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. 154 CLAY dutch. danche. sticky earth. The word is . B.Q. AS. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. klieben. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . voice. the fork of the body. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. calm. famous. kleverig. bright. glan. a claw or talon. . klink. doff. Sw. bogs cous. together . . in two ways. klov. that was Torriano.— . a cleft. holding together. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. to dag ox dog. clash. G. vissticky . See Clog. klceg. provinciaUy termed dout. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. glan. Kil. a in that of sphtting. . opposite senses. pure. to Brilliant. the two parts of Du. to clench. to be composed. to glitter. Da. clear. as Fr. to fasten. a lump. G. klor. Sc. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. Bav. kloben. dench. a cleft or fissure.

it must be observed. whence Fr.dergie! Wiclif in R. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. Somner. —Vocab. Client. which is used in Scotch and N. clep. one of the clergy. clima. See AS. to bend. speak. Norm. the clergy. pen. on. cart that tilts over. temperature. lively. frap- per rudement une personne. cliquer. to tattle. precipices. a lazar's clicket or clapper. to prate. to confess . to cleave. to talk as a parrot. and hence deik. IS5 Du. klouwe. cliff. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). . dough. cave . klaffen. clyf. clerus. Sw. to seize. a claw or clutch. klinke. with hamarskard. dial. as Lat. chatter. klika. dicher. a lot.) Brai. &c. We movement catch.Lat. quick of perception. declivity. — — A . in rhetoric. to sound an alarm to clap. littus. a hump. dob.' ii. is NE. derjon. deuck. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . 'not as being lords over God's heritage. globus. 3. click. dexterous. clap. deik. the clergy clericus. a figure mentioned. dook (identical with E. dergi. Rouchi cliche. Clergy. klippe. clack. dever. babble. clif- stanas. snatch. call. klinge. and (with the nasal) — clincher. rock. deik. Lat. scar. climate. cleft. call. ready of speech. dek. Cliff. Lat. Climate. Happen. AS. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. klikklakken. a lump. prattle. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. diofian. a latch. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. Click. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. cliof. to catch. OE. click it. to stir. deudi. a hook. dutch). a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. verge). as a click with the tongue. kleppen. to move. clever. region not observe it. de ripa. what so men clappe or crie. ginally from dob (extant in W. CLERK sound of a blow. — have the notion of a short quick in E. a ladder. deuch. Now the OE. click. nimble. cleke. to clack. klippe. to wink. that is a clever feUow. a sphere. e. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. cleugh. duke. chatter. In I Peter v. claw or talon to dek or deik. clypian. 3. as Sc. or Sc. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. Climb. derigon. corresponding to the Sc. dial. duik. . a ball of twine. crack. quick in motion. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . sink. rupes . a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. Gr. catching. in the sense of active. klinket. Boh. Claw. Dunbar in Jam. CLINCH De . would have been derida. to tattle. clever. cleft in a rock. to rattle. See Clamber. kliket. G. chat. derigo. Jam. The origin is the Gr. KkrifoQ. d See Clan. Da. diquette. an inclination. to snatch. But the Dan. to cry. skard. one admitted to the tonsure. klaiv. dink. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. abrupta rupes . score7i clif. Sc. to teU tales. Chaucer. Hence Lat. icXi/ja?. Fr. klok klep- crepitare. a clicket or clapper. a clew. .. sonare. a mill-clack . had a form. crepare. and hence climate. derecia. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. or an object character- Clerical. clif. hamraklif. a precipice. corresponding to Fr. neither as having lordship in the. klif. say. precipice. ravine. The Sc. klever. a tumbril. pulsare. cleopian. a baU of yarn. klev. Clam. from clifian. See Clench. Du. /cXi'fia. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. cliquet. klikker. to catch.— Clicket. rock. -Toe (from KXivm. a clerk . Bav.). Det er en Mover kerl. above the pole.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. Lat. dial. as from derido. Cot. a hold. Du. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. the dick of a latch or a trigger. highest is attained. a latch. Clever. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. dichet. on. seize (Hal. cligner. glomus. Commonly derived from deliver. Clew. Du. G. which in Mid. a child's or clack . Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. Clerk. rugged ascent. a latch . exactly Gr. Climax. expeditious. syn. stein- kluppen. agile. clatter. a trigger. cleft of a hill. Sp. rapidus from rapio. name. light-fingered. kleppe. chatter. crackle. a cleft in a rock . . kloof. Klover i munden. cautes. slope . from Gael glac. a cliff.— Clue. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. has kl'dver. ized . has also deik. in precisely the same sense as the E. diver. click. the knocker of a door. gleg. kliv.

to make a loud noise. Pl. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. recline. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. Swiss klokken. N orman clincailler. to snip. to pinch. sloping downwards . The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. to . a bell. Du. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. a beU. four of the bell. G. to crowd together klynge sig ved. pallium. compress . at first probably on a wooden board. Ang. to wither. to cling to a thing. Sw. clog. kukla. to pinch klupe. Swiss klungele. Ir. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen.' for a dry stick. klipa. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. to crowd or squeeze chingy. 'Till famine cling thee. to resound. kolbe to E. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. Gr. from klepati. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. klaka. dial. Kil. Een kliks bolter. ' . kima. klunker. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. . pinch. kolki-laud. a tinman. kldpp. clino. klippur. Sw. knot klynge. . cochl. globulus' (Gl. To Cling. related to clock. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. kXiVu. ON. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. . So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. See Clang. the participial form is the nearer to the original root.'— Shaks. clips. klynge. knippe. hill . ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. incline. chcng. &c. klik. klunge. Bi klik uti klak. klungeln. G. and 'E. ring clag. to sound sharp. rima. to snap tongs. dial. . toga muliebris. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. glocke. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. a ball of thread . ON. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. klippa. Gael. to beat. Serv. I. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. to shrink up. . To cut with shears. dial. in Schmeller) klunk.— Clot. klocke.D. as to snip in the same sense from snap. gUong. fetter. and so' to contract. klinken. -cliv-. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. Bohem. sloping forwards. a separate portion. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. Fr. kleppe. gang. — clot. verklungeln. to AS. brett-glocke. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . . clinker. iissura. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. * Clod. kol- The word . knippchen.. The E. Du. Du. Sw. tuft. a rising ground. — a mantle.und zuk-lippen. clivus. to cluster.' From Pl. a lump. straits. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. like cling. incline. G. as G. noise. -atum. a lump G. Decline. acclivis. pinch. E. Da. klupen. Fr. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. klicke. See Cowl. schnippen. clutch. Bohem. bow.ginglej Fr. to lean. kluppe. hluccti. kluben. outcry. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. Esthon. to snap kneipen. nip. Sussex peasant AS. to knock. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. Du. klippen. also to form a compact mass. clangere. quincailler. cloak. to clink auf. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. Flem. ten. Walach. clingan. sticky. g. to clunge. a clock. klok. clinke. klepalo. sloping upwards procUvis. shears. by bits. klocka. claw. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. to strike. clock is a variation of clack. E. a lump of butter. klocke. a faction. Lat.. klippa. slant. a hood. a cluster. to wither. G. speaks of a ' clung bat. Hal. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. S w. klak. klippe. To stick to. to shrink up. clato make a noise. to lean backwards. dag. as we now say three or four o'clock. disposed to a thing. G. clique. -CLINE make pinch. a snare. Sw. to clip. a bell. hlinian. also to wink . hooded . or bagging clothes.D. kliks. to beat on the board. . OHG. klincke. and a similar syllable without the /. klingen. as thick or curdled liquids. 156 -cline. w. To Clip. klo^gen. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. met. knippen.. klungelin. 2. Clock. . to ring. a clog or fetter for a beast .. especially of something soft or clammy. Cliofue. klinka. declivis. hluk. to form one mass with. . difficulty . difficulty. club). whence E. parva ruptura. G. to snap or fillip schnippen. hlinen. glungelin. to clap or clack. dial. a woman's mantle . to bend downwards . Clink. Lat. Cloak. The notion of a loose moveable substance.— KSS. to slope or bend . ON. Sw. cloche. toga.

! . mire. fors. a bal!. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. klag. to lobberig. Pr. mud klcEg. loblolly. lunch. Idppern. lump of mud on the clothes . finish . a monastery. To Clog. log. beklakken. miry laggerit. to flap as loose clothes. klos-bane. to rattle. loose trowsers. clausum. to dash like heavy rain. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. bloutre. . dangle. in accordance with It. dag. Hence inclose. to shut up. klottern. to shut. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. a clog. clogs. a skittle-ground klos- sen. tuditare. to rattle. klakk. slob.' end. to cling locks. klotzschuh. without. His heart was franlc without a flaw. geschlotter (as E. whence klack. a trowelful of mortar. lump of butter. bemired. curdled. -clusum. lobberen. In the same way Dan. . plod. Yule-clog. like G. a portion of something soft and adhesive. Fr. rattle. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. of something clammy or heavy. a field inclosed clos. a log. spatter. MHG. shut up. figer.D. doitre. klakken. slab. • lump. . slop. loppered (of milk). Swiss schlott. from Du. slabberen. zocco. slobberen. paddle or dabble in the wet. slops slodderen. splash. motzen. clatk. dirt. schlattern. to slop or spill liquids. He was a man without a dag. truncus. tramp in wet or mire. Cloister. Lat. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. forbidden by 17 Ed.. be&c. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. from claudo. It. slobbe. dunch). lobberen. chiudere. an imputation. bowl . shaky. to bedaub. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. clogs for the feet klakk. . we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. Russ. is connected with pludder. boil. in accordance with Pl. a blot. thick sour milk. A . . kloten. da- . to flounder in the wet. terminate. Mat. kl'dnken. kloden. Bav. Klottermelck. a lump from Du. -cludo. foreclose. lopperig. kloteren. wide bagging clothes. chiuso. . klos. dial. with Fr. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. fat. neither spot nor hang loose. pattens G. schlottern. from Fr. to spill liquids. Close. loose. lopin. or E. schlotter. claque. closed. slops). claggy.dial. to dabble. E. Klak also. pludre. . cloth. kladde. a clod Swab. close. to shut. dab. a babbler. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. clausum. 3. . Lat. we pass to Schlatter. Fr. Pl. in forms like Du. lump of something soft . klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. . laggyn. g. Du. G. to play at bowls. motte. . daggerey. and thus seem endowed . lob. I doda clod. daustrum.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. a block. schlettern. paddle. clot. separate part. klac. clammy loam. klod. to dabble. a log. bespotted with mire E. clotted locks Dan. lumps of butter.). clorre. watery. then liquid or loose substance. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general.D.rge lump. kloster. G. der like whey or blode whan it is colde.— Clothe. to bubble. or drablyn with separate existence. Du. zoccoli.'^ Palsgr. analogous plan to clod or club. to bodies.1a. . meat from Du. E. enOE. paludosus. to close against one. kleck or lack.. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. Pr. klateren. Pm. Clog. gelatinous. is a blot on one's character. to shut in. a dirty wench claggy. congeler. lag. I clodde. a Christmas log. klot. Closhe. or Sc. A — — A Thus from Bav. klokotat. of a body of any kind. or loppern. The origin of clod and clot is to . clos. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. loppe. hanging loose and full. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. to rattle or shake to and fro. and E. the radical sylla. lobbig. TZoxapov. we pass to E. -close. tJokok. IV. inclose. . blot. je amoncele. schlott. AS. I clodde. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. clog or overshoe. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. klunkern. klotz. spot of dirt. a spot. aspersion. thick spoon . a blot. mud. to paddle in the wet. to a. claudo. kloteispaen. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. in comp. compared with clump. and Du. Gr. loose mud. Fr. -clus-. slobber. to claggock. be found rattle. clos. Dan. and Gael. . Sc. kleck. wabbling from Du. The game called ninepins. m&se noch stain. to wabble. . a clod. laggery. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. shut up. to sup up liquid food. dirt. Fr. unctuous. clotted milk klotte. .

Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. the terms expresssplit. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. Club. dial. Sp. puddle. clump. Das volk hat sich in splitten. mary sense is a blow. klebek. sheltered . to cherish. a clown. Clown. klqb. G. clog. Kiittner. log. a cover or coverture . Imitative of the note of a society. dote.). clydion. davus. group of people Sw. klu77ip. knob. zolla. naegel. are often connected. a thick mass. . clammy earth. to strike . bunch. botch. a lump.' Sanders. a garthas. clothes ment. The radical sense seems to be an unE. The priClout. a clod. a ball. Properly that which covers and Du. clyd. klubbe. to cleave. . The significations of a clod or lump. sticky. a clot or keeps one warm. a bunch. lump. a . clobyn. Sw. ball of thread Russ. of thumping clumsy action. ON. kl'dnne. klove. tuft. knob. to curdle. dut. w. strike. to splash. a fissure. Clover. Ir. Clumpered in balls of clouds. from Du. — — — . clotted milk or cream. klubb. To Cloy. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. clue. to cover Bret. . klobbersaen. clavo di especias. een klaven kruflook. G. make warm. Pl. (kruyd =. to strike. cluster. a blabber. Then applied to a lump of mate. klcBdi. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. clot. a ball. To Cluck. cluth mhor. lunch). dial. kluppe. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. dash (Cot. nourish . a knot of people. klumba. a sky Cot. A kind of spice resembling Du.). of a lump of earth and that figure. and tapp. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. esdaboter (Roquef. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. a boss. a nail) Fr. — . botsen. in the same sense. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . dirt. klever. E. a nail. from W. caillebottes. Du. w. cloud Delfortrie. and clout d eudaich. dabaire. from OFr. lump. a patch. Gael. klunds. eene ODu. klubba. a log. Cld. a ball of twine . kluV. G. cobio. clothes). klubben und klicken aufgeloset. a clubfoot klabb. dump. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . cludadh. lump of earth aria.D. to a lump. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. but confounded with cailler. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. indispalte knoblauch. from kloven.clod. It. Dan. kloete. rustic. warm. of sloppy materials. klumpfot. and clay. lumps of curd. block. Mabousfrom Lat. nelke (dim. N. AS. chiodo di girofano. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. tered . a bousche.bar. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. a sticky. CLUCK rustic. mire. mass. a. to cleave or the splashing of water. zolla dell' . daggy. unpolished. with lout. kloven. G. clunch. . Clowfull of small curdled clouds. spice) G. are also used in the sense of a stopper. to beFr. So Fr. shel- kloen. warm clothes {dillad. a clove of garlick. diboter. of nagel. clunch. to tramp in the kluyve. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. eine to slop. as Fr. wisp. E. and -the word Clove. aglio. dial. little nails. to lump mend clumsily. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. E. de Champ. sheltered up warm. blockish. clumhar. clod. . Du. I. a clod or clot. Clump. a lump. a ball. clothe. ON. kldverj P1. Met. Du. Sw. Du. cludaim. klaven. A division of a root of garlick. klieven. stock.Fris. 2. klotsen. loggish. klump. In the same way E. Du. matte. clot . also homo obtusus. milk run to lumps.D. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. a bunch. when something has got into the touch-hole. dabosser. a curdled sky. More in R. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. choke or stop up. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). Gael. Cloud. formed lump or thick mass. Move. CLOUD an awkward clod . cobble. clot.D. boucher. klubb. lie clyd. hebes (Kil. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. duthaich. kUid. Rouchi dapoter. dillad bumkin. AS. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. nagelein. dys. a bobbin. klotz. clou de girofle. cob. clod is used in both senses . —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. piece Cot. a breach. Du. From dog. lump.). clump of a clout on the head. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. . to cloy. dob. clods. and closely do conspire. mud (Pat. klonte. klotzig. warm.ft. del mattond. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. a log. probably from daboter. warm place . from cates the application of the root dab to Du. a bunch. Fr. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. to stop.).158 . the air. coarse. and of a rustic unpolished person. motte. ser.

. Beklummen van kelde. klunt. to paddle or dabble. an instrument for nasal form e. a block.e. of garlick. Isaiah. a clod or lump. Ray. clip or pinch. klummerhdndt. unfashioned. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. The Fr. from ON. Hesse. clotted cream. G. and koetse. klamen. ' . might be reached from clump. It. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. to curdle. dial. OHG. awkward. a claw. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . to stick together . doquear. verkommelen. esclaboter. coucher became in unhandy. klette. seize. as Fr. and klonteren. to curdle. a lump. kohle. hands stiff with cold. klimpern. — sen. klikaty. a noise. gelidus. clutch. Du. klummklummshandt. Analogous forms with a tongs.P. rial. duke. ' Uorte (for clogs. Pl. klump. unhandy. klont. &c. The sense of awkward. In the same way Du. exclude. dystere. viscous material. pinched. to shut. log. Du. klikonosy.D. unwieldy Hal. Cath. with a quick. to wash. Pm. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. n. E. -CLUDE hen Du. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. . G. a coach. eene beklum. ball of snow on horse's foot . Fr.' Benecke. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. klos.. a pinching time. cleik. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. cluntClyster. as from seken. lay hold of. klister. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. pladdern. to curdle. dussomed (Wilbrabam). a clod or The noclot. Fris. ether comelia P. claws. hondis. See -elude. to rinse. klumpig. dial. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. to pinch. carriage in which you klodset. clausum. cliboter. cleche. a couch. klods. Coal. wooden sole. Hence snatching. unhandy. See reclusion. cluster. finish. strum on an instrument. Cheshire. splash. paste. ill-made . hand to cleuk. algidus. a lump or compact mass. and klotteren. Muster.D. to klotz. in comp. MHG. a nasalised form of club. to squeeze. . benumbed with cold.pare P1. plad or plod. Fr. . to tramp. -close. beklummen. Teulazy. klamp. the word is more probably connected with OE. G. koetsie. glousser. klompen. OE. a ball. thick and clumsy. or from Sw. clabosser. Du. a clod or lump. But clunchy. to syllable click. to lie. Hence cleik. lavesen. having the Pl. Fr. —To Clumsyd. * Clump. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise.' Comfort ye dumsid. fingers (familiar). to tramp or tread heavily. heavily. dumpers. Boh. Champ. inclusive. clump. clointer. Variation of clatter. Hindust. limp. Sw. idle. wagen. smart motion.Ancr. properly to do anything Fr. clutch. — . A group.forklomme (Outzen). Clutch. Ang. ' Clumper. whence koetse. conclusion. beklommen. Sc. kluntfrom KKvKdi. ball as snow. bunch. klomen. a bunch. dial. klampa. enervatus. a clod clunter. a ball . to grip. ' Thou clontsest for cold. koetsen. clumsy. ON. to collect in lumps. MHG. dek. havi. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. a litter. klisse. Coach. klumpern.' Wycliff. Du. klomje. or aclommyde. klocken. klobber in klobbersaen. to wash.