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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


or. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. the closer we shall approach to the . On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. the present day. or Mollein. in other words. and mully or mully cow is the .NURSERY IMITATIONS. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. The syllables moo (mu. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. the baaing of the sheep. when we is represent to our children of the cow. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. persons of different tongues at the present day. to the syllables which are significant to the child. name of the cow. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. by whom the be understood. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. when neither name for the object to be designated. and. and where we are seeking. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. Molli. muK) and mae (rfie. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. but nothing she herself knows the animals. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). in language of the present day. come Moolls. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. is given to a cow or calf. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. with an initial m or I. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. mind of the of the animal. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man.

Gradually.' In ordinary speech mump.' he says.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. and nim came to signify everything edible. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. I had watched the growth of this word. schipp. On one occasion he said^e nim. analogous to Magyar mammogni. We have. . then. for things. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. fiafifi&v (Hesych. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. had nim. and some were very clear and distinct. when hungry. Gr. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. partly from sounds which the child caught. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. family. &c. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. and which we might express thus. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. by the natural humming sound. Heinicke. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. First. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes.). A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. p. 72). in children's language. for bad. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. Finally an n was placed before it. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. to eat. repulsive to eat.. He would now say good. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. became more perfect. to work over with the mouth. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. nineteen years old. his nurse adopting the word with him. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. he called to to drink. as well as the mind of the utterer. mumm. A member of my own new sfop. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. nim. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. hm. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. to For instance. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. . which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. for everything fit to eat.

and the crab — p.' And Diomedes. Swedish dialect gamsa. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. tidbits nama . to eat mampfen. lita. make djamdjam). to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab.). greedy . to Sw. to eat. palatable. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. stolen. eating. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. to fill the mouth. j ing . (in chil- dren's language). and some of them . yamming. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. jumla. voracious.' says Quintilian. Galla djam djeda. mumpfeln. nobis vix permittitur. oves lalare. aptantes adfectibus vocem. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . jammla. South Jutland hiamsk. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. namnam. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. aves tinnire.' — Lersch. mujnpa. p. mumpfen. to mump. Wolof nahenahe. as to . mumble. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. snatched (Whitby Gl. delicacies. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. 130-1. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. i. clangorqae tubarum. i8o. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. or word-making. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. the Scotch poet. to take. sweet (Koelle). dial. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. memmexen. ' id est. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. Primitive Culture. Africa) nimi. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. nyam nyam. and thence to be tasteful. on. nvrnma.' says the author of Modern Slang. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. ' Motherwell. and the fizzing (and Series. to move the lips in continued chewing. taken up hastily on the sly. food (Tylor. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. at hiamske i sig. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. agreeing with Ein. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. A negro proOr. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . we can call them so. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). crab nam buckra man. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. to be pleamind . the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. Gothic niman. as well as the Sw.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. iii. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. 1 86). ut tinnitus aeris. Nimm'd up.ONOMATOPCEIA. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. nam. to taste . Vei (W. buckra man's language the white man.minis. . to chew laboriously. Africa) nimnim. to smack in eat. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). savory. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. jamsa (yamsa). Soosoo (W.

While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. that there is When Man. bellowing of bulls. barking. We . And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. or thoughts of our hearer. dove and cooing. chattering of pies or monkeys. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. 89) with less hesitation. yelping. Indeed. or. und growling. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. but of a dog. whether it deserves the name of language. baaing or maeing of lambs. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. sparrow and chirping. gobbling of a turkey-cock. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. cackling or gaggling of geese. yelping. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. bleating of sheep. twittering of swallows. snarling of dogs. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. grunting or squealing of hogs. might be used as the designation of it. not of a baa. anything connected with it. a lamb. do not speak of a bowwow. not of a moo of Lect. 'I doubt. might be used. neighing or whinnying of horses. snarling. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. intended in the instance to represent the cry. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things.' he says.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. hooting of owls. cooing or crooing of doves. purring or mewing of cats. chirping of sparrows or crickets. when circumstances required. lowing of oxen. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. croaking of frogs or ravens. between dog and harking. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. Yet we ing. howling.' And elsevs^here (p. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. for the purpose of bringing the animal. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . bumping of bitterns. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance.' — We speak of a cow. ^6^. p. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. before the in other words.

But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. Bav. Arabic kdk. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. in g. kuho. KOKKvi. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. having a general predicative power. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. We imitate the sound with a modulated. 349.IMITATIVE NAMES.). it announces (Salaberry). at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. caller. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. Hungary. Manchu The kaha. kdka. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. Aoo-Aoo. In Basque. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. ist ed. In Lat. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place.. whose sound (Pictet. or quawk. Georgian quaki. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. fi-om apakd- i. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring.' common sense. ghak. a a crier (p. Sauscr. birds. in is Gr. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. Kdrava. and Bavaria respectively. a crow. 380. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. Sometimes the hoarse i . and means a shouter. 'Kdka. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. Columbia kahkah. kauwe. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. caw kuhii-rava (rava. 4th ed. and the sound of that direction. layitavya . We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. a crow (Pictet). this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. kae. Origines Indo-Europeennes). coccolare. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven.). obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. is kuM) for the cuckoo. a bird that is be driven away. gackem. He to is therefore derives kdka. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. and gaggele or gagkelein. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. Malay gdgak. Barabra koka. as which is unmistakeably the source Du.' kd). Picard cau. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. crow. according to Durga). it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). sound). lion. e. crow. a daw. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. derived fi-om a root ru or kru.

tuquheit. teewhoop. tur. or Gr. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. So we have Polish krukac. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. girre. Hindi. coucouva. Lettish kiekuts. coqueri- Languedoc. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. turtle) as the Lat. kuku. to cry loudly. Fr. kraeye. coccovaec. Du. hibou. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. yell. German kielitz. gufo. Pers. synonymous forms of similar structure). the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. to howl or Lat. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. uhu. Da. to crow. Sp. to crow. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. krauklys. Scotch peeweip. Malay kukuk.Gr. kurre. kraukti. Zulu kuku. koeren. korren. use the verb is croak to designate their cry.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. German and Eng- krahen. Du. "Welsh hwan from hwa. by the verbs gurren or girren. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. German luhu. krahe. kirren. kukko. another. The crowing of cot in Fr. tortbla. wood-pigeon. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. Mod. Dutch kievit. t. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. while crouk. lulo. a crow lish Lith. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. Ibo akoka. Albacuculi a dove. Magy. and e. French dishuit. xi. lilits. 6. tbrtola. as well as of Sanscr. name of its is the bird. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. to croak.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. libufs. kruk. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. great variety of oKokv^uv. to hoot. It. the name of an animal will gen- . The consonants p. name. giving turtur (and thence It. 219. to croak. are represented. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. tbrtora. tor. either in the same or in related dialects. k. cock. kukhuta.. in the North of England.. a crow. and e. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. kraeyen. p. gugu. lUyrian kukurekati. Esthonian kikkas. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. and sometimes both together. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. Walachian coucouveike. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. a crow .' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. Arabic tdtwit. Heb. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . the name for a crow. Yoruba koklo. reduplicate form. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. Swedish kowipa. ghughu.

to be compared with Sanscr. a drone. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. oE. a beetle druna. common. g. to creak Bret. g. kong-kong. pip-pi-ta. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. there are infinite varieties. ' — Pictet . a fly (Tylor) . bee. as . The Welsh chwyrnu. Albanian tsentsir. with or Fr. a sharp sound as of a 6. resounding of musical instruments. chirk. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). to hum. ajo. representing a short sharp sound. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. Corean sirsor. The drone peal. the humble. skirl. to shrill sound sharp. Gaelic dranndan. Arabic tantanat. little intermission. flight its sting considered as a horn. and yelping cry. Sc. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. in allusion to its music. schrecke. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. bambhara. to rustle. to chirp J may be compared with . sound. Danish gnaddre. bamba. a bee. schirke. ta-na-nd. g. glass cracking (Schmeller). German drohne. Lith.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. grillen. the drone or non-working bee . e. and not from E. din. give a faint sound. cricket is from crick. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. whirr). gives rise to chwymores. The Arabic sarsor. Fin. droning is . Lat. The name of the cricket indeed.IMITATIVE NAMES. a small as hawk is . booming. loud rumour. Lithuanian tranas. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. and probably indicates that g. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. zirken.or bumble-bee. Australian bumberoo. words imitative of humming . schwirren. resound. German hummel.' Amazons. — Catafogo. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. skril with n. to chirp . to grumble. which they make in their flight very . skryle. grylhis. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. to sound. swirplys with 6. PofijivXwg. of England it is to the b 2 . 337. from the humming. hollow noise. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. succeeding each other — with noise. Sanscr. Danish dron. buzzing. German dronen. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. In the N. from schrick. grille. (Jieuschrecke) . Northern Farmer. ' Sanscr. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. a hornet. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. sirkka. We may cite Gr. growling.' —Tennyson. and he kong-ko-rong.' — i. or a gnat fly. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . humming. schrickel. knetta. horniss and from the buzzing The. Naturalist on the tocano. Speaking of a cricket he says. buzzing. shrill. dhran. North of England. i. thunder. 'The natives call it tanand. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3.vf3.

to make. bukati. loge. buculus. shoot . bwla. agreeing exactly with Lith. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. to bow- own bawl. say. Fr. in same way. to ba-L-are. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. The Galla lilbil. a buffalo. bullus and e. cattle. to low or bellow. representmake bow. mugire. to low . representing the mew of a cat. Da. verb is evidently identical with our shout. baula. are (with a subsidiary k). (iove. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. Norse bu. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. boo. a heifer. to make a loud deep sound. On the same principle. or moo. a bullock. Manx booa. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. to or bark. to shout. to the uses goda. bae. bauli. and from to ring. His analysis leads cow. Fr. p. bugler. miau-l-er. From the same lioao).XX called booing. With these analogies. to . bullock. maukati. make to it laugh. From baa. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. bolt. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. a cow. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. Hottentot bou (Dapper). The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. bos. bugle. fivKaofiai. be-l-er. btibleti. ox. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. is inadmissible. to weep. bucula. to shout. — ^Tylor. Galla boa. a bull. as the Illyr. mugler. to from bau. Thus from miau. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. Lat. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. or formed Lat. or with on. whence baula. k or g. a drum . In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. Illyr. to make. bull. Lat. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. bubenti. a Geiger. to low. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. to beat hard. in a imitation of a ringing sound. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. Cult. 167. lulauti (to hoo-loo). to bellow like a bull. from the imitative moo instead of boo. verbal form given to the say. amuse. bae. biibnas. mamoo-heeheek. the animal. Lat. w. OFr. or bau-l-i. and djeda. Piedmontese fi bau. and thence Lat. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. has bilbilgoda. and in Hottentot baa was the . bo. or a z to the imitative syllable. mae. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. forms a. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. muJiati. grumble as distant thunder . w. that the imitative syllable are Lith. make poo. to sound. to boohoo. bovis. Gael. The Piedm. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. the Fr. It. bubati. to mew. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). bue. Zulu lulula. as that of the cow by boo. to bump as a bittern Illyr. bu. to make a noise.

name. ^. — . it and e. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. lecco. a sheep (Lowe). a wolf. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). grumpf. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. the designations of a dog the term cur. Among dog. undoubtedly imitative. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. the snout of a pig. may with to snarl. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. a hog. growl. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal.' Moor's Suffolk words. a sheep or a goat. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. (iriKov of forms like Sw. a pig Fin. grumble. to bleat . name of a sheep. menAda (ndda. a goat. meketati. leknuti. It. grugno. grunt. hunt (gen. It is probable also that e. a dog. /xijeao/iat. sound. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. a grunt. karra. grumbhng. guttural tone. hund. signifying a snarling. a sow. groin. in Wolof bae. From the imitative mae. grunlike a pig in eating. Illyr. a goat firixal^ta. Gael.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. Illyr. mutter. smack and naski. Welsh and Breton). meckern. rumbling. a sheep or ewe. Da. Hence Breton hoc ha. mecati. The g. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. in v. lekavica. lek-eg-ni. for the voice of the ox). Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. meigeal. goats. cite as by grunt. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. as lou of an ox. and hoc'h. as the proper name of a tame sheep. or in any ! way ! persuading. lambs. a sheep. and with the subsidiary k or g. naskia. Gr. curmurring. a sow. Fr. a goat. a. may be identical with Esthon. to grunt. Kurren und murren. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. name of the animal itself. Illyr. hwch. to themselves. Idgge (Rietz). to growl. . 6. from knurre. from hundama. to bleat. to howl. Manx meilee. a pig. does not produce a e. knurfisk. sus-sus. corresponding to ohg. mekegni. G. to grunt. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. houch. /xj/caScj. cry). hundi). hunon.). nire. . the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. Moreover. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. / The same Gr. to bleat. and grumphie. with the root ypaipm. purr). applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. ' In driving. hound. a (Hesych. oe. meugler. although the imitation embodied in Lat. kurre. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. kurren. leg-et-ni. grunny. and of (maelon). grumble. this obstinate race. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. we have Sanscr. Gr. and thence groin. Africa laa. grogner. sheep or goat. Magy. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. by which the shingle gives rise to It. . he would hardly. hadg- Magy. Fr. to rumble. meil. And it is true there between hog and grunt. Gr. and Circassian maylley. With gen. and snorke.

). the cry to stop or back a horse. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. So Sanscr.).' — ist Series. Esthonian hoibo. like artificial flowers.' 2nd Series. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. M). In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. as in Yorkshire highly right. a horse. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. a mare. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. turn a horse to the is In Finland. coquette. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. without a — we root.root. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. from the cry animal. houpy in Craven.. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. animal. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. .' ticular bird. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. If onomatopoeias can . humma. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. 91. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. Thus we are led to the Fr. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. hobben. There are of course some names. to the left. when he found peculiarity. . e. a little am- bling horse.. to go backwards. hottihuh. cockade. hiine. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. g. ^6<. (Craven Gloss. But words of this kind are. of the character in question. hobby. to whine. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. Sc. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. p. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. such as cuckoo. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. p. coquelicot. hobin. hoppe. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound.

wagtail. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. Du. xxiii ginal object. frenschen. horse. g. diver. form corresponding hresh. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. nitrire. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . giggle. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. cough. hikkd. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. little speak for themselves.D. animals or certain kinds of sound. goatsucker. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. fehtati. to Sanscr. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. ginniken. ance or habits of the animal. redpole. whitename in in- throat. hresh. creeper. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. command of language was attained.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. rinchar. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. nounced with a guttural). When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. woodpecker. Pl. e. hross. but whether there kind between them and other words. hukkup. than to the sounds represented. . turtur and its derivatives had been lost. Irieschen. wrenska. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. titter. lapwing. as sigh. Sanscr. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. swift. Bohem. Sw. Fr. moan. Sp. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. sol. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. Lettish sweegt. runniken. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. hennir. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. hresh. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. to neigh. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. signified It. wiehern. groan. wrena.

And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. a large bell. for that of breaking. to drive on. on the chops is represented also by pratx. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . tisio (tisho). for the sound of a blow. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. beat of a clock child . klatsch. knarr. 1865. tlirob. Mei gbengben. clap ! A smack Puff. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. to ham. mer. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. are familiar in ' to every one. the God of thunder .' ! ! ! ! — dong. to beat. snore.' it both sides went. for the sound of a fall. snort. for in such sound of blows. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. bang. wheeze. debhes-lungotais (deifies. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. It is represented in e. &c. Wtb. pump. a kind of drum. banga. bang ' ! trenches.' 'Haw. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. ding. oren : Klapp. Zulu bongo. snukkup). strippstrapp-stroll.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. for the creaking of a wheel.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. an attempt would be made to by the voice. knack. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. Vei gbangba. — Sanders. haitshu. the dashing of the sea .' So imac. hoo ping ping. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. thunder (Tylor) . plitsch-platsch. beat. root kshu. Da. pit-a-pat. fitsche-falsche.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. —Brem. . or the w. atchini. lumm. Of a like forma- drum . &c. ting-ting. in a nail Let. shriek. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. haw. heaven). or tliat is accomit.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. ping came the bullets about their ears. Australian bungbung ween. to hammer . the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . dong Read. hoo. White Lies. for the sound of milking. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. DingBang. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. bangas. aritischane. heart tick-tack. atchian. hang. to sneeze. for the for the sound of . to throw violently down. scream. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. for blows with a rod. to knock. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. went the cannon. for a small one. banke. a more expressive than the e. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor .

to squeak. pipilo. — . pipelni. chickens (Tylor). ducing the sound. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. Lat. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. piauler. a whelp. which he added to intensify the expression. of a word will appear supposed to represent. has been un- employed to designate fixity. Lat. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. De Brosses. as k. pipare. pule. cry.' instead. pipio. a fowler's bird call is lost. peep. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. or the uneducated different consonants are man. to designate cavity and hollow. far pipi. piou. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. is of expression. doubtless. to cheep like a bird or a young It. calls S. piou. a chicken or gosling. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. had been used laugh ? two. the voice of chickens (Cot. pipe. a (young) pigeon. He Yet asks. In cases such as these. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. Gr. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. is pfeife. pi. Mantuan pipiare. as in other subjects of study. pipegni. to peep It. and their relations. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter.) a chick. mobility excavation and hollow ^. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman.sc. and whimper. . peep. pu. It seems to him that the teeth t. a fife or musical pipe. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. to cry pi. piccione. pipio. Florio. e. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. pigione. scream. not- . —Lyndsay. pipe. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. to cry like imrli^u). it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. The pi. and so forth. Magyar pip. or a piailler. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. as the simplest implement for proFr. pigiolare. used as a call to .FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. bleat. a or cheep. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. cry of young birds . is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. young child . pippione. child. Fr. G. laugh. pigolare. part of the What consciousness has the child. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. young bird.

crack. is very common. Pacific aka-aka. of a loud strong sound. sound of dry breaking. to gargle . It.. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. to crackle like in boiling . cricli. when it force than biscuit. a sharp short one. of something fine and thin. to ring pipio. Manchu kaka-kiki. u. cluck. Indian chack-chack. make wood a clinking noise. to jar.Gr. bubble. kuruk. to pant violently (Colenso). to fizz like fat in frying. Pefuxela. in German. tontonare. tonare. Hindoo tomtom. coo. murmur (by . is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. pi . to laugh. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. turtur. some small vowel or consonantal sound. to pant bejii- zela. to grumble). to bubble. to hawhaw or laugh loud. rumble. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). Zulu raraza. garren. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. tintino. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. creak. or kaka-faka. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. to clack. murren. rumble (Fl. to growl. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. like the noise of a glass breaking . the clucking of a j hen . to cry pi. karkarana. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . to be compared with Sc. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. be cate to go on laughing loud . as the click of a latch or a trigger. a short sharp sound. crash. thunder oil . what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. grumble. preserved by Kilian. kniks. rumble. along with tinnio. to gorgogHare rattle. Poppopvi^to. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . to rattle. to gurgle. a closed or obscure sound. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . or springing back. a. along with Du. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . to grumble. and lugh. Hindustani karak is rendered. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. i. sound). knaks. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. kniks. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. to thunder. the side of g. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. kirkirdnd. ioriogliare (to make borbor). girren. &c. to creak knirren. lachen.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. to cluck. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du.) Mod. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. vaake gorgor) . knurren. where the variation. loud laughter. a prolonged sharp sound. lachachen. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. laqfF. . gurren. chack.. knuks. . to grate the teeth . as representing the sound made when something breaks. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. {to It. a drum W. borrelen.

Turk. wail. awater* ' The Mme P. jangle. Maori pata. . Prim. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . E. brings us to Fr. muro and e. Calt. spring of water in the a bell. . cry. indicating the origin of Gr. chuchoter. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. the gingling of glasses. word. of keys or tinkling of bells. thump. Magyar csamm-ogni. and bilhila. tumwata. call. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. to the purling of a brook. to beat. while cacd / used in e. e. 1871. for the sound of privy whispering. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. and e. tup. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. as of Tamil muromurmur. or to Du. rifiirayov. a workman. to say chut. for the clinking Lat. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . is based on the same imitation as the e. a nightingale. bulbiil.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. jingle. 192). halaidlac'h. to knock. Tiie Galla gigiteka. tubh. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. fumtu. the sound of a stringed instrument. KaKog. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. coughing or clearing the throat. agrees with g. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. 368). bad. shout. hala-hald-faMa (falda. identical with g. the tingling Ming-Hang. quarren. is Manchu tang-tang. caca and Finnish adkkd. koXiw. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). for a tTviror). disturbance (F. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. sound). kl'mg-kling. corresponding in e.and e. rain (Tylor. ding-dong. clink. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. are applied to the is excrements of children. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. clango. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. bent her head. bubble up. and Gr. to strike. croaking of frogs. a nightingale. kiling-kalang. The whispering of the wind I. noise. to be compared with g. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. and Gr. for chut-chiit-er. as Fr. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. champ. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. tumult.* the heart. Newman). especially one who beats. djeda (to say tub). nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. and her heart went thump. to giggle. simmer. for the ringing of illustrate bells. Sanscr. a boy's whistle. to ring or jingle. sound. Fr. chinking of coin. rvir (in tvittio. a smith. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. compared with Gr. chut. correspond to e. or the bubbling up of to a spring. and the imitative nature of tivgle. borrelen. klirren. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. make djamdjam). drops of i. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. Manchu kaka. to whisper. at an accelerated note. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. clank. or of bells ringing. a drum . may be compared with Australian pitapitata. Scotch sough or sooch. uproar. The syllables lil-bil. csam-csogni.' Member for Paris. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. clash of arms. Galla tuma. box on the ear imitation of the .

flap. we have buffet or cuff. clap. blubber. Nevertheless.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. But although and also found in Lat. sputter. ' Der puff. smack. clang. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. hiss. thwack. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. to fall. w. the Germans puff. tum-ultus. rap. squeal. ring. murmur. by rubadub. whack. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. puff. patter. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. din. crunch. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. chink. gurgle. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. and Grimm. jingle. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. and soufflet. The beating of drum is represented in e. and Fr. swash. pop. souse. for (Sanders). that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . in e. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. guggle. fizz. plump. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. lash. whine. snap. to dance. creak. dash. chatter. blow. clink. while e. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. thump. clack. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. Fr. to is blow. It. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. clank. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. at a door tarapatan. clash. paddle. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. slash. a applied as well to the force of the bang. squall. Humboldt. tingle. mutter. clatter. The use of g. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. tumbian (to beat the ground). tap. rattle. flop. splutter. dabble. brumberum. tymmesll. it is fallj AS. bang. whizz. according to the strictest phonetic rules. hum. tinkle. crack. smash. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. boom. craunch. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. answering to g. crash. disturbance. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. twang. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. or v^hether jectional. whirr. douse. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. bubble. thump. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. report of a gun. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. thump. rataplan or rantanplan. So in Fr. 'pat. squeak.. parapatapan. gargle. rumble.' — Nohden. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. and the French pouf. splash. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. tomber. without the intervention of orthodox roots.

and uttering plaintive sounds. are made known by an instinctive cry. or of any if wood. without a thought of symbolising to them. Grimm or Bopp. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. p. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. by the nature of the cry. the inteij. 94. that he has taken the step in rational speech. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. or any unsatisfied want. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. every little pain. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. of horror. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. because they are spontaneous. or stubble is meaner name. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. the kind of action that is desired of them.' . and thus they become signs of despair.'. stractions. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. in the case of the animal or of the infant. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. wringing the hands. little who has time to want of her nurseling. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering.' If chaos. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. an imitation of a sigh . he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. in the rushing waters. formerly cited. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. At the first beginning of life. but if we must not complain on the beach. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. If. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. and found in the building of be burnt up. knows them. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. Crying. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. grief. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . the interj. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. xxix on the contrary. hay. ugh . He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. is Thus ah!. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side.

and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. sneezing. or which is of me as suffering pain. more eloquent than a long speech. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. and some of them the composition of words. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. shrieking. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. He says. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. interjections. more to the point. 32. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. the lowing of a cow. If I wish to make a person of an . and the eye. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. 344. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. be more powerful. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. Language begins where interjections end.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. ^6g And to the same effect 371. groaning. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. they are involuntary interjections. as who them spontaneous utterances. them to exercise it. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. And again. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. of all the mouth. should be remem- . may become traditional. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles.' — ist Series.' p. to solve the I shall call first. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. coughing. which are frequently so toned down cance. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. One short interjec- tion may fact.. p. he cites from Home Tooke. p.

by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. Kayxa^u). loud laughter. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. but the less am at a loss what to say. some kind of language might have been formed. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. in Fin. demolishing here. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. and thus. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. he says. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. kahkahah.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. and more or less limited . hahota. Koxafw. hohottaa. Tooke in truth. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. and others from interjections. hahottaa. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . It is purely accident that the syllables haha. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. for example. then speech begins. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. interjections. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. I am not hearer. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. it them. bered. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. when I arp humming and hawing. Gr. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. Lat. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. speaking. in Magy. cachinno.

xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. and go where we now say stand. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. dumb is the language of signs. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. of the nature of this great movement. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. words receiving the meanings they now bear. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. makes them stand and walk upon the table.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. It as has ing their most striking features.' he says. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. The following account is given by Kruse. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. like peewit and cuckoo. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. Though. and not. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. of the world. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. But here nature soon conies to his help. And so in the case of language. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. a Picture-language. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. if taken as a whole. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. What strikes him . . ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. the critical question should be. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. a deaf-mute himself. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs.

I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. he. called Gesture-language. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. for walk. and with his thought. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. but if I depress it instead. or To pull and flap with the arms.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. the lan- guage cultivates itself. the sorecalling them to his memory. and forms further and further. that signifies great . that. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. what more. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. for single objects. The same sign stands and the act itself. can do better and more easily abstract terms. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. walkest. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . it means little. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. many when or but these. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. his action. letter To hold the two fingers apart. and fully serves to j . like a V. signs are taught for yet.GESTURE most. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. The of sign for left hand. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. and gestures. nay. he. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. and And thus he makes himself a language.' In the Institutions. that air. for the agent. among themselves. particular sense in properly so called. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. xxxiii him between one thing and another. the whole secret. becomes roast meat. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. and it is flesh or meat. or the verb to be. and we have roast goose. walked. thou. thought is already broken. most striking outline of an object. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. walker. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. to name. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. push it towards the person addressed for thou. such objects. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. such as than the educated man. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. And is. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. and to taste. as it now opens out. it seems. for child.

or sometimes interjection or adverb also. Do not bang the it is a verb. might be the knife. as But when it is meant door. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. in fact. substantive or adjective. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. to indicate the action of a certain person. it called an interjection. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. as in die it is a noun. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. and thus performs the part of an adjective. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. qualifies the against the wall. or a quality. He gave door a bang. The same word . a number of alternatives are suggested. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. the garden. or a passive scene of existence. putting it into his pocket. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. I say. in other instances sentence. according to the circumstances of the case. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. and so is an adverb. When a verb. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. whether by additions or otherwise. or action. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. . When I say. as when Bang ! went the gun. would be simply beginning of speech. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. the ture of white term pink is and red. Who is has beaten you ? would be. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. or an act. depend entirely upon the use. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood.' dener's knife. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. You beaten . The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. a colour red.xxxiv asking. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. or something of the kind. when I say. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. and the as. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye.

that admits itself in of audible representation. Thus tafu signifies a great man. a groan. 255. the man is great. or with elements expressing relations of time. commencement of speech. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view.^ — Miiller I. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. in the is indicated by the syllable y. coalesces with the personal pronouns. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. inside. . signifying an attribute of this person or of that. wherewith. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. as cung. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. pain. wonder. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. wherefore. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. whereof. and may be used language. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. &c. contempt. a noun. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. Latin. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. some outward display of the affection. but often self-evident. or some relation between it and another object. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. verb nor noun has yet been developed. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. whereto. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. grie^ horror. a sigh of oppression and . or nei. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. that is. which is an old y ting (use stick). word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. inquiry. wherehy. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. greatness. as kuo cung. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. with a stick. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. in the sense of great. Jii ta. and to be great. middle..

! ! Goth. wai. och. are ol-ire. w. and to bark . Gr. ach.. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. wehen (Schmeller). grief. Lat. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. to cause pain. guaj-ire. Lat. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. . representing a cry of pain. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. Gr. Such are g. is w. misfortune. pain. Gael. gwae. n. It. ai. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. ochan. e. to bewail oneself. probably a deeper groan. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. Illyr. lament from oimi. to wail or cry alas . is Ay di me I Gr. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. suffering. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. to gargle. representing Illyr. found in g. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. lau-l-e. wai. . Jar lau-lau. miau-n-is. pain.-l-are. oh. and cacak djeda (to say crack. Fr. It. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. The form corresponding to Lat.ez. cece. Bret. the pangs of childbirth. dchzen. to weep. form. oh. Illyrian vaj. wehthun. to do woe. e. at the close of the radical syllable. A widespread It. wd. vaj. to lament. on. grief. a groan or lamentation vir. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. wAwa. misery. as. al. . oval. g. tirr-djeda. It. waiidt. mew. woe. to hurt Let. to ache. ah. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. weh schreien. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . headache. g. to weep. I oi[iot. jao. aiai^to. to yell formed e. . ocAJ. . howl. &. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. to wail. to cry at. 6. oimare. vce. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. woe. to lament. ach. miau-l-er. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. weinen. ui. ache. miau-l-is. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. to cry n. hei. vei-a. w^wa. ace. ohi. in Gr. guajo. to chirp. has more kopfweh. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell.'). die wehen. seen in Gr. ohg. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. xxxvi grief. In this way from the root guai. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). e. wai-l. to . o'i. Let. j. Thus from springs otjucifw. guai. to ache. grief] affliction. mostly a ! %. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. gwae. guaj- or cry out pitifully. ah. la. ochan. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. first person. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. to injure. oi. och. to sound yapyap. ach. ahi. to groan. ochain. It. axofiai. ing action I. to make). to make bow-wow. weh. w. jaoh. on. Gr. as. gwe-l-a. achen. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. djamdjam goda (goda. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. pain. och. or r. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. however. 6. to rriourn. lament. vce.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

as to express. In the expression Da. Dr Lottner observes. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. implying the direction of its good will towards them. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. or that it is. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. and by a variety of expressions besides. 'nay. as. or wants to name something. or carry me thither. Please. child. when 1859. der da-ige. and so on. Diet.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. as it Dieser da (as Lat. or give me it. • The child. when he wants something. for instance. When we pointing. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. Sie. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. to here . ' sees an object.' person. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. and may be rendered. according to Menage. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory.' this. saying : there the ad- Trans. Sanders (Germ. nurseries. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. is-te). but the truth is. says da-da-da. da.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. thata (ta-ta). indeed. the nursery da-da. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. case. that. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. ToSe (or in Attic E. Bav.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. well as Goth. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. give. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. a specified were by pointing him out. da. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. . Phil. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. is we I believe.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. we may translate this by there (it is). the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. The Fr. a word of many applications in g. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. this here.' then points to his wife. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. give me that cheese. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. his trowsers' pocket. more emphatically roSj)j that. But. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. Thank you. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. I add) . that is it. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether.' all is is — their consent. that gratifies me.

dadee. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. The da is dodem. standing. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. to walk. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. to beat. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. tasting. sinking. to knock. and one in particular must. of which any one may. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. which thus exertion. make dadada). Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound.' says Lottner interior. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. childish toying. — Cot. tattle. reality. sounds. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. to move step by step. the original is that which he places first. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things.' says Muller. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. takes it — as When the soul. to say to oneself. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. beat. speech. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. stutter. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. to chatter. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. thinking. p. . then instinctively interest. in every mode of expressing the idea. its desire. or dalliance. strike. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand.' • liv ANALOGY. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. and shapes it into an . moving. pay. meanings.^ its ' utters : a cry. to tion to another. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. or metaphor. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. Thus Gr.

to sniff. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. a brilliant light kilid. to be wise. same imitative root with Sw. to ring. to resound. to sound clear In Galla. In the same way the Goth. on. Finnish. and schmecker. gnittre. then to sparkle. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. to snilF. to ring as a glass willata. also wise. to . extended to the exercise of the understanding. iclat (in Old Fr. to 5 ghtter. and figuratively. and. . pracht. &c. to flash. fiapfiaipw. a with kimmaltaa. In the case of sparkle. rattle. to crackle gnistre. man of nice taste. in the domain of movement. bilbil). we have and the and beorht. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. make a loud noise. tintelen. wilistd. clang. splendour. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. to shriek with laughter . outcry. noise. for example. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. snot. a dis- cernment. tumult. . beam. So firom Lat. ghsten. bilbilgoda (to make . to sniff out. It is The word bright had a similar In as. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. Lith. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. Du. sense of brightness. and thence e. taste. schmecken. wilahtaa. unlella. to have Sapiens. which in ohg. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. from the . then which is a modification of the to twinkle. to shine. knistre. to smack or taste. to tinkle. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. to quiver. to shine. to glisten Dan. 1654. to sparkle.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. in popular language. firom the Gael. may be it explained . The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. prudent. a rustling sound Gr. savour. as kilind. (parallel bilbila. may be quoted gUt. search . think. Heo Du. The 6. Fr. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. scheteren. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. discreet. magnificence. snotor. scTiateren. smell. Again. snuff the sniiten. tinkling. beorhtian. smell. chime). to crackle. suspect Bav. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. kimistd. knittre. to glitter. judicious. as. bright. while sapere itself. sprageti. snutrs. — 1. to glitter e. esclat). spraka. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. to glitter. splendour. properly a clap or explosion. is used in the origin. a ringing . wamara. the equivalent of g. sound. signified a clear sound. schiteren. kiimottaa. brilliancy. to glitter. snudra. air. sapere (which signifies the nose. Bavarian bracht. wise.

\nrap6e. of dressing loud. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. &c. power of the letter-sounds. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. mel. rend. rough. then in rpd/xoe. shatter. tremour. Acre. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. ipuKuv. in truth. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. pvfi^Civ. within. 1. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. eo ut res vol. 6\tadaveii'. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. itself letters are felt as sofl. strike. discusses the tone of a picture. extremely loose. the neighing of horses. KoWiiSije. kvTOQ. rough both ways. to slide. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. the bleating of sheep. wool. the cross. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. the clank (stridorem) of chains. Much of the same has been often quoted. flow and flux. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. and vepres. Kep^arl'ieiv. accordance with the way in which by touch. smooth.' he says. rough. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. pleasure soft to the ear . in of his works. Tpa)(yg. break. which The Stoics. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. gluey. he says. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. briars. And observing that n kept the voice within. v. he framed the words ivSov. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. Kpovtiv. rough to the ear. or . is felt Lana. sharp. The BpavEiv. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. oily. crux. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. inside. fitting the letters to the sense. as soft by the ear. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. we hear of screaming colours. soft. whirl. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. roughness. .

'and consequently form. dig. for exis ample. a rough and sudden . Fr. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. p. or checks as they are called by Muller. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . and in the utterance of a high or or low. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. cular effort Again. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. rug. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. the case of the voice. ii. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. to reel abruptly from side to side). 138). while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. g.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. tug. as when. p. jog. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. stag (in stagger. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. to jogj sac-cade. stab. d. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. shog. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. degree of roughness sound. jag. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. t. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. k. joli. corresponding to the ineor. dag. jig. to signify varieties of movement. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. shag. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. jih. A greater felt. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. sag-oter.

representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. to move rapidly to and fro. a . however. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. S-panish miga. in cases like the foregoing. to ring a bell. a jog. Thus we have B. to stir. mica. a good piece of road .Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. as Italian tocco. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. Ene olde suksuk. The Mipen or pencil. Mucken. sound barely audible. (mitsati). tack. and It. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . tecche-tocche.. to glitter. to touch. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. is so frequent a consequence of movement. lead to Spanish tocar. an old worthless horse or carriage.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. like English tick. toch-toch. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. a piece or bit of anything. a crum. to incite by light touches. used interjectionally to represent a . Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. The train of . Illyrian migati. Hence Lat. that we never can be sure. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. to winkj micati is Lat. and analogous movements. chic. sound Fr. Bolognese tocc. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. kik. and e. chique. to beat or play on a musical instrument. then. an infant . g. chicoter. to strike It. to mark it with a touch of the pen . Accordingly the g. to utter a slight kick. to On the same principle j we have g. to take a thing on tick. is made to signify movement. tech-tech. zigzag. a playiug-marble. properly a small lump'of . or check. kuk. a quid of tobacco. motion. mot. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. Brescian toch. to have it ticked or marked on the score . micare. a cracker. tock. not to utter a syllable. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. schockeln. Fr. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. The syllable suk is jerk. a stroke with a French toucher. passing to the signification of motion. Sukkeln. foot. for the sound of knocking at a door. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. figuratively. e. The production of sound. to tickle. also to stir. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. &c. mie. It. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. is lanese toch. movement. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. Fr. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. to mutter. rough horse. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. a small bodily object. zack. Dutch kicken. Then. to pulses being knock. a little bit. schuckeln. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. To tick a thing off. cica. to say a word . that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. The analogy then carried a step further. chiquet. mik. Welsh cicio. it produces Dutch micken. so to Italian toccare. as tot. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. then.

) . often entirely arbitrary. eo. Malagasy to. we have e. The following table from Tylor (Prim. a bit. a small lump or pat. tot. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). . or the like its It. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. this. mut. here. tit. Cult. ri that. and toddle like a child titter. (Halliwell) Da. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. mutter. and a small lump of something. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . . anything . or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. the same organ touched with the man. tittle. to e. to dot. Then. not to utter a syllable. motta. chico. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. not an atom . titmouse (Du. and mite. mossche. is shown in murmur. . mutter j dust. This kind. or the converse. a girl. small titlark. Fr. little j to that of a small bodily object. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. mot. small of kind. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. a. titter. little. neither moit nor an atom. taut. for the beating of a clock. and he.n. to jog. gnu. gno. clay . a small kind of lark. not because the pendulum makes a different left. i. further off.- a jot or little It. to jot down or note with a fro. to whisper (Pr. lix Sp. to make a slight mark. here (close hand). at where the order is inverted. there '(at a short distance). but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. tiny. So. tot. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. a tot . In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. that. the vowel sound. . subdued manner. a small bird. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. ticktack. zitella. tottle. this . tozzo. of movement in totter. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. the least visible insect. 48) cites from the African Tumale. . seesaw. motte. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. a e. . Pm. Du. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. 199). anything small flax. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . or o toi. fragments It. corresponding to the personal pronouns. titilh. lump of earth. gni. . bunch or flock of wool. a small horse. a morsel girl . a certain conception. ika. a morsel. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. e. citto. 0. that iku. But the same is language has re Javan. to touch lightly with a pen. tot. To jot. a whisper. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. there. totle. a bit. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. and dot. mote. I. move slightly to . fait. to movement of the pen . tit. zitio. a light quick blow. e. syllable mot. a lad citta. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. a little titty. n. to tremble. a small quantity. you. tot. to touch. there (further of!) ao. and out there. In a similar the relations of place. iki. . as in e. for the three personal pronouns. jot. Halliwell. a sparrow).MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL.

The vowels a and o sound of the voice. here this . .. Dhimas isho. bi. I . /wo. tiiio. child. small (Pott. here j ka. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. he. there. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. here . father k . you. there. here 5 Yoruba na. that. Guarani nde. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). uta. there. . Japan ko. that. to. no constant rule is observed. It Carib lala. thou . from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. ofj. thou ni. Gr. is Here. this fi. Mm. that. there. and origin. Tamul i. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. mas cheche. . It seems to (fen. that. femina ama. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. as Mr Tylor remarks. child. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. ne. /mya.) pronunciation of i or e.araM. Zulu ajoa. ni. that. me probable that • Vei also little. there. probably initial of distinction that the k. qu. Mutsun ne. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. this . that. mother. . Chilian tva. . Magyar ez. young one. ta to ka. ^. little. this <t. Tarahumara ibe. as the act of pointing was ta. father. /e«. ojOo. and a for the female. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. respectively. this . Sahaptin (America) kina. ndi. that. ukko. loo). minution further. . mother. Fernandian az. akha. as in Italian Fin. that in the distance. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. this . olo. w. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee.. biii.. . usho. there. this ole. Carib ne. Lat. here j abe. that. ulri. for the male. km. ita. here . man erne. this . 6. Then.. ni. that. is father. there. (tt). here feraa. thou. mother. Ossetic am. an old . that (intermediate) j wana. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. Botocudo ati. . an old woman chacha.e^.) nna. Abchasian aSn. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. j Canarese ivanu.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. he. nne.

The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. wenig. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. din-din.) . just beginning to appear. the pip or pippin. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. a step. Thus we have Wolof sopa. A little wee face with little. fretful. a child. as j money. murmur. has tittafrem. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. Fr. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. nipple. to leap. little. From cases like the foregoing. 401. i Sw. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. Top. the idea is called. nab. titta. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. — Douglas Virgil. don-don. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. The sound trapp . looking through between obstacles. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. repetition It. &c.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. the nursery few j Sc. whence Fr. in old e. the simplest mode by the g. to begin to appear . A little weeny thing. the principle of reduplication. for the . knob. to teet. .' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. as ding-dong. for a succession of light blows low-wow. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. of smaller things. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. a little yellow beard. trippelen. sound of bells . In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. pepin. And perhaps the E. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. trappen. or even. to peep. wean.' — Merrv Wives. at pippe frem is to spring forth. to peep through.' making the voice as small as possible. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. The Sw. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. trippen. trSpigner. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. to feet. lift 8. analogous to winy-piny. trap. nil. stairs. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. Da. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. is to express simple continuance of action. dance (Kil. little To sup up. to tread. Clank represents the sound of something large. barking of a dog. trappa. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. and in the Pacific dialects. keeh. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. for instance. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. to make its way through the bursting envelope. or chink. tion. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip.

cliqu-et-is. . clash of weapons. or in Fr. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. Malay ayun. from Maori muka. kenda. mpolu is uttered. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. are echoed by the rudimentary et. to pant. very great. So from clamo. to skip. child . expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. to to call. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. to talk at to walk. rack. click. to vi^alk about for flax. (to use a to speak. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. to cover e. very long (Pott. the lungs. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. random . or el. properly speaking. kendagenda. rack click.. a spot. is language. to treat with contempt. to say pooh It is ! to. serves to show and in this way. or very very great. Susa di. rapidity and strength. to call frequently from Fr. little child (p. instead of being actually repeated. Again. and Fr. if very young. ayunayunan. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. amusement. or imitative syllables. puka- puka. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. to or rub. kamha-gamla. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. a cradle. ding-ding. smallness. hardness. could readily be conceived. and the words express a continued sound of rack. to rock.Ixii REPETITION. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. And generally. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. The same principle of 196. clamito. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. Thus in E. didi. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. child . as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. lololoa. Cult. puka. loloa. tach-et-er. 97). Thus in the Pacific loa. repetition or continsignify long. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. or rdtchi. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. Mandingo ding. racket. ratsi-ratsi. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. er. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. i. sopasopa. keep spots. mawhitiwhiti. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. in familiar use with ourselves. a grasshopper. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. to love. mawhiti. 99). the comparative degrees of greatness. bad . without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. a clattering noise. calling. &c. . the agent in panting . very bad. tache. the and clique.' expression is — ^Tylor. or a little tee--ny thing.

without the intervention of the frequentative element. to crackle. or in e. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. from puka. rynel. syllable clat . in some applications. to bark like a dog. to puff. the knie-en to E. Piedmontese bau-l-S. joggle. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. dab. to rock. to continue dragging. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. guggle. are to cry mew and pew . to make gug. to hand. to rock or wag. compared with g. dabble. he who rubs. in Fr. Jickfacken. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. a from ayun. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. wancol. where all direct connection with sound is lost. draggle. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. as to handle. miauler and beler correspond to E. g. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. Ihre remarks under gncella. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. jogging. or omitted. crack. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. or Maori puka-puka. miauler andpiauler. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. bubble. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. others. by the side of wanken. and in as. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. or fi bau. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. wavering. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. it. In cases like these. smack. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. to make bau-bau. rubber. to move to and fro. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . wankel.Jicol. wankeln. is In e. or by association. The Fr. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. kneel. waggle. itself. The contrivance with any particular noise. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. to make a succession of shoves. fickle. to wail woe . bub. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. mew and baa . to make a succession of grabs . as mAS. a succession of cracks to rattle. to hand-le. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. shuffle. which. the lungs (the puffers of the body). wagas ging. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. such asjlap.

It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. or in aptness to combine with other elements. known in Italian. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. at was more familiarly known. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. or in mode of use. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. which. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . to cry ugh at. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. and comparatively few easily deceived. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. A gull or a dupe same sense. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). There is. or how generally. on a moment's reflection. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. Polish. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. deceit. which is the origin of the word. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. it is obviously a mere chance how long. by a hard body breaking. will continue to be felt in daily speech. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. moreover. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. Breton. the breach. to the separation between the broken parts. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. Dupe comes to us from the French. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. although it is not difficult. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day.

nor any limited of ideas. language is . But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. however. is. . And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. Hitl^erto. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. life. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. founded in manifest blunder. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. and the word is used in a secondary sense.

without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. evique.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. i. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. guages in South America. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. 330.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. Welsh. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. of material things. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. episcopus. Naturalist on the Amazons. unintelligible to other hordes. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. I think it very probable. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. hearing. change. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. therefore. compared with the duration of man. and vescovo. out. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. If English. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). and 'Russian. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. circle perpetrates a new slang term. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. in the course of many years' isolation. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. French. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used .

although it said to be never used independently for that letter. 6. 8. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. which are idenr Figures 5. .COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. 7. ancient Greek M . We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. the actual it which would to represent. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. The combination of the symbols I and 2. 9. it will leave figures 3 and 4. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. to be taken (Prim. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. i. as shown in the subjoined illustration. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. or whatever the proportion may be. Nor is there one of the letters. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. Cijlt. is MN. A key must unlock more doors than this. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. and . ao8). and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions.

compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. in the shape either of direct inspiration.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence." the use of a change of vowel in as. had its origin in imitation of sound. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. which either by direct resemblance of sound. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. known to us as yet. what comes to the same thing. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. for instance. and the only safe beneficent Creator. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. his fellows. or. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. leading him to utterances. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence.' should be discovered.

that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. or beavers. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . by animal without a trace name of Man. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. and rose towards a higher state of being. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. as elephants. and sooner or later. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. that he started from the lowest grade. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. in the course of generations. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . or of their own reflected thoughts . Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man.COMPLETION OF MAN. or else. until the progeny. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. and when we look back as far as history will reach. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. the conduct of Ixix life. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. or not. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. for instance. race were speaking men or not. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. of using imitative conduct . there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? .

AS. Esthonian. 1766. Cotgrave. Fin. ^Ifr. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Couzinid. Diet. 1857. Supplement to Bret.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS.-Eng. dialect of the Sette Commune. Diefenbaeh. Douglas' Virgil. Baile/sEngl. Brem. or Dan. Bigl. Biglotton seu Diet. Elfric's Fl. de la langue Cat. Infimse Latini- D. Diet. Da. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. 1654.. Diefeiibach. Fr. . Grammar Boh. Provincial dialect. B. Wtb.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Bohemian or Czech. Cimbrisch. Dutch. Carpentier. English. at the end of Somner's Diet. Bavarian. Romano - Cas- traise. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Dief. Anglo-Saxon. Gothischen 1851. Due. Catalan. Diet. Finnish. 1737. Cot. 1768. Sup.V. Carp. Dueange. Danish. dial.Nieder. Esth. Bremisch. 1850. Cimbr. Castr. E. Bav. Teutonico-Lat. Dn. Dief. Dueange. Supplement to Dueange. Gr.



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off. Lat. away from. in a manner other than it should be ablution. Jvery man shewid baft. In Lat.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. alike. erwachen. implying a completion of J. whatever he be. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. onis aback. Parson's Tale. literally. on. in the same sense. ur. dominion. as. in. be-ceftan. us. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. to sauff the king or spill.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. to subdue. ibandonner. but now )bsolete). Immediately from Fr. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. compounds.t G. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. —Bruce. to awake. to hold . and — Chaucer. said. Abandon. o/j of or . AS. Abs-. ir. particular 1 . ab. a/tan. Passing tongues. into the Romance ftrseg . is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. Abaft. until the event jlace . sion of 'an abandoned character. out of. announcement. Thou spelds of mychty iction. abs. among. 843.he Goth. a. baftan. Hence on-bceftan. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. from. Ab-. Thus ip N3S. as. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. ifter. vs. downwards. . power : Than Wallace thing. a washing off to abstain. Dent posture. from a is to wake to abide. state of sleep . rule. orders. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. plesyt him. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. ar. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. the er. AS. command. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. abaft. on-bsec . away. and secondarily in that of command. of-dune. an edict or proclamation. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . on. have entire dominion over. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. to arise. K . OHG. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. 244. his. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. The word Ban is common orders. Again. iway from. behind. this word beand Spanish. To abuse is to use iway. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. bandon in French. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. dominion. on-lic. A. er. "rom a height. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace.

abbatia. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. To Abate. See Abide. drink.down. to abaw or astonish. Abbess. Bate. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. ais. to gape. in the active form. abbattre. to light upon. from Lat. father. R. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose.fournir. where custom (Grandg. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. to strike sail . abbatis. See . and it that that it — . to make lower. person. 364s. law term abatement. baba. confound. impulse. polish. lish to abaisse orabaish. Abbot. terminedly. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. d. uncontroUedly. abbatere. betrash. bandon. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. to bate something of the price abbatersi. castle. and sets them all agape. Beat. or society of abbots or monks. On the other in use as well as hand. depress. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons.esbawi. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. to beat furnish. R. R. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. and that from Syrian abba. at his own the lips. and grooms besmeared with gold. bawi. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. ant. astonish. Hence Lat. et prirent terre. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. In or. to The .Prov. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. More correctly written abbat. adverbial expressions at abandon. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. faire tomber. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. of fear. burny was formerly burnish . down. A. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. esbahir.) . Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. Hart in Jamieson. esbahissais. to hit. And he thereof was all abashed. beer. baer. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. to strike Froiss. vol. to diminish the force of any. or admiration. abandonly. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. to astonish. of the Fr. Castrais. to put to con. de. Custom. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. impetuously. I was abawid for merveille. overthrow. effect of shame. 1520. Abbey. astony.polir. esba. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. It. abaundunem-ent. may be explained. abate. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. burny. weaken. and the verb was written in Eng. son bandon. thing abbatere le vela. merely the terminations ons.— R. Hence the OE. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. Cotgr. to take possession of an estate. to happen.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. 1 1 8. c. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. abbas. of wonder. to overthrow. to excite admiration. as ravish. by Wall. iv. Wall. Baba ! Mod. other. Originally. with or without a final sh. Fr. to ruin. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . to meet with abbatersi in una terra. so common in the found in the OFr. shame. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete.On princes. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. an abbey.— — . esbahissant. his mouth. ne more vermeille.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. — Neccham. .' the surrender of a ' K. . — — . his eyen shene. abbatere dal prezzo. from ravir.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. Milton.

to It. bhr. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. expectation. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. to expect gabeidan. to In great amaze. beidan. aspire to. Ni engigner ni abiter. which is certainly related to It. to yawn. abiiance. tical with It. beijen. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . to suffer death in Du. while the monks under his control ing. to stay. to abide . and alluring to his own destruction. trick abetar. wait. to desire earnestly. Boethius. endurance. abbadare. abetter.— ^richer. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. verbeijen Sw.— Chaucer. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. beijden. tity of E. abet. 1 • . Cat. John. abayer. gola badada. inciter. — signifies to suspend action. deceiving. syllable ba. regarder. abidan. and E. songer. delay. beter. . Abele. intent observation. K. and in E. inciting. lingering. aspirer. covet. baier. bocca badata. watch. with badia. or absorption watching. In We . (Vocab. de Champ. Quant voit le serpent. badare. take notice. bida. to ance. abeyance. to open bader. badare. bder. also to OFr. The verb atwaiting. bie compared with Dan. Norm. Goth. were called Brothers. to expect. baer. F. listening. abeter. listen. which the mind to an object. See Abide. signifies the direction of tend. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. attendre See Bait. Q. ne wist what way to chuse. or do we AS. The white poplar. beguiling on the other. to open the mouth.) abayer. Prov. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. othres abidan' The effacement expect. Corant sens lui. or in Fr. baier compared with It. a right in suspense . expectfamily. in Fr. to stay.Fr. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. compared with (Bosworth). atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. qui iaaille. white. Guernsey beth. de Berri) Prov. we sceolon ON. incite . ' ' . deceit.. pense. the verb of abeyance. is idenwait. to remain or endure. badigliare. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. bialodrze-w. badar. us. to mind. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. desirer (Roquef. expectation. to tarry. 366. in Dan. to deceive. speaking of the Holy places. with open mouth . from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. usbeisnei. ne chastised them. tenere a bada. tempting. to gape . abie.— Roquef. have seen abide. take care.' is in AS. endurArt thou he that should come. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. to wait.was formerly used in the sense of look.to wait. baier. OFr. a bay or opening in the coast. to hook. literally white tree. to attend to. Thus we have It. Thus G. . . — . — ABELE Epiphanius. b^er. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. Du. bana. delay. —Raynouard. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. abSiance. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). — II. to be intent upon. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. bidan. Norm. Fabl. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. waiting. to wait. to attend on . Ducange. and Prov. badare. bada. m Abeyance. delay. on the one hand. look for another. ^couter avec dtonnement. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. from Halo. attendre avec en^pressement. bide of the d endure. abie. Gloss. house. bie. Gloss. forms with the d effaced are OFr. wait To Abide. warten. to look. abet. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. to wait. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. to be intent upon. Abie. . to desire. bouche bdante. exciter. beidan. tarrying . forbearance. bida. Corresponding to keep in suspense. beguile. open the mouth. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. To Abet. abaier. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. to deanimer. suspense. From abahier. . guardare. beijen. desire. E. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. bouche b^ante. gridare. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. Cat. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. suffer b. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. ceive. says. Pol.

to pay the purchasemoney. For on board. al- be found so some will dear abide it. — P. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. P.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. If it badare. Mids. to pay the penalty. must suffer for it. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. habile. Chaucer. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. — Able. to perish. from AS. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. when compared with Aboard. O If tion. him with che. Innan bords. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. habilis (from habeo. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. Merch. or bie. on board . to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. the Fr.ynes. expert. de la volatile. to have . the Sir Tristrem. abicgan. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. the side of a ship. God. the Pardoner In the original. abilej Prov. bidan. and Cr. i. to redeem. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. God — dear. at hand). How dearly I abide that boast so vain. though sometimes confounded with it. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. R. without special reference to the notion of retribution. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. to wear away. to draw fowls. was often used in the same sense. use. P. AS. She shall abie that trespass dere. a board. It. and the simple buy. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. purpose. bide. In this to erase or annul. abycgan. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. abide. durance in both applications. adapted . abolir. strong. is the verb abie. and death for handsel pay. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. Prol. 2. abigg. abilh. fit. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. forbid for mother's children should abye. to dress hemp. 2nd Tale. able. consequences of anything . as habiller du chanvre. suffer the Jul. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. —Bacon in R. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. The —Boucher. to . ON. from Lat. N. Dr. convenient. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. Boucher. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. abidge. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. bord. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. — e. Tr. while in later examples As I . abie. have-like. L. willing to schewe his wrathe. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . Cassar. . powerful. &c. power.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together.^and to make his power knowne. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. within the ship. at kasta fyri bord. Milton. F. Lat. habilis is closely preserved. Fr. Q. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. Abie. fault being simply clothing. R. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. atling hem to her proper offices. sufficient. properly abuy. within the walls of a ship. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. as E. Wickliff in Richardson. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. abeye. ! ! Cotgr. aboleo. in for any special purpose. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. being disabled in the highest degree. Fr. Spenser. beidan. abie to Goth. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg.

coalesco. disastrous portent in some passing oc. — ' — — preceding verb. but from Lat. to grow up. draw out. currence.' Ymb hancred utan. below.ymbutan. to let sleep. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. the hair grow. ABOMINABLE adolesco. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. brood. No doubt if we had not so complete a About.— Abbreviate. Finnish stock. is not from G. Prov. titan. and also to abridge.. the vital spark. and alere flammain. by the to bring up. Thonne Abroach. to and of giving birth to a litter of young.. agredge. to progress. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. the identity of which with ting. that greatly agredge their sin. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). and bidden him abregge. to turn. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur.the older form. Then. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. AS. to rear. bufan. to cut short. seems aras. gravity. from . abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man.) . breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. ala is made to signify to rear. the man dwindles away. s —Casdmon. See To Bray. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. abrcBgdan. sec seftre — Chaucer. agreujar. to awake. onbutan. natural ed direct from the latter language. abracan.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. Goth. for ligeth butan. alUger. breaking out in language. . to rear. Abundant. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. to nourish. To abray or abraid. to feed. as AS. ufan.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. becomes leu in Prov. life.aboon. the idea of breaking about . to main. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. be-ufan. abrdger. or cut short. kindling. which passed into English under Abominate. to start. AS. to produce. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. en. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. to aggravate. See -und-.' Parson's rence.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. vital PI. to fatten. Fr. abominor (from ab and omen. In the same brevis . gravis. abredan. af-oleii. to AS. from Fr. to grow together. giving birth to. outward. Quod abominor. Virg. nourish. whence the Fr. motion. The primitive idea seems that of beget. nurse Lat. snatch In English we speak of away. adolere. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan.foda signifies to beget. is a ively. Melibaeus. Abray. The radical idea is to feed the flame. while the sense of beget. Abrdger itself.1. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. alan. the OSw. as the duty of nourdisposition. side. the form a&^^. Gael alaich. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. levis to the Romance languages. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. to light a fire the Abraid. explains soboles Lat. break out. pedigree from brevis. boven. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. on high. way Sw. parent. ol. be-utan. abutan. af-oolden. awaking. alere capillos. and to do something to avert abbreviate.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. without. ala. to bring up. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. and also. For on broach. abbrechen. d. a portent). OSw. while the verb alleThe root el. al is growth. AS. to feed. D. of any kind . OE. Kiittner. his contemporaries. abufan. around on the out. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. OE. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. and in-d-oles. or young forth. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. Thence to regard greugetat. to snatch. nurse.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. greu. butan. Sc. .ger. about cockcrow. Tale. abowen. oil. common in Chaucer and Abominable. literally. Of these synonymous adolescere. heavy. leading immediately to Fr. which may God avert. To Abound. Lat. Severe the threatened evil. full ofte his words for to Fr. progeny. abbreviare. Du. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. above. to beget or give birth to children. as withotityn and without. hard. abbrechen. So in Lat. to break off. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. Above. — . alan.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


from avTiipoiuia). separate purpose. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. to go in strange disguises. . as we call it. cenig. E.D. from eigan. Otfried. trouble. whence anthem. In like manner. like a jack-pudding. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. — — — . the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. anxius. or antique single chamber. from ango. to strain. AS. Ful- Apanage. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. antifena.th centuries the recognised models of antic. which by anvild. Any. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. one at the least. anticus. apanage. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. strangle. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. from in and cudere. i. on. to bring forth. Prov. rich. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. eigs. press. Gr. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. before. a gift. from an. from ante. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. one having wealth. Gr. Lat.— . Antidote. ambeld. Hall's Chron. to display pario. in Shakespear. before. some one. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. Lat. a puppet or an anti^hona. fauns. Hence the applica. AS. a preventative . Jorioc. Apart. verberas.is to be given. younger child. See Cover. To ape. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. Antick. burnished. Fr. a block to hammer on. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. as posticus. and devils. Lat. to have.legacy of given against. ab. the anticks — behind. Antique. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. Lat. to sound in answer. Antler. from Stephanus. such as savages. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. Anxious. amboltj Du. antefn. white. a definite . inAgain from the same author cudis. Thus from gabe. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. something ler in R. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. Apartment.—Aperture. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. plenteously with red. and ig. AS. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. As the browcalled antiques. avri^ava. Fr. panar. af. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. all of gold. whence Prov. were chiefly of the former class. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. to imitate gestures. from an and — - . apertum. stem. aside. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. —Spencer. to nourish. To go antiquely. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. Ilvtwotov. anfilts Pl. a termination equivalent to Goth. vex. swaged. villan Gloss. from. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. finally applied to a whether grotesca. as from as. wealth. from. Mannequin. anapoz. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. three antike pillers. incus. as the Italians. to strike G. Anvil. a few. left as the . were andouiller the second. aperio. Percutere. Fr. andouillers. part. panis. surimitation of the ancient models. apatiar. or in a ridiculous dress. : . set aside. Aphorism. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. choke. Apartment. separate. d. work. one. but the expresent day. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. to open.made out. So Lat. to support. what Roman civilisation. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. to strike. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. a small quantity. post. should be received. bread. gabeigs. from the imitative habits of monkeys. of. d<popi(xnbs.. Pezron fiUist. Aperient. and claret wine. transferred to the grotesque characters. anxi. G. Gr. ReApe.

to deter- to strike. the good. to assign or grant over unto. Formerly apricock. like. And among other of his famous deeds. AS. Apoplexy. Sp. APRICOT off. to mark to define a bound. (cited by Diez from a late author). to approach.parejo. apprehendere. Fabian in R. apin R. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind.his giving evidence against his principal. case. to deaden. or the like. oVooroXof. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. appareiller. S^. apparecchiare. kind of action. properly to join like to like. — dirondtfiu. An old appalled wight. Gr. to — — . to take away or lose the vital powers. I prise ware. a learner. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. w. They were considered To Appoint. away.—Apprentice. to approve. Cent Nouv. Mod. approcdare. Parson's Tale. Yr. consent unto. A — .pareil. from aTroorlXXu. equal. to lose one's senses. Apo- good time. a'^opi'Jw. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. pronounce good. appareo. Fr. to commend. to send to. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. whence the e. apal. jabloko. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. —^Apparent. appellare. apar. to Lat. dress. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. apprentis. to learn. Gr. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. despatch on some service. obolys. cepl. to deem good. ciously than nede is. prize. fit- — ness. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. apropchar. value apprdder. plight. to come near. make a composition between parties. to fit. preparation.t. one the MLat. To Appraise. when the . to which it is often referred. APO sentence opoQ. . poind. iwKjToKri. From Lat. Apprehend. 'L-zX. From Gr. It. to suit. word was specially applied to clothing. seiden of the stones. Pliny. Gr. off. For their acquaintance was not come of new . Fr. known. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. ai. lAfiaam. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. one for his defence. OFr. Approach. probare. Yr. allow. habilUr. aparelhar. proper time came. good. Friar's Tale. to be open to view. i. ar. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. Hence It. To cause to pall (see Pall). Fr. quoth the frere. to catch hold of. ON. whether through age or sudden teiTor. peace. . gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. — Approve. 23 . apropid. Lat. array. appris. apprendre. in Chaucer. diminutive pariculus. appaiser. Appareil. to send off. piteux poind. order. of. Apotliecary. D. pronounce fitting). to finish a controversy. habiliments. Apple. prohts. Apostle. laven is used both as E. — prehendere. esteem. xv. decree. ^wss. an epistle or letter. aptly. Fr. in commendation. 11. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. or E. to dress in this fashion. taking. to call. approver. to disable oftat. apal. to set a price on. par. a thing for one's purpose. Epistle. Ir. one is in. Cotgr. in fact. They werin his approvirs privily. purpose.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. were formed appropiare ejar. manner. pragigua or prixcoda. avail. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. to understand. praise. From Lat. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. landmark. H. corresp. pretium. irpaiKOKiaov. — Appurtenance. 5w. find Then like Fr. to seize. in data. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. in good season prendre son d. like. agreeing with "LtA. To Appear. and also as appraise. set a price on. agree. Appease. a price. Fr. to learn.prix. diroTrXriaatii. En peach. appartenir. Palsgr. Prov. a crime. N. — Apprise. poind. mine. one sent out. and metaphorically to take the meaning. Cotgr. Prov. near.— .probare. from. become dizzy . from paix. diroBrjKr}. approcher. ap. peler. —Diez. The Fr. to rate. Cotgr. horror. Fr. Fr. Lith. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. rise to \t. apprise. to strike down.propius). to make a thing Apparel. Walach. after his mind . to announce. Gr. prope (comp. d-n-o. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot.parecchio. to accord. trim. To praise. pertain or belong to. 'LaX. and in the sense of condition. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. to call for judgment. The PI. and appoinder (to find fitting. that it outfit. opportunity. to — . to store or put Appal. : — — speak 'Lz. Hence appoind. Fr. Nouv. prover. . e. And whanne sum men Lat.

24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. and the one who gives oracles. It is certain that the apricot oracle. short. Albanian. opinio. arbitrium. From OFr.. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. a lot. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. a soothsayer. or eft. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. arwaus. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . arbiter. pracoqua was not an adapt. Arbour. Arbitrate. As is a pretty parlour. 2. hariolus arpelen. arwelo. intensitive of nape. of of divination arpa-mies. account for either of these significations. and thence fit. to preserve it from stains. Beryn. to plough. {mies ^=ia3.' —About.o. conjicio. aptus. a river. la nappe. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. . be That it inne groweth. shortdr. and taken away before dessert. a cloth. A.sors. Pm. sestimatio arbitraria.shrubs {arbor). The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. — . 331. auguror. nompire herbs being no longer apparent.meaning at Shrewsbury. most conspicuous situation in the garden . Gr. arbitror arwaaja.) E. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. The loss or addition of n very common. arbiter in re censendS. conjectura conjec^ra. Freshly turnid Arable. OHG. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. C. — napkin is Naperon. delon. herbere. scr. a lot. arpa. proper. P. garden. nected. water Which that benchid was. derived. Marsh. Now one of the points — — — . She made. Aquatic. words derived from arpa. aha. Lat. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. aro. Alban. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. divining rod. It may be doubted. man. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. quod he. properly the arwella. . found in Fin. Naprun. sortium ductor. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. and with turfis new Goth. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. Maan initial . From OE. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. symbol. however. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. nawl and awl. OE. ap. Prol. Pr. aestimo. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. Lat. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. P. con. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. fastened close. or barm-cloth. to decide by lot. Lat. aqua. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. 31. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. . and a protection of the clothes. Hall. however. tion under trial. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. a pleasure-ground.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. ear. .] in the N. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . wata. Thus we have natiger and auger. ahva. and sortilegus ation. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. a lot. naperon. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. suitable. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. grande nappe. doubtless is the origin of E. as an eye-witness. is taken in is a soothsayer. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. rofe and all. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. aa. Roquefort. Flower and Leaf. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. ughe. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. Now we find in Fin. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. This path Aqueous. sorcerer. as ihe diminutive. J. the spelland umpire. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin.

earg. first. Cot. ers-betriiger. exercise lordship). ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris.. curved. make clear or prove. as the arch of a bridge. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. 3340. a noble. rame. ill-tempered. . ardeo. it signifies roguish. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. sluggish. G. especially shoulder-joint. sly. an arch-deceiver .ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. mischievous. Ardour. een erg kind. det arrigste snavs. stuff. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. arm'ee. receptacle where the public acts were kept. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. arm. Lat. man. armata. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. a burning or setting on fire. wanton. Dan. raineno. arch-bishop. arduus. by Russ. fabricate). contemptible. to Arch. high. i. apx^iv. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. which is derived from it. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. fainthearted. — Wtb. Alisaunder. a chief builder. arrig.. bad. ein arger knabe. government. the most arrant trash.' Lex. Lat. argr.— Army. And thou as arwe coward. Arcadia in R. et vulgari verbo. lofty. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. Lat. wretched OE. from nixa. ardor. bad. argvitugr. un petit rusd. apxh. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. Lat. from areo. erz-bischof. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. gwyro to bend. curved line. There can be no doubt that E. ars. forearm . arg. a bow.' Paul Warnefrid. Lat. Du.is the natural weapon of offence. From the verb armare. which has been referred to W. The . an arch boy. a threshing-floor. Gr. ramend). Ardent. un malin enfant. in Due. apxri. weapon may be simply an application of annus. Brem. a court yard. the best. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. Sp. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. Langobard. arm. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. shoulder Boh. sly. while the Fr. apxtlov. . Uo^a^. whence the body of the nobles collectively. arson.aioj. ' — Argue. Applied in modern E. to burn . and must be identified with Dan. vescovo. G. branch. ^Argument. arcA in e. a branch. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. ardre. earm. to demonstrate.4 rir/. arguo. vocaveris. taxed with cowardice. and our army. erz in G. the a brute. Arduous. apxtipfve. morally bad. to arm. are formed the participial nouns. arsum. Area. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. W. Sax. * ArchjAiTaxit. TiKToiv. arwe. aj-f. Arm. erg. ancient. aridus. the court of a magistrate. timid. bad of its kind. Aristocracy. troublesome. arcus. AS. as in E. archangel. the terminaGael.In E. Fr. Arcliives. Du. ruling by the nobles. . and not with apx. A construct. D. Fr. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. Lat. Gr. Fr. From apxeiov was formed Lat. ramo (pi. armee. a rule (princiruler. Arch in composition. armada. and Kpurka. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. area. arga. ardIn G. is essentially the same word. arma. adjective. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. difficult to reach. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. to rule. earh. Perhaps erz-wticherer. worker. to be in comp. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. an arrant usurer. Lat. arrant Arms. signifies chief or principal. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. an extent of flat surface. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. faint-hearted. a. Gr. gwyrek. mischievous. . Arid. malicious. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). to dry. an arrant rogue. 2. kpxi- beginning. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. bravest. to be on fire. — Architect. burning heat. shoulder. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. a bare plot of ground. . Arson.' the Gr. Lat. Gr. ON. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. It. weapon. patus). Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

bolawy. globule. ON. malefacGower in R. pallukka. Fr. to be balker. ball. Q. Goth. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. Dan. a ball. wickedtorment ON. ballet. * Balk. It. Grief. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. balk. bold. to ail. Sw. a pill. — A — — . ing. a separate portion. to avoid it. Pol. from bacquet. See Gall. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. bal. to pack Da. 2. bdlkr. balloon. and evil in general. dial. . Russ. other while. To Bale out water. hue et illuc inclinare. are applied to a From the same analogy. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. ball. (Hesych. G. vcdra bdlkr. palloilla. pallikka. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. pain. ballo. a skin. to dance. a boil. pila. Hence Dan. whether of wood or stone. Bowl. sick. dial. bielke. roof. pallo. chapurrar. similar connection is seen in Sp. palla. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. Venet. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. a continued noise of waves gently beating .Fr. a beam. bol. mass. maleficium. boll. a globe. at giore en balk. taich.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . a ballot). balk. Gr. Rouchi ban. balle. bjdlki. bal. a water-skin dim. Da. It. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. balkr. i. baalie. balken. a dance. The primary sense seems as in G. Bret. a scene acted in dancmg. Perhaps on.—Ballad. Du. calamity. balka bunge. heap up. Ball. bolker. grieve . w. cka. a partition. baloier. Mid. from the more general notion of moving up and down. to see-saw. ballare. Wotton. . a ball. to by beams. to shake or jog. OHG. bolyatchka. to stir. to partition off . Baulke of land. In like manner Fr. Gael. a together in the form of a ball. Bohem. It. ballan. a clapping or flapping of wings. bal. vacillare. to cause another to miss pustule. ballar). hooting. OFr. balka. dial. Fin. a. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. to move. to grieve . misery Du. bealwes. a dance. to bale out. may exhibit the original development of the signification. on. blister. . G. as in a barn or cow-house. to ache. A balk. Sw. Fr. dial. Sw. E. Sw. Bale. the object of his expectation. ban. To baulke the Sir H. the beam of a ship. ballare. on. balveins. to wave. a ballad. baalien. balja. ball. F. a ball balla. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). package of goods. a division of the old laws. boleii. balle. Ball. balva-vesei. balk. ballare. e. probably Lat. pallo. to on Holmedon's plain. Du. a bubble. a ball or pack. weak liquor. a great ball.). Sw. plague.Lat. a But making way for death at large to walke. Fr. bola. to speak an un. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. palcare. ache. . sickness. trouble. separaison. ' is a piece or confused talking.of men . pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. Da. a clod of earth water. ballone. balken. Ballata. to paddle in water . balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. Ballot. . 3. bal-daed. OSw. Ugutio in Due. I.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. Sp. Sw. AS. to plank. a beam. balla (with the augm. baler. and the dim. Sw. ne leaving any balke. ball. the ballet of the theatres. tum. to rock. lealo.ing.— Ballet. a ball. stage or scaffold. Hence. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. bollr. Balloon. bala. beaten road. bolyaf. a pestilence. to Not sparing wight. a clump . on. floor. as we say. afbalka. maan pallikka. sorrow. a balk of foul weather. balka hopar. wickedness ness . Sw. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. gen. a ball. says Ray. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. to be ill. . We have then separate dial. balare. bol. N. balk. . uveirs bolk. It. torment. shouting. the breadth from side to side . destruction. It. a pail. pilula. to roll. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . bbllr bulla J. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. to plough for a boundary between lands. Boll. ill. balle. to dance. to signify washy drink.' speak gibberish champurrar. TtaKKa a pail or tub . bacgtteter. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. with the perhaps from balg. a wooden partition . a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. ballotta. on the shore. balle. a washing-tub. balge.

lest. endormir par des contes. Venet. forbid. ranked on the outside of cloisters. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. i860. ^a\Ba\iov. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. The Sp. or movement of one who walks. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. analogous to what is seen in It. Lat. also with flatteries and . 1. enchanter. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. bamein. by met. age. Said to be from balaustia. or ballast of a ship. Sc. Report Pennsylv. baltresac. astonished. bag-lest. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. bambocciolo. sorcerer. for a load or goods (Roquef.000 tons. dial. of balusters. deceive. small railing. a fragrant gum. a battlement .' And Kil. railing around altars. A — — . bam. for want of other freight. a young babe. baranda. make fun of a person. Baltic. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. paid for the right of carriage. balsamum. bumbazed. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. little round and short pillars. — — oltriga. a useless load. Lest. from bara or vara. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. Mr Marsh whether the a load. Sept. to walk. &c. To Ban. as he says. Bret. Sp. and Mid. inutilis sarcina. lastagium signified not only ballast. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. Balsam. the act of walking. If bambocciolare were child of one. Dan. Bret. ballustre) is a corruption. It. ballast. mare Balticun. from Lat. a small balustrade. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. balconies. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. command. if it fails to obtain a return cargo.Lat. bambolo. seems the original form of the word. baume. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. It. . 43 — Cot. back of the ship. balustrade barandilla. a rod. to enchant. denounce. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. barandado. terraces. the backload. barauste. When a ship discharges. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. called Bait. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. bertesca. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. lastra. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. &c. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase.). But Fr. baU. inutile onus. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. To make fun of a person. lestage. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. a false tale or jeer. galleries. . bamboccio. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. Balm. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. deceiver. explains ballast. ^Arbuthnot in R. it is forced to take in stones or sand. more frequently than outward-bound. Cotgr. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. last. To Bam. but loadage. Fr. the flower of the pomegranate. Ballast. a duty on goods last. Balluster. Gr. to preserve equilibrium. It is explained back by Adelung. puzzled. more serious objection is .. To deceive. is in Sweden and Norway. To Bamboozle.that the going vessels. In OSw. Bamour. fonts. an Old dotard or imbambolare. baUa. To proclaim. ballustres. lastre. bag-las. R. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. The Baltic sea. Du. a nettle. objects to the foregoing derivation. 1854. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. urtica. This is the backload. Fr. in the first place. like Fr. because. curse.

Leg. banda the colour or material.—John Villani in Due. bannire in exercitum. 1. bande. parti. etc. border. to follow a faction. populum. 26. faction. Mag. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. OE. passing on from proclamation to command. a company. 813. band. Diss. he assembled his host. v. E. margin. from at the Lord's courts. acquired the sense of proclamation. Capitul. bande. i. Commun^ment son bandon. It. . to bring corn to be fahne. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. also the band or of marriage. a coast. banner marked the place of assembly. at his own discretion. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando.. &c. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. authority. summoning to serve So in Swiss. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. 19. bandon was used in the same sense. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. bando. band. Fr. In a special sense the term company itself. to side or to bandy (Florio). to ban. bandon somewhat party. those who side together (bande. It. Sw. 2. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. in hostem convocare. There is some doubt how Fr. curse. banda. bindan. Assises de Jerusalem.is further developed. Car. region. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. to take one to task. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. in Fr. to reprove. bannum or bandum. to excommunicate {lysa. The to . hoc est vexillo. Spebifid. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. tener da alcuno. to unite with a band. Bandus. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. &c. banns pany of footmen serve. theodscipe ut abannan. fahne. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. the ensign or banner. — R. 'A son bandon. Sp. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. admolendinum. — To partito d'alcuno. then the signification w. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. ba?idare. It. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. side. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. eiiseigne. bannire exercitum. To Bandy. bandera ground at his mill. change to the feminine gender in banda. bann.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. In Fr. . —R. 15. Baud. bound. Cot. and in E. to publish) banna. bundun. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. power. Bandear. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays.^ bandy.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. ex. G. Wyntoun. Goth. he bannede his ferde. to . Goth.Lat. to form parties. biddal. See Abandon. ligue Taboada). In like manner we find bannire adplacita. and thence to any proclamation. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . Fr. Band. is That with which anything AS. R. R- He Translated by Chaucer. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). Se il — Romance languages. side. bandi. permission. flag. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. to ctide. It seems this signification has arisen. Ripuar. whether by way of injunction or for- command. Sp. banda. and It. Thus the word is also used in both senses.e. says Muratori. Les saiges avait et les fols d. — excommunication bann-lysa. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. bande. sostener Torriano. From the verb to banda. A. D. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. we constantly find the expression.

Bandy legs are crooked legs. bander tin arc. Lingua. banish. Fr. dorsum was applied to ject. bench. Diaconus in Due. Goth. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. bander. bank of Dan. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. Fl. large dog kept for a guatd. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. and hence. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. bana-sott.: . bank.z. Sw. The ing. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. roupt. a bench. many a bang. benk. the same verb the It. Benvoglio. Fr. banc G. Ripuar. bank. clouds. among rotta. Hudibras. —^Vocab. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. bance. E. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. a table. Banditti. Bandy. distinguishes bekkr. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. AS. It. Bantze. forbear this outrage. counter. bench. . The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. banka. bank of a river. for shame. bandi. ON. bankruptcy. From Mid. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. banqueroute. banca his creditors. Bacon in R. Lat. follow a party. pastoralis. and bakki. in R. and poise Their lighter wings. that the word is used by Romeo. bane. It. from banc. whence the mod. to knock. disturbance banga. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. Benchi. But natheless wife at I bank. the slope of a hill. to slay. See Banish. It is in this sense nounce. banco. To Bandy. to cabal. AS. a wound OHG. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. standard. tumult bangas. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. bannire. hammering. hricg. a long raised seat. Bane. was formed the OFr. eminence. . Du. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. the back. Your stool. . se joindre. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. a counter. a blow. at canis peciiarius. — — whence E. — . to join in league with others against Cotgn. to hammer in a nail. Banister. — Kil. Diez. . and OFr. bana-sdr. &c. de sable. banke. desk. bandire. has bang-bang. a bench. Roquefort. a bankrupt merchant. See Band. band-hond. — Paulus drive in a nail. of bandying words. 2. outlam came to signify a robber. bana. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. Tibalt. Draw. bank of river. to make a stir banke. N. in the sense of place of business. When a man fails Lat. The word is in E. bana. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). back of a knife. and therefore tied up. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. &c. stir. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. s'associer. death-blow . se reunir. bakke. canis vinculis assuetus. seat . It.^ knock. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. ON. ON. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. death-sickness. . a bench. Mid. bana. as of an explosion or a blow. panca. Africa. Bang. 45 — — Bandit. shoal. bent as a bow. eminence. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. bang. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . beat. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. bow. g. With many a stiff thwack. Milton in R. From a desk . death-wound. The child cries bang! fire. a rising bank. to foment factions. to proclaim. to work in wood. in the sense of a pirate. rap hatike et som The Susu. the former Fr. ruptus. Bank. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. to beat. bander. to knock. a i.HG. A Shipman's Tale. Fr. — Fr. a de Vaud. banca fallita. de- party. Bankrupt. Banner. band-dog. banditti acquired the like signification. in the same way that E. Dan. destruction . broken. See Balluster. home — Bandog. beating. to publicly order one out of the realm. language of W. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. a sand-bank. Mercutio. banc. murderer. a bank. The ridge of a hill is AS. banja. to bend a. put under the ban of the law. Brewer. bandear. b'ang.

benda. OFr. E. remarked. barbe. to having that signification. Bap. himself in Pontus. of a sign in general. senh. Leduchat. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. 2. which is surely in barbed arrow. a. The original import of their own banner in the field. barriire. Barb. . period vexillarii. bandva. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. a beam or long pole of wood. 3. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. merki. E. ^oTrriKio. &c. bar. BARBAROUS reiflingr. hence a repast. OHG. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. milites bannarii. Gr. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. i. ban- Baptise. of wind. inferior to a baron.aTa Kul nest. Duo. barrou-gwez. senhal. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. Fr. Barb. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. senheira. wrapped. then fell among the foot. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. branches of a tree {gwezen. Fr. E. Gael. barbed or trapped as a great horse. Fr. and from ensign or banner Prov. and the work is done. banchetto. a bench or table . to bend. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. Lat. A It. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard.46 BANNERET . an intimation made by bending the head or hand. It. says. barre. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. arineXov. probably corSymbol. nestling. banneret. sparro.. a sign. chan. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. Celtic bar. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. sbarra. in Gr. and he would seem to derive Goth. Barbe. To mock or jeer one. of ensign would be a flag or streamer.— Swift in R. ON. banda hendi. In a similar manner are formed yearling. rarii. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. barrack. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. The barb of an arrow is the sign . a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. top. speaking of battle.8ap6^o)voe. to wrap. such as the Roman Eagle. to dip. out of a wound. barba. —Cot. a ban. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. Banquet. barbarus. to wash. indeed. by a repetition of the syllable bar. rod of any rigid substance. senhal. that the noise of voices Bantling. banner. barrer. privileged to raise Barbarous. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. from the same source. Lat. a war-beacon or war-signal.cruel. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. and with an initial s. Fr. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. Banneret. signuin. barra. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. branch. banne. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva.hinder. It. and it was accord. a tree). sign. jSa'pjSapoc. a which the barrister addresses the court. iandvo. inur. a bearded or Cot. It may be thing. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. Fr. an animal a year old. bandiera. and even of calling it banter. a bantling. of banco. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. uncivilised.the analogous syllable viur. then branches. banneret was a higher class of knights. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. summit. According to Diez the It. heri-pau. the word came to signify rude. brushwood. banniire. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. men. — We A . Flesche barbeUe. ingly very generally known by a name branches. token. sparre. from reifa. barreau. Hence Fr. as they call it. dim. Lat. bannereti. Bret. Thus Ovid. Hence ner. would rupted from Fr. to beckon . The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. It. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. Sw. Gr. either in the Gr. The spar. jSdirTO). a barrier or stoppage. &c.. or of this bantering. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. banda. manu anto make signs nuere. barde. The origin is in all probability Goth. ON. ing term appears in other languages. G. knight Bardd. To Banter. Barbar. OHG. Fr.

gibberish. barefooted Sanscr. name Fr. a shingle or small board. Barbican. and foolishly. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. The Pers. Fr. barbulla. Barber. barda. — . or more properly (says fer. in poetic language Bard for poet. to barbe or trap horses. the quilted with. dial. Applied in E. borbollar. barbaris. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. twattle. such as houses are covered Bardelle. uproar.— — Pm. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. Barberry. Bargain. Etym. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. the flap of a hat. — . to bubble or boil. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts.— Fl. brabble in the making of a bargain. albardilla. the nakedness of a woman. Lucan. Diez. albarda'ah. brim. But Sp. on. barbugliare. A7 to the and warlike. bar. Sp. Thus the on. guaszare. to bubble or spring up. Sp. . bardd. which was of talking.) . w. to make an outcry . /3opj3opwJu. speak confusedly. also to bind or tie across. Fr. Russ. Hall in R. bhasad. albarda. to stammer. formerly used in the sense of tattle. barguigner. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. barda. It. tree. Bard. Bret. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. axilla. skola. Barder. borborinha. upper chamber. baares geld. berj G. unqualified. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. Fl. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. borboglio. to grunt. haggle. a tumultuous assembly. and in Flanders to vociferate. bare baskojis. i. barbarkama. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. to mumble or mutter words. — — Hence. bdsiis. mutter. boil. barbel. Port. saddle-cloth. to chafbargain. a pack-saddle. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. powdered all over. and Sc. muttering. barbelin. a jetty or outnook in a building. is lb. Pr. Barde. It. Fr. Barbel. barbeum. baragouin. a long saddle for an ass or mule. Arab. OFr. Fr. to gurgle. as well as thwcEtta. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. barS. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. used 2. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. lb. Hatt-bard. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . — Cot. also to wallow like a seething pot. to stammer. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. barbeter. to boil or bubble up . Lex. Festus in Diet. Bardeau. jargon. in Fr. skirmish. Hindost. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. Lith. fortia —Strabo. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. skirt. and flanks. in the sense of fight. murmur . Gr. horse armour covering the front. baar. barbier. Sp. to rumble. barboter. uncovered. scouthouse. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. bdsas. bdla-khaneh. Gr. Mod. Cotgr. open. the beard. bds.— BARBEL merit of water. An outwork for the defence of a gate. ala. Cotgr. border of a garden bed.) to wrangle. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. barbacane. bardes. a rumbling. to prattle. Mod. borbulhar. g. — — — men. barz. guazzolare.' Cot. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. coping. as well as the modern twaddle. a bardelle. to It. border. barbar. twcEtta. to wash. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. ready money. Bare. small pack-saddle. Exposed to view. the edge of a shield hval-barct. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. grumble (Lowndes. Port. /3£pjSepi^w. berries. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. waschen. skialldar-bard. stutter. barbeau. . borbotar. Etym. quarrel . and the word was used in OE. to plash or dabble. Cot. tattle. A shrub bearing acid Diet. back. G.

Baron. contest. baarm. as baces-ern. Vocab. barley. as. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. . Antiq. bread-corn. barley. bark . ON. to wrangle. is simply the Bret. 2. prasepe . to strive. and is probably a true bartig. Dan. Sw. . E. a place. It. was barlic. Provj bar (ace. Leg. quant a perdu sa barja. baniffa. beorcan. varen. dispute . Bailey. a stack. Uzen. charlock. baaring. 2. Camus. berm. bamagh. OSw. The origin may be throat. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . a beak. berem. barii. as. As Goth.. a heap . berm hoys. and may therefore be an Eastern word. barn. to rout. Bemiques. AS. barley.' bardagi. struggle. the slimy substance brewing of beer. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. aheap. baralhar. dispute barattare. Du. ON. entangle. . skutr. giving rise to It. Barbour in Jam. baragouin. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. a boat. bargain. Manx bayrn. From Fr. confusion. limpets . baron. contest. borkr. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. —Bark.) lihtes-ern. at barka. barlich. Cornub. the A — Ihre. strife. a cap . commonly explained from bere. ON. Swab. baaren. bard). limpet. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. skuta. to scold. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. (Ihre. Rayn. to shufSe. Bark. — Barnacle. wine. but the woman for the man. i. as in the case of Lat. * Barnacles. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. The older form in e. plants). baimeach. See formed Yeast. to all the barca. a lantern. Kil. from an imita- Barley. a. bere. bosom . beornt. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. herbs. hladi. Isidore in Rayn. OFr. houbartij fsnile. strife. baralha. Sp. Du. the fore or after end of a boat . and hence probably (by a metaphor. barajar. and 1. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. tion of the sound. AS. barafunda.Barum vel feminam. — battle. barki. It. altercation. to chop. barn. So also ON. also a boat . trouble. barahunda. a baking place or oven. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. and llysiaw. Garlick. the or prow of a ship. w.^Voc^. a receptacle for barley or corn. border. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. strife. bcerme. barmr. then the bows pectus navis. Tarn baronem quam feminam. we pass to the vert) barguigner. meta foeni. bern. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. limpets. astringent. hay-loft. Acervus. chaffer. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. Romance barsie. barretor. Sp. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. Prov. spectacles. disorder. barafustar. Barn. Originally man. . barlys {bara. baron)^ Fr. Ibid. husband. barlys. Gael. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. quarrel. adj. dregs of oil. Barge. a load. tumult. to skin over barkandi. berm. baratta. barn. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. one who stirs up strife. beer. then honoured man. and ern. baratta. barizeins indicates a noun baris. as well as Scandinavian tongues. Lith. name being given to spectacles. — de Berri. Leg. baerm. v. baarn. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. lap. barnacles. corn-shed. Ripuar. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. prominent part of a thing. barnis. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. barms. a lap. hlaSa. W. a barn. berma. Port. ON.. barge. dispute . brenig. quarrel Port. bern. louzou. Alam. kani. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. barone. also to exchange. a heap. Gl. hemlock. put to confusion. squabble. OFr. barja. dispute. bread. mhg. to cheat. bcern. dial. fray. Port. The Goth. ber (ace. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. So ON. the G. Sp. edge. ThS man was not created for the woman. in Nat. bernac. bosom. in the Brim. To Bark. Spectacles. Bret. and the word. the rack or manger. On the other hand. dispute. Dan. — Zeuss. See Barm. am.

On chet — We — — their resemblance. a. composed of dry branches ofer. D. Sp. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. were sometimes confounded. baracca. cise formation of the word. which would barragdn. a barrel. branches. facture. The feudal tenants next Fr. baragan. braeck. sepulchre. beorgan. a.' Op. Joshua vii. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. It should be observed that.' that Barrier. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. Bret. See Barter. — A . bouracan. uncultivated. ^Barrator. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. tomb. boar. barile. change of goods seems. Gael. barrila. An ing. became bidre. sterilis. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. mound. — Kil. rolls of Parliament. baronetti. todtenbahre. Barrel. a bier. nobles. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. by early examples. 26. brushwood. a barrow. 2. barraca. garment still used in Morocco. iver. a horse. from cavallo. and not from Fr. bahre. bier. whence Barrow. gravis et authenticus vir. It. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. Gael. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. Sp. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. barril. (Schmeller). w. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult.— Gibbon. barrier. berwen. ^Vocab. Baron andfemme. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. The Sp. barrique. Barricade. Goth. man. AS. It was not until the time of James I. a kind of coarse camlet. This word introduced into Fr. to * Barragan. See Bar. bara. a hut or booth. fear. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. Nominale of the from braeckland. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. G. cover. shed. StiU he shows conclusively. A. from beran. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. Bohem. alongside of barrow. bark&n. semen non accipiens landiEL.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. like bargain. squabble. or simply bahre. man and wife. heap. fallow. baronculi. bearg . baronuU. Barratry. calico. then traffick4 Barrow. a wooden vessel made of Baronet.. borov'. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. ibid. Sp. strife. in Nat. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. barre. baroncelli. over him. baraignej Picard. OFr.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. Barrister. Fr. in the first instance. a castrated hog . Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. barBombicinus. bara. It. beorh. AS. Russ. especially those killed in battle. as cavalcade. vair. Formed from Fr. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. litter. Bamnculus a baronet. barrique. berewe. fortification. E. a man. a hiU. vel pretiosos burellos. barrack. the braw. Bargus or moreland.parchanttuech. hut. staves. gwr. implement for carryAS. to shelter. as. an obstruction. MHG. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. Antiq. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. and in several instances. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr.. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. OE. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. 1. It. vir. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. dispute. also termed bannerets. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. a bar. S. — — 15th Cent. a word is always used in the plural number. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. Bern. barchent. habeant. Fr.root signifying confused noise. the two names. booth. Barren. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. barague. Barrack. perhaps through Prov. signifying. seem to be radically the same with Lat.have been named from the haggling and gant. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. barri. beorg. qui have not much light on the pre. to carry. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. G. bera. from a tree to which a man is hanged. bredhan. breinej Du. whenever Barrow-hog.

Bass. peel. a court-yard. humilis. ohg. the manorhousfe itself. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. come near. See Brattice. truck. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. God it wot. pdrdt. then cheating. Kil. plaiting of splinters basged. low part of the Hickes in Rich. basta. — in Rich. bestcn. barley. the thin skin Dan.). HoUinshed. besst. Barton. to stitch . Bast. but born in baste. barter. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . basso. to baste. or running away with the ship. besst-u-b£nd&t. Du. It. shallow. foist in bargaining. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. MHG. ibid. fhe outhouses and yards. Sicamb. more noble in blood than notable in learning. bass-matting. bassin. to bind. ^Is de bast. back. imbastire.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. scale in music. MHG. but he dreth presently. to Diez. bdtir. low. i. It.' Papias. corn-farm. beretun. found in Turkish . BassuS. ing for profit. on a. Basket. berewic. preparatory stitching. bastear. from bere. baratear. which covers the grain Ger. from /3aR. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. fits de bas. also to Cotgr. MS. piiiguis. Isidore. lift me above Parnassus. beguile. w. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. It is mentioned as . To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. baratar. bark. lust. bas. aiKcig. bds. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. to bind hand and foot. descended of an honorable lineage. beortun. . A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. imbastire. basta. The original meaning. a ipgli So Turk. a tying. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. a bastard. bast. F. There is not one that. baxoj w. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. the a wide open vessel. cheating. which sets up its hood when angry. bast-maatte. baste. a bass rope. or wic. commonly A joined with the word binda. a basket masg. rope for — . — Bassoon. he. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. as the diadem of the basilisk. to bargain. bast-reb. to baste piece of cloth. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. n' is n' is bacino. Sp. The like property hath the iasilisk. would be. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. AS. It. bran. baste. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). bast. submovet omne Lucan. Barbara de pictis veni patch. fornication. bareter. inclosure. and Bret. cog. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). Sp. court-yard. G. Dan. Gr. a king. Newman. OFr. exchange. Al is dai. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. the — — to kill those that look upon it. hoops of a cask. binding. oe. chasa ogli a bastard. Fr. fornication. basgod. Halliwell. It. partieren. mavult dicere Roma suam. stitch. Sp. according from Gael. Sw. baraet (from Fr. Fr. /«r<fSp. Swed. To Baste. To Bask. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. Sylvester's Dubartas. and tun. a ftiesh. Bass. to bind. said Base. barter. husk bast van koren. To stitch. low. basso. a deceiver. Fr. crassus. exchange. baos. thick. to deceive. also the demesne lands of a manor. fraud. of the same sense. at basta og binda. baste. Lap. It. discourse Nay. pressed down. tierer. — hanging. bestan. Arthur and Merlini. chasa. Basilisk. Apparently of Celtic origin. unrighteous gain. curtus. as It. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. ' He was begetin o bast. to truck. HaUiweU. flat. mock not. basg. HaU in HaUiwell. dwelling. to cheat. baraand especially teria. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. It. leviter consuere. a halter. Lend me your hands. embastir. OFr. . lattice-work. A fabulous serpent. Bassus. over-reaching. mean . to cheat. Du. See Bath. Fris. ' Bosworth. to long — a British word by Martial. .' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. Bartizan. Dan. netting. But according And Dan. bast. Sw. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. 516.' Gl. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. Bastard. low note.D. Pl.looketh upon his eyes. PaaiKhms. him.

Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. Sp. Pr. cudgelling. comp. a bird which. bastonada. For the origin of baston see Baste. a. a packsaddle. to devise or begin. dial. stryk. has bastine. Perhaps baska. packsaddle. ment. blatta. natt-blakka. Fr. in the use of the E. club. bastimento. the original has corneille. contriving. To beat or bang soundly. the clapper of a bell. 11864. to stroke. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. Pm. Cot. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. R. — — — . from Fr. . e. to rub gently. a stick. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. night-bat. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. quelqu'un son roulet. worth (Nat. Sp. disposer. to give him a sound bastingi 3. basta. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. Sc. R. * Bat. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. — — Fl. set up. bastilde. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. — Bakke. nade. niammal. blakta. Dan. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. a blockhouse. a pad or packsaddle. blakra. to rub. a pad. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. Derived by Diez from iasi. a blow cloth for dinner.'CaB. in the Romance languages. That yche blak y dar wel telle. blatta. flyinge best. to beat. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. to belabour. beating. ON. to cudgel. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. baston. to drub. bast. p. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. business (Altieri). baston. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. basto. vespertilio. Sw. boste. To donjon. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. raise. contrive. and ditches bastion. explains Sp. Mid. For the loss of the / in back. basa. BAT neither.stitching in general. the winged . bastir. a with a stick. erect.baste or knock soundly. to Due. bastille. a things prepared for future use. Dieiif. Fr. Antiq.stick. and Cot. devise. ari instruineht for beating.Lat. pre. back. which to rest the load. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. . Sw. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. iinbastire. bastia. Sw. set up. as weU as besteau. a bastion. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. blaka. or implement for 4 * A . It. It.fortress or castle furnished with towers. I. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . passage Imbasto. guerra bastir. is explained by Cot. the E. bastione. 164). to teach one before. staff. 2. 'iJipistreUo. military term of a bat-horse). stryka. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . Fr. whence ledrblaka. bak. bastonFr. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. iastir. beysta.— Bailey. a barSp. dial. bat.-^ Chaucer. settiilg up. frotter. aftonbakke. badger. Bastinado. to set on foot a war Bastion. bastine. Florio. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. liiake. To baste one's hide . to quilt or stitch wool into it.. to spread bread and butter. Cot. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. All from bastir. It. a sconce. bastir. but this is hardly satisfactory. and Arabs. Fr. bastear. provisions. translation to a bat. bladier. also to cudgel. to build. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . to pack a saddle i. bastida. Dan. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. bakie-bird . like the owl and the bat. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. to build. to beat. vespertilio. frame. E. victuals. Rayn. Prov. to lay the Sp. blows. which in the E. blakka.— . batta lucifuga. the bat . bdion. blacta. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. Supp. vledermus. bastonnir. put it together. also the ricado. to whip. 2. Sw. to thrash . compared with blakka. the night-jar or goat-sticker. 2. to flap. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde.

52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. Fr. tagUone. battle was used beath wood. Batten. from on. batte sig. and about an inch thick. solen baddar. wet linen in washing. Batyn. in the case of a wall. to refresh oneself in language. to fight. Bat. Jurgor. flour. w. Pr. tradire. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. was formed bastilU. debat. and as a verb. oneself at the A into faggots. a battalion. or make debate. dispute. howis. to dial. Eggs. allay . quell. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. Baka sik vid elld. Ayenst the sunne. to bathe. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. dial. Sp. Sp. In some parts of England it is striking. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat.' Palsgr. to beat. 2. to warm oneself at the fire. to thrive. bat. to feed. G. from battre. or break down. by projections or in any licoure. Hence pro. basa. term in falconry . battere. or a dry stick. a blow. of bread is so much baked zX one time. I bathe in water viz. Fr. to beat se battre. batador. batir. to warm. abate. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. makebate. It. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. — — — ' — . trahtr to It. battere. a stick. to toast bread. . — To . bada. From OFr. Florio. to get better. A batch as wood. ON. Battle. to flutter with the wings. baka. Goth. as signifying warm baths. battre las ailes. Pr. fortress or castle. To Bate. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. is a simple adoption of Fr. It. battre. Bate.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. Gael. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. . and milk beaten up together. See Better. baeddu. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. beat down. made of bats. is in falling. . as E. to become fat. bet. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. A Bath. bdhen. remit. to beath wood Battledoor. Barbour in Jam. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . to heat . sich bakern. Bret. signifying to give repeated blows. to bathe oneself. Jeddris and covering. a battle. G. Strife. to warm oneself. pak. gabatnan. to foment. a main battle. bdda vidjor. also a sun badfish. Hal. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. a staff. badda. to for fighting. abattre. To Batten.Bathe. for biia sik. on. to betake oneself. The bat with which a brot bdhen. To thrive. to cudgel. dial. to heat. PLD. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. battre. Batter. lessen. E. as wood-en. a washing beetle. badask. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. certain bend. Chaucer. battions. a Baiffi. to beak. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. Mgy. a band of armed men arranged basa. whence the sun burns . Du. Sw. to fell. dial. bataille. a great seems related to baden as Fr. betten. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. a from ON. and with staffslyng. buask made like a fortress. perhaps first used adjectivally. Holz bdhen. the root of e. Bailey. a stirrer-up of strife. cudgel. Slav. e. in the sun. batacazo. solbase. squadron. hot. In OE. on the fire. I. — Cot. Sw. batna. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. Battery. baquetazo. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . beat. bat-en. a beating. water whether warm or cold. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. baden. Flem. to beat. strife. Fr. baz. Battlement. altercation. Pm. the heat of the It. to foment. badda. as E. better. G. adapted for defence. bdt. Battery. an arrangement for giving blows. Fr. to fire or in the sun. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. bastille. I baske. bludgeon. more. bdda. quhar he suld assaill. then to warm by the application of hot water. batterie. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. Pm. to beat. fashes basking in the sun squadron. gebdck. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. also. Fr. heat. bake. to become convalescent. Plkkis. dial. made of — A made by one Batcii.Hence in the augmentative form It. beat. to foment with hot applica.— To Bask. busk. Battalion. Fr. battaglia. a blow with a light instrument. to be profited.— . From bat in the sense of rod . gebdcke.

or Cot. Zalli. bablyn or waveryn. miauler.— P. Bagdad. or sheaf of Bridel. Fl. balbob. collar. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. bouaila. bad. guigaw. P. Ball-seirc. bauch. a belt. a horse with white legs. librillo. fields. trifles. It. bau. R. Fr. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. whimwham. From ! an interjection of disgust. dacchino. OFr. exactly corresponds Fr. the Swiss baben. a lump. From Bret. to bark . to talk Lacombe. or the animal so marked. Cot. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. s. a white mark Bawdy. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. bauU. to play the babby. Pr. child. represented by the syllable miau. rotten. toys. bobine. — — ' Lydgate. Gael. tab. to bark. whence pouacre.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. Cot. dial. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). bow-wow. dente. bal. 8. a tassel. filth. having a white streak down Bagdad. Bawson. fagot. Pr. javelle. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. An analogous noisily. Prov. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. i. to make the noise Baudrick.. is used for a sented by bau. lewd . trifle. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. Cotgr. zano. a lump or cluster babhaid. dung. pegma. to cry. fe bau. E. E. Baldrick. Cloth of gold. divided between black and white. the white of his leg or foot. speckled. a tassel or hanging bunch . Sc. vacillo.' ' Pegma. a spot. baffe. and to-tore also. fooleries or fond To Bawl. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. 2. was simply a field gold. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. is Bagdad stuff. Fr. in OE. horse. Baw — . Piedm. a gavel. babsmall toy to play withal. b \% bouala. baban. and authorities in note.guage). — Pm. baula. ish baubles. W. Beaus^ent. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. baw. the face. an — — — A — g — — — . a horse marked with a procession. disgusting. from Fr. baudrdj OHG. The It. Jam. A name of the badger. baubare. tille. to 53 manure the To baw. obstrepere. from Baldacca. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. Bavin. It. because made of cloth of white. spot. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. Descript.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. bal. The word may perhaps be sticks. on the face of animals. ground. an embattled wall. Irel. pie- . ON. P. faisceau. spotted. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. an object. mew. excrement. ball. baue. to trifle away ment. also more Bawdekin. to the same origin. baudrat. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. Fr. In like manner Grisons filthy. babiole. Ball. sword-belt. filth. c. sorry. OFr. bobbin or cluster of thread. a zan. Batylment of a wall.. instead oi s. bausan. Hal. also the canopy carried part of his body. and Sp. P. babbole.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. E. a plot of Chaucer. bow (as in our nursery Diez. as Fr. balGael. E. cluster. Pm. balderich. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. ! Bauble. brush faggot. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. It is all bawdy. Filthy. to me-wl. It. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. ballach. or toys. Formed from baw. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . propugnaculum. to void the bowels. form with an initial seen in Fr. to low or bellow as corn. expressive of disgust. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. Swiss Rom. scarf. Lat. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. s. dirty. baugant. —R. dirt. nastiness. whence the E.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. to vociferate. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. BAWSON Swiss. a dog).

—Diez. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. living thing . badarc. life. Bay. Swab. trahir. like a pie. Fr. Bay-tree. w. F. grapes or nuts. Gael. Arts. husk.—Journal Soc. baga. to keep at a bay. life. Earth — By Nature made to till. Abide. or at bay. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. to betray. dehiscere . From Cat. See Bawl. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. or window ' (in Fortification). &c. Lat. the world Gr. baher. from an imitation of the sound. Q. badia to Sp. or recess in an apartment in modern times. bilyega.' Bailey. watching intently. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. Bay. Fr. baier. BE Probably conRuss. the laurel-bay. Serv. bai. a berry. from badar. Gr. It. Q. 25. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. Bayonet. to iiitent nected PoL white. barn of two bays. bijel. bahia. especially beans. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. he turns and faces his pursuers. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. baer. bahia. —Bay-windo'W. and the To bark as a dog. arose two forms of the verb. in order to keep the enemy in check.— Stalder. a'uno. desiring. stood watching him stoop. It. Swiss beie. Sp. the cod of peas. the step is the same as from It. or berries. window . is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. a mark. a hole. so called from its bearing bays. ist. that from ba. Drayton in R. weary of running. as gazing.. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. . or to have been first used at the Cot. . baca. and zndly. Cot. yellow . bay. waiting . . siege of Bayonne in 1665. |8i'os. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. See Bald. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. Catalan hadia. baja. the cod or husk of beans or the like. Gael. living Ir. Fr. which however. abbabayer. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root./^ bau. baya. Fr. to on anything. Vielp. See At Bay. dividere. The — Fr. OSp. to amuse stare a bada. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. beo. alive. house . It has been shown under Abie. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. AS. a dagger. stare. aux dehniers abois. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. window-sill. baca. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. put to his last shifts. bay. bilyejiti. baccello. bacca. BauSfi)/. It. A hollow in the 'line of coast. — Schmid. buidhe- The ruadh. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. bde. bialo. berries. baiare. badarse. baye. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada.. large window in a handsome . Sp. to keep one waiting. and keeps them in check for a while. buidhe. S. Fr. Fr. open the mouth. * To Be. . laurel of the ancients. to open as a blossom. Sp. Lat. 1. to split. baie. ing-floor. corrupted into Bow-window. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. a beast. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. as if to signify a window of curved outline. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr.c. bajo. — A At Bay. expresr sion tenere a bada. It. Feb. hddhe-dhonn. to open. baionette. badius. Mod. tradire to Fr. bagaid. to mark. The word bay. bayo. From the former verb is the It. by the term rendre les abpis. bayen-stein. beothach.' — — 54 bald. batibari. Such Antaeus seemed to me. to gape. to stand watching one. bioth. gate. a cluster of bacon. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. is perhaps not directly from Lat. BAY marked with bjly. &. To Bay. A stag is said to stand at bay. &c. overture. Prov. bdcr. berry. Holland's Pliny in R. —F. white. to be Bohem. 1859. when. bate. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. It. at his last gasp. beonj Gael. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. Piedm.

as. signifying a point.ad. bar. to bellow. gebed. Boom. beacnian.' Suetonius in Diez. rising ground. a presage. Beacon. Bean. . Trans. bokan. bek. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. fd or faVf beans. bee. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. post. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. It. fero. beugler. Sw. Moreover the name. bakkje. like most nautical terms. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. beacen. beck. Catalan becar. to nod the head. as. Slavon. to nod . N. fromthe danger. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. signifying individuality. The immediate shore of the Menage. To Bear. A Esthon. The wild beast. faba. Q wait upon him. atUndre. G. stock. Pardoner's Tale.from AS. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. Fr. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. tale of prayers or doxologies. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. It forms a. A two-year old nephew of mine p. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. Lat. Farrar. a hill. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. W. bean. . becco. The origin seems preserved in E. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. beans. Hackluyt in R. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX.to have a French origin. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. a tree. a single bean. It. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. to wait. was introduced from England sea. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. Fr. Beadle. bearti. badmr. beic. -phxr. bidan. backe. — Bellenden in Jam. vol. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young.' Hall's Chron. Beach. AS. pig. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. which is. Gael. bagms. a prayer. Chapters on Lang. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. an attendant. vii. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. a tree. «va\ioQ. Beckon. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. l^ax. Bret. Thus the final en.fui. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. bead. salve his hurts. Gael. bidello. or beic. bauhan. bedm. E. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. beic. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. bM. into France. baun. It is BEAR SI court. See To Bid. He says. on. to produce young. bairan. Beak. Be. a single bean. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. bank. according to of Sanscr. bohne. ffaen. bohnej ON. a curtsey. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. — to bow or nod . * Beagle. Goth. Goth. baum. or however. Miss Gurney in Philolog. bdkna. — : Beam. W. —F. nokkima. OSax. a nod OHG. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum.' adheres to the root.. bakke. AS. Beck. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. ON. ffci. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. ON. 54. into a snjall river. ohg. pierced for hanging on a string. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. the part overflowed by the tide. Gr. not applied to the yelping of dogs. — bedeau. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. or breathing. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. Du.fer-re j Gr. to wait-. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. fora-bauhan. bob.fuis5e. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. G. support. Bear. a beak. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. to carry. boom. a sign. to beckon. and Lat. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. g. Gael. or any action done with a pointed thing. faba is Kvavoq. Netherlands or North Germany. The nutu significare. prodigy bauhnjan. however. would say. Bret. . be. bydel. as well as f& or fav.

ON. to G. G. obtain. talkative. to fall. R. bobr. befall. E.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. proper. bard. to happen. bett.S6 fero. 2. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. convenient. Chaucer. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. Beat.fit. to fall mode of being. gabaurths. G. den. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. Thus OY. proper . suitable. Thcem.we call the arrangement becoming. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. the ece thurhwuniath. It. Cal. to happen. our taste. a lip. AS. pretty. venient. to be fulfilled. bave i. slobber. E. Sp. Goth. taste. Russ. He becom on sceathan. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. timan. bart. edge. g. decorous. Beck. get J ' He got very angry. whence baveux. to bear children. a brook. bib or slobbering cloth. beo. bavec. barba. Lat. or river. to happen. Slav. dize or dtzen. duty. becuman. now confined To Become. from baver. In like manner condition. bekommen. beauts. R. Perhaps from Pol. Fr. gefallen. bebrus. bring forth. suitable. Beauty. baurthei. to come to or upon. e. a bank. i. and on. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. to sleep on. Secondarily applied to a hat. chin. barf. rying. connected with ripa. Prick of Conscience. tidig. brada. Fr. fitanimal. or special purpose. to live. to appertain. Lat. border. The moveable part of a helmet. fallinn.AS. See Bat. That thou mayest attain Goth. to carry. biber. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. while from Shep. — A — A — . to arrive at. badi. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. which. Bosworth. OSw. Lat. dushmak. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON.of being very angry. to those goods which endure for ever. byrcti. it is probable that here also the to become. limpian. beatanj It. to shore. ON. ON. behkr. judgment. boroda. Fr. bel. an notion of being convenient. comely. On the same principle. to the good hapHalbard. G. to attain to the lot of any one. the beard. bach. con. To load with ornament. as the babble of the child. bearing. battere. handsome. ziemen. i. bcek. covered the face. riviera. to dabble . bellus. — . pleasing. to the brook itself. AS. befit. ON.getiman. godum with ON. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. to assume a certain form or Turk. to get. pens unmixed evU.' ' He became very angry. Bedizen. and Fr. See becymth anfeald yvel. Fr. when up. but now a river only. See Bank. a. and also in that of birth. W. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. if sound of a sharp blow. Fr. to be a part of his to. bello. nod or sign. Lith. G. or a feeling to be gratified. babrad. bava. bestiaj Gael.' every way suited to a prince. agreeable. burdr is used in the sense of a car. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. to be incumbent upon him. fitly . from the same in the sense of bear2. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. from beau. because made of the fur of the beaver. to hem. to happen. Prov. byw. Diez.' are equivalent expressions. gelimplic. baba. becuman. Boeth. It. riviire. See Beacon. Bo. happening as it ought. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. Now the Beast. bekkr. The fitting or suitable.— Kiittner. decent. Beck.to clothe to slobber. bequem. G. living. a bank. 1. o. fit. agreeable. place to lie down. The quadruped. birth. ting. dress with unbecoming richness . It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. E. fiber. Beaver. . nothing to thy name make. to fall in with our bavard. iida. limpan. the latter are derived It. to happen. formerly a happen. As rivus. as. gebank. The OFr. to please. Do no To It fallith favour. bave. limplice. bedr. and to acquire. name applied originally to the bank then proper . Lat. brook. bur. Dan. I do thee pray. blast. biivre. baviire. perhaps a living thing. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. tidy. bobrowai. opportune. Beckon. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. brook . If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. receive. produce. seemly. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. to wade through the water like a beaver. e.

by the analogy of bedaivb. biiren. I dysyn a dystaffe. a horse-fly . waarin. bette or blettej Lat. /SXirov. by-flugaj G. a wasp.— B.D. beest. The honey-producing insect. case. to drink. a Properly a cover that biiren. a pad or cushion). bibere is a re. Fin. Bedouia. betel. Bethlehem. erroneously modified in form. ir'm. biene. Slav. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. The first milk after a dizen. bbtel. paralyticus. and lebermer in G. clog for a dog b'oteln. translation beOj. thick. red curdled Arab . a stinging bieUe. to beat bossel. Fr. GaeL bior. Pett. . also bienst. It.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. beetle also signified the impiti. curded or beesty. a drink potus. Pl. comb. cozen. from the hos. taglio. ris. an Beetle._t from the root pi. to parget or rough-cast . The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. Lat. cousin. beta. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. a pillow-case. Cot. as. piwo. used for boull. Bav. cited by Diez. I A pillow-beer. bably named from the destructive quali| T. buk. to change . ProBeer. badigeonner. a wandering Prov. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. woman that is newly delivered. imperative pi. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. i. bitel. to rough- cast. the loppered sea. sang vermeilh betatz. as in It. cushion-cover . Fr. But possibly bedizen 2. fall. from jtst-. from leberen. to become Beech. stakes. ' MordiThe Lat. a clapper. pettiriso. ^. to and ale. Grimm. desert. bos. Confined to bed. in Schmeller. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. the ox. 1156.). which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. Fr. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. Esthon. thick.— JI14. bovis.cz//aj. bossen. Dan.D. Fr. a malsense of drink. de Fierabras in Diez. bet. may be from K. bletumj Gr. I put the flax upon it to spin. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. a bed-tick. beach. to twist poorma. kivih. a pillow case.possible. fagus. batAfter mete in sale. Fr. drink. trees in a forest . Beetle. mars betada. a bee. to curdle or lopper. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. a cup or implement for AS. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. prigione. madhouse. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. qui de lecto surgere non potest . tree. the biter. . doubtless. bitela. G. an inhabitant of the desert. 1 to drink. beutel. E. turn. drink. Gr. beyki. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. to colour with lime-wash. to turn. PI. Bernese. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. pital of St Mary. bukva. . from blood. sela que environna la terra. which also 2. Beet. pude-vaar. G. bedawi.ing of the word is curdled. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. P1. KXlvoTTiT^e. briest.'— GL ^Ifr. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. a cover. . buche. to fall. bove. on. and in driving piles. to coagulate. Bed-ridden. blow or thrust. a mallet. an ox. in Nat. Gael. E. 57 — Palsgr. boytle. . bedskiissen-bUren. bytl. to knock. The beer al for te shenche bate. whence familiar. wedges. a agulatum in the original Latin. It. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. Bee. beach-each. as the milk of a that purpose in London. 1.^ drink. of beatmg. G. buka. byst. In a passage of an Old Fr. knock. cogionare. Beef. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. 1. whose face is clotty. It. 'La Gl. Let. door.(paddi. calleBedlam. to flatten In OE.' the last word corresponds to cofly . a paviour's beetle batail. to poordma. turn (a garment). also the bite or sting of a bees. g. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. poculum.' So Gr. cow has calved. Rom. boeuf. briesch-milch.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. The meanpainting. Originally. from risan. For that was law of lend. Horn. beost. may be shpped on and off. &c. kiissen-biere. AS. crespir. beer. * Beestings.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. Cot. D. duplicated form of the root. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor.. cugino. Ant. AS. bedde-redirj ohg. Fr. water. from Lat. a wasp. garden-herb. Arab. Lat. speach. . the meat of spinach. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. prisons Venet. extant in Bohem. vaar. biest-milch.ON. AS.

y/yvo/iat. To produce children is to acquire.pose. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. P. a beggar-boy. begging. chisel. 1867. Cold-begone.D. onginnan. steinbosil. & go a begging. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. to be able. 58 BEG BEGONE G. P. giving in Gr. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. to bear young. Gr. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. gan. Nov. Deutsch. anfangen. to get children . lapidicinus. ip AS.n. krapszas. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. beginning. Lollards. P. Du. image is cleft out of the trunk. a beggar. whence the E. gigno. be^nnan.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. Political Songs. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. P. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. cans. is com. beutel. P. beis- plement driven by blows. yiyvo/uat. 142. or Of a pure poor man. from whete G. appears improbable at first. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. woe-begone. to take. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal .quently used in OE. in E. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. To Beg. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. can. is formed pocair. Of brede full ycrammed. ornamented phoc. affected. ken. gen. V. So from Gael. not began to alight. a little bag). ' . Creed.' A. seizing.— . kind. bertola. 40. sel. to beg. signifying to conceive. ykvog. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. genus. 25. oppressed with woe. P. ytyvwfT'Kw. Bruce. 1430. baigeir.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. yivofiai. tale. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. Mundart. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. ' ' . 'Dz. It. to be acquire. a bag. To Begin. a bag . 'Aboutin undern monly. hags. — Stillingfleet. to begin. Du. When Q. Barbour. Mod. yivtrri. to go a begging. touched with emotion — . ' Begone. Goth. iv. Schm. literally. P. begger. two betels —a grete oke. a chisel. air a . Lith. vir mendi. a wallet. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. but probably erroneously. covered with gold D. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. Si'Xa/coc. Into the are D. to reduce him to beggary. Fr. on the bag. &c. to cleve. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. incipere. above quoted to get beaten ON. on further examination. — yivsaiQ. although it ' the future. 2. beriolare. V. In Luc vi. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. taking up. P. on the tramp. From w. to know. &c.' about undern he got down. beitel. Du. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . viii. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. aginnan. in D. as alighting is a momentary operation. to begaan. fangen and Lat. referred gan this Erie alight. a wedge for cleaving wood. ken. su with gold. yivwajcw. capere.' for ye shall lament and weep. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. duginnan. 168. also called Bigots. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. V.3. P. Vocab. a scrip euXaiciJoi. to be born. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. ysgrepanu. pose-pilte. chap. origin. and Lat. Skinner's derivation from bag. a scrip. OHG. 'ex quo. ysgrepan. beissel. He did alight. of Gr. AS. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. the fundamental notion of attaining to. The tother seand the dint cum. word. it is both to acquire and to beget. at geta talad. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. beitel. It will .Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. but in the same language from poc. a beggar . a stone-cutter's chisel. Beghardus. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. can. one after that other. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . P.bag full of the G. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. Florio. a bag or poke. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. to arise. Ancren Riwle. in Lat. bag {baigean. a — wedge.

hafwa. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. AS. AS. the name adapt. Command. to bers of the body. hantyri. hatan. the distance of anything. obliged. to be named. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. commonly expressed. habban. ifl fact. bound. laborare. use. and the E. to halten. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. To Behold. to command. Robert in Warton. ge' hatan. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. Sw. have the sense of calling or naming.the figure of throwing at a mark. AS. G. G. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. The It. is on the top of or opposite to. observe. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. to lead. Sw.to vow. to command. beperson addressed. promise . But. name of the head is used to express what hbva. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. or the hence advantage. To be expedient. vow. to call. what he wishes another to do . to carry corn into the barn . is supported by many analogies. solicitum esse. to hold. to the equivalent of Du. hces. N. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — .). while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. to call. taking notice or care of (Gloss. G. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. to be well pleased out. AS. It. to keep. gehalten seyn. to have. tion. to tend. to vow. zu etwas gehalten haitan. heeten. behatan. behete. to be suitable or becoming . and their senses intermingle. behold. Aan iemand bid one welcome. behind. — Behest. gehaben. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. beholden to him. betragen.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. zijn. behat. —Hest. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. nittaa. gehouden. to meet.— . on. to bring forwards. to be obliged to one. fixed upon any object). to be obliged to do a thing. hafwa ram. behefe. guardare. hove. Sw. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. hofwa. to hold. heita. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. To look steadily upon. keeping. 17. to hit the mark. holding is originally derived from that of looking. adjust. R. gehat. hafwa bort. to keep. vow. G.' Richardson. to keen or hold. seeing to. or necessary. Goth. keeping. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. according as the * To Behove. to look upon it as true . to cast or throw. to gehouden. garder. when the verb will hoof. hcef tig bort. gecall. servare. hevja. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. ward. To place are most naturally ex. habere. heeten willekem. behoof. to feed. to raise. to follow. right. us-hafjan. to look. a follower. se porter) to fare well or ill. what is so required. AS. is also found in the sense of looking. premi curi alicujus rei. to take away. promise. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. Paladino. to be be named. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. to lift. heave. injunccommand. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. hcefwa in seed. the equivalent of E. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. Kiittn. The Lat. G. hafwa. as in the case of E. tail. hevja. And so from hania. to be fit. behaviour. to heave. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. to vow. to lift. G. the two verbs seem radically the same. by the compound observare. The seyn. ufhaban. or purpose. portarsi. to promise. healdan. to R. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. At the back of The re. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. take yourself off. to carry. advantage.for throwing it. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . K. OE. at the tail of. to name. exhort. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. promise or a command. to regard. hafjan. to behave. to carry. Plautus. take heed of. to fit. Thus in Finnish the heave. and (as Fr. to carry. hovast. from tragen. to turn one out . han- — js Kil. furtherance. behces. invoke. To Behave.

with the consent of the heirs. giving leave or permission. honoured. hesfa. to protect.Lat. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. — mankind. Hence to simple approbation. stand. and Du. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. In the middle voice hofwas. Du. — Diicange. beffroi. to boke. lyfan. to believe. bervrit. beffroit. belief . Another application of the same word is in Pl. bellow. permitting or giving leave. ornament. a vessel made for dishonour. are innate . to permit. ON. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. leaf geleafa. galaubjan. to befit. to to make A Templorum campana boant. —F. AS. pro3. to express approval. moderation. To Believe. gelyfan. on. then.Lat. lov. berfroi. glauben. See Gain. appearing in Mid. allow. It. To Belay. praise. then. loben. a. Northamptonshire. Det er ofwer er hofwa.D. or house. if a narration. laven. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. bellan. to fix a price upon one's wares. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . range. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. bealcettanj OE. bercvrit. To praise is essentially Xo prise. esteeming good and valid. Du.alyfan.. fringe. satisfaction. AS. Fair sir and Fair lady. tain a certain end. to a loud noise. Pl. on. to extol the worth of anything. boare. — . an implement for making a loud noise. to make it fast. Bell. to resound. promiser. or a sconce. to sound loudly . to put a high price or value on. met. from mhG. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam.D. aim. to believe. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . locus securitatis Schilter. bulken. mark ON. properly belonging to the church tower. to lay be- around. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. and E. 6o BELAY BELL loven. or high estimation. Du. to give leave Dan. Fr. resonare. Then. galaubs. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. a watch tower. reputation. Fr. garnish. a tower. to cry out bell. to praise. From AS. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. permission. . beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. beau sire and bel dame. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. legsel. were civil terms of address. bealcan. consent. Goth. and E. Sw.. in nautical language. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. to be required for a certain purpose. behove. ungalaub kas.. we have Goth. to roar. b'ola. The word be- Belfry. In Mid. bylja. precious. reach. under the forms belfredum. beleggen. bolken. and. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. to estimate them at a To believe. to bolk. esteemed . true. laven. fitness. to hit hafi. to praise. .D. bell. G. a little shed. peal. and bergan. Pl. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. loven. distance to which a piece will carry. frid. OHG. border. verloben. if a promise. a tower for defence . is (Sternberg). cela est audessus de votre portde. To Belch. to bellow. to believe. to der swaren lave. overspread. to promise. are other modifications of the same imitative root. certain rate. . The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. to belay.D. to sanction an arrangement. is used in the sense of approving. portion. praising. promising. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. to give leave. bounds. turris. is an easy progress. to lay the cable round the bits. P1. ley/a. laubjan. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. orloven. Q. loven. measure. lofa. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. belja. to praise. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. erlauben. filu-galaubs. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . bertefredum. OFr. bialla. for purposes of low estimation . leave . beset. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. ON. to give leave. to promise or engage. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. bettifredo. Du. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. battefredum.

G. benefacere. OUG. belly. to make bilbil. bolch. the word." — — . ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. OFr. benaigon. a leather bag. is a kindred form. binssen. ON. . balg. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). to use words of good omen. G. ^To Beray. or a It is times the to signify services. blast-bcelg. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. est matris in lucem editus. Lat. fyle To dirty.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. skin. a accusative. has assumed a plural form. bimpsen. by itself. Javanese perfume. w. . a benefit. as. Bench. benejicium. ' . an inflated Lat. a blow.videtur. ON. bilbila. incense of Java. poX^ri. to concern. blister balgan-snamha.pinuz. attingere. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. belt. Lat. vulva. ..' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. See Bank. belgr. bolg. to bend a bow . The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. to reach. bellows. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. gwaldas. The ing-skin. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. belch. attinere. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. Fr. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. To Bend. bless. on. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. pino3. to hold to one. disposed to oblige. Bent. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. hem. In E. wallet. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. to touch one. balteus . pouch. Fr. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. se bander. Benedico. from Arab. one who does good. benedictio {bene^ and dico. to stretch it on a frame. . a speaking well of one. Lat. beneison. benir. rushes. from another modification of the word for bubble. a spring. volva. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. I araye. I soyle it or araye it. to do good to one . or fyle with myre. pod. To Bequeath.Fr. Belt. benignus (opposed to malignus). Benzoin. bene/actum. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . leather sack. to touch. pervenire. bolg. bellows. . Gael.polch. Benefice. to hallow. dirt. Benignant. Fr. — root consisting of concentric skins. .— Belly. Beneath. Dozy. to attain to. See I . as concerning that. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. kind. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. Ptg. or sometimes louban.' The term had been previously planation. From OFr. well. Benediction. from cwcsthan. a blessing. Gum benjamin. To Benum. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. bendaj as. bcelg. skin. bag. vulgarly the belly. — Ducange. the womb. belly. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. from benedictio. benehusk. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. was in Mid. — See Numb. Sw. a water-bubble builge.' — Hie fimus. pertinere. ray. Eenison. Gael. the skin of those animals that factor. because bcelg. means seeds of plants. . bander un arc. to become one's property . welt of a shoe. welt of a shoe gwald. bellows. to exert force. needs no ex. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. to ring. bell. a bellows . a bellows. or simply djawt. pertinere. To Belong'. wallet Benefit. loubdn djawt. generous. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. bags or bellows. rise against external force . Du. is The word balg. ' I beraye. a kindness. bimaissen. cod or husk of pulse. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. binsen. to come to the crown belangen. Lat. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. benedicere. a round or bubble-shaped root. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. Benefactor. benjoim. Bret. Benign. benjoin. Bav. to arrive at. taken absolutely. bandoir. langen. fens et hie liraus. are stripped off whole blase-balg. to bless. to attain belangen. G. ball. To belong is thus to reach up to. Quoth. See Bind. Lat. Lat. I say). to concern. belliJ Lat. a border. J'emboue. G. bilbil-goda. Was das belanget. balg. to belong. border. from which is also bulbus. to. to say. gelangen. bienfait. attinere.' Palsgr. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. See Nether. hence with ashes. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. bendan. Kil. — ray. I marre a thyng. becwathan. a good deed. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi.

barthless. Esthon. as bouter selle. bal oppbota. From abet. or to bestead one. sets fire to. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. to To Bereave. as Du. beorgan. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. the origin of which is to be found in ON. but in practice. BEREAVE Wall. besen. as. bur-we. — Biglotton. So Lat. earg. dung . AS. or. bota. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. position. Tha het he micel fyr betan. Beit. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. dial. To Gl. bestow. rubbish. buttare. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. supporting on the one side Lat. vi. hva mannan. bereafian. fall with sound. BETE dirty'. G. berwham. Rob. basjaj Du. to fall with roisto. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. baete. to make better. R. bdt. boeten. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. the side bhakshya. The origin is AS. supply. one who shelter. Du. stow. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . Sw. The proper meaning of the bale. Beet. OE. boeten. a horse collar. buttafuoco. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. as in growth. to amend. or the space kept clear betan. to thrust. place. Fin. to the place boarded off in a. advantage. . besein. Besom. dirt . So roto rattle down. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. a fire. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. botesward. ariierf to 113. of ffeed a fire. better. I from lew. to exercise on a definite object. what does it boot. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. To help. sheltered from the wind. a place . to light the fire . an incendiary. protect . Du. from grow. but it is specially applied mister. besmas. to kindle the fire. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. ^•n. * Berth. bacca. seems twigs or rods. as. besIn sen.— VixHsm. eld up- On is to be placed A — . — Chaucer. roju. bet. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. fearful. think more probable. boeten. to make it. Fr. AS.bhaksh. — amendment. barfham. Du. solicit. lay out. besje^ Sanscr. noise. to give a place to. Tusser.— Hal.fish the other hand. compared with bargham. to entreat. Grose. p. reparation. roju. put. beseech. G. stede. See Better. lewth. basya. Best. — bota. it seems hard to separate as. as. Sw. bat. p. Fr. making better. berwe. to fire a funeral pile of . Bestead. to stand one in good stead. preferably. scopse spartis. 3. ropahtaa. Kil. So too Yorkshire arf. repair. stealth from steal. to seek.X. To seek something from a person. AS. See Reave. to strip. as. profit. dirt. * To Bete. barth may be for barf.iooA. betan. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. from It. an incendiary. dust rojahtaa. to to deprive of. Hfence backing. On the other hand. reafian. sweepings. to be-place. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. Goth. rods. might have been . is to perform a serviceable office to him. and on which the wager is laid. E. fyrbotare. burrow. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. Du. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. to defend. advantage. bdt. to supply a want. encouraging. ^akka. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure.t. The dry. besnij Pl. To Bet. a berry.ot-i. boteith Goth. Beere. houseless. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. jnore. make better . arwe. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. baete. brem-bessen. betan. from AS. Berry. berry. broom twigs. To bete his Jam. vol. the guardian . het vuur The serise of Boeten. small eatable fruit. person to lie in. reparation.• 62 Antiq. peto. Ihre. to put on the saddle. E.D. what does it better a man. to mend. . put forth. to word is shelter. R. in the sense ctf beria. To Bestow. because used for making besoms. — . When men of mekeness him baet. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position.irova. boutefeu. roe.—^fake. as conversely a besom is called broom. bouter. earh. to thrust. and Du. Zeitschr. ship for a make amend. To Beseech. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. same word with the provincial barth. amendment. to on the other Goth. and also to entreat. mud. to cast. improve. It is the restore fyr betan. Devon.

best. a different form of twa. twain. Fl. make manifest. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. G. betweoh. — that schickiich. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. betweox.' Dialogue on Witches. bibere. Hence last G. Tinia eigi at lata eit. roja. against. Cot. afford. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. e. the being pushed to the frbnt. from Lat. abash j from polir. in the middle of twain. is used for the — R.— . And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. ziemen. moveable and compass branches. Fr. dir. Sahissais. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. larks. trahissais. his mouth. Fr. It. deign. From It.D. a traitor. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. pair of compasses. to accuse. On the same principle ON. — Betwixt. Goth. amidst. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. To Betray. a drinking . to deliver up in breach of trust. . The inflections of Fr. more. Percy Soc. Pl. tweoh. betwuh. to drink . was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. as tlock. by two. E. vrohjan. to deceive. x. wrogia. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. in the same way Lat. deem suitable. is treason. Mich self a good glass of wine. be fitting or suitable. Fris. what does It is forward him. 88. it bewrays itself. to deliver tip. Lat. beva. to stir. R. lot). trahir. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. suitable. taemen. of pheasants. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. as trahissons. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. find it good: Goth. Chaucer. — of the authorities. an instrument opening like a a thing. Goth. sloped off. betwuxt.D. G. BETEfiM translated. AS. e. to fall Some call it a bevel. Ik tame mi dat nig. trakir. Thus from dbahir. suitable. obdissais. traditor. as from obdir. spritigs from schicken. betriigen. verbs in ir with a double ss. awry. or with again. E. bedriegen. a bevy. beuvrage. i. fate. To boot in coursing (i. amiddes. treachery. to fall. from invadere. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. regen. i. Dii. R. Det sig sjelft. to happen. To vouchsafe. springs from ON. bouter davantaige. Dit tungomal rendered in E. to Hence It. zimet. roebucks. E. ruogia. beverage. Slant. batizo. Between. I approve of beveau. Golding's Ovid in R. bet. Now the stirring of an object. AS. In the water anon was seen His nose. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. taemen. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. said he. has — In a like sense tanie>i. A — drink. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. a brood. In like manner folissais. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. not to have the heart to give up a thing. from. Fr. OE. better. Buveau. ON. Pl. e. progress. wreia. which may be compared as to form with amid. fallinn. kein leben mehrin no signs . advance. gatiman. bevere. whence beveraggio Fr. betweohs. polish. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. are commonly to one's lot. and thence twegen. thy speech bewrayeth thee. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. riigen. betray. *Ah. Du. From the former of these are AS. -to appoint. to happen. proficere. dispose (whence schicksal. become. as one would have it fall. bet. to make forwards. bat. Bevy. batista. G. &c. tima. tradere. his eyen sheen. baet. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. tradire. G. trahison. from Fr. Friar's Prol. order. Ober D. to Teem. ON. for measuring angles. in the middle of two. better. to cheat. It. betaemen. two. betst. Sw. as envahir. Better. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. to discover. are there Regt R. obeish. r'ojer dig. some attention. In like manner from twain is fothied between. better. gezimet eines dinges. evidence of life. To Bewray. Best. To Beteem. betera. R. Fr. by a final sh. traitre. Bav. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. of quails. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. find in one's heart. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. /alia. fitting. The as. betest. tima. bevde. — See To Bete. zemen. gesiemen. Car son umbre si le trahit.

biax. to move.{ioin dua. in Fr. beslei. whence Du. lips. a stone-hewer . which good bibbeler. Biseau. It. Bice. babbefore the eyes. Hal. Dan. bes-azur. Jamieson. metaphor). Cat. a bezle. bescompte. to sip. The It. An excellent Basil. . it were the mouth. kwijllap. as an eel or a snake. Lat. To Bibble. has a singular stone-picker. to it evident to sense. /3i/3Xof a book originally. Bezoar. beregen. . ber-laita (for bes-laita). to stir. stock still. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. Bibelsworth in Nat. To drink hard. . sbiagio. Hal- — do something aslant. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. and zahr. sliding. misFr. liwell. slippery. is explained to clatter. petit-lait. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. It is especially applied in Sc. Gr. presence. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). to shake. to hew resemblance to sbiescio.two. twice. Lat. by throwing of stones. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. sbiscio. sbiasciai. or kwijl-slab. Sard.D. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. bible. to stir. sbriscio. Mantuan. or by any rapid motion. wrogen. bisel. bestemps. To Bezzle. bickel-sieenken. bibo. dial. biberon. rogt un bogt sik nig. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . (according to the Fr. to stir. winding or crawling in and out. he is Wtb. love first begins to life signs of him. of the sliced off.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. reveal. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. wrangle. E. bickai. pddzahr. baviere. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. a sloping edge. b&zahr. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. crooked. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. to purl. biberen. a fragment bieco. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. to stir up . poison. sbias. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. biberer. Uprogen. baverole. to tipple. In Arab. to cut in two. Sardin. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. its clothes. Probably. Fr.to drink much.or from obliquus. Bias. bias-wise. makes ble. To Bicker. one who drinks in excess.s bellum for duellum. per\'erted belief. sik beregen. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. foul weather. Fr. Ant. — Bi-. like guzzle. tailU en biseau. Bib. bring under ' Thy accuse. bis. shows the P1. roggle. rogge.' bibble. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. Cat. a bibber. notice. bisdare. to give signs of life. sbrisso. To Bib.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. sbrisciare. bebble. the basil Sc. him. to Jam. to a fight with stones. discover. dial. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. Schiitze. —Dozy. bavon. convicts thee of being drink. to creep or crawl sideling. bickeler. — crooked. evident. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. biascio. bickelen. 172. bending. to be a paring. OE. besanca. to slaver . is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan.as in Biped. sbiescio. used in precisely stone . expelling or preserving against. edge of a plate of looking-glass. To skirmish. An inferior blue. Fr. Bible. snout. —Bickering'. To bicker in NE. . It. whey count . kwijlen. Du. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. to glide or slip as upon. a slabbering-bib. bihais. Fris. Fr. biascia. the papyrus. In comp. a Galilean. asure-bice (Early E. Fr.D. bibaculus. oblique. Sp. 78). specially in a bottle.a. Prov. though such a change of form would be very unusual. ice . bezling or skueing. See Wriggle. aslope. biaiser. Fr. to tipple. to dispute. kwijl-bab. sbiesso. in two ways for duis. bickel. The train of thought is then. to slaver or drivel. to well up with Cot. Diet. slanting . to make tongue Du. aslope sbisciare. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. pible. or in and out. I Wallon. inferiority. sbieco. Yes. it becomes (Jz-. in him. wraggeln. Piedm. Misc. sloped. two- footed. biais. bark of which paper was first made. sbrissare. Pl. Bisect. from pdd-. Piedm. babbi. Bezel. the word became bddizahr.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). Ci^. . Oh when shall I bizzle. to the stirring of their conscience. Pers.

or bad. bidill. to offer it to public notice. bolginn. From Gr. to pray one to dinner. W. pressing on one's notice. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. to arrange. ON. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. to dwell. bugt. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. to inhabit. bulge. iiQ. to bid one good day. athird class. bis and in comp. The original Swollen. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. bead. to pro- command. Two verbs are here confounded. bulge. . has leta. Kil. to abide or wait on. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. to presimpler pare. bit- bidja.peto. ON. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. qucero. Du. to solicit. from belgia. beodan. bedun. Compare also Sp. bauen to cultivate. to bend. pray. a suitor. to belly. to inflate E. The loss of the / gives Dan. bugan. bugne (answering to ON. — — — Halliwell. praebere. to build. and Gael. bulk. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. The ON. to ask. to look for. bidel. Bigot. of More ' in Richardson. Wallace in Jam. besides the professedmonks and nuns. BIGOT beidan. bag.t. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON.uddered len heart. A pose to one to come to dinner. Hence Sc. England for swollen. consisting both of men and women. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. to cultivate. to bulge. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick." buque with E. which is stiU. ON. to move quickly. to have one called before him. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. forwards.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. To Big. Analogous expressions are G. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. offerre. bigan.' Pope in R. ewes. in the sense of ask for. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. an entire skin. balg. A bjudan in anabjudan. bygga.Leta). einen vor Gericht bieten. Jam. AS. to swell. to forbid . byggia. to forbid . With respect to logical pedigree. or. biddan. bilge or bulge. Big-swol- . To Bid ' Big . inhabit. and consequently ordering or reGoth. to offer one the wish of a good day. be bug. who. belly. to curve. bidan. boa. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. OSw. a chip. by seek and beseech. AS. bolga. P. The 'La. explaining the Sc. Einem einen guten tag bieten. anleta. belly. and yajiBui. praestare. . biegen. gebeden j G. porrigere. 1. Bigamy. bi-. inhabit Du. beadle. Bight or Bought. proud. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. OSw. to bicker. may plausibly be derived from Goth. and the Sw. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. to offer. the meaning of bid. To bid the banns. to look for. gebodenj G. bog. to bend. bouwen. byggan. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. from bidan. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. twice. beidast. The . swelling. ten. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. or third order of penitence. bced. rising up. to E. 2. swaggering. — To Bid. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. as tears from the eyes. bua. bieten. becoming in Lat. abidan. a swelling. to build. to marry. bidjan. to ask. G. repair. form. ' Bug as a Lord. Big. BID of stone. bend. Palsgrave in Halliwell. It must be observed that the word bidja. build. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. ON. G. from seek. to build G. bend of a shore or of a rope. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. bolgna). swoln. bath. buga.. the belly of a ship. as. cultivate. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. — prepare. bat . quiring something to be done. R. a flexure. Bickelen. bulky. called the tertiary order. faurbjudan. as G. bo. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. are also used in the sense of asking for. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. bug. bow. spelling seems to used in the N. The ON. bieden. G. bidan. AS.' Addison. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. related to big or bug. to start out. verbieten.

' says one of of bigio. &c. the other form Per te Tribune. ix. In a similar manner from bigello. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. grey. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. a dunce.D. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. to adopt a similar course of life.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude.— Ducange. 560. says. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. the nobles to Rienzi. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza.' translated by Muratori. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. coarse woollen cloth. borel. bigotta. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. probably from biso. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. and hence the variations bigutta.D. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. From bigio. perch^ i Terziari di S.' Matthew Paris. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. dark-coloured cloth. bigio. ac labores manuum detestantes. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. Bighini. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. vocati Fraticelli. was formed bigello. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. honesti plebeii amictus. both men and women. and Q. signifying bagmen or beggars. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. a blockhead. 15 18. vol.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. beghino. G.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. begutta. alii de paupere viti. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. author quoted in N. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. sed maxim^ in muliebri. grey. 1243.' says an Venet. all apparently derived from Ital. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. with reference to A. homespun cloth. Bizoccki. A. In the same way Fr. A. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. rustical. A.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. beghart. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience.D. as well as bizocco. They wore a similar dress. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. 1499.. bighiotto. Flor. Beguttce. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. face VIII. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. absque votorum religionis emissione. Bighiotti). biso. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. clownish. which must not be confounded with begardo. Francisci communiter appellabant. and underwent much obloquy and persecution.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due.— BIGOT bigardo.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. Hence the OE. and also unlearned common men. bighellone.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. S. D. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . corruption would easily creep in. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. Augustini dotarint. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. Bizocco. natural grey or sheep's russet. xx. alii Apostolici.a.' Chart. aliqui Begardi.

Bojce. a name given to a. Bille. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . from the dark colour. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave.— — — . Prov. BILBERRY nated. now A Bilboa blade. Langued. Kil. from Mid. the beak of a bird.' in Richardson. The proper meaning bylgia. Fr. bila. bulghe. p. Deutsch. to swell with rage). boeye. 2. Sp. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . the swelling G. blaa. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. buail. w. . as craneberry. might be taken to express a hypocrite. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. of boja. an axe. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. that of swell. horn of an animal. plog-bill. to job. person of religion leading a loose life. An instrument for hewing. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. dziob. So in Gr. a bigot or hypocrite. a devotee. See Bull. in the sense of a writing. Piedmontese bigot. and dziobas. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. — — ' . e. Billet.' bilio. inscriptum. weapon . I. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. beil. symbolum. a negro. Gael. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. used in legal proceedings. to pick a millstone. bigardo. The Du. to peck. genus vincu- Bilboes. bulla. e. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. fetters. Sw. a short note. the o changing to an i to express diminution. Thus we find in It. procella Kil. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. a seal. dziobad. bolghe. a floating log to mark the place of some. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. — Cot. bwyell. Bilbo. 3. an ingot of gold or silver. boja. To defraud one of expected sinking. .The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. as a bill of indictment. and a billard. AS. an adze . Du. and in Lat. Billow. belgan. Sw. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. an axe. bull-berries. billet is the diminutive of this. billot. bigot. to strike. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. bla-berry. an ingot. Kil. Ludwig. belghen. Dan. b'olja. Du. Bilberry. 'tumidi fluctus. a of the sea. In the same way are related Pol.. false pretender to reUgious feeling. billard or billart. Bilge. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. buie. Du. tepati. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. from OSw. — bigardia. a hypocrite. bil. Bill. seems to be rather the unda. at sea Billet. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. bile. whortle-berries. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. A lorum tam in — Diez. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. Billette. Aurelles. The origin of the term is probably from bole. G. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. Gascoigne in R. on. top. loi. however. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. A slang term for a sword.' mariners. Lat. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. bisoch. an axe . a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. Bigin. to be angry (i. 5 * . an axe. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. irons or set in a kind of stocks. gleischner (Frisch). 2. bizocco. biilge. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. topor. bui. ferrese quam ligneae. See Bulk. names bill-berries. Roquef. a sword. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. bullet. Mundart. abelthe fetter itself. . the trunk of a tree. AS. Fr. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. To Bilk. Dan. Fr. gan. Lat. buoy [i. Bill. Tartuffe. bill. Bohem. obsolete. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. a man who rests on a stick in walking. ^Billiard. bigot. bulgja. a seal. a hatchet. the bill of a bird. in the same sense. boia. In English the meaning has received a further development. crowberry. OFr. fluctus maris. bille. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. dissimulation . Sw. axe. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). bigotto. blamand. a beak. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. beghart. to strike. bill of exchange. blue . billet. billard also signified at billyards. a shackle. is properly a sealed instrument. bill in parliament. deceit. AS. of E. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. Johansen. NFris. clog to a fetter.

bund. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. evigue. Lat. a pig petz. beisseii. pin-ti. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. Goth. G. an overseer. i. bord. burt. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. poule. habitacle. to swell. See Belly. betsel. piiiti. bitacora. It. to build. ON. or bin. AS. and of Fr. . H. fowl. to fasten it together. bund. or ben-wood. Lap. earnes brid. or baked. a weight. — See Bittacle. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. a heap. bundt. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. viz. Fr. bircej Sw. a female stag. bundun. Bine. hiindiiin. by binda. to bind at . as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. Lat. propius videre bij sicndc. bita. a truss. piccione. To Bite. The proper meaning is a heap. — — . Goth. To — — —D. where the compass stands. Bizened. or petze. pinnu. overlooker. Lat. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. bindan. twice cooked.' and the like. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. doubtless a stone.. a habit- Binnacle. bundle. See Breed. while bind-wood. to bind together. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. a heap. bij sienigh. truss. to bulge. Du. biccej ON. a bunch. AS. bundt. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. wine. Bind. an eagle's young G. brut. hith. v. forth. Then added division in a granary. also a stone weight.. — Surrey in R. the young of birds . G. beitsl. Sw. to bring Biscuit. pinnii. The bitol. Bird. which is expressed in E. to bear. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. . . It. a brood or hatch of young. is rendered in ON. a bitch. isfiw. bin-wood. nodus. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. biscotto.. Bisom. a bitch. Fr. properly a young pigeon. to hang. biclie. from Gr. pullus. bundle. Sanscr. Gr. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. EpisETTiTOOTToe. Sw. The term ON. Dan. In like manner from knot. is in Scotland applied to ivy. bikkia. sc. ge- from AS. bunki. admota non Bit. to cook). BITTACLE /Siof. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. AS. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. beran. the young of an animal. episcopus. Lat. from Lat. Bin. ON. a bump or knob. bunch. a bear. from pondus. Birch. Fr. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. a house./«idere. I would derive the verb to knit. G. bunt. copus. pundas. bindan. a knob. . bjork. life. to wreathe. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. and especially to a small poor horse. . bitill. biscuit. Bittacle or Binnacle. evegue. expressed by Sw. berkas (z=:Fr. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. than vice versi. — Kil. terial. from \t3\. to be derived from Ibfiaq. i. IV.68 BIN Bio-. beitan. to plait. Bailey. V. a female dog hindinn. to form a knotted structure. Bindweed. AS. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. Habitacle. beize. When compared with Fr. Fr. beorth. AS. by the verb knit or net. a hind or female stag. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. — properly near-sighted. We — A Birth. . Thus I suppose the Gr. qui nisi propius Blind. a bitch applied also to other animals. bunga. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. Lith. videt. a weight of 48 pounds. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. to twine. Bisen. in Swabia. to knot nets for fish. Sp. &c. are commonplaces. band. See To Bear. Bisson. G. a corn. binge. 'tumens sequor. Bing. e. a little dog. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. binda nat. a gallinaceous bird. to net. Lith. Bitch. bhurja. brid. vescovo. pittjo. lusciosus et myops. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. pippione. AS. poultry. j). evesgue. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. E. Fr. bigne. bij sien.

pale yellow. things —Palsgr. to the sharpness of a weapon. "uivac. a large lip. Black. cut. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. Blabber-lip. v. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. /ealo-/or. a babbler. Lydgate. an edge is sharpest sword. apparently from its biting the tongue. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. to bivouac. bleikr. chatter babbler . a tati. white. pale brown . even humour seemed and beuin. or water beating gently on the beach . blesmer. a stammerer. Why presumest And laam's asse. garrulous. Fieldfare. bitr. brunblakk. as of a body falling into water. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. quick. yellowish. bleich. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. — Collins in Hal. shine. Goth. Je N. babbe. to speak Dan. mona mid Dan. from wachen. an additional watch. blubber-lipped. Du. white lead. Bleak. blepLith. Alex. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). a beam in a house or ship. blabbre. Gael. — cheeked maid. Nagt huis. bihovac. ^aj'/^r. 't kompas huis. leohte . Bohem. plappem. to chops. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. plabartaich. out the tongue. confusedly. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . discoloured . It is in fact radically identical with Fr. to let out whai should have been concealed. faded. as of water gently beating the shore.— Blabber-lip. AS. blob. blunt we say it will not bite. whitish. Hald. fallow . to wax pale or bleaked. stutterer. pale. To Blab the anchor. pale. to babble. blabaran. AS. is placed. 156. blobach. maculS. Again. a* mast . Hist. — Hollyband. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. Bivouac. fallow fawn-coloured. bittore. thoughtlessly . quoted by Ihre. Mund. pins of the capstern. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. yellow . beitr. bitter. Deutsch. Bittern. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. buft". a fluttering noise. bitor. Sp. corrupted in Fr. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. blanc. his blacan light.' G. blob. is apprehension of danger. . Mantuan babbi. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. —Neumann. blebberis. unintelligible talk plabair. first. baboyer. ON. to loll it out. faded. G. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. Fr. whitish.' by Gudmund.€i.' It would thus acle. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. a flapping. blabhdach. Bav. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. blabbern. Pl. to babble. In Legrand's Fr. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. a large coarse lip . babbling. black. mouth. from whence we have adopted the. Sp. Gael. blakk. 332. dark. as in that of pale and white on the other. Applied in Hin ON. Fr. a continued soft sound.' by Haldorsen. to To blabber blabber with the lips. NE. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake.plab is used to . as is seen in sputter and splutter. Fr. obscurus. pale yellow . bittour. Percy Soc. on. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. So Fr. blob. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. ON. bitts of Bitts. bites. gabble. It. shining.). The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. a shelter for the steersman. Se bleek. blab. as of wings . ON. In a similar manner Gael. Sp. ' Biovac. 'fuscus. x. the palebleff. biacca. night guard. light-coloured. Sp. Sw. biti. Ai-mstrong. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. pale. white. In like manner E. Fr. Cotgr. term. ON. synonymous with baber-lip. butorj OE. blac-hleor ides. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. Wit hung her mourn. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. ^chops. on the one side. A a rail. Hal. bird of the heron tribe. dusky. whiteness (candor sine It. I blaber. iroxafealo.. bleg. G.. blakki. bitones. beiwache. to talk much. The Gz. Mag. round which the cable is made fast. viz. mouth. .. indistinctly. blank. . to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. gulblakk. in contempt. baitrs. small guard-house. ' plabraich. a childe dothe gasouille. beuni. blake. Cot. To or he can speake. The bitas.D. to watch. 't huisje.

The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. blasphemare. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. I am degraded from a cook. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. blather. G. mus-blackt. to bubble. coat. blister. . the ON. vagrants. defame. livido . Hist. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. Besides the examples of this connection given above. Perhaps from blegen. It. to glitter. Du. a bubble. with all other loose idle masterless men. sheet of paper. Dan. his meat burnt. Blanket. boys. pluddre. bladder. to disappoint. Fr. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. Blain. to bleak in the sun. 5/^a/^ of colour. to Hence Ital. . is identical with Flanders borlen. name originally given Blackguard. Fr. or as E. Reliqu. cited in N. blatter. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. tattle. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. leafy. bladder. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. variable than the signification of words designating colour. to —Blaspheme. plate. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G.—Blatter. Sw. to shine.. blister. The present forms then should be classed with blether. p. dial. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. a bubble. pallido. broad. and he shall be sure to have O. &c. and E. G. probably ate. blatter. Blade. Eadmer. moere.— Kil. blister. But perhaps a more Gr. also jabber. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. and the agitation of liquids. as blader. bladre. leaf of a. Wott. white. — rura. blaeren. as. Now. blank. blinken.. candidus. to make or become white blanc. Blame. mire. the origin of . pXaatpiiiiHv. as. in R. Sw. Gr. mud. Jan. 7. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. imbrunire. linkboys. and wandering men and women. Blank. smother. Cot. whitish. to dabble in water. chatter. blanchir. pass over. on. — — — to jabber. a boil. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. Du. piatto. speak impiously. whitish. biasimare. on. Du. borrelen. The radical bubble. Blancli. commonly called the Black-guard. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. also tanned by the sun. blad. blaere.—Blatant. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. skola and thwatta. or blafich. blanc. blegne. smore. leaf. to vocifer- — Cot. To Blare. rogues and wanderers. dripping-pans. to purl. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. to omit. to blanch. to blow. to To bellow. blister. Dan. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. a leaf. — Sw. slush. leaves. a blank ticket. Bav. which we . Dan. also white woollen cloth . as Lat. blegen. Du. mud. blein. flap of a Du. reproach. pladdern. contracted from bladeren. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. To blank. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. Blank "verse. branches . or a mass of bubbles. irXariQ. Play in Nares. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. pimple. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. to shine. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. 86. blahen. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. plat. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. D. bladra. madder. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. a pustule . blanchet. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. from candere. blad. — . that within the space of 24 hours they depart. gabble. Du. most complete example of leafy structure. revile. foolish talk. chatter. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. board. Bacon in R. bladdra. e.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. shining. Lat. white. blatt. See Blubber. blather. blena. the leaf of a tree. and Q. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. 1854. vagabonds. Fr. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. a blanket a bed. a white or unwritten ticket. plat. and thence to babble. polished. —^Webster. to glow. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. bladder. PI. . bladder . — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. a buible. —We Bladder. a. as scullions. biastner. and others engaged in dirty work. G. blanqne. a bladder or pustule. waschen. blether. roar. Torriano. or of an oar G. blanchet. blame. black. and G. Sir. tree. bladeren. blactra.— ^o thehotsun. Fr. Sc.

ON. and to make him word blaze. baladrar. blason. a funeral oration . to extol. blcEsan. fire. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. blcese. 'op een trompet blaazen. abroad. used. G. bawling. also praeblczse.whence the Fr. and which. blaesen. has also blencke. to de. magnilo. She roade at peace through his heraldry. embraser. To Blaze. Du. proclaim the virtues of. to publish. blazen. Lye. blasonner. abroad. redness . blus. blezo. a shining spot. a loud noise. blcesett. bliEsan. visui patet. ill-speaMng their proper colours . Du. blys. light-coli. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. is used in the sense of manifestatio. or to the sound which it produces. braise. oured. to set on fire. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. blaodh. blaeteren. blasoen. blase. Sc. senses. of an animal. magniloquus. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. blesse. blase. g. Fr. AS. blcEsan. I. to blow. ON. a lamp blasere. indeed. Du. to spread news. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. in that of praise. among other . blaterare. The AS. kept up. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. to bellow. blossi. to blaze Sp. somewhat different train of thought. baladron. Prov. Blatant. the matter incendiary . a MS. But now. friend Cornelius. to blow. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason.sound a trumpet. like the in English. loud . A strong flame. ther it was erst not knowe. is from AS. to publish the praises.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. a shout. blis. blorach. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. blesse. blateroon. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. See Blare. To blow AS. With inversion of the liquid. Sw. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. To blast. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. bles. . biter.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. blasa.— . a blast. Dan. Blaze. . First from the E. the noisy. Gael. bldsse. on whose behalf the herald appeared. might spring from the same origin by a . blast. blysa.' painted or figured . to proclaim. a shield. coloured prints. noisy blor. i. by stripping off a portion of the bark. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. The other derivation. If armour. Du. or blazening. brasa. live coal . — — ' : bless. Fr. clamorous. Du. also blazon or the blazSpenser. pale. whence Blazonry. G. an conium. to cut off prematurely. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. a flame. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. is the imme. also only pains and excellent endurance. — ^Jam. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. A gust of wind. A blaze is so intimately Then. might And sain. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. blose. as a verb. ventosus. blaser vid. a whisperer. The origin of this exSp. gloriosus. boasting. Golden Book in R. — ' — stroy. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. a flame . stultd loqui. each of boaster. much plausibility. Sw. Fr. blatero. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. besides blesse. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. Blanches illuminies. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. 2. Cot. a coat of arms. oron-blasare. an empty and two theories are proposed. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. to blow . Dan. Gudmund. As Kilian.). splendour. how. to trumpet forth. a torch . Kil. Troilus and Cressida.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. and. a voice Jr. Cot. brasa. blason. blaodhrach. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . blcest. laudes (Kil. a torch. thraso. OE. proflare tues. declaratio. shield or surcoat.' to fastum . commendation blason funebre. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. Blast. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. — Elazen. AS. bleis. ing of arms. a flame. . e. in the same way as we 2. blass. blaze. Du. it is manifest. beast. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. quus.

And now are these but mansbond (i. ' — — eye. or blemysshen — blaken. what blenched him therwith. . N. blur before their eyes. as of dust or mist . splamii!. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. Ancren Riwle. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. to wink at it. blister. spla7nU sie. inflamed eyes. Sw. Richardson. wheal. dead-coloured Cotgr. A stain in a man's reputation. blakna. a red watery eye. to spot . Pol. blench came to be used for a trick. in the expression reputation. ' — — ' : — — . blot. Blear. . Mac. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. is Blench. wan. ' He blarrede or roar. from on. paleness. livid. a spot. boggle at something. souiller. to bleach.' God in his wordes. To totally different from the foregoing. blesmissure. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. sinen langen tranen. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. blemissemeiit. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. blcecan.filerren. while the agent ac- From . . spSt. blema. . blink. to cast a mist before the eyes. pale Du. geplerr. which are blurred with the have shewed you. Bleb. a disgrace. To salir. from the than schal I go. a spot. c. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. — blink the question is to shrink from it. a spot. Schmel. to stain one's honour or reputation. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. ^Xiixaoftai. to wink the eye. like one that has long P1. I chaunge colour. a blemish in one's 2. a stain. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. plama. guenchir. whitish. novice. to bleat as sheep. wanness.D. As AS. bleakness. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. a spot. Blemisli. or blemish. ' . B. See Black. AS. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was.P. to soil. goda nainn. Gr. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. A Blab. From the OFr. Sir J. the livid colour of a bruise. pimple .— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. ^Blencher. start vor den augen. tacher. BLENCH obfusco.v. sugillatio. on.' to deceive one. avoid looking it in the face. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. Gower in R. Bailey. to become livid. Palsgr. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. Bleed. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. . blarren. darkness of vices. See Blood. to cry or weep. Fr. pier vor den augen eyes. to humbug. Blancher. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. to spot. tumanid. To Bleat. to start away from. exposed. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . a been distinct. color plumbeus bldma. and thence to a bruise. tutnan is a cloud. blot. bldmi. light-coloured. pale . and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. flack. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise.'he cried till the tears ran down. blesmir. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. Bejaune. Blear-eyed j having sore i. a blot or smear blanking one. a blotch plerr. The term blear. G. Manuel de Pecch&. or to low as oxen. 115. the formal equivalent of English wink. — — R. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. (faith or creaunce) Be war. to blear one's eye. p. See Black. 242. to blare been weeping. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. to make him feel blank. So in Sw. 419. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. bloken. Bleak.' the devil makes a vain back. livor. bleikr. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. confound him. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. a boil. a fault. drop of water. to disgrace one's name. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. And By a similar metaphor Pol. although he professe nought to say when he should speak.

as a vatn i vin. to rejoice. the sign of the cross while blessing one. Needle. the verb to bless is some. Sw. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. to pro. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. Thence apblinds. blahoslaviti to twinkle. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. The sound of k before an s. lovely Bohem. blithe blis. . vious one in the order of formation. shine. wink. to glitter . tire. Paradises blidnissu. a glance.eyed. A . glitter. blaziti. — when he — Bailey. lightning. blissian. blincken. G. money. make these hands 3. to bless . blink. giving (Fr. lightning. glad. tless —Gamm. to mix. to consecrate . to blithsian. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. to glitter. ^Jam. blet. mixing in general.blinkard . Serv. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . Bliss. Blink. to merry. De Sonne ' verblekken. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. F. and joys of Paradise bliden. to twinkle. The inblissful. blinzeln. . blicken.Q. a. Du. G. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. in potters' language. joy. blendian. Du. as in Du. blind. The term then self or others. to dabble in water. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. to lighten. bluiter.D. bludder. to shut the eyes. AS. to rejoice.. burn up. blick.blunda.nasal. sung. liquid filth to bluther. tative source of the word is wholly lost. a look. blago. to fall into water with a sudden noise. to shine. a. Dan. I hold thee a grote thee. a dead nettle. fortunately. blazeny. false windows. to flash. to act like a — . blent. blicken. to make a rumbling noise. To blunder water. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. goods. blend. to make happy. Deprived of sight. to bless. to glitter ful . to dilute too much . blatida. Nares. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. as in the case of blaze. G. Swiss (obsolete). an entry which leads to nothing . . livid. flash of light . is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless.corn. is I shall Gurt. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. joy . OHG. blitz. although in the in the next article. Russ. lightning sweet blago. AS. window-blind. Sc. ' Pl. blind- ON. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. to be blind. Du. Blazena Bea. Blight. thou knave. joyful. (=bene dicere). readily passes into a /. the Slavonic languages. dazzle .not sting thiiren.' To — blunge clay. blitzen. to churn. lighten. From the action of the hand making Sw. to bluiter. . happily. glance. blinzdugig. glimpse. blanssen. Biglotton. Owl and Nightingale. a nounce happy.wink . blahos. csecubrandish. happy . Du. graceful. a flash. Kiittner. sertion of the nasal. to shut the eyes G. gives blinzen. blithe. blende. cascultare. Du. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. . blinde fenster. as taschen.blinze. 375. with or without the nasal. To Bless. wink of sleep . be glad flash. sweet. moment. a wink With the bletsian. pockets. j). OHG. but by no means therefore a pre. the G. as a blind entry. ON. glitter. plonsen. gladness. or nettle which does form. blinzler. to shine. . well blagaya. blag. well blahy blick and blink. blicksem. trix.blinken. weaklaveny. Tany. blotzen. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. . a wink. a blessing. riches blajennii blicksem. a blick-ooghen. mix from blekken. — . Sc. pearance of the blighted . III. —Brera. blessed. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. . AS. AS. bleg. . to plunge. Wtb. a gleam. to shine. to dash wine with water. blessed. blink-eyed. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. pale. Swab. . to dazzle . — A A — . . blich-fiur. joy. happy . seems the simple netel.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. Pol. to bluiter up with water. blican. blide. bliss look . G. Blind. blindr. plotzen. happy . plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. blund. doors. glitter. blac. a glance Swiss blenden. blogi. to stir or puddle. to — make it thick and muddy. blidu. to glance. To Blend. — Goth. also to wink. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. riches . good. blindselen. .

is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. it is must be observed. blot. pausten. blod. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. orbicular. repre- pusula. a little blisg. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. a blister. as blinzeln. must be referred to AS. the unhewn bole of a tree. For this. and bouclette. Boyd in Jam. Of sheep. viscid. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. speaking rapidly any . — . soft. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. bloc. in bulk. a bubble. a . Hence E. an unformed mass. ^vaaa. — — — — — From blabber. lagga i blot. soft. Du. to block up the way. pods. Blob. blouca and Fr. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. to desire the male. weak. inde humiditate tumidus. to blissom. senting the dashing of water. A under this name was imported into England. To Blissom. to swell. blubber. blister blasan. Langued. a lumpish head plubach. blinzel-maus. a blain. to bubble. pustula. soft. blidr. as a blab of ink. to blow. to breathe hard. mild. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. Block. a block or log en bloc. Du. stone. sloppy dirt. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. a See Blot. To a smoking or drying by the fire. The blow E. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. a blot or spot. as if soaked in water. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. bleiths. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. blautr. Egillson. Gael. Blond. . bloated. soaked. boucler.plisg. blote. a bubble.. round. bubble and blubber. fish blind person. a ram. cooking. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. is also used in the sense of swelling . in Nares. Hence. blide. Thus we have blab and babble. to soak. The stem or trunk of a tree. blister. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. whence blast. and pisg. buckle. and F. must be classed with forms like Gr. in gusts. bloc. in the lump or mass of wood. merciful ON. in the sense of a soft tint.—Bloater. fiustula. mild. Bleb. blaud. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. or is inserted or omitted. to to puff and be noisy. blot. blotfisk. to dash liquid. blab. shells. separate portion. — Sw. to close it with a solid mass.— Bailey. To Bloat. to steep. Ibid. while Lat. blobbes or droppes of water. Dan. a blister . G. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. blaustem. Sw. Jonson. In Fin. light yellow.— Hal. blithe. Goth. husks. I believe. biota. or the like. Fr. And so from squatter. a drop of water. joyful. It may be formed Blithe. blobber. blad. like manner the coloured. —Bailey. B. a dirty blister. Sc. a small lump of anything thick. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. Dan. N. as in E. Blob. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. formed spot. Bav. bluyster. blot. or blinde-kiih. . Lat. Blister. kostua. blijde. Svt. having an unsound swollen look. Cotgr. kostia. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. mass. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. blond. taken altogether. swell. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. to blow. puff. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. also to set See Bless. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. expressed by cognate roots. — Blob. . bausen. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. like clot. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. pusula. A solid blouquette blisters. frequentative. pimple. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. plub. Sw. . The roots /. ON. a bubble. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. signifying in the first instance to soak. any lump or mass of things. to cure by smoke. Mod. or bleb. soak in water cured fish. buclde. Kil. blesme. Fr. is formed squad. or the mark which it makes. ON. and inarticulately. gentle OHG. W. blcesma. ^Jam. busten. from blcsr. to blow. blindman's-buff. bluster. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it.pusta. See Blot. blindsehn. strawclod. and easily changes its place. G. B.—Bloated. Gael.

G. from the bright colour which 7'vci. on. — gush. Blad. to squat or lie close. blond en blaauw slaan. Sw. The G. Blood. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. pladdern. bldts. platschern. leme. blose. lump of anything soft to blad. plants which prepares the seed. couleur livide. platz-regen. dirty spot on the cheek. to glisten . bleustern. Blot. glose. — Stalder . blosma. blistaf. ' — . blysa. livid marks. a torch blusse. blauwel. bletister. blond is used in blatt. Blow. plot of land is a spot or small rage. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. plotterwis. proto shine with bright colours . a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). bloeme. bloemen. to be red. glasi. blust. blosem. platsch-voll. Schmid. bloedsd. bit by bit. glus. platz-voll. bloed. blady. — Cot. a lump. blostma. cow-dung. pale tint. bloi. S-wiss pladern. Harmar in R. or the sound of it . Florio). D. pale biavo. ON. to strike . from G. a water ploutsche. bloetnsel.properly to scatter liquid . — — . Dan.— . blomstr. flower. a cow-dung. a spot or blot. ON. brilliancy. blue. wan. a drop of water or colour. kuh-plader. of a blow with something lios. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. the bright colour of the cheeks . to blot the land was in a leme. splashing full. fall down . blut. . bloi. whence plader. to strike with such these objects exhibit. a gush of milk .platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid.' the rain is driving and blue . to squander. to dabble in water. soft or flat. blondheid. sbiadare. probably connected with Pol. Schwenck. skam. to splash. . fair in en blat vand. — Blotch-paper. blawels. Blotcli. spot pletter i solen. as the skin or hair. blue . See Blow. blad. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. Plots. a blaze. a black eye Du. lustre. AS. livid . blosen. blois. gfyssa. great leaf of cabbage. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. blase. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. bleistern. E. gleam. light. bluish. Sw. splendour . blatte. a deli. G. Stalder. clod. pale. to spot or blot. a Halm a. a blot or spot. blou. to grow pale). a nature. . blue. to blush . to shine . to blaze. shine . It. a The form platschefz. Pl. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. lidmr. blotting-paper. ^lys.blauschlagen. a flower. Du. to sparkle. blaeuw. bloi. to exists in biadetto. to slap. bfys. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. lump flower. biado (of which the evidence plattern. bloto. to patter. Dan. a flower. AS. E. . to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. Du. gammon. to blaze . E. spots in the sun. glister .platter. . a pelting shower). yellowish It's G. Du.^ Kil. E. (of cattle) to dung. See Blow. fall to overflowing. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. blue. to flame.D. blowen. . a. ^Bleed. blosa. 2. straw. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. to dash down Du. bldmi. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. to glow. . PI. blaeuwen. plattata. to From . to slap. to scribble. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. plottra. Wendish blodo. ON. Russ. bliihen. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. Fr. the bright to blot paper morsels. Jios. Sc. coloured (Diaz. blaeuwe ooghe. Fris. redness. Erploten. Fris. Sw. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. blotte. to dirty. Dan. It should be of filth blak-blatte. —Barbour. dial. blue. ])erly Du. to be red with blot. blond. E. Ir. to dash down. . a Schmid. OFr. a beater. a flower. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. Blossom. pladern. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. plet. mud. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. j^ blottir. Lat. Bloom. a Usaae. blotter. Ein platsch milch. white blatte. bliise. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. Prov. blodelsa and blawelsa. colour of the cheeks. platt-voll. E. blus. blat. Schilter. Hatch. Du. Sc. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . kobladde. glossi. gloss. Wflz<^«. yellow. parallel form with ON. blooth. bliithe. en blau ach. in v. to strike with something soft or flat. dial. a blow. to dabble in water . bloutre.

These are — Bludder.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. Her sweet bloderit face. bliithe. to blow. a bruise. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. Wtb. |8A)'. Deutsch. is very frequent. where the word may be compared bliggman. blois. —SchmelIt. disordered in head-dress. blduen. to flap like loose clothes. Blowze. to fade. florere.D.D. blady. to puff up. a blast. withered. bliuwan. w. a Blossom. bruk. bloes. . to inflate. to flourish. OFr. to beat. is confined to the — . — To Blubber. blosen. gloeden. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. to with Bohem. And. glow. To Blow. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. — . bludder. blau. and closely allied with Du. . To Blow. to show flower. bluod. grow pale. pale . Deutsch. — Bluther. blahen. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. cheeks bedabbled with tears. grey. closely difference in of blabber. bloi. to glow. blaw j biavo. — . blazi. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. sense. bluther. Danneil. Blowzy. . toused. bliihen. glaodh and blaodh. a fat. to fade. 1292. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. Chaucer. d in Sc.xo'»'. foam. 2. to beat with a mallet. The aUied forms. gliihen. Blue. blebber. bldt. 1. .. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. Kil. corre. OHG. B. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. br. sponds with Sw. grug. blubonciti. blau. AS. like manner Lat. 51. /idXavoc. gliihen. v. bloeden. OHG.D. pale. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . glowing coal . It is howbliuwen. — To blubber. the red fluid of the body . a continued noise of agitated water. blezir. -ii. boasting. sound like water.Jlasa. wan. to blow. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. Gael. blow. to'disorder. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. pludern. fied vowel. Du. Chaucer. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. green. The interchange of an initial gl.to blossom. G. plubair. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. or gr. We . to make blue. wan. Bav. bliihen. fiubbem. especially with respect to the hair. blodyn. a gurgling . to gush. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. pale OFr. boil.nify bubble. blust. to blow. bloeyen. to hard. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. a herb Gr. fqded. blodern. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. in rapid or indistinct utterance. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. and the forms mentioned under Swab. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. to exhibit bright colours. into flower. vi^ound. 92. jabber. in E. Mund. blawan. dirty. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. In agitation of water. Sik upplustem. G. to spot. to breathe bouteiUis. to make bubbles in drinking. It. ^Jam. bledniai. G. P1. gUd. Pl. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. a flower. a paddling in wate r. blass. . coup. flower w. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. bloemen. to guggle. piusen. and thence.' Hamburgh Archives. to bruise Roquef. may cite for example G. to fade. to shine with bright From colours. chatter. marking some application from that bladder. Tumbled. MHG. Lat. blodelsa. E. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). blava. a. plustrig. ' BLUE or guggling. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. blao. red-faced bloted wench. glas. to bubble up. y\r)yi»v. Pludern. Bret. plodern. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. disordered. blue. bruised Prov. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. plubartaich. G. bl. meurtrissure Roquefort. plusig. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. glede. a blow. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. . The primary sense is to shine. blazir. Pl. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. Gr. blubbern. heath. flower OHG. A. tache. little apparent resemblance. Raynouard. blut. to Plodern.' — Palsgr. Du. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig.D. — — Mundart. bloom.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. Notwithstanding the We . ler. fem. puff. gloeyen. to glow. bluh. pale. plubraich. Langued. glas. glansj Ir. blue . to breathe G. to blurt out. The radical sense is shown in Gael. Prov. blubbern. to gabble. E. Jla-re.— .

like the Celtic glas. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. Then with the nasal. Blunt. to become pale. confusion. and metaphorically. non rotunda. abrupt. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. Romance bluiter. yellowish red. It is remarkable however that the E. from an imitation of the sound. bullern. a shore abruptly rising. applied to green as well as blue. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. blandum. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . blahir. plomp. biada. segetes virentes. Altieri. Du. bluish. find accordingly It. a blunderbuss. Blavoyer. blunderhead. G. fawn-coloured. to confound. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. tradire to Fr. glundr. without image or superscription. — — — . blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. E. has donder-bus. It then signifies something done at once. and then generally idle talk. Roquefort. blond. biava. all representing the — . Kiittner. a plain coin herausplatzeu. sloppy drink. blue. falb. to become pale or wan. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. bUich. Dief. and sbiadare. superficie plani. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. bleu et blanc.' trouble. to fade). bulmanner. Supp. — Pr. devenir vert blavoie. and biavo (Diez). is. to plump into the water. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. as well as biado. blunder. tutte le semente ancora in erba. G.D. to fall suddenly on the ground. To blunder is then. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. to blunge clay. blac. Hence we pass to Prov. his business with much noise. The Du. Dan. Pm. and Du. G. or an abrupt manner. to become pale or livid. — . . blunder. bawling. - reddish yellow. flodderen (Weiland). blue. polter-hans. Blaffart. an ill-done job. a boisterous violent man. herbe. blaf. from the brilliant green of the young E. which is rendered by Florio. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. in the same way as from It'. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. blutter. used for the work of an unskilful performer. Pol. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. Bladum.— . See Blurt. buller-bas. bloi. contrasted with the dle. See Blunt. verdure. The word is here synonymous with amplus. blunt. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. in plur. planus. glundra. rustic. jaune. pale straw-coloured. Flor. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. and bustle . to lose colour. herauspoltem or sloping shore. a fore.//aay. Blunderer or blunt worker. pale. to work To blunder out a fronto. mistake. mix It. . Analogous forms are Du. The Du. G. Biada. OFr. yellow. Ditton in R. Kil. I blonder. sbiavare. a flounder. pale) is provincially used in the. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. to dabble in the mud. Bluff. ploffen. 't — —Hal. corn. poltern. something. in water dobbelen. to blunder water.. blave is moreover. je perturbe. plo-wy. polterer. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. fallow. Hal. corn. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . Halma. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. to dabble Biglotton E. Dryden in R. And blunders on and staggers every pace.in mud or water. like Du. discoloured {plowiee. blake (identical with AS. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. having a bluff forehead. puddle. Palsgr. Pl. blue.make a noise. from the Lat. to mix it up with water. Roquefort. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. Bodge. disturb. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. buller-bak. Du. Kil. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. liebefactor. originally growing up turf and water. blanssen. Bohem. sense of yeUow. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. pale yellow. to agitation of liquids. as well as sbiadafe. We Blunder. blavus. flav-us. to puddle. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. speech. biavo. A bluff manner.• BLUFF biado. From G. Lat. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. dial. verdoyer. trahir. Hence a Slcelton in R. Sw. earth and water mixed together. pludder.

as in E. it will be observed. Blaitie-bum. blunder. blatte. pointless. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . bus. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. V. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. bare or blunt. It is from this notion of suddenness. dull. . that the sense of bare. insensible. clumsy. Sc. blat. a blot. to make a noise of such a Stalder. Stalder. unfledged Sw. awkwardly. exactly corresponding to the G. Bluntet. with or without the nasal. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. to plump into the water.— — — . and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. viz. rough. identical with E. Q. of a knife which not cut. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. without Maolaich. naked. blotta sanningen.to fall into the water. heavy. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. pale. and hath swiche languor in his soul. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. heavy. plump. massive. V. to blunt a thing out. bald. blutten. G. Probably radically hlekit. ineffectual reason. nis. unwrought. The blait body. plotz. to plump down. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. without preparation. rude. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. naked. to handle a thing bluntly. in Richardson. bleak. Sc. mit etwas heraus-platzen. without horns. blunt. plains The large bech. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. Pol. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. The syllables blot. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. forestis. viz. dial.—D. plumbeus. fling down . obtusus. Kiittner. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. homo stolidus. platzen. stupid fellow. maol. — Kil. blunt. F. without the nasal. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. It. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. from the loud report a fire-arm. V. like a thing thrown down with a noise. blockish. blott. hebes. a thick and will person. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. inaKil. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. wan. or blab out a thing Kiittner . blunt. Sir T. a simpleton. a portion To inquire for slaves. Plump mit etwas umgehen. used in both senses. rudely. ang. and in the same sense. as cow-dung. inactive Swiss bluntschi. Kiittner. More in Richardson. Blunt. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. that it not easy to discover the connection. Du. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. is thrown. pressions. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. Plontp. Halma. Plump. void. or heraus plumpen. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. Ford in R. and the like. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . plump J to plump out with it. plump. Now the Swiss bluntsch. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. heavy. a bluntie. and.plompen. plonsen. the absence of sharpness. and an unintelligent. —D. Then cometh indevotion. duU. G. Won by degrees. awkward. it will be well to point out a sense. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. blout. down. bare. Dan. sheepish. blunt. obtusus. Dan. raw. good plump person. naked. unceremonious manner. Molof something wet. biotto. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. edgeless. nature. plump. to make foliage. poor Sc. to blurt. blunsch. plotsen. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. . naked. Bare and blunt. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. plump. It will be seen that the G. figuratively. Sw. unpolished. blue. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. absence of preparation. blait. A light blue colour. to bring it suddenly out.pludse. —D. plutz T)\i. but of something soft thrown on the ground. A modification of the same root. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. thick. seems to be derived. united in Gael. through which a man is so blont. dull. bloss. bluntschen. fooUsh. platz-regen. Swab. as Sw. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. blait. azure. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. clownish. bare. Chaucer. — — pidus. — blunt. Woddis. is The word dull. biosso. silly.

as in Du. It. P. skin. Du. whence bordvidr. bot. boot. blubber. fringe. — — . to blore. and swimmeth very well. a. cocodrUlus. boa. BLUR Boar. Bluster. to blow. As the as. Boa. to puff. voce intonare.plerr. a small lump. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. to make a noise in boiling. bludder. sudden. to talk quick and indistinctly . E. Du. See Blossom. violent. margin. — To Bob.plodem. blasen and See Burr. Comp. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. to make a noise with the mouth. AS. to dabble. bludder. board. Dan. Bot zeggen. AS. blader. a mistiness. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. blunt. primarily signify loud noise. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. pfludern. to threaten. baiag. to render indisbhir. e. border. to make mouths. a short thick body. swagger.D. A large snake. boord. flat. Fl. to rumble. G. ever-swin. blaffen and baffen. AS. then applied to indistinct vision . For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. Halma. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. and E. imitated by has also In like . an ear of corn. or blurt with one's mouth. lindwurm. dial. and boisterous. table. of the word seems . blot. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. 156. a torch blusse. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. ader. aper. the Brem. . to blush. to blubber. blodern.y. both used in the sense of boasting. Pull the bobbin. blurra. common. dull. blaste?i. crack made by bursting open. Kil. blur. to snuff. to roar. pof.' — Red Riding-hood. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. bakke bleustern. Sc. Du. BOB 79 — To Blur. Gael. to spurt out. or bog also thread.—Bobbin. See Boisterous. chicchere. a bladder . will fly up. Hal. — — — * Boast. mire. Du. planks or boards. bar. to smear. dial. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. — From mouth. to disfigure with E. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. large. bateau. Swiss blodern. To splirt. bladdra. Wright's ed. Related to blutter. a club foot . a baU of thread the mud. blast. to blurt out. E. bord. a blot. puddle. G. bur. to jabber. 1. as splurt to splutter. w. pausten. beacon fire. Boa. berd. brett. a board or plank. to blaze. edge. to brag grande loqui. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. to sound like water boiling. bobine. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. 9396. rude. to glow . c. on. botte. hot. to puff. the sound of a blow poffen. blusse i ansigtet. Supp. rude. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. Hal. Pl. cheeks glow. Lat. eber. bliise.v. pludern. bobbin. It. margin. Blush. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. margin. Slur. is formed Du. boistous. burra. Fl. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. 'Ba. stupid. a tassel. coarse. a mist before the eyes plerren. and the latch . bora. to puff. Schmeller. to crying. bord. bdta. Board. to bark. To Blurt. Du. to give a crack. . Du. ON. whence bob. table. to chatter. properly noisy. &c. blaustem. Bav. blose. Fr. cluster. to be out of temper. ground. a blow . . puffen. 274. To tinct. a burst of tears. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. blarra. this root are formed Sc. Boost is used for the boast. a blotch. Gael. geplerr. OE. V. a border. To blow in puffs. bluther. Sc. blirt of greeting. G. outward edge. Sverris Saga. bdd. stellio. a Jam. a tassel. Explained by Jam. to bounce. To brag and to crack. gabble. to say bluntly. 29. blaere. edge. literally edge-wood. beer. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. The elision of the d is very to chatter. splurt and spirt. bhis. like the parapets (viggyrdil. Du. a flurt with one's fingers. pustern. Wtb. acre. to dirty. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. bluter. my dear. pluddre. to dangle. Wallace. Fr. . eafor. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. and when applied to vaunting language. bdtr. to breke. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. a dangling object. . an end or stump. batello. a smear. baban. planks raised up outside the roofs. i. bustuous.pusten. bit. plump. it implies that it is empty sound. blot. bot-voet. To move quickly up and down. violent G. The to radical meaning D. It. or backwards and forwards. strong. be a crack or loud sound. a grows to a great bigness. bausen. — ' Dief. boccheggiare. an edge. gabble Sw. De Boat. short pieces of any filthy mud.the syllable bot. and Du. bleuster. blosken. borrar. lacerta.— . — a blaze. bord. blotch and botch. to blur. to endeavour to terrify. to guggle.

to push with the horns. . 3. Ptg. Gael.\\i\c\iset. bodak. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. anything soft. of which the E. cask bottich. quakmg. as a horn. by the syllable patsch. — Grandg. '£. To mock. — 2.hollow. corset from corps. bodian. thrust with something pointed. Body. to stammer. patsche. an announcement. To Bodge. the stem of a tree . busti. needle. as in stammering or staggering. wavering. potacha. bagges. to thrust. to fail. Schmel. stumpy. formerly bodies. point. Ir. a round body both. a puddle. an awl. round. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. bolr. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. W. Miracle-plays. swelling. the body. . quagmire). pall. is a lump. butt. to butt. bod. e.a (i\ia. strike with the horns. or stem of a tree. Supp. We . as signifying anything spherical or round. bog (equivalent to E. a prick. gogach. to bodge. ON. . gagoula. VI. a cask. See Bid. bodi. Bog. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. — H. And waves.! .' Bogglie. Thy i. The signification of the root bot. To Bode. daubed or dabbled with blood. bogach. nave of a wheel. goggle. rounded. badyti.gmh:t. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. gagei. The Sp. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. So BOB To Bob. waving. a sting . to commit a blunder. anything protuberant. unsteady nature of a soft substance. a quagsoft.rabodi. Wall. bogadaich.' A — Sherwood's Diet. shake. — as well as the body of an animal. bayonet . barriga. corpset. Crist. to deliver a message. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. to be unsteady tich. a prickle. gebod. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. dies. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. nodding. Shakespear has badged with blood. . Commonly explained as if from Sc. to stick. Bohem. exhibit another modification of the root. to smack. the boss of a buckler. . baboyer. and E. expression hogglin an bogglin. potig. Russ. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. then from the yielding. to fail. Ptg. bog. stutter gogmire. To make bad work. In like manner E. a body. a ghost . bothog. bogle. bob. the thick part of anything. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. Bodice. to make. With With this we charged again We bodged again. bodig. a dagger. to stir. a command. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. from fitting close to the body.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. to start start and back as from a bugbear. or a pair of bodies. a spur. AS. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. bodhag. whence paUchen. fickle . is identical with Fr. AS. corset. . See Baber-lipped. Bret. Cot. bodnu. bod. Reliq Antiq. Now unskilful action is conmire. whence Fr. corpses pot. barrique. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. Banff. to bob. a . See To Botch. to dabble or paddle. Lith. bodetz. moist mire. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. bodi. a messenger . shaking . speak of the barrel of a horse. biodeachan. unsteady. belly. French bouter. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. toss. meaning the round part of his body. a cask. Gl. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. bogadh. bottig. boftich. bodat. precept. stuttering. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. mud. bayonet. bo tich. biodag. bog. bodene. bottich are derivatives. gog in gog-mire. bodilo. where bogs form Gael. bogan. bole. stitch. to prick. gago. to scruple. arise E. moving backwards and forwards. palleg. gag. . to waver. BOGGLE trunk and G. gog. to make a mow at. body and G. body of a shirt bol. . * To Boggle. ^Jam. agitate. or bag. message boda. to blurt a thing out. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. woman's stays. the body of a shift gaguejar. potahha. so large a feature in the country. bot. Gael. move. calf of the leg.. . It introduced from Ireland. Lap. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. boll. 43. Bodkin. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. bodies. a bog or morass. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . unsteady. the belly. the trunk of the animal body. To portend good or bad. to roll. and the word is well explained by Bailey. potacha. Gael. to be uncertain what to do.

bald. hakogni. bagaji. coarse. repagulum. ON. a swelling in ice. biiilen. bolle. used. bola. ballr. To Bolter. A. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. strong. stud. warlike. merry. puile. hollow. bold. a cushion. bout. poppy (Bailey). Kit. confident. shake. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. Bole. In the same way Sc. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. bealder. as baltha. a bubble. insolent baude. from Du. and manace for to de.— D. Magy. blow. — ' — tagliare. ON. bouil. tulum. but that Bolt. 45. gluma.. to stammer. to boil. or the like. To Boil. balder. excellent. polc'h. a fastening for a door. bout is explained by Kil. sels of flax. Chaucer. bag or bog are derived Piedm. the lir. then violent. 374. the body . Kil. bolleken. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. a bubble. V. strong. Wall. swelling. The bob. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . bolc'h. Test. Fr. baud. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. The round stem of a tree. Swab. bog. Gael. bold. bollen (Kil. bald. fiausten. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. is probably a modification of boll. as. round the first instance to the materials with . bulr. Daring. 1430 in Deutsch. a bump. boss. Cot. Boil. bol. pustule. E. i. chaff of corn siliqua. pusten. wag. Du. Bret. bog. bold. puilen. capiing into a cavity. capitellum. tar. scruple. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. — — which the cushion is stuffed.palleg. * Boisterous. G. Pm. chatter. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. bul. The term applies in — — impressed . glass phial. bok. rough. animal as distinguished from the limbs. to stammer. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus.' Mrs Baker. quick. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. a bakazikni. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. tartajear. as. bolstar. the gurgling sound of water rush. belc'hj. bolt upright. buile. a quaking mire. to the belly as the or dislike. styffe or rude . to be at a loss a shirt. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. Westerwald bollern. bolt. hero. haughty. cows the people from speaking. to stumble. see Boast. 304). Goth.rounded part of the body. Chaucer seems Dan. boutpijl. Fr. to puff. boly. Me doth awate. to stagger. bochken (titubare. bolla. pillow. bhster. tomentum.Du. buller. impetuosity. Lat. OHG. from the branches. a head . noise. Pr. dint in a metal vessel. properly represent belly. courageous. caput scapulse. bol. he will speak out. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. Du. proud. up of bubbles. intrepid. also a blister. Lap. Du. ON. Sp. Properly noisy. bulla. a boil or swelling Du. ON. . boil . courageous. Love. pimple ON. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. ^Vocab. bola. bolster. trunk of a tree . brave. Lat. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. swelling. tartle. furfures. Boll. as those of nuts. bolzen. beule. the husk of nuts. balldr. which are not used for a similar purpose. to tattle.). folliculus grani. cheerful.— — . perpendicular. stutSw. Du. prince. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). bolr. flax-boU. treated under Bowl. huge. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. and then applied to other husks. free. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. G. pall. bul. bSlstr.w. . to hesitate from doubt. Stalder.D. boll. E. bula. G. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. ohg. * Bolster. gerade signifies straight to the mark. See Bulk. bald. obex. Sw. It. stramenta. Boystous. the. to be prominent. Sc. may be identified with It. in the sense of handsome . bal. notes. stameln vel bochken. roydeur. boystousnesse. w. . in speaking. . This iv. Mund. a bubble. OG. bol. as E. tartalear. G. b^gayer. Da. Fr. by which it is moved to and fro. to swell. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. ^Boistous. globular bod)'. boggle. Bustuous. bolzBold. strong. (of Mons) b^guer. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. the body of a man or of ter. whence bulla. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. bolster. — 6 . to give a hoUow sound. bulla. bullire. to waver or hesitate.

projections. . polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. we see that the one consists of a words. to spring forth E. Pl. loud and fast. buUire. a sod (Schiitze). gebolder. ler. bolt-foot. die treppe pressed. Lang. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. and to crash. Du. a . fied bot.by forms like G.i5a//^«. knob. bulstrig. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. . to talk pulzen. Pm. bluter.through a cloth of loose texture. bullern.noise {brattle of thunner. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. And as the agitation of cream in . to agitate..D. tling or crashing noise. a small portion. buretter{CQ\. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. to start with palpitate.as the essential element signifying the talum. with E. bolzauget) Sp. . kloteren. to make a knocking. racket gepolter. pull. Hence Palsgr. jolting. curdle. barutare. Mid. ' Holler poller / bulter. a bolter Prov. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. ex•wagen. crotlar. blotttre. / is transposed in Fr. crash. to form lumps. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. OFr. grasbulten. zare.Lat. bulk or quantity . baruta. . beluter. or the like. a crashing or racketing noise. Here the radical image is the violent O. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. bolt. Champagne burtcau. sestuare. a millpoltzet augen. budeln daz mele . buletare. Pr. a bunch. poltern. It. Bav. as Fr. tantara. or a racer from the course. the sense of right on end. as of a trumpet. a clod. a club-foot. Schiitze. On this account Mid. taraabout. in S'W plotter. Fr. and the Thus from So. to knock. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. then to knock. to clack. protuberance. uneven. clump. from G. bortelen. agitari (Kil. to coagulate. staff which sounds tar. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. je bulte. Dauphiny a sudden movement. vessel with narrow opening. MHG. — — — . hump.). to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. as a rabbit from its baritel. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. also to curdle. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. cro. a round glass ending — bultig. burclct. bolting to that of form. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. G. a rattling carriage. have Lat. a clod cloth. holier poller. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. representing a rat.nature of the operation. P1. on the one hand. bultig. : ' — — . as above explained. . ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. abolter. beliitea. rugged. we der Brocket).clack. to bolter. Supp. ' — — ! ! : — . we pass to Du. crod. hammer. by the representation of a racketing sound. OFr. hammer. to start out. a rattle. croler. Brem. to bolt meal barutel. barutela. bulla. taratarrum. OFr.D. uneven. . bulk.agitation of the meal in the bolter. as snow balling on a horse's foot. barutela. projecting eyes pul. hole. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack.D. The ulti. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. The ment and the operation. lumpy. Wtb. zen. btilt. poltern. small heap. a clap of thunnences.. tumultuari. Bulte-pook or bulstar.u.thump or blow. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern.D. So also we pass from Lat.On the same principle. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . to E. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. mole-hill. In the next place. bolt head is a retort. rugged. I boulte meale in a boulter. to shake. Pl.— . to bolt flour burato. Lat. to significance of the term was overlooked. the wheels groaned. Du. a bolter or implement for bolting.protuberance. . to bolt meal barutel.). or ill. Hence. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. taratantarum.) E. hulch. bolzen. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. cruddle. bolzaugen. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. . 2. one after the other. Dan. to come rattling downstairs. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. boss. pattern. pultare. buideln. to become lumpy. Sw.fe/2?. brattle. tuft. buletel. bultred. swelling. hulter de bulter. bulio. a clump of turf. we have Du. tar. Prov. Sanders. poll.

and called in Mid. Near 6 * . . q. Bomb. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. derivation. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. bombdra. bambacium. Castrais barato. Need you any ink and bonibase. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. sye. G. term is appropriated in G. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . is supported by the analogy of G. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . ODu. beuteln. to boult meal.Lat. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. beil'n. band. Fr. a stock. It. bein. a thundering noise bomre. achsel bein. — bombast came guage. bambagioj whence It. It.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. bombarda. G. Schm. Dan. biire. Mid. bomba. . a —Bombasine.bast. to bolt meal. rimbombare. HoUybandin R. ties. thick from shaking. butteln. coarse. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. Butterglas. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. raw silk. The material called by this name. bonds. bommer. bone of the . a beacon. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. Du. to ring bells. . the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. been. Bonfire. basin. stuff. stump. Kil. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. we speak of a gun to resound. In E. bras. a boulter of meal. a stem or base. 155. bombast. to thunder. cotton. Fl. baun. bwmbwr. bombase. again. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. sije. . ^o/j. thick-legged. a baker. or trunk word in W. G. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. buidelen. the murmuring of the sea. Gascoi^e in R. crook-shanked bondew. bunden. Banstead.D. bande. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. a drum bombammen. In legal language. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. a bone in general. builen. agreement. silk-worm. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. sericum arboreum. bindan. buttel trueb (of liquids).Su?. to which the leg. 83 Gr. d. bombasin. . to shake down fruit from a tree. booming over the water. Du. as in . banitola (Fl. band pi. bond. bambagino. barate. bon. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance.). bopin. bongam. sijde. an implement of binding. tiffany. the contracted form of Du. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. tree. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. cotton stuff. bwmbwry mar. as Banbury. buidelen. to bind G. — Bombard.^Altieri. has repeatedly varied. bonfras. bommen. baum-bast. bauniwolle. whence bomme. . the silk-worm. and Bond. beuteln. breast-bone. burato. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. bureau. to resound. also thick-shanked. Du. a string. to beat a drum. When ture. from boom. a churn for butter. assuming the of leg : special signification W. i. lana lignea. E. thick. however. bombe. tie. bombasine. e. the shank the shoulder-bone. silk. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. bulter from It. and that from Fr.) . borel. a word of which we have traces in several English names. &c. . Fr. boulenger. the leg. It. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. OE. gossipium. From builen. bolting-cloth. to thump W. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. Bibelesworth in Nat. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. and also the leg. Antiq. butteln. As cotton was used for padding clothes. to shake. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. brust-bein. and Du. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. bombice. bureau. PoUitriduare. gunpowder. band. and Mod. tie. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. Dan. and in fact we find the and Du. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. the Fr. a ligature. iuttern. to cast to and fro. It. from teu. bonog. It. produced the Pl. Moreover. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. a hollow sound. It. Bone. to shake (as to shake the head. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. must be explained Fr. — having a stem or stalk. bombicina. — AS.

. till. or Vanns. OW. tall. to ask. baier. desire. Hal. a stall. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. babb^o. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. Ox. boten-shoen. signifying beech. In nautical language. Boot. bosih. clown. fool. gawney. 232. boer. wall hangings. a silly fellow. bosig. Gl. Boom. bonaid. bas. biikui. . To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. ON. boo. the scriptures bokareis. The latter is the original AS. by itself for head-dress. badaud. Prov. from badare. hu?idbusa. Palsgr. to prepare. a bag of skin or leather. — — . bote. petition. bota. gaby. the name of the letter b. bds. ON. pig-sty. bauen. whence ban-ffagl. writing bokos. the alphabet. comes bondi. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. dog-kennel. Wall. — Bailey. Sp. to litter bosu. quest. bua. a letter Russ. petition. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. is Du. Gael. high. Thus from the syllable ba. The character of folly is i860. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. literally cow-house. Du. booby. Binau Brychyniog. Fr. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. a head-dress. Perhaps. bonad. master of the house. and thence Rouchi baia. It. bauer. Bonnet. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. . head-dress wai^g. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. a hollow skin. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. To Boot. to gape. . which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. Mrs Baker explains bun. Basa. to set in order. a. bonad. dolt. a good turn or re- meaning. Mrs Baker. ass. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. dress. a simpleton. betere thing werse. gaping hoyden — Cot. Pm. bobo ! interj. nachbar. Kil. in Phil. Bun. . remnants of hay or straw. as a lying-place for cattle. build. Boor. prayer. a bonfire. countryman. the stubble of beans. a tree. to cultivate. bowwen. ON. often cut for burning and lighting fires. and Gael. boia.Boos. to cultivate. beam. AS. busu. 13. b'ukvdry. . the possessor of the farm. boubair. The origin of the word is probably the W. simpleton. bobo. stabulum. Booby. tigh. a dry stalk. dress. Du. set in order. Busk. botte. Pr. N. Boon. — To boot. reparation. Book. ben. a. letter. a scribe G. b&ber.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. A stall for cattle. short boots. netis stall. one who dwells nigh. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. succour Bailey. Hufwud-bonad. A peasant. See Butt. Kil. of wonder On the same principle Sp. to dress. from gape. chaff. bose. . . From bo. by arbitours sholde bote the P. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. buandi. inhabit. swinbusa. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. boom. Fr.—Bootless. bolt. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. bd. G. are formed Fr. till. Schm. — e. a lofty blaze. ty Gael. G. bonnet. house. . the cultivator. foolish. A favour. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. without ad- . build.. prayer. gehyred. remedy of evil. Thin ben Luke i. feu de behourdis. from Du. boandi.n. bene. bua. at everything. pole. Build. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. It is commonly explained as identical with It. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. and from AS. a letter . bossen. beiSne. been. \ais-band. Trans. help. and fig. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. a vessel for holding liquids. inhabit. botta. botte. E. The i. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. ganian. Goth. G. . See Bown. relief from sorrow. litter. wondering signifies not only straw. which one gaping and staring about. the mouth. bommen. — . blockhead. pero. Fr. Hal. p. also called Brecknock Beacons. to yawn. ON. dial. Jr. bos. as the Brecknockshire Banns. to strew with straw. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. where a cross (or a gun. But bosg. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. and Ban in w. w. to gape. lofty. to aid. bid). OSlav. a lying-place for dogs or swine. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. buch-stab. but stall. boa. AS. from beida (E. Boot of bale. in w.^ —P. — From the participle present. b^er. bAkva. boutig. Du. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. See Bomb. babin. boubi^. * Boose. Fr. Bonnefyre. babau. Bootless. however. tapestry. the first consonant of the alphabet. dial. although in the OG. bdn. Swab. boutig. E.

chewed food for infants. Pol. And so in ON. It is admitted that Fr. bottino. on. a borer . wave. The cor. to pierce. Bete. Kil. baara. biorag. Lat. . scalpo. kvit-bara. &c. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. puru. to . boeye.— Return from Parnassus I inR. making good again . and E. It. piercer. cure Sw. a booth or shed. Gael. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. . amendment. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. The Fin. from borra. a shed. chisel.. cottage. puras. as afford a satisfactory explanation. tent. Booty. 3. to foam. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. p. ON. urboro. betan fyr. bardure. hut. a responding forms . lappolone. bata. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. Esthon. puru. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. yfirbdt. Another derivation from Fin. to hut. edge. — ON. amendment boeten. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. to importune. hem or gard of a garment. . to quench one's thirst . boards. sharp. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . purro. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. . See Bower.. to divide. which are probably from the same root.. It. bolino. an engraver's chisel. batr. scsdes-bod. N. budowai. butin. struere ignem. cellar. a word. repair. To Bore. to profit.par. bauda. bothag. . 1. to bite. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. lappalare. Fl. a bothy. dust. See To We speak in E. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. from deila and skipta. to stick unto as a bur. differs only in termination. BoracMo. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. extremitas Bore. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. exchange or divide. OSw. or anything pointed. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. Fin. ON. Bohem. forare. and meta- Fr. the . TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. uzboro. borracha. to mend. . to build buda. ON. pu purro (saha =: saw . wine-skin. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. in Ihre. baete. purra. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. Fr. a bladder. . are parret. Burke in R. to The Sw. better. limbus. See Burgeon. dens mordens vel caninus. 266. Fr. Compare Manx birrag. to bore. Esthon. and parrets. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. Palsgr. The as G. The ON. pi. or the gradual working a hole in anything. ora. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. a cupboard. rof. to surge. bordi. is purin. furd. a leather bag or bottle for wine. of an edge that will not bite. bora. aid. . mat-bod. bdt. bord. to profit Goth. limbus. bower. are derived from G. Sp. a. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. bauen. Mag. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). Alexand. Fin. AS. abode. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. swell bara. to swell. a great bur. botjan. a wave. a shop budowati. cup- awl. a hut. to restore. beute. sculpo 05\xiik. a border. to boot. a sharp-pointed tooth. Booth. puras. terebra sculptoria purastoa. to repair. Du. a granary . boete. welt. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. and hence to fine. a shop. to build. Border. to patch. butin is explained by Flor. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. bothan. borino. admovere titiones.—Burin. a tusk. to to . from bord. to bite. burin. fimbria. make . phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. to expiate boeten den dorst. bite. sawroot. But probably the E. . byte points to the verb byta. fire. • — To Bore. Magy. In the Fin. recovery bata. drillen. margin. nor E. bdra. remedy. Fin. Du. OHG. both. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. furni. and thence to eat build. pointed. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. to bete the properly to mend the fire. Gael. reparation. Gael. purra. budka. boede. a hut or tent. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. boeten het vier. bud. A phorically a drunkard. a borer. BOOTH vantage.por. comminuted by either kind of action. bohren. a chisel. a shelter of branches. barn. a borer. terebro. to anything Neither G. G. in Lap. borracha.

vr\. Cot. a pushing or striking out. bos. whether from the fact preserve G. burh. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. Swiss Rom. Sc. Borowholder. f graauw. as if from the verb to hold. bail biirgen. the N. botch. beorgan. bossen. to take in. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. a bouncing baby . destitute. Botany. Hence knot. bunch. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. the hollow between the Borsholder. — ' wind burya. bump. 106. bierge. boss. the North Wind. when that system was forgotten. byrig. . The origin seems to be the Goth. to contain. pitch. useCanterbury. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. to keep. boussi. pegou. unpolished. beorgan. borough-holder. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. and thus could not shake off the old burr. of bail throughout the country. . bump is used in lump or piece. baurgs. (Bridel). AS. borh. to protect.any round sweUing. Boreal. borg. head. boschen. the must have arisen burgensis. I. — — — A — . a boor. one who sticks to you like a bore. knocking. bergen. ' pledge. a little blow. ^o^^flj. in the body struck. a bunch or hump. pego. Turk. Bosh. whence the burg. borgo.. bttssel. In like manner It. without. bundle. hollow. loan. Borrow. AS. grey). D. a tower. primarily signifying coarse sound . Lat. bussa coarse. brown cloth. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report.bucklers. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. i. cnag signifies both a clergy. borei. botsen. plant. surety. the ordinary a swelling. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. formerly used in the sense of knocking. to save. Gr. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. knob. or because a blow berga. into borsholder. gum vocant. as we speak of a thumping potato. Bos a surety. knock and a knob . signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. a herb. borgese. ON. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. to pick or cull plants. Altieri. ' — — . The other. clownish. a city . gesylle. bourgeois. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. poor. rustic. connected.' Vegetius in Diez. the sun sets. secure. from their grey clothing. poor. less. a boss. (1867). Bailey. boss or knob of a buckler . Fr. boss. that which biirge. to conceal. cnoc. was origin of the term is the OFr. borealis. bosseu. nonsense. botse. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. It. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. to give a hollow bizo. vain. storm. huschen. And that unsittynge is to here degre.' every man be under bail. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. G. Borough. So Du. Du. bussi. or head-borough. butse. striking. . See found in Bav. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. in instead of without. borel. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . tuft. a knob. or perhaps it may be See Bury. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. Du. borough or chief constable. to protect. blow on a hollow object. Goth. northern. Jam. plain rude fellow. viipyoc. rude. or perhaps also To Borrow. busse. a wen.' the chief of the ' borh. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. to save. a citizen. to save Sw. Bunch. to knock or strike. an eminence. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. Fr. and borough in the sense of a town. bosse. undyed wool of brown sheep. to give bail or answer for an. The primi. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. basse. while Gael. Hence borhes ealdor.mass. /3oraMK6f. tempest. agrees with E. to strike so as to Bureau. &c. borg. from AS. butsen. bosh. a.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. empty. cnap. is used in the sense of bussare. a citizen. Russ. a surety. . burel. a blow. cob. boss sound. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. to become is emitted by a hollow body. Lang. bom. by which of or belonging to plants. tive idea seems to bring under cover. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. bourg. botch.' if thou give money on loan. AS. is probably radically Boss. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. a giving rise to It. empty. knur. projection. It. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. burgess. Newbury. to strike . which now signifies a knob. V. the Sc. E. boss of the side. hollow bucklers. Jam. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. bos. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. cormpted. empty. coarse cloth made of the Du.' or system of bail. Fr. ^ma. Hal.ribs and the side.

batschen. noise. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. a cask. &c. H^cart. Jtidu. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. to fall : with a sound batsch. turmoil. bots. Butu. bdsser. the bud of a flower . OSax. for a bud. boitean. what pushes outwards. butwo. shoes. . hurly-burly. biissen. Hal. bide. boden . baiothsj Sanscr. Botcli. round lump. bluster. i. a. corresponding to .' to the fiery Csedm. schuhbosser. bundle. . a maggot. patch. a wisp. Du. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. Hal. Decorde. to botch or patch. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. to smack. And so we speak of an eruption.— Hal. — — . gipuozan. botola. j3i/9os. Fyre to botme. putra. a depth. Stalder. See Bound. ledge It. bosser. .of a ball of thread. the lowest part. bdt. to stir and mix together . by met. repara- — — See To Bete. dial. to bcBta. botel foenn.— Swift in R. a vessel for holding liquids. burgi vel pontis refectionem. fire-bote. in the sense of mend the fire. a bottle of hay. bAdtr. Leg. a tinker schuhbiisser. Boa two. buazen. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. bozza. to dip in liquid (to Gael. a humpback. whisper. G. to rage. we have Swiss batscken. mess. — duj Lett. contusion . Prov. is boteau. empty or hollow. botus. a bottle. botsen. Du. to strike . both. thing soft batsch. Judwi. Fl. It.D. tumour. abbution. Dan. — Fl. Fr.) . botte. Bouds. knock. — — belly-worm. &c. stock. ^kvBoQ. bunch. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. buddeln. abbi-diwij Slavon. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. bodem. abbu. See To Bodge. fundus. It. Lat. oba. bile. pimple. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. ON. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other.^Dec. to from the root bot.ments of the same root. a cesspool pass. a bump or swelling. the first rough draught 2. to work without order or know. — . The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. botn. a plague-boil Kil. — Jidwi. boute. stem or base. Bochu. buddl. from the dashing of water. — Dief. Bailey. a knock. bozza. stroke. was called a push. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. • Bott. It. Bret. dabble). See Butt. Again. a pit. I. poltern. butsen. House-bote. to simmer. bulderen. a slop. stump. From the dim. pozzo. blow. puddle. . cation of which may be preserved in puddle . mend. ixorapudder. Canut. BOTCH understood). to mend (kettles. and ajSvamg. AS. the science or knowledge of plants. a cess. a pit. a bottle. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. a slop. any plain round viol glass bozzo. See Boss. as Fr. bottom. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. a cobbler. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. ing out. To Botch. blain. you two. e. to make a make a noise. they two. On — Du. to give a sounding blow. especially in Gael. an abyss or bottoniless pit. Diez.foundation. to make better. * To Bother. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. dim. buts. E. Pl. boil. Fl. scuohbuzere. pocciar. boccia. botte. butse. a botcher of shoes. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. Here the radical image seems a bubble. 212. to dash about . bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. botm. botte. maggots in barley. disturbance to . bouteille. a waterfall. A bottom depth. abbi. to podge. a patch patschen. noise. N. ubhau. kessel-biisser. Mudu. Ancren Riwle. a pock. buideal. — Bottom. a bott . ambo. Wedu. On the other hand. disturbance. ON. botse. Both. AS. . to we have OHG. The Gr. any round ball or bowl to play withal. Danneil. beggtaj Goth. Lith. to mend. botel. the other hand. Fr. — — A 2. bethia. boss. G. btitse. we two. nets. mutter. a bubble. however. a bundle of straw or hay. to froth as beer . signify a in OE. whence the name ol pool to podge. mess. bossu. Bottle. — . as a push or windgaU. gling piece of work. bot. a boil or swelling Halma. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. stock. a root. pozzanghera. pother. an imperfect and bunbutt end. abyss. A horses. bulder. AS. is also a bubble. bSn. Gael. potra. Lith. to knock. ba. Podge. boiteag. a bunch. ' G. a lump of somebatschen. bativa. bottigUa. bund. or plague sore . to put on a patch. Gael. podge. . w. Kil. blister. and E.— . A — oba-dwaj Lat. ON. . bun. botch. to stir and mix together. Bouteille. boiteal. gen. of botta. Parmesan poccia. To confuse with noise.

to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. language a * Boulder. bouton. to hum. as a bout of fair or foul weather. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. . limit. bunsen.. boundina. bons. bay. — — leap. volta. Dan. knock it sounds again. a button. boh. Pr. the bay of Benin. — — Bight. iv. The W. dial. See To Bolt. bounbounejha. a blister. buUersten. jungen.— F. Wtb. bondir. to turn. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. See Bunch. debodinare. — strike. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. Bound. bolder. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. of thread. The Bight of Benin. boujtce. to thundering big one hum. to fix limits. Pm. . by Bujns or Buns. Raynouard. strapping. bodina. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. the verb bondir in OFr. Boulderstone. thumping. I assure you. Fr. in contrast to klappersten. round. mcn-bomi. The branch of a tree. 136. Du. he fell so that it sounded. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. march.' round and round in similar circles. bugan. Bought. Bonny. Nor a centinel whistle. see Boss. root (see Bottom). a large pebble. carpet. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. gulf. bun. a stock. to resound. ni frestelar. p. Halma. the smaller ones. nave of a wheel bothel. Mid. Primarily to strike. to spring. Ni gacha cor bondir. And the new stools set out. or Bow-pot. a large stone rounded by the action of water. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. as a nosegay. 2. signifying in nautical coil of rope. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. E. pothel. its kind. Bunche. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. geration. From Sw. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. a round body both. turn. till The dat et bunsede. a bud. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. frequently used in the same sense with bound. nor horn sound. a bound. botwm. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. to make a loud noise. has hot. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. dial. Bodinare. to bow. Bough-pot. as that of E. butina. Probably from the Celtic root bon. to set bounds. 3. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. Bout.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata.' B. came home with his face all to-bounced. from bugan. whence buj7isen. like bobbin. from volgere. boss of a buckler." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. Q. ing. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. a boss. pimple Richards bothog. bend. — Take care my house be handsome. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. bugt. baby. A Langued. To Bounce.— — — - 88 BOUGH . mere. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. a boundary stone (men stone). and Prov. Ducange. bog. Fr. Bowlder.— Cot. bumper. bonzen. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . Brem. To Bound. suorum recognoverunt agrorum.D. — No i ausiratz parlar. So It.xperience such sounds as the foregoing.>a bout. bamsen. an occasion. Sw. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. in the absence of actual e. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. bend. winding. ni motz brugir. an de dor bunsen. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. bonna. the larger kind of pebbles. Alpine Re- — gions. jump. a turn or time. the hollow of a bay. bullra. and F. bunda.— Boundary. to thunder. boriie. a bouncing apple. AS. bone. signifies a sliort thick mass. Coxcomb. contusi. tnndo. To Boult. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. to knock at the door.'— Charter of K. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. a blow. bonndn.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. from AS. to knock. Bret. . Fr. Bough. Webster. to spring. to set out by metes and bounds. bottom.

pusta. to pre2. pared. a. to bow. When used alone it . deceit. It is bov. bogr. to mutter. So Sc. to — Hal. G. Chaucer in R. Lat. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. Cot. burdan. bog. It is remarkable that we find vary. The foregoing derivation seems. Bourdon. taunt. spring. bommen. pausen. bwa. to drink deep. cheat.which see. Du. the shoulder of the vessel. a for New York. G. on the whole. And there in mourning spend Sw. biegen. bourde in the same sense. buys. sausen. bunaiteach. firm. bage. crutch. burt. bogen. a bow. buga. The meaning of bound. . bugna. A water. Du. to bulge. purlBav. bugna. different modification gives ON. to trick. Sp. ridicule buirte. Bounty. curvature. Eown. souf. burn. prepared for. a from Du. game. Spenser in R. mockery. As the Gael. bordon. Immediately from Fr. Borden. bend Sw. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. joke. beygja. springbiirn. jest. bog. ready to pike or spear . bogna. to take breath. bending. i. Dan. btiga. bound. drone of a bagpipe. buizen. a drone or dor-bee. bourdon. warbling. Fr. Gael. bue. brunna. whether by sound or gesticulation. belly out. ing. shoulder-blade. ^<7r«i?. Dan. it is probable that the It. addressed to. G. — probably through this latter signification. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. repartee. pot. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. a cup kroesen. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. Goth. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. Sw. burlare. Du. pre. sport. of the ON. steady. Cot. puff out. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. schenkelbug. patesten. sense durd. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. bug. Bourd. tinton. a drone of a bagpipe. drunken. buyse. the ting of a bell. has also buirleadh. limit. . to drink deep. to tope. Gael. A —Cot. bordo. bow to shoot with. beogan. a humming noise. the Bourdon. their time -With "wailful tunes. burd. bordone. verb bua. bonitas. brummen. borne. to our bous. lance. bagna. and not in the sense of curvature in general. to swell. burdan. to indulge in his cups . when we speak of. Comp. a prop. bov. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /.bass of a stringed instrument. the big end of a club. Bound. hous^ Man in the Moon. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. saufen. a corToward the garden. . Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. a. must be referred to the same root. to draw a deep breath. bend. G. bourdon. whence buysen. to tope W. Dan. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. . .See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. head Fr. Burden. flagon. trick. identical with E. to hum. an arch. bugan. sotich. Sw. buzzing of bees. in Fr. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. on. a pot. Bourdon. . the fixed. Gael. bogha. address. to take one in. fun of one . spelling the word iox bound. bonus.. — — — A pare. from spring. a humming noise Macleod. Sw. biugan. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. bugne. Dan. and that probably from a Celtic root. epaule du vaisseau. AS. is. bontS. a jibe Shaw bururus. to banter or laugh at. . analogous to Fr. ready. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . Burgeon. bourd. to bow or incline the . It. Fr. ruption of bonne. to tipple. language of folly or ridicule. a brook. buigen. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. Swiss bausen. Bret. purra. drink deep. buzz. to take deep draughts. that ON. set out. a well. Prov. brausen. are applied to the bow of a ship. to hum as a bee. a — — . also the humming or ON. a sing-song. potio. Gael. a go to. Fr. hence musical accompaniment. to draw a deep breath. as was for. staff. a mill-post. fresh* water. Bow. grumble Sw. or of an Gael. Gael. bending. Sc. burreti. bdgi. way ba7n. — — . Du. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. gurgling. schulter-bug. a jibe. kroes. It is the participle past buinn. cudgel. good. bovne. explaining Sw. w. bausen. g. bending of a joint knie-bug. like quaff. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. the burden of a song. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention.

kupula. . bolgna. in walking appears in a . bossola. bent. a boil. Fr. The word may probably be identical with Fris. folliculus . globular body. bogla. boucle.). shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. It is more probably from the G. bow. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. Fr. different position in ODu. beutel. a protuberance. pullo. bola. AS. W. to yield to one. biichse. zich onder jemand under to him. Sw. . . boxtree. to bend. to make crooked . . painter's easel. a drop of pullistaa. a ball. a black pudding.a. bowel Box.cup Du. round bead. purse. similar shape. crooked. the bogna.). tumour. bolle. an inclosure. the crop of a bird. bulk compared with Sw. lump . G. to swell. puffy. of a wooden ball to play with and — . kuppelo. W. to guggle. to bend down. Du. dial. . buis. . to buckle G. a parlour. as in AS. knob From the former modification we have bolla. buigen. hollow place Fr. The / a bow. w. . boil. a.\s. the box-tree. . a wine-can . bur. Gr. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. boxtree pusska. beuz. a wardrobe . bolla. Bohem. a pot. boor. . bulla in aqua. budel. the box-tree and articles made of it G. bucka. a little box . a box Lat. a box. kupu. gut. . representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . bosso. bollen. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. peated in Magy. boel. . convex. a chamber swefnbur. bol. to raise the back boll OHG. bulne. See Crab. globular. From the other form are G. a bowl. then by the loss of the /. and on swollen. &c. prominence. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. budello. a swelling or rising up. ku^o. in both senses. bolla. guestchamber . hiidel.. a knot. a bubble. bulla. round glass phial. water pulli. bubble. . a hump on the back rossbollen. crown of a hat. to bubble up. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. convexity. . Lat. . fyn. Du. buckel. bulka. bouzellou. buga. anything globular. ne. . bouge. ^o«/«. . kupukka. head of a cabbage. to bulge. Thus we have Esthon. Buckle. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. a polla. hill. a box. Bret. to stoop biickling. blister. cumena-bur. stream forth bugyogni. and to a coachbox in particular. hollow. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken.. E. wisp of straw . Sw. bow. ON. boss.) to incline oneself . ttuJic. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. buello. swoUei) Lat. Hal. belly. AS. bugy. . bowels. the barrel of a gun. Sanscr. pusspan. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. buckelig gehen. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. a sleeping-room . bugyni. botulus. bulcken. . a box. trestle. A Bulk. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. a bubble Fin. Sp. Bret. PLD. . bhugna. ^o/a. to puff up pullakka. ON. Bav. Dan. a thing of liquid. koziel. as in E. heafod bolla. bur. a buck.D. . or. OE. polla. busse. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. bocka. . bowl . to puff up. Bowl. to stoop. box. See MHO. (in pass . witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. a bundle. passing on stud. bugna. A . at the e. Cable. Fr. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. with inversion of the round. Sw. honse-bur. acsian. ON. bwra. compared with Fr. the skull or brainpan . In like manner the Pol. a round glass or bolg. bubble. a ball. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. . bog. a separate apartment . buchsbaum. bhuj. inclinare se (Kil. the box-tree It. swell. a sack. iri'iaQ. belly of a cask. bouellou. See Boil. fata-bur. pocket. OFr. as well as the name of a. Hence. G. buk. make obeisance. bog. hollow wooden case. bol. without the and grits. a ball . Dan. bukke. spring as water bugya. Pol. bending. the head. bulb of an onion bolleyield. * Bowels. bugyola. bugyani. an outhouse AS. buxus. Boll. globe or spherical body. . intrenchment. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. bock. biiske. tumour . bolne. the head. give in to. a croft by a house. to bow buck. Bower. belly. a box. utibur. mausbollelein. biisse. box in both senses. bulge. Du. sausage. signified by forms like Gael. biicken. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. bwr. bug. busskai. a iDubble. a bud. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. a stud.flask It. spherical Dan. boss. a hen-coop . is applied to a coach-box. or in e. a bubble. ask. boudin. a bubble bolli. ken. .ige\y illustrated under Bulk. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl.

. Ptg. bracon. G. which has many representatives in the other Europe. disturb. . let. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. ON. murmur. dog Sw. variation of babble. by the same inversion of J and k. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. fault . ' — A — — — . Brackish. braco. in R. a comworld Rayn. strike. Brack. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. taneous talking. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. It is B. damaged board a ship. to burst. breach. Pl. Fr. pube. thwack. bue. wrack. matter. to crack. The different meanings of the brageux. bask. cramp-iron holding things together . La ville ou y avait Brace. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. Du. suppuration. bou^ba. brek. — . Thus brack. want. . . dog in general. loud smack. an languages. by an overflow of sea water. mud. flap. rakki. brek. AS. braquet.. lalear-eyed Prov. OE. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. flaw. bracha. boiste. race. bracke. A — — . or bracer Cot. OFr. brasselet. boy. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. a grown youth Cimbr. Sp. a girl. buah. It. a pair of braces. and F. brostia. bitch Du. the first instancebya physical tie. Fr. merely in our mode of considering them. Kil. Prov. a boy pupa. braecke. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. Fr. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means.. brace on and Du. brack. bracco. brae. In like manner the It. To brace is to draw together. land batsken. breuque. Brack. fault. jabber. to give a blow with the fists. moral or physical. Pm. boussole. To fight with the fists. unmarried man . One girl. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . &c. — . breptati. refuse. youth. defect. bracil.D. s. Fr. priated to the original sense. On the same principle from the buksteht. bracket. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. need. then from break. is a rope holding G. odorinsecus. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. filth . as noticed under Box. Sp. — . I sal slyng. Swab. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. ratch. Swiss Rom. Sp.. braco. to is derived brestr. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . confining. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . bouibo. to fall. bracer. bray. . in R. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. to box the ears.with a noise. a guard to torf. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. Bracelet. the arm. dog that hunts by scent. Brak-goed. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. brageuses. brassard. Lett. s. Cot. posh. baske. clay. babble. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall.puddle. a braceOFr. brabbelen. brae. Heligoneed. Hdcart. V. spaniel. rakke. to slap. It. BOX To Box.D. beagle. defect. to be wanting. Bracket. Kil. To Brabble. a crack. braque.. and then Pl. ON. pus. rack. dirty. acidus. a bubbling dura del mun. . wristband. bresta. a box. brakke Bracelet. Du. a sounding blow. A to halt between two derivations. and string of his bow. defect Du. A brace probis. his eyes are failing him). The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. fuse. Brach. to stutter. brae. — — . whence a as by a mixture of sea water. bube. corruptse. . salsus. Lat. brec. bragos. Prov. brechen. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. See Brake. boy bouba. breach. Prov. Pr. Water rendered boubo. ghebreck.nated by dirt. briche. See Broker. . OFr. mud. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. mud. bruxula. which sigof straining." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. root). to Swiss batschen. — . . flaw. brae. Rouchi Then as an adj. foul. rakka. salo sive aqua marinS. Boy. G. to stammer. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. break.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. Gael. land spoilt Kil. braic. from a root brak. to want. parallel with OK. baukscheht. to smack the hand batschen. wnzC/J. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. whelp as. Prov. Swiss bub. brack. Kil. brakke grund. brechen ihm. want. braca. armour for the arm. to give a gebrechen. to give a sounding blow defect. want. or defect. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. 91 the Dan. brago. ing from a mixture of salt. compressing. con. pupus.— D. quarrel Bohem. isolated part of the text. MHG. a bog or pass Fr. It. — . brague.

to boast of his own worth. brav. braga. an inclosure for cattle . to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . a noisy talkboasting.. Sp. the feathers ON. Haldorsen Gael. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. boasting. . courageous. Brain. fine. bushy . braga. in numerous dialects. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. AS. See Bray. Fris. and that from e. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. breach. expensive. The meanings included under — Bragget. the opposite of which. Cot. . to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. gay. — From W.%. to strut. Cot. brayete. Bret. To Brag. &c. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. flaunting. From brayel. the arm. flaunt in fine clothes . Thus we are brought to the OE. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. would be to brace. to flaunt. cry. used in the sense of force. gallant. finery. splendid. well-dressed. Bray. to crack. stately. riches. Dan. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. brag. to rattle. idle talk. brabhdair. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. dhbrailler. . brave. braszketi. braka. brao. — . a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. about the hawk's fundament. bragio. make a noise . braies. bravacherie. to Rouchi brMer. Cot. strength. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. smart. Rom. bravo. confining. breagh. Langued. braske. Lith. brabhdadh.explosion. fine. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. A — Hal. Thus Bret. showy bravery. to swagger. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources.aburst. subduing. is Cot. 2. The meanings of brake are very numerous. Hecart. breghe. to boast or brag. braver. braegenj Du. noisy ostentation. ^Brave. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. compressing. braka. also derived Fr. torture . Lat. or from braie itself. crash ON. to cord a bale of tie up. h-avare and Fr. Wallachian bratsou. se parer de beaux habits. subigere. gorgeous. . i. and it is very likely that the root brak. power.^ Sp. To Braid. brag. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . be found. brave. bullying. vanter une chose. binding anything together. breyne. bravache. excellent. stout. braga.hy which this idea is con\eyed. de Vaud. . instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . crack. goods. was formed brayele. se donner trop de licence. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . brake in the sense of constraining. w. From sprouted corn. bragging. Primarily to crack. Brag was then used brisk.. brae. — Chaucer. vaunting. braw. Sc.Shepherd's Cal. swaggerer. se pavaner. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. gayly dressed. braggard also valiant. Chaucer.i5nz^. that will carry no coals. valiant The head are sumptuous. — A — . Dan. bragd. Fr. — Equivalent forms are Gael. Brake. fine. drawers. brachittm. to stand upon terms. brave. swagger. —Spenser in R. . Turk bazu are used in both senses. Hence E. To Brail. in order to prevent its catching the wind. boast. vain glory. . bra!. brake is. breghen. to sprout malt. . brails. proud. Brail. brag or jet it braguard. be noisy . braguer. also insolenter se gerere . a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. a carriage for breaking in horses . brazo. to shout. ative fellow. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . called by our braggard.breeches. 92 Cot. Bret. brave. empty pride. also tion of this was brayeul. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). affront. blusterer. hectoring. spot. braske. BRAG Piedm. Fr. an iron for holding Zalli. in the sense of the Lat. gay. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. Faire le brave. to brail up a sail. Brake. beautiful. braicli. as the type of exertion and strength. bravado j Fr. to make a noise. brave. It. handsome. or by gaudy dress and show. See Brace. slight modificajoining the two legs. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. From Fr. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. a roisterer. to unbrace or let down the breeches. fine.^Vocab. gallant (in apparel) also proud. crash. Walloon bress.—— . bragaireachd. It is certain that the word for arm is. is identical with Gael. bragging of his own valour. The plant y^r«. bully .

Brake. brega. word. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. riguus. In like manner Lat. a brace on board a ship. The Fr. brake. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. glebas subigere. In ON. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. a spinning-wheel. to bend a bow. Swiss Rom. Brake. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. In the case of the ne. tris). for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. bregar brake. and when once thrown down. where from Esthon. brook. a harrow. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. or a wood in a marshy place . to bray in a mortar. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. break of such a kind. quarry from Fin. to break or fracture. ing of flax or hemp. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. braken. and G.— . cover G. breaking in the operation. braecken het vlasch. to distinct. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. is braukti. is formed murd. broilium. — — . nemus. might come to signify a swamp. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. a thicket. subigere. Corrfeze bredgea. BRAKE to external force. broil. broken fratta. iSpsx". to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). braeken. marsh or swamp. G. . a horse's a horse's twitch. to break. or A A ' . Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. bredza. bushes. the original meaning of G. gilum. in usus braca. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. to pound. bush. thicket. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. ^raca. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. the lever by which the string was drawn up. braquer un canon. any thicket of brakes. Fr. referred brake. Dan. braca. signifying to sweep. P&. brog above mentioned. OFr. gebroge. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. bush. brcekke. to break. — Fl. broillet. or overthrow of trees by the wind. 3. properly braking or subduing them. as well as in the case of the e. brog or brake. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. broyer. —Bracken. to subdue. Dan. to rub. de Vaud. to harrow (Lat. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . brage. bregille. briser. braka. break flax PLD. It. to The ON. brog. to row. low wet land bruch. Lat. to head must be bit. to stiffen against Taboada). in northern climates. thing is brought under control. el arco. a fen. murrokko. Gr. gebrUche. a marsh. flachs brechen.' It. murtaa. copse-wood. Fr. t° moisten. farinam in mortario subigere. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. Pl. tnurdma. brego. as in Du. brage. a stream. broor bushy place Hal. Fr.D. pasture. brak is a frame in which strip. conSo in G. brambles. cetur. To the same bend a bow. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. brogille. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. —Ovid. breuil. brushwood. gebroge. to bend or direct a cannon. briers. gebiisch. Voc.bracan. frangere linum. Sp. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. to knead or mix up in a mortar. It may be sus- . brolium. gebrUche. brook. 2. a swampy Mid. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. it is not surprising that the word has here. dial. Prov. bruch. It. Gael. bregar.. to exert force in different ways. to fracture. Biglotton. been confounded with the verb break. brook. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. to brush. game. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. gebroge. and Lat. fratto. watered. Dan. We — . brambles.D. as in the case of horse-breaking. casser le \va. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. e. broeck. for — Due. murran. have thus Du. brake. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. marsh. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. In the sense of a thicket. as in Sp.

broom. chaff. . constrain. Sir Topaz. bran. iii. brandello. a bud. pfropf. brarn. w. piece of anything. heath. young buisson fort epais. nasty. It will be found that shrubs. bruskoad. cack. G. As ON. a dunghill. thorns and Gen. Bramble. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. brand. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. broust. to gripe. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. sprouts. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. and waste growths. broem. Fr. Bret. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. a bud It. snotty . brom. brosst. a vine twig Bav. —Ducange. brancas. virgultum. a small deri\'ation . bit by bit. . We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. Brancare. Bret. Fr. branco. brok.. Thus in Lat. piecemeal brindelles. AS. from gaggi. the bull-finch. gebriiche. brake. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. in the sense oi fern. titio. pfriem in the sense of an awl. . to burn. cabbage sprouts Fl. heath (Bret. Broom. branchia. brank. brin (as It brano). brwnt." The bmno a • on . bren. to brank. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. may be so called in analogy with Bret. to -brugen. bruch. as. sedge burkni.D. or ling. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. But we find It. bren. bramble Du. brein. a shoot. Dan. . The naof strain. sawdust. . a burning fragment of wood. compress. that is to say. brouskoad. Rouchi bren d'orMe. Brank. A mark made by burning. brano. G. apiece orbitbrandone. bruch. brenna. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. Bav. wood composed of twigs. berneux. G. from brand. . i. Thornas and bremelas. bracken or fern . breanan. Gael. to bridle. breun. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. bran. brambles. 2. as AS. brandr. Thus we have w. dirt . bruk. brem. what is cast out as worthless. brank. brug. a briery plot. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. gebroge. Pl. Diez. brang. also a marshy low ground or fen . heath. broussaille. It. sweet broom. Serv. brog. brenda. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . and thence a shoot. or with It. also pfriemkraut. thicket of brambles Cot. stink . brin. 1 8. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . a shrub from Bret. or other plants of a like nature. a thick bush. So Swiss gaggi. brin d. . young twig {brom-beisser. In like hrst. prufye. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. Fr. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. the thorn apple or stramonium. Port. to or iron. Bret. is the draff or excrement of the com. briars. clutch. excrement. . Pl. bruk. G. brandmurk. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. Russ. ear-wax mud. a bud. It. broccoli. bronbo. . brenn. and E. a roA. broembel-CBppel. braam. Bret. brugek. broom. brejo. breme j Sw. pfriemen. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. brass. burning brennen.).G. branche. brandiiialil. bushes. bromboli. hallier. The same form becomes in It. in the same sense. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. a heath. a shoot or twig. heath ON. bretnel. brenn hesken. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. Bran. Branch. a shrub . brughera. braeme. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. — branca. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. &c. a bridle or bit . E. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . from Servian pnit. That beareth the red hepe.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. heath. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. pected that brake. from virga. restrain. brushwood. from brug. heath. See Brush. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. the branch of a tree. a firebrand. Grisons bruch. bruk. a halter. a single plant of heath. — . all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. from Lat. Fr. w. ordure . It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. Piedm. brug). brous. ground full of briers. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr.D. Brand. Then by comparison with claws or arms. &c. a rod or twig. bro7n. Gael. it glitters — — .

given to the country. stake. bransella. the colour than hitherto known. Milan. Kil. E. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. Bret. shake. crackle. bruzi. It. Sw. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. to distil . gebrannter wein. bra?ier. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. spirit distilled from wine. bracea. bresil. The tre brangillis. Fr. live coals. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. Brasil. to brustle. brandende wijn. bracia. to hurl with great force. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. to solder iron. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. — ting to confusion. Port. to burn. to bicker 2nd. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. — . hot Fr. bryne. fire-wood. to braze or lute. De Barros considers vinum ardens. so.^Brandle. Braser. bragale\ wood. ist. make a — . plained by Florio. brasil. So. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. then brandr. to make shine with shaking. as again by well as the blade of a sword. bum. brane-wood. G. brush. Brase. weinbrenner. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. brasa. In the same way the set on fire . to French brawl or brangle.well.pan of coals. firebrand. and bruir. N. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . to shog. to brandle. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. The corresponding form in Gael. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. from to vociferate. bransle. totter. WaUon. Chron. bragia. conbillet. to brandle or The It. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. With top trimbling. Manx bransey. brennen. ish. It. was in use Fr. comes from thence.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. brouir. urens. braise or hot coals. to crackle . aqua ardens. d'Angl. to murmur. embraser. and scold. branler. branler. bruire. Fr. or in stick. incendium. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. to shake. to burn. brand. Formerly brandy-wine. became ashes Pied. Brangle. Lye. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. a roaring fire. To brase AS. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. firewood. Jam. make an outcry. to confuse. to quarrel. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. brus^. perplex. AS. brustle. — . brin. set on fire. braise. in Marsh. du Roi et laine. The name Brandy. brangle or brawl in E. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. to sound of the Fr. forms brasil. a stick. to blaze. splinter. to make display . to totter. a pan of hot coals. Bailey. glowing embers . from used in dyeing cloths. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. bruciare. to and fro in the hand. to dash. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. Gris. to shake The word brisil. branla. Fr. bruan. Fl. De Goes. E. before the discovery of America in the brandir. Chron. e. billet. briiler. as Fr. Fr. Hume in brand in ON. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. all. brandolare is exbrandish. Diez. to brangle. braza. Thus the bound up again. hoisting to the fall. noise. to glisten or flash. to shake. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. braise. brasa. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. 59. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. It. Ija. n. a fragment. a To Brandish. Du. to make sense of a bright red dye. to burn. brasca. brandigh. braser. G. apparently very distinct from each other. Guill. distilled wine. put. brandiller. to rustle. a brusler. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. crackle. Fr. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. Sw. the spelling to kindle. not. as Jamieson explains it. V. morsel. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. brausen.. to roar. To brand. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. brastlian. brascct. a round dance. faire fracas. brazeiro. brasca. — . flagrans. brandiller. prasseln. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. brazil. is bntan. and branchis shaiand D. eldibrandr. to Bailey.

a Lap. to Gael. Brattice. a contemptuous name for a young child. a. esbraotier. muscular parts of the body.propugnaculum. at brasa. Sp. I. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. is The word — uous name for a woman. a plank or board. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. — . and bronzo. Fr. Kil. It. to copper. a slabbering-bib. Mundart. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. 368.D. Cot. bruir. bartisan. trul.brettysing. a cloak. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. ship. baltresca. bran. ferruminare. Brangle. Brave. Betrax of a —^Jam. a patch of cloth. Gael. breyon de kinds of . KiL Prov.^ — Sverris Saga. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. bretesque. . That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. Du. boutures. bas morceau de viande brawhng. braiio. frame of laths. burning coals. buttock Sc.walle — Pr. bribe de viande. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. rag. brett. Fr. Many gambes. breyon d'chaur. as rashers upon quick burning coals. contignatio. OFr. Certainly a little girl.D. a mantle. 1156. Sc. a loud noise. tasce. slibro {neita. Bailey. slut. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). a lump of flesh. Brawl. W. Dan. bred. a lump of flesh. Cot. It . and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. to solder. bartising. brazen. to braze. bradlete. bratid calf of the leg. brdto (ace. A land of dance. See Brandish. braion. braser Fargent. the buttocks. a parapet. frequentative of braire. to scold . a clout. a rag . a contempt- banner. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. or whether it be from Fr. strepitus 2. OHG. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. braede. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. 1224. equivalent to the Du. brass. OFr. For the application to a^child compare Bret. boarding being sbranare. as lattice. as scrawl from scrabble. bronzare. ' A vraale. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. braoilich. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . from Sc. luncheon. any piece. &c. Lorraine bravon. to shake. The muscular part of the body. Circumeunt cibertesca. ^Altieri.— Fl. as a brawling brook. Brawn. Westphal. bras. Wall. calf of the leg. AS. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. brandillo. in the first instance of boards. bretays). to talk at bralle op. Hist. brailler. lat'te. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. Pisana in Mur. 2. bratach. bransle. Brass. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. A. apron. breyon. ON. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. brettys. brat.96 Roquefort. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building.D. then a parapet. noise. Jam. brat. G. coassatio. pan- — Rayn. — Deutsch. The verb is probably derived from the brase. to tear piecemeal.— Braid. brces. borderinge. Bartizan. a — A from the confused noise. Fr. a battle-girdle. cob. bronzacchiare. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. flesh of a leg of pork. Sup. berd. Cologne broden. See Bray. ni autres choses sur Due. Pm. P1. slakker-bortchen. a wooden tower. bretesche. to carbonado.— Remade. neita girl). It. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. —-Jam. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. from branler. slibro.' BRASS BRAY et AS. branle. braodhlach. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. calf of the leg. A dispute or squabble. So also See Brag. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. pil. braon. as criailler of crier. discord. A. solder. Fris. brat. saillies. especially that used in the working of iron .— Diez. a rag. Math. le repasser un peu sur la braise. squall. from Fr. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. deblaterare. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. the calf of the leg. bradon. cloth. The same correspondence is seen between It. a lump. breteque. bratdn). a rag . or on the top of a wall.' Hal. —^Bronze. Florio. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. Brat. Swiss bradle. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. a lath. roar. whether contracted from brabble. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. to cry. bratidone. Paris. bralle. bmhon for brado7i. fraiche. bronze. braeye. a fortification.

on. bradar.fracas. to braid. brice.g. the sound — of arms. The ON. To rub or grind down Sp. disturbance. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. to scold. to sound very loud and very harshly. ing. Cat. and to signify the fracture itself. Dunbar braessem. breach. as the notion of turning crack. twist. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. bru. Swiss bratschig. at braga eftir euium. k.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. starts crackling up. to cry out. Bret. and frangere. brand. at a braid. the miller's dog. to break. resound . &c. as OE. bruzir. broyer. abraid. to cry Port. to resemble. weave The ON. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. paste or dough. R. to tear Bret. to smack or the eye. e. D. broad. a rag f . relation is seen between Lat. D. Bailey. ON. rogi. ybrayid. to snatch. to crash. &c. brot. ser. mos. Prov. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. &c. R. to knead. to roar. to break. Then. in Jam. Then is simply. will. a crash. to roar or bellow. and fracasously. riAprjyvvfu. Bread. Cot. to resemble him. Du. the clash of ai-ms Dan. 145. make a disturbance. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. Prov. — . Breach. 2. bragd is also applied nets. or cry out loudly . braire. Fin. paxog. Gr. father. a brack. iU-favouredly — in Jam.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. V. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. bruire.ch. brage. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. brechen. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. to work up in a mortar. upbraid. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. . crash. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. instantane. braa. bragd — ON. roar. to braid.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. turn. cyprinus latus. to cry out. braea. Ppvxia. to bray in a mortar. To Break. See Brake. to braid the hair.^ Fr. braa. baiyl. rattle. verb to break. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. AS. Q.y. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. as the voice of the ass. Lat. to the seijauntes. augnabragd. V. Chaucer. is . to break. the sword was out break. Fr. brikan.ear rog. V. brugier. noise . 7 . vapna-brak.' To Bray. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. &c. gestus. fish. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. bratsche. roar. explaining a very obscure application of the E. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. father. to have the lineaments of one's ON. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. Beryn. crepo and E. The Lat. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. Chaucer. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. a brake for hemp or flax. a breach Cot.. And at a braid he gun it bende. ^p&xia. to The cup was uncoverid. W. to pretend. to resemble. breuan. to t. D. to start. to break Fr. yell. Fr. to N. yell. brak. braidar. rangere. And with a traid I tumyt me about. to rub Fr. to rush. to braid acquires the sense of bend. at once. kind. bregar. plait. Wal. Goth. brame. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. or wound. and make a hideous noise. soft . braidir. crash. appearance Hal. to bawl. . to crash. to bellow. bragr. crackle . fragor. E. ON. . braid. i. which has given much trouble to commentators. bregda. From the or brack in a wall. breche. a wink. a mill. OE. Bread. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. bray. G. The same He might don us both a villany. imitate or resemble one. brak. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. — koa. I'll live and die a maid. G. regi. rustle. bregar. a rent. to roar as the sea. a . with or without a final d. fractus j Gr. to bray like an ass. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. F. to rumble. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. — — — explained motus loud noise.

coaldust. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. Piedm. to shiver for cold. subligaculum. Dan. brisoler. bruc. in Schilter. of trees. to breech. to whip. point to G. Du. brezzare. brumtnen. windy withal. britze.98 borst. Breeze. to murmur. . scent. Breath. bre- I'os qui bresole. rubbish. briste. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. braguier. as by the Sc.D./ssus. applied to shivering. —Briss. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. — See Broth. . brimme. briig. simmering. Lat. bryi^ga. — Brist. crush. G. briiz. Fr. Fris. murmur—Vocab. brok. We bragezj on. burst. from AS. PI. a cold and windy mist or frost . trusts. G. zare. . or the blow itself. E. brasiuiii. forms analogous to E. — Halma. Piedm. brcekur j It. to buzz. Breast. a to lay fly-flap. briosa. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. broil. breath. brasser. the dry spines of furze broken off.). to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. Swiss Rom. grillen. little bits of wood Berri briser. to roast. breost. breson. Fr. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. i5r(Z^. Originally probably the word signified steam. and brought beneath between the legs. brustia. E. properly to crackle. brew. Prov. brison. brodem. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. So ON. Biglotton. brijselen. orts. bark Fr. Breeches. of E. Rom.'— Gl. brist. einem de britze geven. a cramp-iron for holding things together. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. the soler. brossi!. b}-as. braga. one on the breech so that (klatschet). murmur. Swiss AS. G^nev. to fry . Dtyden. Compare OE. from brace. — And blood. brdtschen. rubbish. AS. to hum. G. sprouted corn. Breeze. met de bridse slaan. trembling. fitzen. their stings draw .) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. Gl. To Brew. breinse. a crum Du. so AS. singing bone. w. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. vapour.t. may be from the wurh fesser. braca. instead of being derived from 'La. from ligare. break. sheep's droppings bruss. Russ. malt. but more probably the E. briosat'. xyligogio castigare. bris. morsel. to be misty and cold. brezza. Gl. Hume in Jam. brire. cloven. to smack. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. as commonly explained. Du. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. bris de charbon. fail. AS. braie. brissle. and other rubbish dibris. Swiss brdtsch. /esses. Du. remains of leaves. It. broden. to feize or feaze. broza. fastening . . broiiwen. de Vaud. an odour. bragues. are in like manner ' . one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. Sw. to rattle (as hail). bruzir. bretilles. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. grillare. braciarc. G. brisd. Brize. polenta. drawers. bruise. peitschen. to resound. brinisa. chilly. brodel. clout for a child. to bray. . a box. to simmer. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. also to chill and shiver with cold. grill. &c. dial. brciz. brusc. brisciare. Gael. braies. braca. simmer. Briss and buttons. Bracha. Goth. bra. Hence the Lat. Prov. switch. Bruise. a horse's twitch. braies. to burst. . — . an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . braucn. to bind. noise. siibligar. breme. braia J OFr. bandage or truss for a rupture. binding. See Brick. braux. Du. a twitch for a horse. malt. griller.vare. Fr. The Breech (Prov. a crum. brut. corresponding to G. a smack. body brostia. OFr. brasiare. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. brezling. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. a cool wind. to brew. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. G. as. — . forms. Bret. braich. a girdle. Breeze. an into shiver. breeze. bratscher.britschen. Isidore and Tatian. to crackle. briosa. brise. Dev. to fry Then from a Gl. of straining. the breech or buttocks. Bret. brimsa. Lat. The Teutonic verbs. as in the case of twitter. bremse. Gael. then to broil. representing the sound of a blow. bris. — — strument for smacking. a gadfly. QNtsterviald) pritschen. brcEth. to brew. are related to Prov. bracecs . chillness or shivering. as. braga. de bridse geveii. brugga. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. brijsen. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. bridsen. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. to break. bresilles. with It. as the G. brosame. and E. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. bruzun. to crush to break. the bust. brache.

division of an army. fervere. stone-bridge bnikkoti. two-masted vessel. graf-ol. bruk. nurus G. . pavement brolegge. has briguer. a briole. to beg one's bread. brA. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. briw. bidsel. to boil. ter-in-law. Pol. a quoit of stone. breve or brevis. to break. AS. priod-ferch. buckler J ON. Fr. one's ovin. a sow. brilt. brittil. So in The Prov. feast of espousals. betonica. — . feast. brughiera. AS. broken bread. brigata. bretonica. from Bridegroom. from the Normans. E. bricou. the Fr. the newly. Applied ous words derived from break. Bridal. it is applied to the letter to OE. any jot or crum. bruith. Neumann. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. a fragment. a boiling. gf2o. . is still used in this sense. . served (Patois de Bray). w. bro is applied not only to a bridge.It. to prepare. berwedd. malt. twopares Lat. hlafes brice. Bribe. E. but to a paved road. a married man or woman Lat. G^n^v.pritil . to break to pieces bricalio. lipdZu}. briwo. AS. from the last 99 of which. Mid. Goth. to press in. a wedding priod-fab. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. The Sw.. broosekens. Hdcart. AS. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. brice. groom (mab=:son). sugga. Brief.groom. bo. to appropriate. AS. In the patois of briccia. Brier. bruk. Lat. It. bygga. then the marriage itself. Hence OE. a Bride. brigade. briicke. Trovarfor bride-ale. fragment. masted vessel. OHG. bruarium. buskins. The origin of the word is the w. . a heath brughera. Due. or brizo. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. Ducange. Bridge. to boil. to rub. BRIGADE dead. brieden. daughheath. a bush. priod. to tlie brico. to boil. brau. funeral. birbone. pier. a man. Lang. in the sense of OSw. bulicame. httle bit. to stamp. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. fastningar-ol. Grisons bruch. a fragment. It — is Kil. and ODu. It. W. corresponding or letter.gfiugga. Fr. and berweddu. a rogue . brere. a brig or priodor. from bit. crew. owned also propriate. a beggar. ' . ibrukkti. bro. Brique. A — A — . . bride. Flor. — . . Thom. a lump of bread. birbante. Priodi. a proprietor. arf-ol. appropriate.privatus. E. bably contracted from brigantine. ap. OSw. to pave. a little king's writs. brutg. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. fraoch. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. conjux. troop. Fr. the equivalent of to the dial. as. ment of anything broken. son. piece of burnt clay. the marriage si in brigata. boiling up brocoliere. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. Sp. A bribe is A — — arval. broken.rough with brambles and bushes. but probably Bricoteau. Brigade. Diefenbach com. broken victuals. pavement Lith. to press.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede.Fr. brukkas. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. a bit. ' — . See Broth. pavement. Du. bridelj OHG. from Bret. imprint. bribour.bergantino. Bridle. So It. jipaaaiii. briiths. brasser. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . Dan. In E. to meet together. Walach. a crum. privus. bricge j G. a heath. brygga. brigantine. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. a bride Brig. Pro(merch=:maid). brakes of high-grown ferns. a lump of bread. to circulate. brood. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . Bridal. bread. peculiar. bride. In the G. frayer. Fl. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. heath. . Cot. Rouchi brife. as so. especially to a letter or command. Gl. bruskr and buskr. brique de pain. E. AS. . a married man guma. — — — — — — . and that from It. bryd-gutna. a cheat. company. brocaly. Gael. beaten way Dan. bro. with transposition of the r. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. bribe de pain. to brew. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. betony brulicame. sponsa. grug. ON. married. brug. bridge. barren land priodas. of burial. berwi. guma. Diez. whence berw. remarkable that the Gr. brahi. consort with. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. bruyere. a rogue. a crum. bryd-eale. a bride. a lump of bread briber. Gael. to Isrew. Ihre. If the foregoing were not so clear. thick appropriated. Brewis. brar. collect bits of food. bitill. . braut. to pave brukkti. which however is undoubtedly from brace. jetty. malt. Brick. bara briw. fit.

and to associate with them. Goth.shine. and ner me hit iherde. inde squammatus. to bend a bow It. OHG. Flor. hell. to sound. and hence be explained glampi. is easily understood. a pirate. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. The Ir. 312. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. Du. there are many armour. the grew high. AS. brdgen. bairhts. 1351. Beorktode bene sweg. glbram.dorem clarum reflecto. clang. tinnitus. praht. 1654. to resound. So G. willata. brigandare. glamm. From ON. brigare. They or brigantini. Xa/iTTii). Wilista. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers.' in Due. Gall. — Brigantine. cange has 'Veles. to cry. with respect either to sound or colour. to rove. — — . Brigata. beorht. to make a loud noise. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. also called briganders. brawl. loo BRIGAND lor. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . briga. transparent. then. tinnitum clarum movco. labour. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. and. bray. Lat. jurgia. the gleeman's song. brigant. wilella. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. a small light pinnace pro. clear. to rob. seems to be to exert force gar el area. kilistua. briga. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. necessary business. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur.' The passage from the sense of a light. — Briganbriga. clangour. combat. lay was sung. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. Schmeller. kii:'a. twinkling. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. to contend with another. In Fin. manifest ON. glitter. brigan. dine. and the E. Bav. — brigante. moment. in the first instance. on his — own account. to piracy. biartr. to strive for. to ring. rover either by sea or land. to glitter. It. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. speech. splendour. glir. A. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. — Probably then to strive. A strepere. XafXTTpoQ. to shine. . bragen. splendour. splendens . — brigante. riis ' — Chron. . and secondly. \oice.pracht.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice.clare ^tinniens. to shift for with care. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. Mid. secondarily. a noise. Bright.— . noise. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. braid. to shine. sound. —Capgrave. and. It. Florio. strife. pugna. In the same way to strive is. to reservavit. splcnornd de brigandine. brebrigare. and diligence. The primary meaning of Sp. — Due. that of Fr. Brigand. It. etincelle. rixa. a spark. brcEhtin. from hall. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . to cry 'Schmid OE. in later times a robber or highway-man. may play the pirate or thief at sea.' The sense of strife or combat express. brigare. It. at a later period.glampa. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. bright bearhtm. in the sense of a robber. tumult. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. a sound. — A A . Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. tion. Brilliant. clare lucens. Adelung. outcry. representing a sudden noise.D. to glamr. bryhtm. clear sound. — Beowulf. clear. glamra. bregar. himself to serve men of merit. Gr. bracht. shriek with laughter. See Brake. schiteren. malandrini. The E. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. a glittering. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. a brigantine. dine. Due. Swab. tuilahtaa.' torum.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. the bench-notes resounded. clear.Lat. tinkle. squamma . briegen. schateren. clarus. Heo — song That AS. Owl and beorhtian. and led it away. show the origin of Lat. brak.

is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). to make a crackling noise. to shine. In Fr. AS. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. Supp. a long. — — So Fr. parched. to burn. The identity of ON. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. ON. Fr. brimmen. breme. . sparkle. identical with passion. griller. the singing of Sodom — — . brastlian. to glitter. margin. the eye-brow. finds the Fr. to sound deep or hollow. ling noise and a sparkling light. bryn. bremas. bremmen. ter. barm-cloth or barmskin. grisser. os qui bresole. brezil. Rayn. rym^. Hence with an initial s. breziller. bresoler (Gloss. glit. as in Langued. fierce. . dial. hence the bosom. kiimottaa. breme. The expression is now confined to the sow. as well as bl and gl. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. Brimstone. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. fire. Langtoft. brinfire. kimista. a rod.— BRIM . appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. to make bilbil). with an initial br instead of gr. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. is used of raging. grdzil. bry7ie. Tutschek. from bringe. to shimmer. and corresponding to these. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. It. the edge. the meaning is transL' amour.) brimi. brummen. bramar. originally the lap folding over the breast. frequently interchange. from brandr. Brem. bramar. In the same way Sw. the lap or bosom. brumft. also to reflect. surface of the ocean. — Rim. brand-krossottr. Subo. which seems identical with rim. Brindled. the verbs Flor. Sc. to storm. to twinkle. komista. grisler. edge Pol. sonitum edere bremen. Dan. bar. to sparkle. to roar. to crackle. to long for a thing. brow of a hill. of the eye. bray as an ass bramire. lap. greDiet. Brim. brillare. burning stone. brunft. gresiller. FJ. brame. ring. griller d'impatience.its vent in cries and roaring. To Brim. cross-barred in colour. on. kimina. a stick. vigorHal. Kil. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. border. crackle . briller. to shine. that the original meaning of the Sc. — g. Wtb. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. brmdottr. brummen : de soge brummet. clangor tinniens. brennistein. vattubryn. gresiller. brandr and Fr. excited. 754. AS. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. Tresiller. noise made by meat in broiling. reecho. the heat of animals. broiled. pMiller. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. to broil. as is the case also with Pl.). brisoler. to glitter . to roar. grullo. whether of desire or anger. bremmen. to resound. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. The E.ioTiviS acutus. rugire. kajata. brommen. have then in Fr.' d'etre marie .preni. ON. fringe . to quaver with the voice. brissle. Sc. as of meat in broiling . barm. burning. — — — . Swiss Rom. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. : ' — bone). Du. Sw. briller (related to each other as OFr. perent. G. to utter cries. brullo. a borDu. kommata. tience. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. Closely connected is OE. to parch. komottaa. barmr. briller. the heat of animals. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. brim. brama. kimmaltaa. sprainged. breziller. to shake. . broil . striped or streaked. ardere desiderio. Fl. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. small gravel. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. It. and 1. Thus Lat. border. It. border. 1 1 64. brim Magy. fimbria) . or violent action. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. rut. brdnnsten. a border. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. The meaning of the Fr. to shine. a streak. post. furious. brame. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. to fret . der. A . ous. bramer. bramire. to creak. E. the sow is brimming. Dief.D. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. coloured in stripes. voux. to wish or covet. an apron. lap of a garment . to creak. fringe (Lat. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. glisten. to glitter distance . s. Lith. whence bilbil-goda (literally. shine. Rugere. beam. spraing. chime). Streaked. earnestly . to . leonum). Prov. griller). rugire (cervorum. greedily to covet Cot.' Elyot in Way. crackle. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. — . lip of a vessel. brant. 1. s. (poet. ON. Said of swine when in heat. 154. to crackle.— Brinded. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke.

. to break. Alfr. chest. Bret. brijn (Kil. as.procio. brickie. bringe traced through the brano. birse. brittle. to spur. brust. a spit. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. a bit . Prov. broche. brusk. brote. — . a brooch. britar. expression. shoot. metaphorically. Brisk. saulmeure. to stick. Antiq. the brisket or . britchet. brytan. bryde. a slip or sprig of an herb . Gl. i. Formerly written brotil. ON. brimme. trembling. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. It. p. thick — A elastic hair. to bud. eager. birs. to goad. to break. Bristle. humorous. a peg sbrocco. a cold and windy mist or frost. a button broche. Brine. Hal. the surf. to spit. a bud. breaking out into growth. to burn. is to erect the hair. brocco. . as unripe fruits. 'V^. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. rebursiis. Brooch. breidr. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. Then as the effect of shivering.' Nat. to set up one's birse. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. Palsgr. a skewer. — A . Russ. Ptg. Sc. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. In the N. aculeus. roar of the sea saltr. Boh. Berri. flames. as. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. Zeuss. to stitch. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. bresk. brin. brissle. spur. to scorch. Brittle. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. and. an awl. Liquamen vel garum. to break. brog. G. coli. Fr. Breeze been connected with the Sc. a rebours. to set it a going. brime. byrst. a shoot or sprig. brocher. prick with Sw. Sc. Gr. NE. form bris. brocciare. brandello. cK) the . man's throat. Bret. Mid. briocho. Fr.. Fr. emotions which produce it. Prov. breast. grim. bruched (Fr. craw of a bird. brezzare. brot.Lat. See Brand. brodden. to spur. Cot. broccata. It. Du. Lat. — — . briota. brddj Goth. bros. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. brioshko. bruckle. It. from brande. brich. Sp. and hence. setting the hair on end compare It. Du. Pectusculum. to thrust.g. to birstle. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. fantas'* tical. bruskett. Port. angry. brim. a fragment. to begin upon it. brimhliod. to broach a business. from AS. ruffling. bryne. brissko). the twigs of a besom. . brim. Brym. rebrousser. sprout. The Pl. Brisket. a stormy brimsea . as a noun. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. . See Spread. briser. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. setting the hair on end. crabbed. to turn up the point of anything. very salt brimi. rude. braidsj ON. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. are used in the sense of brittle. or — . of astonishment. smart taste. birsle. whence may be explained the Sc. to roar. to shiver for Sold or for fear. Fris. fragile. Brocade. Fr. borzen. brocco. quick.'— Vita'abbatum S. as. broca. sharp. fierce. spricka. bros. or the full • . brockle. birstle. and forms on. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. is called a birssy day. bristly . Abroacli. . borstel. Fr. brezza. Sw. bringue. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It.D. brcit. e. a deluge. to stab Gael. bricho (with the diminutives. Dan. Prov. apt to break. . a projecting tooth It. brittle. sprouts. hot-tempered. bringe. has under It. brusco. b. brindelles de balai. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). from break. a rod or twig. Swiss to stand out . brim (poet. Hence ribrezzare. brocchus.). a crum. a belly. a stitch brocher. like the Broad. Brickie. rash.). brisk in taste. breaking of the waves brim sior. Russ. Bohem. . broccare. briota. 222. to shoot. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. lively. a clasp. brisciare. flame. broca. Walach. ' . — in Due. a bud. harsh vin brusque. See To Brim. Fr. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. — bryme. suddenly angry. a morsel. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. It. Salte sand is called brimsand. broc. brocar. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. fiscbryne. brichet.rcendij'i. strong itself. to crack. the surf. /3pE^m. to broil. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. Da. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. sprocco. birssy. startling. and Sc. Commonly explained as from Fr. brusque. of E. a brad or tack. a morsel . sticking up . reburrus. borst. to put one in a rage . Compare also E. britar. sour. wine of a sharp. borzos (struppig). against the grain . ribrezzoso. stitch. bronchus. ' breast.

brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). fundamental origin. — Fl. onbryrdan. embroidery. blusters. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. So from Pol. brucilare. borprick. It. Compare also AS. the line of development has been something different. broice. silkes-borda. Florio. a freckle. speckled. brocart. with Sc. from the white. a To Broil. or snag.— B. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. point to an origin in Bret. Surrey in R. or glowing coals broged. confound. braird. a freckle. W. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. embroidering. Cot. grullo. tori shows that. badger . But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. to parch or broil. of pointing out their latent defects. to spur. to crackle as a shell in the fire. brod. border. forming to jumble. motes. broglio. brouFr. carbonado. To roast upon hot coals. Fr. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. parched. to burn. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. prod. ToBroider. brouda. Ihre has guU-bord. brindled. briefh. Gael. — Gower in It. Grisons brascla. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. It of br the Fr. brusler. broccuto. storms. brasbrasciuolare. — — . Sc. A badger. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. a point. or salted fish on coals. — brissle. frecSee Brawl. dar seems derived from borde. Cot. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. shuffle. thread. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . Sp. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. to embroider. scorch. a prick. B. spotted. bram. bramowanie. has grisser. trouble. Gael. . brusuole. age was termed a pricket. to embroider. broil. Ptg. to darn. broud. brodio. to crackle. brerd. noisy. Broker. ornamented with a raised pile. speckled. Sc. breard. knobby . a confused streaked face of the animal. Icnotty. to boss. and AS. v. hart of two years old. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. bordar. gold and silver. Fr. atoms . parti-coloured. kled breac. brychau. broc. brasiller. agree in being the extremity of a thing. broighlich. rustle. a badger. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. q. freckled. noise. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. hurly-burlies. Brocket. brizen. precisely analogous to the Sc. bustling. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. broc. or It. to stud broccoso. Bret. margin. Compare G.tumultuous. bmsciare. the shoot of corn. broukit. a border ornamented with gold. to crackle. sparks E. a b?-ustolare. a flake of snow sion. The ON. border ornamented with silk. Fr. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. broiled. an edge. brastlian. prasseln. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. bawling. houx. E. — The proper sense is that of Fr. to scorch. and bord or bred. a fallingThe sense has been out. 103 embroidered. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. birsle. brych.. parti-coloured. to broil. a peg. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. — . broil. a border. to burn. AS. spots. streaked. brocach. Hal. a mole. bordo. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. . here. whence broccare. Contracted from Fr. It. ciare. froco. A fried or boiled steaks). a flock or Gael. briz. frocadura. or roast on the braise. brasiller. initial . brucach. a brim. tumult broighleach. brasuole. to On the other hand the Sp. to crackle. to crackle. bj'oil. parch. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne.. piebald . a brecJi. b?-od. to instigate. to streaked or speckled in the face. creak. bruler. brustle. a brouhaha. rinj'. broccato was used to signify stuff . and w. sting. to prick. gresiller. stump. Thus brod. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. The Bret. Here to ornament with needle-work. tufted ornaments. trouble. R. to knots or loops. brasolare. brooked. brullare. broder. grislement. From direct imitation of Brock. Dan. brocco.sound. a quarrel. that these are themselves modifications of a common original.

brae. to pick. On • tliis principle the G. damaged. brydio. on. vile. Dan. fish-spawn broden. hot. Du. whnake. refuse. Fr. embers. This word shows the same relation to It. cracker. In those countries the term braker. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. See Wreak. dial. brands. to hatch G. bronze. ODu. an . brokers' goods. S. corrector. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. bridde. goods damaged by sea-water. tan. slaae vrag paa. . inspection. Bret.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. mud. to brew. See Brackish. Pro v. and fishes . For the same reason the Kiittner. Pl. buy and sell by commission. designation is indkler. Pl. with. to throw blame upon. cherish. want. a fault. glowing coals. to emit sparks.— — . analogous to Bohem. Alb. Pl. from break. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. brakyne. nounce unsound. — Fl. a cough Hal. Du. to be wanting. to hatch. faulty. Sp. mediationem quorundam J. sunburnt. Per manus et old worthless horse. raca. : ' . bring eggs and spawn into active life. a breach or flaw. rejected. to . the young of any animal . or brascla. the spawn of fishes. It may be compared with It. merchandises de rebut G. inspect. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. to sort goods . giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. brasa. tussis. abject. try out. brod. brid. bronce. sbrinzlar. to pro- to reject . any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. spittle .D. hot. Bronzare. brwd. lack. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. brass does to Sp. cast Lith. try . to reject. wraken. a chicken. refuse wares. Bronze. brack. .— Lib. in the sense of rejection. phlegm. The use sunburn. progeny of birds. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. — point out the faults. . brokas. to scorch. trumpery. brack-gut (Sanders). ordure. to be hot. abbronzanchiare. Fl. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. The Langued. bronze. filth. Prov. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. damaged. — a spark.D. keep warm. brot. Alb. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. to braze. find fault with. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. Kil. correctarius. to nourish. a brood . to sort brakovanie. Lat. screatio Junfus . brasa. et A. insects. to hatch.D. Brood. refuse brakovat. bric-a-brac. braken. Grisons brinzla. fault censure. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. to sparkle.— Breed. G. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. rejection Pol. warm. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. has exactly the force of G. matter of blame weak place. pan metal. to — garble. raquer. It. hraki. To blame mens ware. criticise (makeln). bronzo. in which sense the OHG. vrage. Tooke's Catherine. brod. vile. brumo. . sort. whence the modern courtier. make out. to copper. find fault with. brokoti. brut. bredan. from makel. brack-gut. brunds. refuse goods. Jam. Adelung. as. to garble. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. To correct an exercise is to Lib. embers to brund. to pick and choose. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. selection. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. broiid.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. find fault — — — fuse matter. stain. refuse. brak. to criticise. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. a makeln. If to vomit . refuse brakowad. bracker. bronze. and to reject the damaged and unsound. couratier. G. wrack-good. an outcast or rejected sheep. brechen. broen. an operation performed over hot coals. but from the primary sense of the It. wreak. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. G. e. Teutonic class : Du. racaille. 38. 396. — . brackefi. ON. w. dirty. to spit . • . to roast on the embers. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. . . See Broth. reject. In the . OFr. brak. term was correcfo^ir. Sc. Abbronzare. burning. embers. wrak. and as an adj. hrak. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. i. Russ. brieden. briiten. a broker. racher. spittle. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack.D. to blame. refuse Fr. — broeden. to sit on eggs. blur. which E. fermenting. braeck goed.

boiled . a shore. bruscosd quam de arabili. braces. noise. brushbrothas) gives the OE. rerum decoctarum. bree. brwd. frater. useful G. plants composed of twigs. eye-brow. It is Brother. Du. chen. pfriemkraut. brad. Gr. a sprout. Sp. bruno. brosses. broca. Prov. juice of briars. laissent Domunculum. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. Bohem. . forms appear related to the Ir. brudi. The softening down of the consonant bud. brocco. brouser. bruach. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. Pol. brov. signifying twigs. sprocco. But the Walach. a sprig. braew. brlgh. brue .D. brusmalt. . of which the variety of forms. surface of Broth. broc. G. a bud brous-koad.brink. surDu. broth the ocean Sw. Commonly Teutonic. Celtic. a river. shrub with leafless pointed edging. . bordel. w. AS. bank. To digest. of plants broust. eye-brow. augen-braune. thairj w. broieii. may be connected with Russ. hut. hovel. Manx broie. a hill. broit. dialects is very different. sproc. as rhododendrons. mettle. perhaps burnt coloilr. . broi. bros. brouic. wood . presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . was originally used in the innocent sense of . bor. to browse. Ppim. brdtaj Gael. Russ. to burn. fur Broom. &c. borde. infusion. — ' . brouskaol. Due. hot. shoots. Lat. has briw. Prov. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. border. buds. waves. to boil.braubiti. breg. from ripa. — exiit et heath. Gris. . broth is sometimes used . who is steaming with sweat. grow into a bush. bruc. brass. G. See Bramble. and It. brstiti. brauwe. sprout. brozia. to boil. brotar. sap. briar. brpuster. seethe. BROOK brook w. enjoy Goth. on. sense the Sc. eat. brewis. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. frui. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. 'Lzt. bruth. to murmur. OHG. brouet. and Slavonic families. braussa. bhratrj Zend. Brothel. meal. bordeau. brun. house of ill fame. Browse. bruithim. verge. strength. brodem. on. — . to roar. broeye. warmth ch'an. . It. edge. heath. Gael. a shrub broust." Serv. Tam de terrS. &c. bruceti. a little . shrubs.— Overyssel Almanack. protecting the eye. to bubble up with noise. to browse.D. or bushes and scrubby growths. ale . browys. bruich. break out brewet. a spring. . brodo. branches. Serv. brosses. brow of a hill. to Pl. broo. Pl. edge. — . Fr. shoot. a . circuindedit cum familia. a derived from the boards. . Gael. grow brossa. a confused noise of winds. Roquef. OFr.spross. vigour. Brow. breg. bryii. and Sc. spuma. juice of meat. a bruth. brawdj Slavon. shore . A — . Russ. Bohem. OHG. cabbage water. brus. eye-brow. the bubbling or springing up of water. bruddeln. pith. AS. infusion the barley bree. Fr. to spring . the colour of things burnt. bryn. Cot. bratrj Lat. to use. brmi. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. Bret. steam from heated bodies. G. brotar. eye-lash . heath. brous. to border. fabric consists. heat. broden. brink. . bushes. brukjan. bros. broud. bryn. . broccola. face. Sanscr. spirit. a bud. eye-brow. as Fr. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. brothas. broza. brabruach. broth. brew . to scald. Sp. . .. breh. to bear patiently. bank. sodden. w. sprot. briihe. briu. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. 105 Brook. Fr. margin. Here we find throughout the Romance. bruitheati. brst. or shoot. rage. strength Ir. Bohem. brd. Sc. bregh. . cia. Catalan brossa. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. eye-lid. riviera. brouches. low The AS. It. breg. braun. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. brio. Dan. eminence . Mid. to use. Gael. broth Brown. eye-lid. . bruith. and also border. brost. ceales briw. brow. t— Cot. simmer from the murmuring AS. broem bark. Du. pour boiling water over. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. The AS. dumetum.) . bntdien. or broken up . thick bush brousta. signifying low wet land (Brem. cabbage soup . brouter. sprouts . Kil. . bud. broth brothaire. to shoot. sprout. awl-plant. vigour. &c. frucius. kail brose. brennen. Bret.brons. a caldron. sordes seu strigmata young branch. &c. to boil bruithe. Ger. brushbroccoli. bank. brogues. in which brinnan. Wtb. borda. bank. a hill. broth. to boil. shore. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. juniper. It. Bav. G. a little house or cottage of timber. Fr. Fr. (for brodem). Gael. b7-un. as small-pox. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. . brost. riviere. The origin is a re. bruich. to sprout. from Goth. G. Limousin broudi. brau.' Due. brucan. to use bruks. thicket. heat explaining the Prov. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. a source Gael. a hut or cottage It. pottage. properly boiling water briihen. brosst. iVlanx broogh.

a mote. . a brush . 174. p. borst. Brunt. a — — (Agea) said. brist j Port. effort. brunt. Cot. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. broustia. bruskr. crum bit . to break. broken. Port. Fr. brysan. brista) or breaking out . Pr.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. an enmy. as It. It. Broach.— Palsgr. That in all haste he wouli. a brush Swiss bruske. brik. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. — those signifying a sprig. Prov. a bristle. OFr. dust. dust. blow burcar. orts. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. insultus. biirste. into a multitude of points. escousse. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . Wicliff. brizeto. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. britar. Cot. — Fr. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. flax-comb brossettes. Fr. britar. bush. to crush. It. bris. a briser. to stumble.). or sodenly comyn' dust. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. a bud. borste. bris. briser. fescue . —Fabyan. Diez. brusco. bris. also a head-brush. brosst. to break or burst. brosse. and also Brush. 201. wood composed OE. or shoot. See next article. rubbish. detergere . seems named from burst(on. splinters. and Piedm. fragments. brossar. a brush . remnants of hay or fodder. sordes. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. . E. to make brusshes on. Gael. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. wool-card. The Lat. . a rumbling. and actually come in collision. bud. briketo. . Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. G. brico or brizo. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. a shrub composed of small twigs . Hall in R. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. to brush. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. rubbish. brottcher. Lang. brusca. bruc. dust. borste. Gael. brise. It. Piedm. Prov. wool-card. and . coal See Breeze. broza. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. shoot brouskoad. a bush of hair. Bret. brustid. brus. B?-usske. a little brizal. abroncar. it schall be al Sw. to break. a brush . brosst. Pr. Gael. — a bush. appearin Goth. Sp. bross. briiis (in the pi. bruscolo. brit. break. bruire. —Chaucer. a bristle. tremely. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. twig. ca7-bo>i. Brush. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. Bruise. bruit. twig. Pm. shock. A. bris.— — i. rods. rubbish. bruise exOFr. shivers. Pr. irruo. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. but on whom it schall to brisen him. a brush . brous. . Pm. K. brist. field. crush. Fr. dust. Prov. bruscia. Prov. borste. bricalio. brusco. bross. In E. . quisquilise. quasi twigs. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. OE. 134.). On the other hand. a brush. Castr. a noise. bruscolo. a bud or sprout Bret. E. brousso. brous. desbrisar. mg Cat. G. Piedm. Pr. brusc (Diet. modification of the same root which gives the E. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. ling or heath for brushes. wool-card. burs. bruis (sing. brustia. insilio. Brunt of a daunger. Lang. And that best is. bushy ground. brisar. Text Soc. brist. — OE. borste. and sighid therewithal. a tuft of heath . NE. and It. Gael. bruito. a crum. Alexander. bruiser. Fr. to make a rumbling. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. brusca. a flax comb. brustia. to cleanse. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. brikan. heath. brossa. brMt. Sw. burt. a brush. of twigs. a blow. ON. . brust. Poems. brosse. to strike the foot against an obstacle. broust. Bav.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. bruzir. Fr. and in the second place a besoiB. broza. Bruit. AS. brossa. To brush then would be to dust. brugir. Beryn. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. to break to bits . E. The Bav. chips. Fl.). fasx . Sw. Palsgr. * Brunt. borste. brusg. to butt. brist. a horse-brush. biirste. The same relation holds good between G. brisd. brushwood. tuft of grass or hay. bruyere. Allit. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. a brush.

From an imita. soft. different form. boc. mieknad. not so plentiful a commodity. bugd. Formerly. The term bocan is still ap. Pol. the first wheal. to which in their language they call bou. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. bubbola. But see Bristle. is 1. Diet. bubBuck. pukkata. 1586. — — ' A : ' ' . open lath-work. It. bouc. designation of a knob. Bohem. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. buerj It. or projecTo Buck.wet Lat. This bubette. also applied Una. a. very generally designated by the same puk. colada. Etym.derivation has been much discussed. Magy. to buck. from colar. soft . bucata. The name.boukaat. Bohem. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. a hole. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. soft. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. . it is beuchen. erweichen. drying of produce. 17th century. bubseti. Pol. maban and baban. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. bublati. a push. In G. faire la lessive. bub.lessiver. to bubble. a ashes. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. tuft. to butt. w. It. 1857. at a door. caned' Hence those who established them. Sc. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. bucaIndies. . from weich. Pref A. boucaner. rap.-wtt miekki. bwch. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. boc. The word was very generally Buccanier. a fescue.D. does not hold. tap . and exercised their cruelties prin. soft It. the lower soak in lye. a knock word. buchen. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. bub. and as a verb. — . mokry. buborek. lye. The cipally on the Spaniards. wood. knock. a steep for flax. . of wind. boh. moczyd. set of pirates in the spread. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . The male goat. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. to murmur. Fr. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. soft. . bucquer. BUBBLE bruschetta. Gael. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. buquer. to butt. says Laudon. a bubble. Fr. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. bokni. watery bud. thunder gently . pup. Bret. — . smokipg meat were called buccaniers. and Fr. the upper for coifee. bube. w. buck-ashes.tare. bugada. to a place used for the mouillir. Sp. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. bog-aske. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. to filter. boil animals. . to soften. a to the male deer. Fr. moist.to allow a free current of air. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. The place of such a 2. Bubble. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. and then to other wild tumour Lith. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. to soak. .' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael.byka. bukke. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). It. a. to wet Pol. Esthon. to soften . to butt or jurr Dan. de la Floride. See Dupe.steep or soak. lye. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. a bubble. tender. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. Magy. bucking. to soften. was called bucking the linen. March 28. pokka7na. Sp. as G. mollire. Fin. bouk. was called in Fr. who resorted to the islands beichen. tender. as a buck rabbit. bubiti. bduclien. Dan. Bret. bubauti. buck-ashes. hump. News. buquer. I. byge. mote. hump. Cot. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. to soak foul linen before washing.buchen.' Palsgr. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. blast or strike with the forehead. a bubble .— . to bump as a bittern. to strain. Illust. because bucare does not in Marsh). and uninhabited places in the West Dan. hog dressed whole). molle. to Gael. to stick. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. blister. top. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. bifbel. to soak. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. the linen at buck. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. and the bunch. or mok. . in which the flesh dish. . plied in the W. when soap was tion is commonly taken. The natives of Florida. ac.biiken j Svi. A .

* Bucket. Fr./a. The knob or projection formN. a curl. whom it is still much in use. Prov. wallet. rump of fowls . like a bean. Bret.) as to soak. A buckle or fastening for botch. protuberance. and the reference to It. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. Pol. bouton. boulj. to poke. K. bulka. become bochen.t-le!L{ * Bud. bouljein. to un bout d'homme. convexity. gjeit-klauv. buachazlle.r//'. II I'a feru desor I'escu. a boss. fur. w. bloca. bul. a cowherd. butt . bolgetta. NE. stir. . boucle. lump. OHG. boccula. Bus. boss of a shield. Fr. bulla. bucket Fl. a boy. Fr. bucherare. bouter. soft. from bugr. bode. ble. bo. a little coffer or turgidus. Swab. butzen. pote. bulga. need. Dan. where the G. from bo. were To Budge. It. no business to do that. ein. a boss. bouger. This expression boglire. don't a baby). butzen (Du. bouprobably identical with inok. knob dwfr yn boglynu.' Schm. goat's hoof. knob .— . It. . Budget. Russ. butzen K. a buckle or protuberance. Port. a budget. See Bulk. to stir. . Buck-bean. G. pulga. with which it was ornamented. . Bucolic. botzen. To thrusting part of a long body. Prov. bulais daqui. — — . a buclder or shield budge. also a leather tuft . Buckler.. don't stir from hence. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. bougette. Du. great pouch. dinted. — . prick in a target. to thrust. the radical image seems to be a set plants. Mid. call.anything short of its kind. weichen. . — — . a stump buckle up. with a central boss. to boss or swell out G. macero. Lat. to 'soak.). having a boss. Fr. weich. bloca. bucolicus. a tuft. bunch. A water-plant with leaves and gille. a servant. bouk is a pail and with the dim. boaLat. Wtb. Fr. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. probably from the notion of bubbling. a shoot. clasp of a book. to budge. to graft or bud trees. botzen. to pen cattle.Lat. call. boss. a trough). to word.n. and weichen. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. ' . * Bud.) . bukke-blad. butzen. bod. a short thick man. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. mani. bub. pwtio. Bav. no wheel bogeilio.' Boccaccio. W. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. bod. w. The entire train of thought is bucket. The word is a ddyn. budge.stuff. bollire. Sw. potz.goa. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. a small shallow and open tub. . bog and G. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. imbuere. with let. of bac. call bo. bug. bouge.. bloquier. thrust. It. stroke. boucle. . boucaran. clump. The Fr. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. a bubble three thyngis. to boil. the word w ' — . swelling. Bret. to line with fur.' Hal. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. a pail or flowers. bullion. bougette. It. words is converted into b. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. jSouKoXiKog. noise . dim. sboge. Cot. above mentioned. of a surface. Bav. Prov. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. . buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. butz. trunk of wood covered with leather. So on. case of leather . put. ON. is to shrivel up.. is doubtless fallacious.' And this sacrament bus have dial. water message. Fr. It termination is lost. a shield. . ' . skins pushit'. motus creber. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. Hence quel. or male of to boil .chissima. stud. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. to butt. OFr. Mid. a wallet. — . pulga. a bud. bulb. set of a plant in bulk. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. buckel.poot. ' . bedde. blow. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. from Gr. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. explaining Fr. loud Cot. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. rabodS. a dumpy gin. Pied. boach. push forwards. a fold ceilio. scion. bouclier. inboachen. a leathern sack. boglyn. * Buckle.may probably be explained by N. Dan. brobrocchiere. built. and of the Lat. bocla. in the beginning of to pierce holes. Fr. butze. bogla.stumpy man. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. child. agreeing with Gael. crack. bolgia. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. ornamental stud. hump. bdden. a . to bud or bocla. Gael. bump. a ring. bugnir. boiling. The dressed fur of lambs. . a leather strap probably takes its name clump. to swell. belonging to the calling of the chen. the root of the Slavonic words gran. weich. boqueranmis. bucherame. Budge. a navel. Du. Behoves. boucle. swelling. a bump. a pustule bout.pode.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. to move. cattle. a budget. of bouge. turgere buczendig. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. pwt o Fr. seen in Hesse botz. Hardly identical with Fr. In Lat. excrescence. Sp. bud butzen. dint . bunch . male or botzen. boucler. knock. as in Fr.

or wild ox. a block-headed noddy. Fr. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. a bugbear. air. popo. bolgia. bukow Ikow.D. to puff. cuff . bwg. bufHe.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. bugle. Buffalo. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. bubiti. le reste emplissant d'eau. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. a hollow sound. while in Sp. Buffoon. btifetarius. Mid. leathern bucket. as emblematically making light of an object. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. w. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. — La Crusca. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. a skin. bufogni.' perfield. stupid. senses. A blow. bouffer. tastes. buffet. bubach. God's boast seemed feare children. of colours. Limousin bobal. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. thus be translated to tap. — Z. buffle-headed. a buffle or a bugle. Sc. a dull BUG From 109 — A . and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. buffalo. for this purpose is very widely spread. also the skin or heck of a buffe. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. sounds. bau ! children. boman. Thus buffet would a tapster. bauwi. ' They rether puffed at him. — — — Buffet. deadened. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir.D. buffeteur. Fr. to give benti. Cot. boo. to beat. Buff. Gael. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. From bulga. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. baubau. colour. tabernarius. From buff! of terror. site The two — — iii. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. to puff. Fl. dial. mingled with water. wauwau. Romola. bubaRuss. the place whence the wine was drawn. buff leather. Bufetarium. Lat. Magy. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . soufflet. word other cases. to blow. Buff. a In . to rePl. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . bobaow. to frighten . wine may The verb in taverns. —Boggart. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . Esthon. bugs. Sc. dausinti. It. buffle. buffet. the buffe. or hath been Cot. — thence it has been transferred in E.— Buflae. and in Fr. yar^aa. often blown upon. It. buffer. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. a jester. bw! It. a clap. &c. to blow . things in Jam. to strike face to represent the unknown. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. from souffler. W. often covering his E. It. scarecrow . to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. to blow souffleU. also a G. as Diez remarks. bw. caupo.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. Swiss baui. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. buffen. een duffen toon. 265. buffet. A puff with — Fl. duff^ dull. to a representation of his voice. . It. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. Lat. E. Pl. as from Lith. Pl. as wine that hath taken wind. Fr. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft.' La Crusca. a side-board. dausa. Lith. Cot. Buffeter. buffare. a hobgoblin. made to —Bugbear. made by a person. The cry made to excite terror is then used. botffon. bugbear. human. mumming. Hence the E. breath. confused. a goblin). buivol. Fr. bolgetta. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. buffare. pulse . bufogni.—Buffet. a puff. to bellow . The use of the exclamation children. a budget. buffets. buffa. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. blurt or puff with one's mouth. A — Bug. bo ! an interj. to marre often tasting it . to jest or sport. to signify an indefinite object of terror. to excite terror in Macleod. a cuff or buffet. from It. rebuff. puff. by metaphor. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. bouffer. to give a as of a blow. Teet-bo. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. Lith. bumann. buMagy. him but Boyd iugges. either alone or with various terminations. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. G. — Bogle. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. smells . ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. — retailing buffeter buffetier. The children were playing in an oppocomer. dull sound. Fr. bubus. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. buffetto.D. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy.

coco. bwg and E. Lith. high. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. threatening. tion of the beetle tribe. the buggaboo w. and bugle.. xiv. poggl. buculus. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. of bugabo was given. also a bug-bear. an insect. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. to roar Aasen. It.loud noise. threatening. a beetle. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. 3. forSc. bugbear. Grisons bau. Bogge.Lat. used in the same sense. Sp. to bellow. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. pugalo. as an object of dread. The name of bug is — . Bug. swollen. any disgusting animal. — — ' . E. Manx boa. 1551. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. bugler. Sw. bogle. Hence bugle-horn. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. bau (Pureiglia. Swelling. — — . bbgni. a bug-bear. protuberant. the word is lin) bbgge. An ornament of female dress condread. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. to take fright. a boogg. earwig bau da grascha. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. bogk. quos what produces dread or disgust. biignt. Swiss booggen. is the dim. saucy. fierce. Fl. booggen. to bellow. Stalder bog. gad. also a baco-baco. is very common. Bible. Bdronie. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. bukati. proud. boo. BUGLE Tentennino. mask ' . bug-bear. worm. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. bug-bear. bobal. buba. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. bug-bear. Lap. blustering. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. a bug-bear. fear. well as the terrific object. given in Chaucer. bugar. disgust. 493. monster. Grose. scarecrow . a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. 2. bugle. oxen. banian boube. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. the Devil. to frighten scarecrow. affright. high-sounding words. bug. Big. bucula. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. Lesachthal. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. larva (a bug-bear. shepe and gootes. beugler. a bugbear for children. a proud overbearing man pujat'. Cheval de trombugti. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. Magy. . — . of pipes sewn on. (Spurrell). pugaf. pujalo. dial. bwgar. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. and in Lat. a silk-worm. troll. paws the ground . to take fright. vermin. Magy. Chaucer. roarHal. bogk. a. bwgwl. to creeping things. Fl. to take bug. : no BUG . b'dgni. bauginti. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. Bug as a lord. The w. and a boggarty ing.— .3uhtii&:. roo. tumble-bug. with more or less modification represents bau. bok. Hal. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . a goblin. il brutto Demonio. Illyr. baco. a misshapen person. provincially an insect. A similar applica. Deut. w. especially to beetles or winged insects. rose-bug. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. superbire. iv. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. terrifying ward. W. — boogg. bold. a rabme. See The name terror). a buffalo. thus connected with bug. bogil bo (e. boeuf sauvage. * 2. . then a horn for drinking. I. ghost. buffle. also a bug-bear. i. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. Swiss ing. bug dung-beetle. insect. Serv. Parolone. . Mundart. . to origin in the expression bugs words. Mid. language any kind of insect. The final guttural of W. Schmidt. boa-peep. bogil.. great or bug words. according to Coles. — — terror. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. an object of terror. bukashka. Bugle.' In my time at horse is one apt to start.Fr. Lett. the black a maggot. Same as buffle. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. insect. fette. and in child's Magy. hert. buggabod). Russ. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. long. as Buffalo. It. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. and is Deutsch. big. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce.

habitaculum. bulk is a partition of boards. blister. bubble. Sp. bulcke. in bulk. the head of an onion. belly. knobby. Lith. swollen OE. bulle. Pm. cumulus. ' . the carcase. trunk. bellows builgean. turgeo bolnyd. skin of an animal. knob. bolgia. It. hollow. a round bulky body bwlgan. boss of shield. domicilium. projection. The addition of a dim. bulbe. bug. Jno. belly. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. Gr. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. sedes. Pm. anything prominent. puff. a protuberance. bulked or bumped out. pulkas. bed of a river. the potato G. w. formed a farm. a tuberous or bulbous root . of E. unevenness Sw. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. bulne. ON. bauch. and put it home. ' . PoXj3a. Ptg. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. . Lith. .'— Cot. bulbe. swell. — . womb. a bulb Du. Lett. . jnake bulch. Dan. crowd. inhabit. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). He found a country fellow dead drunk. hold or bilge of a ship. bua. swell. bubble. ball. bulwis. — Bulb. mass. bol. hull of a ship. to throw out a convexity. bulgen. as it was merly written in English to bylle.pulks. See Bulk. OSw. globule bolg-lhuingey.' Festus. Bulk. buk. The radical sense is shown in Russ. Melancholy. bo. bladder. body of an animal. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. and bulbukd. bilge. body of a ship . The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. or cargo of a ship. a prominence. to gather. bale. pouch builgeadh. the capacity or burden of a ship. bolg. . bulge or convex part of a cask. or bear out as a full purse. ^ — . . belly. it again. bwlg. or of what is shaped like a bubble. on.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. or. Lat. Mandeville. . I. husk. knot in thread. the contents of the hold. mass. ne. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. MHG. bulgen. head . G. knob. Here stand behind this bulk. Gr. acervus. balgs. bouk. as water beginning to boil bolg. . Bulge.' Anat. swollen. gebolgen. In the representation of natural sounds. Bourser. bubble {palgan tiisge. bubble. — — . . . tumidus. OSw. herd^ swarm pulkd. — . G. at riufa bulkann. byli. bulki. . of an inflated skin. . For the latter sense ' — My . bag. Pr. a lump or mass. balco. bulka. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. bolgna. a straw corn-vessel. blow. buc. balg. bullka. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. bubbling up. nave or body of the church van 't schip. a globe. Dan.' Cot. See how this tode bolneth. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. a bunch. to spring. . principal portion. belgr. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. bolnyn. stuffed bag. Bav. in vessel. to bubble up Pol. bunch or projection. bol. lump. bulbus. boss. a. to swell. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. G. a stage or scaffold. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. . belly van de kerche. The Walach. bole. Hal. balcone. a bubble Gael. to puff up bolginn. pod ON. trunk. and N. boulge. to build. in Sc.d. boa. Othello. Pr. pimple. a dint in a metal . bolle. cultivate. the belly. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. belgja. body. a bubble. bulkaf. To Build. Hence e. the position of liquids in the word In English. straight will he 2. ON. to bol. Kil. bolgetta. pocket. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. dial. . belly. bulge or bilge. . thorax buick. to bubble up. has bulbuk. (3oX|8oc. a. a leather sack or budget Fr. Lat. swell. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. .' Palsgr. wallet. be protuberant. vulva. belly. compare Da. chest. bol. leather sack. blister. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. blister Manx bolg. balg.' Fl. bolso. bolgan. See bollekeii next article. biilken. to undo the cargo. trunk of the body. bulk or capacity of anything. the womb.— . From till. 1388. a leathern sack or portmanteau. lump. tumeo. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. bugue. bukr. bulk. Mister. skin bag. a heap. buhe. boss. Boss^. bulg. ' . belly Sw. the body Du. A — ' — Bulk. whence bylja. to blow. — — . to break bulk. Bolke or hepe. were a habitation. belly Cat. Muratori. villa. to swell. snorting on a bulk. as well as is very variable. Bulch. . — — . Palco. bolle. a water-bubble). bouge.). van loock. beuck. With these must probably be classed ON. m um Placentiae. to raise a habitation. or feminine termination gives Bav. skin flayed whole. boss of a buckler. bauen. to belly out.

balgeting. bolos Fr. a beam or rafter. Dan. a hornet. stupid . a bowl. from the Lat. which may probably be the origin of the name. ba. W. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. baula. the matrix or die . Pm. Du. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. round glass phial. bellocier.. it may be observed that a bullet in E. bellow. a bull Swiss bullen. Terriculamentum. bulke. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. boulct. to tical with Sw. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. to boil. from Lat. sloes.. a bulox polos.. BuUiou. bulloi. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. to emboss . of the ox kind. I. a wasp. bollon. Scot's Deso. beams or boards. See Bowl.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. boss. boillon. a little fish nearly all head. G. A papal rescript. polten. tition of deals instead of a wall. from baula. a scare-bug. large. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. bullos. stamped money. w. . from Fr. stud.' do not go by the dangerous water. from the use of the equivalent terms. also of the tadpole or young frog. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. brass-headed nail . boss or stud. spirits. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . blunt. dim. poll-cheannach. a stud. Du. eth and frighteth. w. but is more probably iden- palchetto. Bullbeggar. It. 2. a hobgoblin. a tadpole. bwlas. — — Bull. is called a ball. a blockhead. dial.. of boule. any great-headed or studded nail. The male W. bauli. bietebau. witches. and thence terror. pwl. to bellow. bollar. — Fl. pimple. Bully. also a parFl. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. poltern. thick. bwla. bolli. Cot. Bullfrog. lumpish. Fr. Sp. Bullet. on the contrary. See Billet. signifying roaring. however. as the ornanails. Gold or silver uncoined. Du. 2. G.' Baret's Alveary in Hal.'— ' Palsgr. a tadpole . bollos de relieve. Gael. bullebak. bulderen. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. a seal. The bullfrog. Fr. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. Bret. Pl. Du. urchens. Eullrusli. ON. the seal affixed to the document. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. bulle. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. bubble. a bull. stud. — A tition in a ship. b2iggaboo. bullern. G. as in E.D. bulk. it is boulet de canon. lumpheaded . This word is used in several senses. as a mill-dam or the like. G. to bubble. is of a class with Pl. bole or trunk of a tree. whence Mod. a cow. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven.D. bal. any embossed work. stamp. bulk of a thing. The final element tergeist. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. in N. assito. It. from the noise. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. leraures nocturni nigri. large of its kind. embossed work. billoti in Fr. bulla. bwbach. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. biitzibau. bullocks. 3. bolla. bugbear. BulUiead. bullus. A lace tree. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion.D. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. i. many to protuberant objects. of Witchcr. billon. poli-cheannan. whence bullire. bulla. Lith. hhint. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. a framework of balks. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. a hobgoblin. And The word bullerbak. and vellon in Sp. &c.Gr. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. bolli. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. bouillon. child by the represents the hobgoblin. /SouWivu. to seal. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna.Fris.lle de fusil. scarecrow. as It. a bul-begger. penbwl. coarse. blister. The wild plum. a noisy violent fellow. in the sense of base metal. a seal. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. bouillon. elves. as geting. Bullace. pollach. N.

or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. To bum. is called bumping or bells. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. ierd-beame. bol-werck.D. IIL st. biihne. to terrify by noise and clamour. Fris. Bum-bailiff. John). then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . ^i^/«. St. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. a stage. or work of defence. bomtnen. Philip le Bel in Due. blaterare.d. Hence — . Kiittner. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. Fris. To bully is to bluster. poltem. To Bum. beat a — Hal. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. — Bump. 1687). violent. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. vallum. a bumble-. buller-jaan (bully. Bully. intonare. Miege in Hal.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. 4 Hen. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. From the notion of a humming. clamour. 2.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking.' agger. IV. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. c. noise. provides.D. by corruption boulevart. Hence bom and ban. to . hum. ^Bully-rook. ON. Bum. honunele. agrees with e. bolderen. sound. to make a droning Du. The Sw. In England the fortunes of the word have been different.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. G. ierd-boeyme.the ramparts. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. violent overbearing person. 10. The 27 Ed. Bailey. a. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a.' Stat. on the other hand. polterer. Du. Etym. to drum Lat. G. provides. and porter au billon.. boene. ground. 1305. AS. bottn. bustle. buene. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. Du. bulderen. furious man. a blunderhead. It. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. a hectoring. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. boulevard.' reals of standard currency. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. — Boom. then in general a rampart. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. baluarte. D. bastion. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. A. debacchari. to dun. the soil.' ' mettre au billon. droning. bodem. Kil. botm. G. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. 'lega. The decried coin. but now is the central part of the town. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. perturbare saevis dictis. a noisy blustering fellow. legaggio di metallo. 2. propugnaculum. primarily the ramparts of a town. III. &c. buller-brook. minari verbulderen. 2. Sw. blunder-buss. — Bumto . In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. 9 E. The cry of the bittern. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. Bully-rock. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. boisterous fellow. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . a floor. — bombam?nen. buller-bas. For bottom. or a humblebee. Thus ' ble.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. bottom.. a boisterous. block-werck. to make a noise . un faux brave. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. up was termed monnaie de billon. argentum and silver. BULLY with which coins were stamped. bombilare. is bullion — A — buller. To bum. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. c.' Again. The Stat. buller-bas. bommele. scaffold. resonare. from boden. buller-bak. — — plate d'argent. Fr. blunder-buss. Kil. Hal.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. Du. 14. c.' for the purpose of exchange.

a large . . bonuach. a heap or cluster. OSw. bugnone. bannock.D. any round knob or bunch. knob or heap. bmike. bum-boot. root. bunga. See Bounce. Sc. A Du. a heap Wall. . one ever saw the word in that shape. Bun. bunsen. awkward. . poumpido. Li cake. Bums it's hit. pwmp. a. Fr. bignet. — round fruit. to swell out E. knuckles. an old stump of a horse. a lump on the foot bunny. bung. Bumpkin. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. a knob. a bunch Magy. bonnock. a rabbit. Again. bunken. mto Sp. knochen. signifying one who does things in a thumping. Bang sen. He fult dat et bunsede. a knotty stick) Sw. a pocket Sw. — — — — ' — knock. bulse. a Sp. bugnet. bmidt. bu<rnone.S. protuberance. . S. Hal. dial. to . a bud. bon. bunga.. bull. a wallet.). bonge. bune or boon. a bunch. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). a boss Lith. tundo. binge. forms.— Bunnion. are dim. Dunchyn or bunchyn. BUNCH bum-bailiff. bunt. pumpurras. to strike so as to give a dull sound. to bang down. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. — Marine Diet. a bowl P1. Bunch. Bunch. stalk. gibbus..' Palsgr. . To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. Holland and Flanders. E. so the form btmk. stubble Manx bun. bunny. Pm. strapping. bunka. a swelling from a blow. a knob. bugno. explaining E. throw down with a bang. stump.P. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. Suffolk bonnka. Fl. and signifies consequently a mass.D. to beat. abrupt manbuns-wise. bans. a knob . strike E. . the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. 1. Hence E. Pl. &c. bumtel. bunan. as in other cases. — — Bun. to thump. Bumboat. butt end.! . a heap. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. E. bungersome. hdk passing and E. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. Gael. clown. bottom. banga. a person employed to dun one for a debt. Pm. stump. . or grete knobbe. Bung^. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. seems to unite Gael. awkward clown. Moor. bolsa. Roding. a rabbit. large. lump. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. E. See Boss. a boil or blain. a heap. pumpa. . But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. Forby. il me pousse. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. pompette. bunkc. Gael. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. Du. lenten loaves. cluster. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. a tail (Macleod). a pumpion or gourd. . while bulch was traced through Gris. also for taking a pilot to a ship. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. a hump. Sc. nor would it concern the public if he did. a boil (punkos bot. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. bun with ON. . foundation w. or to the mass by which it is given. pompon. dial. applied to young persons. Pm. bunch— Hal. ! — knocking. bottom bun feoir. pwmpl. Pr. Thus e. hay stubble . a very wide boat used by fishers in S. Dan. Bunewand. any round knob or bunch. and related with ON. Hal. a purse . buns.' Bun. bulscha. a swelling. .^Cot. bugno. bun eich. boi7ieog. — — de dor bunsen. a knock.D. clumsy. . bun. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . He buncheth me and beateth me. Ir.' he fell with a bang. bund. stem or base.-^Fl. a bag or sack. to knock . root. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. Probably for bun-boot. . a bump. noise. Manx bonkan.— Pr. stock. a hemp-stalk. calamus. Bump. Pl. lungeous. It. the Pr. ner. from knock) It. a dry No . Bumsen. to bang. gibber. bump. — stalk . stock. as we have seen E. a dried hemp-stalk. Bunk. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. H. Bony. bongie. Hal. Daal bu7iseti. To bam. callus. passes Sw. to bang ON. Probably from bump. blain. bottom. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. a round mass . See Bunch. trunk. a button. bunki. bunke. bumsen. Lang.pummel. bulto. Radically identical with Dan. bamgetroffen. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. to . —Bunny. should probably be a short tail. botn. truss E. Hal. banke. w. stubble of beans. a. pwmpio. round mass of anything. A clumsy. Related on the one side to Pl. . — — Bun. poumpi. Fr. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. inconsiderately. bunnion. w. Dan. Then. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. the tail of a hare. a heap OSw. to beat. to ' . especially girls.D. bundle. Kyx or bunne. Mrs Baker. a into Dan. from bunsen.

bourion. bangla. modem bummle. G. — — To Bungle. Cot. bolting-cloth. bommen. So Du. bummle. boil or bubble up. bounta. anchor or of a net boyar. bond. Sw. A load. whence bunting. to push ghebondte. to gingle. bourgeon. bury. The belly or hollow of a sail. bondel-loos. to work at carpentry bangan. a bunch Burbulas. Fr. bundt. ho-tapp. Cat. from beran. shove . borgonota. and Du. bang. shackles. colligatio. AS. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. — btiruii. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. to bungle. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. bondon. to bolt meal. especially in wood. bourguignote. Pl. 202. bunta. OFr. tinkle. a boye. to bear. the young cloth used for sifting flour. to float. Bung. See Borel. Palsgr. bongani. . boei. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. a drum . — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. Burden. Burganet. Muratori. byndel. punishments for prisoners. and van t' vat. driving in the bung. gyves. something bound together (Mrs Baker). an anchor buoy. to kick. borboUar. was formerly pronounced buro. bonde. Sp. Bundle. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. Fr. dark. sprig. So in Pol. and E. Burble. buie. generally known as the material of which bud. dicimus rufum. The stopper for the hole in a boia. — — . properly a Burgundian helmet. the middle part of it. stiimpeln. of a song. N. Sw. The Italian buio. rumble as the bowels. To Bunt.' Festus in Diez. To burgeon. bundle. are from bouscfie. bongun. See Bourdon. also a piinple in the face. to stop. a bungler. reddish brown. bangla. Prov. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. Compare G. . OG. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. .punt. to knock. Russ. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. Sp. The Magy. stilmpern. Prov. G. AS. to in to stop the hole. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. the stopper of a cask). Bunt. to work ineffectually. bouche. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. coassatio et Du. Bung of a tonne or Lith. ' — work . Bret. dark grey bura. Fr. bondelj bundell. to Somerset is to sift. bungande. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. Bunting. Fr. burboloti. Sp. to cobble. bag to catch the wind. bang. to pype. B. buret. Burly. — . . A bubble. clogs. boya. however. Bunny. to resound. with the head. See Bun. boucher. burion. a bunch. Biu'geon. tapp (whence tceppa. noise. is originally a wisp or bunch . to strum on an instrument. the float of an bundle. biirde. to gingle. Johansen. and the Sw. guggle as water. the noise of drums. bouchon. Rietz. bimge. buret. to stnmi on an instrument. knocking. a sort of helmet. loosed from bonds. halm-tapp. Du. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . racket . buove. bourjon. to botch. bindini. byrthen. banga. russet. transferred to the wooden log which bonir.— . klempern. to hum. and bomme. OFr. dial. dial. to push with the head del. fascis. E. to push. working in wood (especially with an axe). to hum. bunsen. The Fr. a water bubble made by rain. fetters. and now more Bailey. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. B. bote. Kil. It. bonde. Sp. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. or used as a receptacle for papers. unskilful working. To bunt. bove. the loose open grow big about or gross. a botch. tap. stocks or such OSw. to stop. the bung of a barrel Lim. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. la Borgonota. p. knocking. clumsy performance. or tuft. . a bung. boj. Sw. bondir. Burden. See Barbarous. racket. contignatio. would be the earliest float for an anchor. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. to shove. To do anything awk- wardly. banghagr. whence in bure. bundel. * Buoy. that the primitive meaning of shackle . brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. bon. bondeau. in is Fr. Fl. to bud forth. bou^e. The word is flags are made. Hal. knock. to knock. on. hence the name would seem to have been boundica.Fris. do a thing bunglingly. or putting forth of a vine. a cork. Banff. klimpem. ghebundte. a wisp of hay or straw. A Dan. to hum. Lat. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. tinker . — Bureau. on. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. bui.D.

singe or scorch with fire. a lie.). brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. swell up or strout out. a blaze. a fountain. brasa. Lang. like the wind in trees. sbornoi. the word seems Pm. Gael. G. schleiffen. brustolare. purling. Burlesque. . a wine skin. ^ttsa. the J in OFr. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. to bourda. E. . Probably a modifica. as the / in purl. it of the knots. ' rugiens. dial. Pren7ien. purrata. to swell oneself out as birds borras. Fl. laer.Ps. to Gael.' Cot. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. explaining Sp. bears. a bubble. surge or dashing of the sea . to puff. to roar. j. the flocks. a jest. In the same way ON. brusler being a faulty spelling. to polish. a jest. The Gael. sea. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. brook. Schm. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. warbling.. — — . ends of thread. Fl. Walach. to give an edge to. born. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. to set on fire. barrel. ON. protuberance. bunch.ireui£r:e. an edge. bourglairs. to have acquired the sense of polishing. water. with little iron nippers called burling irons. robber. tahkoa.. fires up. It. to ridicule. big. to rub. Pm. and the Burin. to bud . an &c. a spring a robber. de Vaud. A legal term from the Lat. Dief. It.' a jibe. grancelli. joking. Burgher.or bubbling up. burgi latro. See Burr. ii6 BURGESS Gael. Fr. burgen. brase. 56. From Fr.j'own. ^Notk. bremmen. burlare. to swell with pride. mockery. a bubble to spring as water. borr. a bud. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. to roar.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. brun.— Pr. burgensis. Fr. It is probable indeed that Fr. — . to hum. to puff up borr^ . which has given much trouble to etymologists. occupying much space. See under Bore. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. as of suggests. to roar 5. ends of thread. Bav. leo Fin. to roar (as lions. with Dan. OFr. OE. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. Cot. Burgh. is termed burling. bourou. boura. Bret. brinna. embraser. In the manu. &c. to effervesce. bruzir. bururus. Goth. burgeois. swelling borr-shuil.. explaining the E. So also Sw. Swiss Rom. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. fire. brunir. borrelen. borracka. ridicule. Prov. he rustle. sidiary element. borujon. brandung. Burn. from Lat. Antiq. The in. From the same root E. Limousin bourdo. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. from the roaring sound of flame. Burglar. to polish. tion of the root which gave the OE. to surge. brunnr. Burler. brausen. blow. Burly. angular . briis^. become big and proud. to sharpen on a whetstone. G. tumentum. Bav. Hence Bridel. . thence. Burryn. bud or sprout forth. to sharpen. taunt. Bestiary. A — — . a whetstone. to roar. See Berough. abourioner. is connected with brim. spring-water bumach. a knob. brinnen or Also ein roar. Sw. toast. boure. burle of cloth. and the Burnish. as in cousteau. a well. to bouronna. Castrais bourril. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. Nat.— .sharpen. to burgen or wax big. watery. roguing beggars. burren. borni. as Diefenbach bud. brinii. must be explained on the same principle from G. buirleadh. to murmur. has also borr. 122. condemnentur morti. bourd. crackle wood in burning Hal. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. and Dan. to polish helmets. to grind on a whetstone. to burn. tahko. to fiy. Fr.. in Schm. Pr. to make a So from Fin. pur (see Burgeon). strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. broil. boiirre. Supp. brima. Swiss Rom.). brunnen. N. A burl.bryna. bruse. lerre. — — . brustle. Probably. bouril. a margin. Lang. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. i5«r4 biiirte. to To Bum. knob. Burgess. is an Thus G. BURNISH i5«r/. like. burn. brimmen. flocks. de Vaud. language of folly or ridicule. repartee . a prominent eye borracka. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. brunna. to burn. It. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. pressa puret. jest of. a gurgling ^. OE. Sp. to swell. to roar. the er is a dresser of cloth. the roaring surge of the — — — . Bouffer. Todd. Sw. OFr. burly. See Burgeon. brynsten. from bryii. — . to tell lies. a bladder. sicut sound. compared with G. ample of polishing metal. bururus. like straw or small . Compare also Piedm. lorra. — — . purra. . — Han to bruser op. and OG.). The primary origin of the word. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp.. a purling hiwe brennen. brim or edge of anything. brAler. to ridicule.

Port. Burrow. a wallet or scrip. bristeach. To Burst. brown. Fr. whirr and burr. AS. Sexy. — Translated by Kemble. karborre. -burse. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . . shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. appears under the Lang. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. Brun on bane. root borr. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. birr. to bury .. from Fr. and. Dan. a morsel. some people in pronouncing the letter r. borra. also all such stuff as hay. See Burgeon. and spelling. force. Swiss burren. &c. brast. borsa. E. brist. In a met. Hence Fr. impetus. a port. any rapid whirling biarga. the officer who bears the purse. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. Burial. byrgan.' edge grew weak. Burser. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. a sepulchre. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. of England. Du. whence Kil. Sw. explained E. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. Burse. to save. g. leather. to mutter Sw. birigean. beorgan. bur. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. 225. as from Sp. ' ' — — burren. of a body hurled through the air. purr. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. brisdeach. britar. any kind of quilting or stuffing. Bursar. as it is still pronounced in N. OHG. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. Burse. save. bourse. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. byrstan. from whence we pass through Sp. brista. and met. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. preserve. Du. See Bulge. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. beurs. bristen. borsa. an exchange. a. as for the protection of a child's head. perruque. bolgia. a harness or collar maker) . Beowulf. bris. burra. a pad. Burr is related to buzz as protect. chips or anything else Fl. brittle. . a purse. Burr. Shelter. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. coo. talk fast and indistinctly. its own protection. a barn or cupboard. foretell great storms at 3. To Bury. Compare also OE. a purse. Jam. Cot. -Grisons bulscha. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. brest. Hal. ' BURR AS. preserve. casting bullets. dial. that birds make their nests with. birgan. hair. borre. byrgels. verbergen. bourre. burre. Sw. when they spring So in W. burgisli. Mid. signifying protrude. peluca to Fr. In OE. dial. to stuff.Lat. to burst. brico. stuffing. 2. Fr. and thence flocks 'of wool.' Harris in Todd. I. byrigels. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . — Clare. husks. brickie. pipaa. With a slightly different ghen. idiom if 4. G. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. briser. swell. tomb. keep.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. brjota. mentioned under Burgeon. byrgen. brokil and brotil. bris. OHG. straw. Gael. borre. to break. borra. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. cover. brist. caer is a — — — ' ' : . brizeto. prsnuti. a rabbit burrow. bourrelet. shales. shuffling.' The same word with burgh. shelter. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. Fr. . It. bur. to hide . whirr. a place of defence. bourse. borsia. an annular swelling. The root forms brik. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. to buzz. ber•whirr to whizz. to hide. burial place. A rabbit burmotion. from AS. 5150. ptcrren. AS. This word seems safety. byrsa. moss. i5(7&a. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. but it is more probably a development of It. to P'air. briso. brittle. Fris. cwning-gaer. berstan. ON. bersten. bourlet. as in Northumberland. borrow. ultimately resting on the Gael. barza. ON. bres- — tan. be more in accordance with AS. shearing of cloth. bolsa to It. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. break . the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. briketo. bourrer. brit. makes the disbursements of the college. G. iii.— . brisd. skin. buscha. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. the — — castle or fortress. also ' any such trash as chaff. It. S w. &c. fortify. bergen. blurra.

P. ' . buxta. a clot of phlegm sart. barst. bousIn the other copy ser. So from Fr. The word frequency with which to busk is used. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . tuft. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. busse. busk. bussel. brodiquin. -idis. beorgan.Lat. buxida. il fut couch6 l^jkema). to bend one's steps. bosc. Malberg. a box for measuring corn. bush. a wisp. to swell. to dress. ' . Thence byrigean. Harold G. They busked and malced them boun. Mid. . busken. bustula. Ptg. projection. It. bausen. ch). a bunch. a troop. for at buasc. and from the Fr. bousche. —Busk. Sw. buysschen. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. OFr. a box. To prepare. barsc in Heimskringla. whente beorg. a box. bo7ich (Fr. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. wisp. grapes. a bundle. Bouchet. the past participle of the same verb bua. Du. boisseau. bousse. gave Lat. The radical idea is seen in Goth. R. See Box. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. bua. Layamon. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. Brunne. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. bussellus. bossen. as synonymous with to inake one boun. bos. hunch Du. 'at bua sik. clusprobably Morocco leather. bundle * Buskin. signifying to entomb. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. BUSH hreaw. AS. ' .' The buskin is said Bret. . Bush. a corpse). is thus accounted for. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. boiste. fiast. to turn. borghen. in OE. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. apparently a secondary verb. . ieorh. AS. van wijnbesien. whence bouchon. ' —P. Sc. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. bairgan. verb. Sibriht that I of told. to bury. the idea of knocking. to sepulchre. and not directly (as Du. defence. biichse. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. protect . a grove bosch van haer. OFr. bundle. condere. bulk. to stop. a little box Dan. mount. oneself. knot. the land. Prov. The primary sense of hair . thicket of thorns . berghen. basse. a gun biichse. boucher. . a hump. that the lend had lorn thorn. Le roy Richard mort. And her ful sone tuft.' sheath. bush. roquies. and thence Mid. to bow. ' . 2. Thus Froister . boissa. tow. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. a rampart. Bush. to forest of Eyda. to keep. bussare. It.fiasc.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. aheap of stones. Fr. thicket {buski. It is certain that buast must once have Fr.' The word is explained by — — . at bua sig. occultare K. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. to dress. and he cites wisp bauschen. basse. bulge. to enclose in a case or box. lump. : — . from the ON. buxula. which would later have truast. a tuft guini. a tuft of hair. Brunne.-^Bushel. in the For Skirnis . bramble. borcegui. to betake ' Haralldur kona box.boisteau. a bush. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. bunch.— ' ii8 {chreo. qualster-boscken. bustellus. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. boxta. burial mound. buskr. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. abdere. borseof trees. See Bust. as boun is simply buinn. The bone in a woman's stays. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. sur une litifere. a been written buasc. Sir Tristram. bouche. to prepare. Du. we have Fr. brodequin tout noir. induere vestes . boistel. cluster. dead. bosta. 410. a tuft. or — Busk. a bush. to direct one's course towards. truasc. G. hjul-bosse. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. at buast. and we actually find bushel. a -tavern bush. Gr. a tuft. . then a tuft Sp. make ready. box wood to bush. . bosch (a diminutive ?).Lat. rad.) to hide in the ground.gur bidst austur um EySascog. preserve. the Moors and of Morocco. bossida. whence at bua sik. or the like. To Busk. Fris.' a box. In to Brutaine. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. besom). to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. diminutives. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. Du. a bunch of twigs. brake. iriCtf -ifoe.

' BUSY 2. biseg. lip. besoigAe. a bulk or trunk without a head. ship Sp. plated body or other quilted thing. of a doublet. work. 10. body without arms and legs. Business. bu. a. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. a ship of some size. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. bus. sera. — — difications of the same word. body of a man. Bav. Namur — Champagne Fr. or chest in which the vitals are contained. putschen. beso. bus. bisg. and then with avis again prefixed. a blow. body of a woman's dress It. Gael. trunk of Cot. — — — — It is like the smouldering. occupied bezigen. busch. Cat. Port. With respect to bust. busy. otarda. but. btcc. the body without arms busque. worn to make the body straight . bacio. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. — . a kiss. a sleeveless truss or doublet. ON. ViM. a kiss. Walach. 119 bi{tr. outarde. chest. also a flagon. Bustard. Xerqui. tuft. Bust. brostia as well as bostia. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. buc. trunk of a tree. lips. busche. also a It. abotarda. buz. buc. ON. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. Bust. body. abutarda. to occupy. a bush. A great sluggish fowl. busq. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. On the other hand. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. to make a splash in the water. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). I. bysgian. besongne. buquer. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. Lindenbr. . an ostrich. windbutsch. bus and Pol. a mouth.— . Pol. borcegui. 1555. utarda. would explain the G. busc. Busy. buc. 1372. AS. to knock . bukr. fe^a. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. Fr. in Diaz Gris. signifying trunk of a the body. beezig. The proceedings of Parliament. snout. and supposes that the common Arab. avuDiez. arbor ramis trunGloss. Fris. The Prov. Comp. — Thus we should have mocherqui. kupata. geidha. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . 2l box. Lang. outard. a stroke of wind.' Plin. trunk. Edrtst. a projection. then trunk of respect to busk we have on.). a Mid. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. basiuin. and by transposition morchequi. bnist. stem. lip. bussen.d. busta. stump. Hence probably au-tarda. Sp. a tree. Prov. bustla. BUSS Dozy from Arab. 2. its slowness of flight. mouth. body . mosequin.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. bysgje.pjik. the trunk. B. says. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. Prov. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. bulk. to Swab. bussa. a kiss. bucha. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. a kiss of reverence. smack. To hurry or make a great B. ^A. So in Fin. small. a log. . as in moharra from harbe. Sp. bist. busch. — clattering about. mohedairova. cata — . putta. bust. statue of the upper part of Fr. brut. employment bisgan. So Wes- terwald munds. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. a large cljest or particular applibox. The form brust. kiss. a boat or small vessel . tarda. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. stir. occupation. or avutarda. pussa. A A busquer (Sigart).> Also written buskle. knock. butz. lump. especially of a woman's dress. Box. made stiff. vessel employed in the herring fishery. See Boss. Buss. sunt quas Hispania aves . an affair. Busk. forms morseqiiill. of the human body (Grandg. the long. box. Bulch. to bustle. Fr. bisgung. knock. as in ON. forest. crack . to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. busto. body. I bustle. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. trunk. Fr. brusc. body of garment. Hal. hipista. representing a blow. to make use of. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. also a busk. a bunch of flowers . I. the point of a lance. the breast. Swiss butschen. mogangas from gonj. a blow.Lat. a fishing vessel. love gestures. I go strepo) . mons. business.' ON. ' bistardej It. a backstock. — hardly be distinct from Fr. a great billet Cot. Fr. ottarda. Sp. log . thick end. 7o\. A wisp. Cot. Lat. from jnund. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. kiss. betarda. morsequi. To Bustle. inde discurro et operosus sum. 22. stump. buta. Du. and also a sounding blow. or Cherqui. Nained from Proximse iis zia. Fl. bisegung. baiser. buyse. bust. biist. a busk. Rouchi. austarda. a bust.D. bruskras well as buskr.bezig. Busitiess :c3iVi . Prov. Sw. mouth.

being wholly unten. the store of ten. bolr. Du. besides that . besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. Tooke's dis. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. butan. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. bous. a bottle. ways. But when will you pay it ? the belly. rumpf. Here the but implies the existence of an. outside that moreover. without the house kept in bottles. bag. of the wine and drink. similar train of thought is seen in ON. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. and the real origin of the and within . The E. without buiten-man. bitten dai. OFr. buta. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. and with It. bountifully. the full expres. a butcher. — we acle for liquors. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. slaughter-house. bole of a tree. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. bola. sup- meat and drink. Fr. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. the servant in charge of the original object. bute. beyond the Piedm. Butcher. the bottles. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . belly. to-boot. viz. bounds of. Buttery. body of a shirt w._ bitten j biiten door. able. Fr. which the word corresponds to the Fr. the belly. boquier. as Pantler. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. without care. botilla. (children) boc. the name must have arisen before the within. A A . gives at least two pounds sterling. bouz. AS. an outlaw from bouche. earthen which the debtor has adverted. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . ' 1 am that I may have but a but . biitait slaughterer of goats . a goat. a leathern bag. calf of the ' say. ont jhi^ton. trunk. As a conjunction but is in every portion. .jamin. hull of a ship. Whatever is in addition to Butler. is put in a class by himself. Where at an earthen jar . Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. tinction between but. original sense of without. the principal apartment. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. those in beccaio. G. ' There is leathern bottle. are. beta. equivalent of AS.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. is well explained by Tooke. hollow case. But In Sc. Sp. and bot. boccino. my is called the adversative use of but.' ' write. viz. bouteillier. bout. Lang. that which would be translated by Fr. but one thing. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. bocin. a wooden cask. the present day we should say. a cask. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. boucher. So in Italian from becco.' — — ' . in addition. without punishment . Prov. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. bisgung. barriga. ' Besides all that. properly a butan wite. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. a budget. the Perhaps besogne — . the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. beccaro. Butt. boteria. a goat (and not besides . Lang. a butcher . belly. Sp. calf. Ben-house. be out. the trunk or body of an animal. I20 la Court BUT du Roi.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. Wall. from as. bolgia. plain the conjunction as signifying boot.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. butan ce. bol. Fr. the jug and in E.' there is really a negation to be supplied. It. or what in in charge of the pantry. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. . botte. mais. If that where now we should compiler. Butler. a baiTel .' Thus Chaucer says. moreover. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. without law. bochier. wooden receptthing to be done.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. botija. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. from boc.in which his brethren are included. also a hollow vessel . bitlga.streets. ox. Sp. the body of a tree or of a man.The Sp. rotundity of the body. without. by the mode in which he is treated. except. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. a barrel. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. then hoUow trunk. skin-bag. beccaria.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. we find ben. add. a butchery. bhcciero. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. the mouth). the precise correlative of but. binnan. — . collection of casks. belly. large barrel. a small winebag. But It. young mais. bodifie. "PLT) . the body of an animal.

Du. butter un. butt of a person. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. a tub. a corner horses' hoofs. rabodd. a button.to push. are the strips at the edges of the field. dripping. An erection built up as a Fr. clunis. tress. Boutje. bottich. signify a cask or tub. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . W. &c. to thrust . botte. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. buttern. having a rotundity . Schmell. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. a leg of mutton. oir spike with a k coup . the thigh of a goose. buttock of beef is called butr. to bow. from stossen. &c. to push earth . Du.arbre. Hal. to femur. butz. Btetter-schmalz. Kil. but this is probably from Fr. Grandg. bothog.against another which needs support . To come full butt against a butts. so as to make a sounding blow. botta. courtaud. strike. striking end. To strike with the head bags. to abut on. bodi. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. Buttery. a little push . to thrust Fr. from the large knobbed head of botto. the edge forwards. or person Schmeller . Butter-glass. a ribbed glass for dient. a thrust the thigh-bone. bout.. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. Kil. Du. stump. lams-bout. any short thick thing. tout seat or breech. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. able that Chaucer. Fr. on.— BUTT leg . boteria. a cask. i. bocgsuin. the store of while bottich. an etwas anstossen. suddenly . Mur-buttant. butteln. Du. bouter. to be con. from bouter. : . to thrust. botwm. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. from rejeter. a button. From the noise of drinkables in a house. a mound of turf in a field to sup. large head. nourrisson. ment being supposed to resemble butter. boutoir. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. Fr. a large belly. a wall butor butt on. botten. the Butter-fly. to so close to the Fr. a boss. Fr.putan. put. boiUer. bodi'. a stroke di animal. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. or or shore post. submit shaking up salad sauce. coxa. — . the prick in the middle of a target. boter-vliege. Fr. as if from Povg. Bout van het schouderIt. G. to thrust. Lang. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . as in G. pwtiaw. to blad.' thick from shaking. a buttrice. — A . a mound. hillock . who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. to boult flour. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. Button. aim whence to make a support to a wall. the rosebud. to abut a stone roof. a. boter-vogel. a barrel. A — — — . Buttel-triib. gigot. boter-schijte. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. boding. -ez. butyrum. Buttrice. buttare. Schmell. buttals. bout. a blow. Fr. to heap up earth or ihrust. bocsam. end . but. butte. a button. and the true derivation boar. Halma. butt. Kil. bouter. boutis. AS. Bav. The Bavarian potig. W. humble. the thick end. to butt. . a scope. Perhaps corrupted Lat. povrvpov. butt. Bav. buter. bouton. bott. thrust. by boE. to touch at the end. is formed the augmentative buttatich. at.thum and not button. a bot. a heap of merly called pushes. from bugan. fowl. From Grisons biitt. in the R. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . a hill. an ox. obeto shake backwards and forwards.. Fr. pied. potacha. to throw . thick. Gr. a. a dle . butte. bouton. Hal. R. leg of lamb. the trunk. Buttress. bot. butter. obedient. to cast. Fr. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. Sp. boil. both. Butter. to strike. From Du. grease that sets by merely standing. as rejeton. butt. bata. Gael. Du. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. See Butler. thrust forwards. of E. poke. Cot. bot. to thrust. botta. — A . a buttress Cot. butter. bud. a boss. — . w. * Buxom. then the thigh or leg of an to push . Fris. buhsom. caput scapula bout van f been. trapu. from notirrir. e. pwt. To Butt. botto. give way. Buttock. a bolt. It. The word body itself seems identical with G. bottig. Boutant.rejected thing. geboogsaem. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. what is kept in a blow. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. a but in the W. a bun. . nourrissons. bot blijven staan. a flying buttress. . any small projection. So in English pimples were fora clod. — — — — . a blow. short thick thing pimple. nursling. Gris. clumsy . stump of a tree Fr. of the present day. waste ground. a stump or club foot. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. fle>(ible.

The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. bycgan. a borough. G.. Byre. bees. Etynj. \s\xy. favourably to a petition. Sw. to wit. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. groat in token of his good heart towards him. bygge. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). Verstegan in R. byr. farm. 116. to sell. Goth. —gracious of speech. bauhta. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. to swear with him by . which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . bij. Pecock Repressor. buzarg. bi. to purchase for money. indistinctly. town having separate jurisdiction. good-humoured one. To Buy. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. as heedless as a cock-chafer. The ON. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. a by-path is a side path . bylag. a beetle. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. . Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. 21. Du. 519. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. abozzago. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. who makes abigg. also say. buso. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. bei. to stand at his side . a meke thynge with — alle. 3. 200. bohte. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. Dan. Originally the law of a particular town. By-law. Mercy hight that mayde. Buzzard. to jan. harty prayers and God speedes. .. to whisper. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. and boxome of speche xviii. lete. confusedly. It.— Diet. and would have been lost in E. Sw. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. CABAL Goth. buzzicare. gracious.in N. big. village. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. buteoj Fr. bozzago. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. jus municipii. P. byar-rettr. A ful benygne buirde. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. stall. son.— P. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. It. Cabal. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. p. The sense of buxom. Too used a Foxes Martyrs.P. depends upon a esteem in falconry. as in Da. . and it is of good will. as Fr. a buzzard or puttock. frabttg- To Buzz. bugjan. OE. called Cabala or Tradition. a town. & Q. See Abie. ON. bi. A by. — 122 BUY P. Lat. tions by one. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. from by. to pass by. A A We — — — days' wonder. cow-house. train of thought which has become obso. byar-log. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. Many good mological explanation. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. AS. blessing me with their of side. bar. favourable. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. Then applied to speaking low. lb. iii.busardj Prov. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. buzac. from whom it was addressed. leges urbanse ON. ii. bylove. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. to buzz. AS.

Mid. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. a jacket Fr. from manganum. kabane. Fr. and Ptg. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. vile. Ptg. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. cabre. Sw.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. capanna. to chatter. a rope. headed or cabbage lettuce. Etym. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. gatsch. a rope. Fr. a frail. precisely in the sense of the lari E. hovel. aeggi. and Finnish lanLat.ticula. (ca/coe. as it must have stood in French. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. deponat a store closet. dirt and the Fr. Imitative of the cry of hens.Lat. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . cabulus. headed. nasty. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. Cablisb. from trabocco. cabane. Fr. form kactal. disgust cac. cables. : — from violence without blood. — Kil. Fr. bad. serious injury — In like manner It. originally an Gael. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. OSp. a booth or hut. gaban. — the ON. Lith. cabus. laitue cabusse. Cot. cabo. a headed cole or cabbage . whence Fr. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. Castr. capuccio. properly windfalls.). and Or. covering. cabo. Finn. signifying properly a rope's end. Coticesserint Swiss aa. manticuKil. forms indi. Lat. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . dung. traboccare. Antiq. gabardme. Brushwood — — B. agge machen (in nurses' language). rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. a rope. cadabula. prostratio ad terram. Sp. in which sense are explained The the OFr. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. especially shepherd's frock. and the Arab. or as an interjection of disMod. Mid. . Fr. to hurl in Nat. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. a cabbage .Lat. for the origin of which see Carabine. E.. a head (whence cabochard. an engine for casting stones. — . — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. string. kabat. or rush basket. Cot. maim. a rope or cable. Cabbage. . agga. chaable. cadabola. geese. cabuyskoole. cacare . would correspond to cable. overwhelm (Diet. accablcr. Cabinet. The double a in the OFr. dirty. to keep or Du. capo. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . cabuccio. to strain in such a manner . cacare. Du. aakkat'a. cabre. — Ibid. signifies down. manganare. Tugurium. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. &c. Very generally used. a cloak of felt or Cack. brassica — capitata. lactuca capitata. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. dirty. kakla. ! — . Neckam — by the wind.Gr.Lat. caable (in legal language). . stercus. Lang. a covering. chaable. Sp. Gaggle. hut. cdble. Item habeat vocant. . Cabin. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. mdhaigner. kabas. . &c. caable. vincially used in E. OFr. cabasser. aak! tandi like Fr. case. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. It. ceach / exclamation of guages. gaggi. wilful). kakaloH. as an expression of Gr. Due.. a car- We convasare. havyar to caviare. giiare. overwhelm. It. chadabula. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. su/Furari. the Prov. — Tarbe. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. cabas. It is remarkable that the Esthon. origin is the OFr. cabbage. the Slavonian. a shed. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. has kabbel. Capstan. ckaable. agge. 'habl. Common to Lat.. cab lis. akista. Cappa in OSp. Celtic. a tunic. heady. head. cadabalum. filth. caables. — . The Sp. or cadable. chabla.. cabaii. Du. disgust. caable. cabarino. round or great headed. caqueter. and as we find stones Mid. to hurl down. gaggele. OFr. the bowels. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. as Turk. band. The name of the engine. surripere. Katr-iT-aKt. w. come the Fr. to crush. To Cabbage. From It. cable . cadabulum. it would seem fundain children's language. kabaSsen. It. calabre. is probably unconnected. main. . caboche. name of the projectile engine. OFr. Mid. E. cabacho. Choux cabus. disgusting such an engine was exerted. To steal or pocket. Du. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. to put or pack up in a frail. Kil. Didot. —Diet. Due. whence Lang.' Due. hoard together. as Diez supposes). cadabulum. It. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. cab.

calendarium. a vessel for heating water. from calendcE. Fr. It is another form of the E. kolyasochka. Fr. the pith or soft part of wood. lime whence calcareous. and troublesomely attached to. to heat. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. ben- kalf. kukje. pet lamb. a cylinder. cabdillo. Dan. naXaiidpi. Calcialate. a wheel. safe. roller. wanton. KxiKivh^o^. incolumis. is probably delusive. calentar. a wheel . dial. kail. calx. javioler. Fr. Lat. cadet. gabberen is identical with E. to cage. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. whence calash. collop. ratas. — — — Dan. Lat. signifies a waggon. calpa. kdfich. As Du. * Cade. calcis. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). Gascon capdet. Originally from a Slavonic source. caliche. a caFr. from the ink-bag which it contains. KaKKat. kolo. of oxen and similar animals. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. cha'cmie cadence. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. to compute. Tea-caddy. cavea. In the same way Fin. the younger son of a family said to be from . lord. Du. kakulla. Du. — in a kiln. calf of leg. hot. calessa. (in the augm. It. gaggia. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. Du. of the nature of lime to calcine. a calash . misfortune. a calesh. wretched. G. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. cuttle-fish. Lat. cattivo (from Lat. cadere. cykevie. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. loss. frisky. chetif. a loaf of bread. Calash. chaudron. coll. joyous . Calocli. Fr. a counter used in casting accounts. Sw. Lat. reed-pen. N. a roller. caldarius. Cake. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. pi. to gabble. ever and anon. kdtr. See Kiddier. to cackle . It. To Calender. on. Mrs B. hence musical rhythm. taking it Sp. Serv. kolyaska. kaad. gaggle. A — fall. or smooth Hnen cloth. pith. calentura. Fr. B. Cauldron.— Cot. From lerie. from Gr. a wretch. gabbia. caioler.Gr. limestone. A cuttle-fish. Cot. kolesb. Lat. Caldron. kalfi. for green fields. hot . Cage. Sp. Lat. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. a low note. kalfvan hout. dead body. Calandre. 124 prattle . reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. Cajol. Lat. Fr. disease of sailors from tivus). Due. kalem. cadenza. boy. * Calibre. kola. Calamary. Calc-. —Atkinson. bad . master. the pi. a wheel . The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. Dan. an ugly waggon kolaska. a cake or loaf. chaudiere. caldaria. The Lat. cadence. unruly . babbhng. cake. principal and interest. calamus. a car. cageoler. to throw themselves into the sea. coop. It. especially of something soft. captive. a common cart. Cot. desire of land. . to prate much to little purpose. Lat. pen Mod. calamitas. Calp is riadh. Cadet. kolo. ON. the calf of the leg. G. Sp. a falling. rattaat (wheels). Calamity. It. Arab. Cadaverous. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. cage. calculo. . the lump and the increase. cadaver.— Calliper. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. Roman reckoning. a small stone. Cadence. Gael. kalb. koeck. a hollow place. a waggon . a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. &c. or colpa na coise. jabber. gabbia. a fever. without loss. . to treat like lime. colibro. En kaka br'od. little chief. Perhaps from w. Sp. the bore of a cannon. cage. one unduly indulged by. calba. calidus. Lat. It. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. calendrer.uv. A . its mother. or prattle. Cot. Lat. The Calf. . kolo. to . chattering. kauwe. so gabble corresponds with Fr. capCalenture. marrow. calibre. kaeckelenj Gr. calidus. Caitiff. Du. A hooded carriage. ' . of which. Turk. a reed. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. . from calculus. Pol. calesa. a corpse. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. whence Lat. kat. a mischievous dial. frolicsome kaad mund. a tea-chest. a lump or large piece. Caddy. It. Fr. form) calderone. Sw. to sleek hence a den. a circle. Calf of the Leg. Lat. kolesnitza. To Cajole. An open travelling chariot. Cadge*. cauldron. a dence. to — Fr. Flo. Turk. kuchen. an inkstand . kolasa. Russ. Fr. from the Chinese catty. kage.— . kaka. just falling. capitetum. Sw. prate. when they are said to poor. calibre. gabble. gavia. lindrus. a wheel . one that is brought up by hand a petted child.warmth . The young G. Calendar. loss.

colubrina.Lat. Turk. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. to calk. culverin. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. trull. calcaich. Diez. sence of wind. It. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. licht stuk The change from a. Among these were the turn.' Winter's Tale. The primitive colubrina bombarda.' Whitby Gl. whereas in troth it is not. The reference to heat is preserved in. — — — — — . the scalp or skull. them &c. brawny. Mil. to prattle. sound. hallottaa. kallo. Mahn derives it from Lat. calvus. a round of abuse. Fin. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. tittle-tattle. So It. gossiping. Fin. scalmato. of a column. ' pert. hot. khalif. coulevrine. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. dial. Diet. calk. faint. sestus. quiet. the Fr. overscalmaccio. B. kol. moist. having a thick skin. serpentina. saucy. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . caillette. cotton cloth. Du. scold. calicot. the hard surface of the ground. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram.— . not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. callum. by many that the weapon Callous. colubraria canna. bombarda Cauma incendium. or languishing drought is . cauma. Calm. fistula. Hard. of the bore of a firearm met. KaXka. calo. dragonder. a successor. Due. cauque. a last. ram. To call.(jaa= ice). * Caliver. Sc. and sometimes a handgun. — Fl. According to Jal (Gl. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. kal. femme frivole et babillarde. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is .from Ka'tm. Lat. longior. to say. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. Lang. kalla. quality. 125 Prov. harden by pressure. kil-u-kal. koluvre. kahcwe. sclopus. ' rine. cahna.' Chaucer. Sir John Smith in Grose. vulgo Coluvrine. CALICO Calliper-compasses.' But it is hard Du. bald. and heat. calare.. quA librd. overheated. calma. hollaing. moso. Derived by some from Arab. . Fr. from Calicut in the E. The origin is Gr. Sp. to affirm. to rail or scold . heat. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. calgua. glotton. skin hardened by labour. calibre. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. dragoon. or caliever. and dragon. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. Fr. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. people's remarks. chatter. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. ululo Turk. i. klover. try. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. to call. form in the kalib. to be of a good or bad quality. water-tight. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. Callow. an adder. Kil. The word was also written cawme in OE. Ca. kind heat of the sun. calcare.' Slange. to abuse . drive. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). in which dangerous to place implicit faith. alta voce ploro. calibre. to hear. nautique). Sup. to callet. calca. — — — — — . CALM to press or stuff. however. Unfledged. coluber also. Call. donderbuchs Sp.en~ kinds of firearms. Mid. which has its memory preserved in Du. To drive tow or oakham. Caliph. Dief. on. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. to tread. a soldier who the It. callus. abto suppose that E. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. voice. * Callet. NE. Lat. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). faint. a feathers. calor. oldire from audire. Kil. calc. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. the day. to cram. to call. the Fr. which is as much as to say. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. 'A callet of boundless tongue. Heb. kal. Fr.piicede Lat. Kavfia. given. To century was Squalibre. u to an I in such a colubrum. coluber. done with heat Alt. Calico. prattle. Fr. or mould. a good calling. harquebus or handgun. a drab. but is only a jda-kallo. Bi.meaning of the word. heat. the heat of Now these Du. caluw. whehce it was first brought. Ptg. kael. Gr. calma. couleuvre. Sp.position is much less common than the geschut. Indies. diameter of a ball. calat of leude demeaning. push violently. calleting. Ibid. E. piece of bigger circuite. tapulta. To Calk. to burn. to proclaim. chatter kallen. . a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. calme. AS. whence couleuv. caliver. depreciatory term for a woman. and E. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. serpens. can be distinct from ODu. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. Antiq. qAlab. a. form. calclover. Gael. word of mouth . the latter of chamber.

lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. lattice. Fr. Arab. Lat. the heat. candidus. cambr^. paign. a large drinking . having an aquiline nose. to avoid enemy in their shirts. aspirant. Caloyer. In a different application It. cere : Lat. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. salmon. — Lat. canis.— Chandelier. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. is Candle. campus. It was distinfrom work. Sp. w. cancer. Sanson khanda. slander. at the ends. properly good country. monk. died in 1526. to bend. callar. campo. Fr. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. Cambric. Lat. also an eatmg sore. hooked. — B. chamold man. cambren. An eater of human flesh. whence Fr. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. a basket. From campus was formed Lat. nia. cup. Fr. or Caribs. canalis. the calix.Lat. Gr. A — the Cannibals. chaitcre. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. campo. camahutus. camiscia.—Cambrel. — Cancel. on. campagna. Campaign. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. camelus. It. from xaXbg. Canker. E. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. Camel. crook. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. cambrer. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals.—Candidate. catmneo. a piece. a field Greek monk. camiscieia. a dog. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. Properly calver in the field during a war. camp. se cameloter. Lat. crooked. and yspiuv. Cambrav—Cam. to bend. arch. Calumny.who their language. cainahelus. Cambrel. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. . 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. the salmondis faillis thair loup. Sp. camaien. the spersed with white flakes like curd. icaSoytipoe. a caught. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. Camisade. Ptg. ckaouma. to warp. calj'x. champagne. Fr. KafitjUe. bis. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. See Canker. Canibal. higher in the middle than Fr. Cot. a may have acquired that signification from plain.conduit-pipe. different sections of the like the Chinese. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. to the force of the wind. Or the word Lat. The Grisons cauina. B. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. frank and sincandidatus.—Jam. sugar. Candy. It. to break. to glow. ko/utuXoc. cambre. Peter Martyr. a goblet bud. campagne. lame. water chamlet . toile some of whom. a' Sc. the type of a hollow pipe. Cancer. Gr. Canal Channel.' ' Quhen a lattice. a. clothed in white. Turk.Gr. Fr. samon. camafeo. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. to jut. India Islands. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. Camlet. camisa. Fr._ kamm. It. across — Bellenden in Jam. cam^e. would plenier. a crab. Camp. ation. camisade. the space of false imputation. fair. cup. mg Canister. Lat. an eating. chandelle. white. candela. Calver of cane. the bed of a stream. campaign. calutmiia. brought from Fr. campagna. Mid. Fr. Fr. whence the noun signifying an applicant. camber-nosed. arched. Palsgr. crooked-stick. field . chommer. open and level ground. unwater chamelot . and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. or hollow of a flower. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. callour. good. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. Calyx. It. Kakoycpos. Sp. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. Lat. It. crooked. crooked. E. champ. had no r in de bric— Cot. — — — A — — escume de saumon. .— Hackluyt in R. arched.' Forme of Cury in Way. lie level.— B. campren. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. canistrum. KafivTu. a. from candere. fresh. Mod. aged. B. cancello. Canine. canna. camelot. Lat. sore. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. From fluting or furrow in a column . Bret. cAouma. Cann. Lat. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. E.. co7nbar. when its substance appears inter. Cambray. spot for cattle. to bow. Candid. Pers. whence the Fr. Cameo. is Cambering. kanna. It. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign.

cane. pipe. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. canevas. To Canonise. margo panis diffracta. canvas. B. kandt-broodts. as a cantle of bread. cappe.— Cot.Gr. Capable. to contain. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. a hundred. A piece of anything. a cover Turk. It. kynnel. to sing. Mod. a rule or standard of excellence. Fr. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. cover . cappa. Sp. canton. If the word had been from cantherius. Lat. being a yard or thereabouts . hood. kaput. Of vena cava and of vena porta. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. &c. Canoe. a small boat. . KCLvva. kand. or cantell of bread. To his judicial And trowl the tile. shut. cannone. Prov. a Fr. lump. Canteen. a straight rod. cantle then is a corner of a thing. ON. Fr. name. a drinking glass. a reed. cannevo. canapaccia. Kil. hemp. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. and the sex- &c. The word seems to be taken from Gael. Palsgr. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. schlapp. But it may be different source. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. has kahn. Cannoii. Fr. like a torch or candle. canteau. Jonson. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. capax. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. Goldast — in in Schmid. a cane. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. Germanis kdppen. a corner. N. coat. The — . would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. coarse hemp. a boat. capello Italis. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. a division of a country. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. from canna. kyndel. cane. capa. a tube. canon. the heel. as. speech. Cape. canonicus. To canvas — . a scull- — here. Alamannis. and tref. See Capt-. gnat. corner. it would have been found in the continental languages. haitt. Again we have Lat. tain. hemp. Mod. say. Coal burning with bright flame. canto. astrology. cantref. canapa. Capacious. cape. See Chape. a gelding. the part easiest broken off. Gael. Esthon. that the G. side. cannevaccia. is found languages of very different stocks. Canvas. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. cannabis. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. kanta. a wine-cellar or vault. Cot. the tried list of saints. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. It.n. part. a — A — Cannel Coal. root cap. KaTTiram. border. to shut. cantina. signifying cover. A . What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. Cope. Diez. Hence Lat. properly a large Prov. chantel. a hunch of bread. a horn of the moon . cheese. OFr. chape. It. Cant. hamlet. a cap. . can. Canopy.^on. kapamak. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. region. able to receive. the quartile. Wtb. from cant. cappe. Sp. Swab. a torch. capevole. covered. from . kwvwxIi. quito curtain. Cantle. measure for cloth. Sp. kq. cane. kantr. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. from Dan. cope. a cloak. Du. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. a door .Gr. a pipe. and met. trine. A slow gallop. cane. contain. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. &c. to put upon sacred writers. a reed. The meserseum and the mesentericum. Gugel. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. It. to con- rummer. . carcase . schlappen. W. quarter . capace. It. canonici. also a measure. edge. he discourseth of dissection. a cloak kapali. the heel. cainnt. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. from a Canter. Picard. or hold. quarter. Kavt\. clqse. Schwab. territorial hundred.CANNEL vessel. cantone. cover kapi. Capari. coarse hempen cloth Fr. hirnschlapple. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. From Lat. a cantle of bread. It.. From Gr. Fin. . call. and hence a gobbet. border Dan. a ship canot. canoa. a side. which is not the case. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. Canon. Probably only the augmentative of canto. a ruler. was formed Kavtiiv. It. leiwan kanta. chanteau. rumme. cannu. cantred. language. Canton. regular. caparazon.

Hair-like. curling. a caterpillar. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. 75. curl. then to shiver or shudder. or Lat. cut off. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. capitulare. also the capriole. then find the symptoms of shivering. and 7tucc. cappriccio. grisser. sault. to crackle. Unexpected pleasure. Acad. cApre.standing on end. a yearning through sudden fear. crackling sound Cape. a chevret. Caper. Fr. It. of a tremtdoiis sound. or. arricciarsi. or other things. of a coach. frisson- ner . — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. kid.) grezille marid. greziller. the singing'bone).— 128 CAPE a rustling. castrated cock. to broil. Lang. to crackle. to desire earnestly. hair. a young kid met. a little head. roughening of the skin. h^risser. p. aggricciare. capriol or caper in dancing. toy. Hence capitalis the sum lent.'— Trev. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. to fry. as Fr.). the principal part of the debt. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. abridge amKoTroq. G^' Many words — ' ndv. brisciare. upon terms Sp. ericius. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. grisser. alcaparra. s'hdrisser. the hair to stand on end. The true derivation lies in a different direction. gives rise to Sc. — to yearne. explained by Diez from capra. herissonnement. ticchio. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner .Gr. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. a capriol. capitalis. capar. A . a kid. bristling. Arab. hi. grug. A headland. a goat. Capital. Torriano. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. It. humorous. Cot. It. ^piKos. prickly husk of chestnut. chief. a caper in dancing. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. ribrezzo. Fr. Fr. bristling. heath. a head. knis-hujwud . the head. as in Lat. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. as the means of earning profit. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. Hal. frort^Lat. or goat's leap (done by a horse). or represented by the syllable e. frizzle. Lat. the head. as Fr. capriole. a buck. airoKOTrrw. eruca compared with It. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. to shudder. they longed extremely to see it. It. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. It. It. . w. caper j caprio. capillus. brisciare. And similarly to yearn. brisoler. cover of a saddle. caprice. to parch. capriola. castrated.' — (Supp. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. for which he cites the Comask nucia. ziki. Mod. CAPRICE twittering. — — A a hair. with joy' Vikram. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. a ch illness. Lat. fansuddenly angry. See Chief. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. shrub. gricciare. chattering of the teeth. gives rise to brezza. Fl. algabr. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. Capers. the hair to stand on end. Griller d'im' patience. It. curly. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. It. brezilia. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . gricciare. brisciare. <I>pi'?oe. erica. bruco. according to the Hindoos. Capillary. Lat. to broil. shivering. caprice It. and his body bristled We to castrate. where Burton adds in a note. Lat. to twitter as birds. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. to shiver. frissoner. Sp. arricciarsi. II bresole (Gl.' Cot. capro. and OHG. brissle. a hedge-hog. horror. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. I have shivered with love.— Fl. rihrczzoso. birsle. to from capitulum. To treat Capitulate. wriggle. and with an initial gr instead of br. then to be in a state of vibration. a . knis. frisser {frissement d'un trait. grillcr. Fr. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. belonging to From caput. hedge-hog. principal. brug. rissoler. to shiver for cold. horripilation. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. So from Sw. Caprice.) d'etre The It. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. end. of a fowl. It is probable that Gr. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . shivering. Genevese bresoler. riccio. greziller. to ruffle the surface of water.impressions on the ear. compared with Bret. is either wholly lost. a separate division of a matter. to . The same imitation of Capon. capparis. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. caj)o. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. the initial mute of forms like Gr. cut. as Fr.

Carabin. di cappa. concevoir. caput. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. Capsule. Nordfoss. a capuchin. or the (capo-riccio). decepte. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. to receive receptio. Sp. Cot. at least. Carabine. a head man. recibir. as in OFr. as in accipio. also tresFl. strideo. where it forms a very large class of compounds. Fr. acceptus. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. to this is It. desire. conception.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). capra. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. crepo.). whence capture. karren. cabra. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. perceive. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. &c. Fr. chirrion. of capsa. and tropically. to creak. Etym. carabin. dim. chevre. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. It. Captain. kerren. Kiittner. conceit. char. a cart. to please. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. Carry. capsula. to accept. shivering fit (Altieri). Neumann. a creaking waggon. In the S. Lat. a she-goat. a. Fin. captivate. OSp. Fr. capio. It. Capt-. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo.s. It. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . cabestan. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock.of these compound verbs. calabrin. Lat. to take. the -cevofthe Fr. Lat. concept. a hooded friar. Fl. — —Diet. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. Cot. a reception. to load . in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. was originally a missile . Crab. was a kind of horse soldier. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. a sudden fear apprehended. recipere.or -cib-. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. &c. concipere. Capstern. See Caper. charret. karrende waegen. It. caprice. conceive. The It. and of captus to an e. to carry . Fr. tnoschetta. Derivatives are Fr. a fantastical humour. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. a windlass. captive. Lat. a taking back. a cloke) capuccino. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. charger. -cept. It. capitis. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. concebir. an engine for throwing stones. a sawing-block or trestles. case. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. i The meaning Car. de- price. Fr. fantastic. 129 — receive. a coffer. to creak. cabestrantej Fr. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation.. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. chirriar. and has thus descended unaltered to English. Du. Castr. commander. Passing on into E. cams. caThe hrestante. also to carry on a car . charrier. It. cabrestante (whence e. G. — — Capstan. capitano. Du. Carbine. capp%tccio. -ceive. precept. recipio. caricare. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. Thus the musket. accept.. receptus. recepte. a hood (dim. It. carretta. a sudden will. Capuchin. crab s. and has accordingly been lost in E. &c. contain. calabrino. fancy. however. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. karista. one odd. It is a standing crab. -cept. except. hold. verbs gives rise to the element . deception. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback.). a kind of torture. deceit. to take baclc. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. to take to. oisr. krul. sels. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. carro. latterly. Capriole. was converted into -ceb. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. as the dragoons (Du. Fr. karra. captus. recevoir. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. Caseneuve in Diet. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. cabreia. In cases. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. intercept. a. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. trestle. of the Sp. capuccio. box. seize. Sp. Cart. also a kind of rack. from head. . Fr. bock.

a collar or chain for the neck. a quiver. ancient springald. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. designated in the case of G. It. vitriol. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer.. . calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. carbh. casso. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. a case or chest . ' Vasa vitrea. a coffer. the shell of a torcarcasso. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. black dye. cardo. the . See Carpenter. the trunk or chest of the body . confining. cabreia. silique. constraining . Sp. carbo. a he-goat. It. cdrlag. eitar. kirat. karszti.charcoal . carcasa. p. a goat. The radical meaning . an engine for hurling stones. carabba. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. Fr. Sp. a skeleton. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. Caraool. a small weight. Lith. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . krciti. a quiver . carcaij. the dead body of any creature. for a gun. carquois. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). It. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. alia sunt majora.Gr. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. ON. in the same way that the Sp. OHG. caraffe. a winding staircase. an ulcer. Carrob. carbunculus (dim.. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . caraffa. a gem resembling a live coal. Gr. carabe. carquasse. restraint . a quiver. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. coming to four grains. word is only an adoption of the Turk. turn of a horse. Cat. properly a siege machine. cabra. to curry horses karsztuwas. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain.. espi7igarda. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. Gael. bock and Fr. cabrita. carmiiiarc. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. Carbuncle. a thistle. carch. Ptg. to turn. poison eiz. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. Comp. kard boyd. Caravel. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. avSpaS. kerwan. Card. carcanada.. a battering-ram). a thistle. a ripple for flax. Fr. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. . carquan. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. carate. Gael. car. cramp. fire . the name might naturally Mod. case. skeleton. Cot. decanter. Exot. a dead carcase. a wool card. The Trjg xeXwwac. Arab. cerran. a prison. Mod. carere. — seems to be something holding together. Bohem. Sp. Venet. the husk or cod of beans. An implement for dressing wool. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. &c. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching.. . a snail. Gael. a lock of wool . Fr. Gr.— — — . . seed of carob.' From the same source are SicU. caracal. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. winding carach. Carboy. the carob bean. Pers.z. winding. to creak. to hiss (as gee^e). the case of the flesh. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. a quiver . contract. boch. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. Carcase. &c. quilato. Sp. a firelock. a card or comb . karra. Carat. carcame. of the same Caravan. to comb. also a small weight. matter. wool card. copperas. is the chine. tcapKaai. Derived in the first edition from Mod. Fr. a twist. karri. a crane. card. to draw in. Carbonaceous. From the battering-ram. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. carcanet. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. a machine for casting large darts. to ripple flax. the carcase of a fowl. military engines made for hurling stones. Sp. «capa'|8i. .Gr. Gael. shell. is the word used in modern Lat. It. wine- bottle. carta. KtpaTwv. I. Parmesan cassiron.applied to a battering-ram (G. curry-comb. also (as Gr. burning coal. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . mural attack. caravela. skeleton. chevre by the name of the goat. Lat. eit. Cot. a kind of ship. cassa. AS. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. carduus. &c. bend. the core of fruit . skeleton toise. W. and catapulta. turning. a ship. to card wool. of carbo). or framework. It. to card wool. quse vocant karabd. to comb wool . Lat. garafa. Carcax.

cearig. principal. appertaining to the flesh. Cot. immediately before the long fast of Lent. from the keel to the water . It. E. Lat. carena. Coll. in N. . essere in carena. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. carena. scharren. A quirito ut infans. caritia. . Cargo. Fl. . to card wool. quaver a lazar's clack. kroU-erbser. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. and compare Bret. Fin. charta (Gr. Cot. or grumbling —Due. asper. — — . regar. G. charg. Fin. W. Carenare. karg. or street. carnalis. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. the old theory of humours. niggardly . to load. to take Goth. de Parthenay. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. sgritudo animi. sensual. zanken . tremble. ress. the load of a ship. care. from Lat. a turn. morosus. four. carch. in St Jerome. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. Carlings. graller. A mod-carag. Bois crolant d'un ladre. and murhet. from carrus. and sum. Sp. W. cdrle. rixosus. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. Dan. astutus. carnal. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. to eat flesh. cargar. sorrow. be anxious. the keel of a vessel. fundamental. quarreG. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. intrasset caro. stingy. kargr. to fry. ceorl. 273. dear. . x'»P'"^s)) paper. . to care unkarja. male person. charie. Ptg. Farewell flesh. tenax. It. It. murista. croller. affection. It. parched or carled. Care. karista. beans. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. OHG. one of those ac- 9 * . karout. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. and thin. the time during which to Rom. Sp. kumra. carnis. Fr. caricatura. & Q. as carminare. murren. to comb flax or hemp. W. as peas. OFr. grolU. charnage. w. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. to load. place for exercise on horseback. is This however Shrove tide. murahtaa. karry. carminare. like connection may be seen between Fin. cardo. giierlir. — To Careen. — — — : Cardinal. caMid. Properly. also a career on horseback. from carus. carnasciale. a man. AS. carriera. 1S66. to distress growl. hoed. piger. stridere. — — — Caress. to parch. is to say. care on. Groler. . rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. carina. Fr.' Slceat. solicitous. bottom. Fr. charneux. Bret. at murmuring. surrata.Lat. as quadrivium from Carnaval. carnavale. that on wliich the matter hinges. Roquef. . to love. to fry or broil. fleshy . in Carp. cardinis. Carnage. to shake. carcus. gakaran. kara. sorrow. msstus. From. No ' place there had. winding. Charnel. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. Fr. Champ. to comb wool. meet at a head. quadrifurcum from quameet. Sept. Carled peas. Cath. Cartel. the flesh of animals .. to clean the bottom of the ship. kurista. AS. clown or churl.— Charter. Card. see Garble. to whirr (schnurren). G. crowl. voce strepo stridente. A place where four roads Mid. Caricature. what is felt as grievous. karrig. cearian. Gael. a hinge. soUicitus OSax.— CARD karr-kambar. Carl. strideo. to load. A medical term from line —Boerio. a highway. Trin. morosus sum. that Fl. charag. kribina. the keel. Fr. Cark. carrefourg. weyes. wool cards. Chart. crosier. ON. record. cura may be ror. an endearment. carezza. car. camovale. mutter. carriire. moeThe Lat. Lat. p. careless take care of. carener. to scratch. karantez. to rumble. ignarus. Peas steeped and fried. It. from caricare. It. Mur. to growl.Lat. a card. caresse. carcare. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. caricare. cargo. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. — Carfax. Probably the origin of the word is the . whence carricare. love. charnel. a deed. kummer. combing them out like the knots in wool. Fr. chartre. carian. caru. Properly a car-road. 8. crawl. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero.. Bret. Fr. cura intenta. For the root of carminare. It. AS. 2. &c. tuorfurcm (Burguy). ON. act of moaning. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. Carminative. to lie on its side. to scrape . Venet. the several meanings of the words above Rom. Carnal. carFrom carrus. . an overloaded representation of anything. Translated in MS. the hull of a ship. and G. compared with Fin. Fr. grief. karl. Cot. — — Diez. road. charger.

— R. To pledge them thou refuse. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. Mid. The karole of the stones behelde. Carpet.Lat. I quaught. carpenta. Fr.' Ordo Eccles. gonna. charpentier. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. Alluz (G. Nomin. charpie. fabulor. carpenter only in the latter sense. Gael.— Patriarchi. chatter. Lat. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. Pm. — — ' ' — — — I — — . Pref. carpentum. of Guiana. Ant.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. On the other hand bumper to one's health. carbh. in Carp. Carpyn or talkyn. Mediol. Analogous R. to gather. culcitra. Lat. The ' ' a chariot. Beggars Bush. litter. The tippling sots. chirp. ballare.: . This Bretons renged about the felde to E. Bohem. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. Olr. or loose as a couch without further preparation. ! Carouse. carpia. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. a wheelwright. a dance. Templariorum — ' — Due. biheld without.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. krapati. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. Biheld within. carpita. to talk. Discov. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. Teut. pluck. Carpitam habeat in lecto.' Raleigh. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. Carnelevale. Dief. a wheelwright. is erroneous. to chatter coroli. Sup. qui sacco. In a MS. carpere. carpetrix. cxciv. cited by Marsh. tymmer. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. as carnaval from carnelevamen. and Carnem laxare (It. as Fr. peta. to reel. carpo. On this. to dance. linteamen. The word seems of Celtic origin. as the Lat.gonnella. and F. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. The true derivation is : seen in Mid.]e bois Carnelevale. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. chariot carbad.Why give's some wine then. whence the form carnasciale. carnelascid). Carnevale. 2. Lat.Lat. bier. ship. course. . W. carpetam (a quilt?).Lat. i. From Lat. 760. sense. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. e. carpende fast Carol.' says Motley (United Neth. Fr. I drink all out.'— Stat. tattle. to rustle. Chanson de carole. In Dominica d'autant. Properly a round dance. maker of waggons It.D. ON. 1 1 30. ' ' — . Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. to pluck. A. vel coopertorio carebit. worker in timber Fr. CarTo quaff carouse do use. krapanj. or a carouse fully drunk up. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. Palsgr. — . Sp. differing To Carp. . All out B. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. balade from It. Bret. Pr. carpenticre. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. to dance. zimmerspan. skraf. a drinking cup. carpat (Stokes). Here's to you still my captains friend. was formed Mid. gar aus / all out is correct. pluck at.— Neum. i. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. as E. a plank. So gone they forthe. to find fault with. Other names of the sea. quoted by Carpentier. zimmer. a song accompanying a dance then. 216. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. . Carole. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. Ein we find the signification transferred from . at midnight which derivation from kroes. 94). garrire. Mid. garrulo. koroll.— Drant in R. in Due. used for stuffing mattresses. 2. to pull asunder. in Nat. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. all aus). Gower in Way. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. carduz.' Reg. The custom. cardos. Carpenter. chatter skra/a. Cot. Shrove Tuesday. on that. yede tham about. a carder. lint. a car carpentarius. act of drinking a full Eq. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. querole.

kirpti. afterwards any written challenge. carroccio. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. cassere. cassa. casag. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. to bear or carry. To Carve. gristle. a of water. cassette. packing ' cloth. cartilage. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. Fr. Flor. a merchant's cash or counter. Case. caisse. the money chest. coffer. pasteboard. as we . kerven. Hence casket. hull of a ship. a chance or accident. a paper case. discharge It. cia.. Casque. It. — FI. Cot. Gael. It. Ready money. to break. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. to cut or carve . casus. corresponding to the G. crush.' Bailey. coffin of paper for groceries. from Lat. It. from the sound it makes when Alban. AS. cascar. fall It. To quash an indictment. casa-maita. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. a long coat. to fall. Fr. casuelj Fr. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. to hold. casacca. Cascade. — Cartoose. vault hole in a fortified wall. quash. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. capsa (Diez). Lat. bag and baggage of a camp. Fr. carroc- carrozza . Sp. Carrion. Fl. Fr. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. tion from Sp. properly to convey in a car. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. Casuist. Hence a challenge openly hung up. and matar. caisse. break to pieces. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. carogna. casser. void cassare.— Fl. luggage. — — nul the proceeding. It. It. augmentatives of carro. kerben. Du. kasseren. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. OE. hung up in some place and to be removed. and that apparently from capio. Preparatory drawing of a It. quasser. like all the names of tendon. and the OE. charogne. made void. an act of falling. subject for a picture. casualis. Cartoon. See Card. cartone. Rouchi carone. card. house. empty. It. mord-grube. from casa. Fr. cascare. cassa. Cash. cut with scissors. also the carriage. Case. hollow. It. Rouchi carpHe. gristle. charrier. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. CartOTicli. to convey in a cart. — — . Case-mate. casco signifies a skull. Fl. something that actually occurs. to notch. Fr. krat. Lat. cancelled. Rouchi carter. Carrot. the charge of — — Fr. casa. for the security of the defenders. Fr. fortuitous. from It. to — — also casse. mord-keller. Walach. of carro. mata. a coffer or small case for jewels. To Cashier. Lith. to fire on the enemy. Sp.' Fl. annul. Fr. casso. Fr. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. Lat. a chest. Cassock. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. augm. to dash. a canonry or slaughterhouse. See Case. slaughter-house. a fall. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. cartouche. casitiste. cascade. crown of a hat.' Cot. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. case. des rideaux A'carp^ie. a car. dim. casaque. of carta. from It. caisse. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. As defence from shells became more important. kerpu. cartella. discharge. to slay.to annul. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. The carrying of anything. Probably. to crack. to an- — Kil. Cartel. It. one who reasons on cases put. See Gristle. cascata. caroche. caro. turn out of service. Fr. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. charrette. carreaggio.' — Hdcart. ' Casa-matta. Carriage. Du. caxa. Cart. helmet. an augmentative from Lat. Fr. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. AS. cartoccio. Lat. To Carry. carota. shell or carcase of a house. carretta. The Sp. bitten. Casual. carretto. caroach. paper. — Cartridge. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. abrogate. to shear. long man's gown with a close body. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. carrosse. G. cancel. ignominiously exposed. case-maiej Sp. a hut. To duash. ceorfan. not reaching to the height of the ditch. It. Cot. cashiered. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. carriaggio. Cask. blotted out. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . Casket. Rouchi caroche. Fr. a loopscale the wall. where Fr. cassus. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. a car.

a cat . Lat. casulla. Pic. . bot-kotis. arpi^m. an enumerlist. image accasciare. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. Pm. kic' kicil are used chasser. second chase. to lash. torture. puss / for calling them. cacciuolo. 'Vaaaw. Fr. a chesnut . cat. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. &c. heat . KaTappaKTrjQ. katze. . KaTaarpifm. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. to bring to an crack given by the joints. Pol. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. cast. to torture. kakka. Yz. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. rack. crush . Brunne. to clack. Sp. Fr. Lat. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times.the / or c respectively. Castanets. the stalk of plants. ichasses. kottr.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. Castle. to scourge. kat. tails. Cot. from water Karappaaaiii. accastiare. dashing it out of the window. to look at. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. execu. which has been retained in E. lance. KarapaKrr]g. the castanets for or implement . _G. to drive away. cascar. and from the castus. castellum. a cat koshki. The Diet. probably from an imita. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. To It. to close. casule. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. Hence castaneta. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. casser. puras E. dashing it to pieces. name.'— Pr. kotas. Roukind. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. casipola. to end. sue. the ground . was introduced. catar. KaraXoyog. to make clean or chaste. ecrevisse. kasta. a fortified place. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. koshka. dim. signifying breed. castro. however. speak of dashing a thing down. R. on. Fr. chat. ' Catchyn away abigo. perhaps from which we have E. It. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). follow after. castanetazo. to drive Cat o' nine tails. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. in the fire.. same word with break. Others explain it from Kara. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. and tomba. Fr. fer toTa. casupola. cacciare fuora. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. OFr. Fr. or comba. chaleur. stilts. Fr. chasuble. ating. down. — We a cavity.Lat.Rouchi Scaches. to is Essentially the Sp. Lang. In the dialect of Picardy. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. coming to us through different dialects of French. Catalogue. cojz^/a. Cast. Gr. squash.. away. race. cash. force j Rouchi equerviche. V Lith. Fr. being Fin. a whip on the other into latch. 120. cat-o'-nine. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. punch. to Fl. squash. cacciarc. castello. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. cassa / cry for the same purpose. under chi caleur. a little house or hut. klakka. Chase. to cast or beat to tioner . mino. or Rouchi cat. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. Gr. like that of It. V. a garment for performing the mass in. Isidore — in Diez. Gael. Hal. or bruise together. kaJoivad. shaft of a 1 push. 134 CAST Catacomb. to hunt. The E. chasser. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. a Cataract. burst cascare. Fr. while kiss / Pol. So also from It. to crackle. fall. kissa. To Catch.to drive out.out cacciare . a vault. kotas. ON. drive away. is not satisfactory. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. to break. which. chasser. Fr. to turn overturn. . passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. dash. Sp. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. Etym. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr.— Fl. and KviilSog. to hurl See Awgrim. first made ordinary Fr. the earlier sense of catch. handle of an axe. Thus we have Caste. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. n. down. It. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. Mid. to fall as over a precipice. to crack. castana. to dash. Catastrophe. catch. by the loss of with several pitched cords. It. Cat. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. of castrum (castra). represented by the syllable quash. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . of sarabands does Gr. . . quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. B. a thump. from the first of Castrate. kasi.

quincailler. chachara. catch. to harangue. Du. as of the latch of a As ! — . laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. . smack. bichano (pussy). compare G. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte.. klatschen. woodlice. ' ' word catch. GaUa catchiza. catc?u. cache. e. Diez. and answer. which all . bicho. from Gr. a clap. the OE. — . i. Sc. cagnon (a dog). to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. latch of. chacepol. to crack GATES cache. the elements of a science. Guernsey chafer. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. the distance to which the ball is struck. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . kaetse. Gael. to take. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. klatscherei. whip. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. E. Du. gliong. children's name for cat . 'Horxa. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. insect. has both or of charming by sound. clatter. a pill.V. . one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. — with a whip. happe-chair. ArbaUte de courte chasse. Tutschek. OFr. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. or any kind of relishing food tuals. Cates. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. snatched. e. KaTtix'so. gattola. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. to A bailiff. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. ketsoore. chatter . chasse. G. formerly called cliket. klinke. Sp.' CATCH Fr. ' Fr. a little dog). Grandg. a. chase. clap with the hand. Du.j. to kythe D. . to the crack. fragor kletsoore. Fr. a caterpillar Milanese can. a carter's Pat. de Bray. Fr. devouring mite or weevil. s. Cot. * Caterpillar. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. — Catcli-poll. from shutting with a click. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. Cot. Guernsey pilleure. latch. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . icarrix'Ki^. weevils. to clap hands. Chate peleuse. to teach by oral instruction. resound. caucht. E. pedes. Ptg. Rouchi clincailleux. silkworm. — B. blow. called in Fr. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. snatching. kletse. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. flap klatsche. wild-beast. door when it is shut. to catch strength. Fr. Gael. catch-flesh. a. gingle. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. a — gatta. — explained. ictus resonans. . an officer of taxes. Wal. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . to snatch (said of dogs). to snap. a whip Rouchi cachoire. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). sound. 135 — Aasen. Kartiyopta (/cari. chassoire. to chatter with the teeth cake. kletsen. On Catechism. Kil. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. chink. cat is not apparent. a whip. is said that he got a claucht of it. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. caker. Metivier. ecachoire. resono ictu lash.from Bard and ayopsw. an accusing. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. Kil. chenille {canicula. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. claquer. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. called dog or Galla catchamza. companaige. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. a whip or Kuttner. catch. dainties. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. the the same principle he was Fr. Caterer. 'Bxn. glcu. worm. klatsch. klatsche and Norm.s. seize. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. apprehend a person.V. with and without an / after the c. — tinman. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene.) . a cornIn the s. dainty vic- a form lash. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. head. snatching it with a any one. chatter. * Cates. clap. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. c or ^. P. verberare kUts. Gr. Claucht.' ^Jam. . predicament.yopl(. millecaterpillars. a whip. Swiss Lombard G. In the XV'e. E. in order). instruction in forms. — Kiittner. to chat.P. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. a smack. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas.

koparet. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. Boethius. a The peel. is Prologue. any Fl. Bessie of Bednall. Cavalier. accattare. Caustic. mudet. to purge. On the other hand. also to pave . Gr. calidus. a kind of skull-cap. KaPaWrii. choufleur {choii. cabbage). Fr. a horse . Pol. . shaled or picked Fr. Lat. KiwariKog. Manciple's Tale. — Cauterise. from chaud. caple. It. CAVE Caul. chaussJe. having the property of cleansing. flue. Lat. chair. kassije. make clean. quire. challe was ther of a temple. little cap is . 2. primitive is meaning a shale or off. catkin Magy. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. Provider. hollow. to beware. via strata. whence cathedralis.' Elyot in Way. Sx. Cavern. Pr. fur. kopista. cauHs. katte. cautis. Cause. the. Cathedral. a horse. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. calceata. little cat. catkin Pol. reticella. acater. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. kobyla. Thus Bav. macska. to shale or peel. but the acates that are sent him. CATHARTIC sense. Delycates. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. Gael. It. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. apt to burn iron. Cavity. Fr. katteken. a paved road. Kil. Diez). . chevalier. a horseman. lamb. acaptar. a pulpit. That he was ay before in his estate. despencier. calqada. Jonson in R. achepter. Fr. chaudiire. deyntie meates. Caution. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . Russ. a horse . Fr. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. a kettle for heating water. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. — . a branding from koiio. a pavement.—— — 136 correct. cheval. kitten kotki.p. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. to shoe. chausser. puss. Lat. cautus). accapitare Rouchi acater. cal^ar. Caballus. KaHSpa. dumpf tonen. net or caul-work. B. otherwise written kell. Chaud. kaussijde. green husk of a calon. Kavrfipiov. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. Fr. A warm comforting drink. It. Cathartic. kdtzchen. Cavalcade. catkin mitz. Lat. cavus. chatideau. fur in general. Rete. calceta. calotte. 4. Du. &c. hazel. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. klopfend knallen. ce^l. kautsije. and at the rich man's cost By sea. It. Cauldron. Catkin. ' Gr. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. caudex .' B. kocianki. cabbage. from caveo (p. causa. minon. to ac- — Fr.willow. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. hot. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. Gr. caballus.Y\\Xea. cale. Fr. a road calceata.^ acheter (Lat. Mid. It. Port. rete A — Prov. and spareth for no perell. Jaubert. the caul of the liver. to sound like a blow . Hence achates or acates signified purchases. Dryden in R rete. what . from KaSaipio. Fr. Wyatt in R..Lat. Palsgr. Cave. is used in the sense of cat-skin. OE. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. Mid. cavaliere. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. capull. Cattle. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. flock. chaudroii. by land. Cavalry. Lat. puss. — — cavallo. Richly she feeds. from delf^gato. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. a stalk. Fr. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. hot. kocie..^Hal. G. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. chauderon. to burn. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. The word — . puss. Fr. kin. . . mutz. . a receptacle for small things. walnut with the husk on challer. adcaptare. Gr. kopano. to shoe . caldo. cat maczoka. to buy. Kavrijp. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. catons. w. Ka^afriKOQ.Lat. . catkins . . a mare. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. Causeway. cale. Du. Fin. Caudle. a seat. and hence a skull-cap. • — — See Chattel. Palsgr. Lat. the stones of a street. Fr. kobuiV. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. cabbage-stalk.

applied to a canopy. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. Fr. So from Fin. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. cedo. to plank or floor with planks. wuoren komo. Hal. . to plank ON. pp. step away.. in Hal.'— Z. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. . . and then to gape. caveqon. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. Sp. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. Sir 137 pit . dil. semely on syll. The importation of Fr. thil. hung. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. See -cede. succeed. cavillor.j have come from this source. also a seeling of boards. door-sill J Sc. cessum. sus-lambris. -cess. and zaum. &c. dille. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. &c.). a planking or boarding tkilian. . Soc. in Jam. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. wainscot thiljar (in pi. to panel or wainscot MHG. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. the testern of a bed. death. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. a fir-plank. — — — toyour soverane. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. Cede. bridle. or of a bed. syl. plank. jaa. 5. menuiserie. ceiling. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. &c. heaven. column E. Cot. CAVESON kopera or kowera. a canopy. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. as if from happen. del into English without ' translation gave cele. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. cavezzone.' del. &c. And seik — Cessation. cielo.' Hall. to cut. Lat. —Decease.). selure.' — Gawan . lambrisser une chambre seeling. tester of a bed. A — A false accommodation produced G. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. kapp-zaum. and that from Sp. a log.' Rutland papers. to argue capto tiously. cesso. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. a hut. give place. kommata. Gawaine & Sir Gol. with their substantives concession. exceed. hollow. sill. yield. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. a boarded floor. the inner roof of a room of state. ceiling. 32. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. the roof of a coach. In the N. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. — komo tain). 'A celler to hange in the chamber. a head. Fr. Cease. selar. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. B. little house. cyling (W. post. crooked kopio. cabegon. thelu. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. komista. cabega. thil. VIII. Lat. lambris. p. and Gol. . and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. ciel is so unbroken. thilja. wall. to canopy siled. empty. quibble. decessus. departure. deal. plank. Cam. nailes will begin to cling. -cede. a canopy. flooring E. coffer. a board. the deck of a ship at thilja. canopied. Plancher. is applied to a canopy. Fr. E. departure from this life. board . a plank. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. koppeli. Sherwood. -cease. augm. recede. 43. a beam. -ceed. beam.' Marriage of James IV. . . and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. hollow ice . and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. . Boyd in Jam. ciel de lit. were met. syle. H. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. . — . In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. a log. a halter. cease. . Lat. The line of descent from Fr. sky. curved. It. . a log. excess. Hence concede. Wore. hivtmel. heaven. of E . seele. as. sill in window-sill. but hang around at the sides. . The sense of roofing. of cavezza. sybire. . in Jam. to go forth. that. rafter.' Cot. thel. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead.. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. Fr. 7. Lat. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. komo. dayntily diglit. — . dScis. proceed. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. thili. In the same way G. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. hollow. a severe bridle. IV. Cavil. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. The It. p. to seele or close with boards plancher. cellar. To seele a room.' Ordinances and Reg. thiling. Ceiling. an aquiline nose.

judge. Lat. a solemnity. Lat. Coehim. to seele or sew up the eyelids . Fl. -ceit. a registration of one's self. -cess. swift. Fr. rubble. the talk of men. crevi. Centurion. to distinguish. cceremonia. Lat. Chafe. Censor.— Chafing-dish. as in some places burnt. Cereal. from censeo. as entering largely into the derivative certo. syll. and thence censer. ciglio. criticism. a Cemetery. a religious observance.). family. To seel or close the eyes. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. See Cede. Fr. Incensum. cillier. thence belonging to or connected with corn. the officer appointed to take such returns . to ensile the haukes that ben taken. Lat. chaufferette. -cevoir. age. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. Assess.cern. the point round which a circle is drawn. make angry. Fr. Cess. become heated with anger. It. sure. a prick. guish. Assize. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. To chafe is for wine. to prick. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. his office. what to set in a chafe. oil. -i^oivre. a storehouse Chafe. tax. to think. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend.' Book of St Albans. zens according to their property.' Celebritas. The term cilium. a hundred centuria. (and thence also) to hoodwink. to rub for the purpose a hut. Centre. Accelerate. a hundred of what- — . to blindfold. — . decebre) . but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. -cern. Ceremony. to twinkle darkness. to incense. see. Cij(fe5j. {cori)cipere.unmarried. caber. value. centum. to sleep). camentum. the hollow the Lat. blind. to visit in numbers. For sess from assess. &c. heaven. Lat. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. -ceptjun. Ta^oe. estimate. -cepire. cilibat. to course of people. cenio. Fr. -cipio. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. KsvTpov. conceipt. concernor. a valuation of every man's estate. goad. — — Cenotapli. renown be embodied with. in comp. solemn (of per. -civer {conciver— Roquef. In Celebrate. to -sum. calefacere. oil. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. distinIt. — . materials It. — . ciller. single or unwedded life. Lat. to seal a pigeon's eye. to concern. siller les yeux. Lat. dchauffer. judge Lat. Sherwood.. to take. sting. in comp. encens.— Cellar. Certain. keep in It. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. Celebrity. cerealis. with the eyes. riscaldarsi. — .of the r. candeo. — . tax. is totally distinct from the foregoing. Lat. Censure. Gr. Cot. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. to separate. is the opposite of disora virum. capio. stones to the production of heat. Lat. Census Censor. cigliare. deceipt. but was gradually lost in conceit. to set on fire. the place where the de. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. we have a modified form of (of a place). to attend on object with. assess. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. in accordance with the Fr.. -cebre ifoncebre. an eyelash. Gr. and put it through the over eyelydde. Lat. Censer. chauffer. . receipt. Prov. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. quarters for slaves. See Celibacy. Gr. K^'ivut. a shaft horse. and met. to burn incendo. parted sleep. to sepap rate. — A . and so of that other. to rate. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. -cense. with transposition hence (of a day). cella. to bury). irot\oe. sift. thronged the participle cretus. Fr. — . or expression of Ennius. to heat. Gr. cencer. capturn. to chafe. censura. concerner. to celebrate. from Saa-rw. eschattffer. census. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. ceremonia. deceit. -ciper. also grave opinion. rough from the quarry. 1. . pick out. -oept. incense. appertain. To Incense. Fr. and thence to conceal. hollow. Take the nedyll and threde. ' . and make them faste und the becke that she se not. Lat. eyelid. cretum. -cepere. Celerity.). called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. being taken from Fr. &c. concetto. much frequented. S.ing a room where there is not fire. -ceive. Fr. -CEIVE a shaft. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. Century. contend. to glow. point. empty. to be regarded as one celebro.j 138 thill. celer. to warm.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. or any bird's. to take. a numerous con. judge. festive. OFr. to contend. Lat. then to rub without reference Cement. observe. for building. confounded ist from It. a solemnity. /ctj/rsw. decide. calefare. abundance. Lat. It. cot. sile. Cell. in Marsh. mortar. Fr. Sc. and — — — possessions. a tomb. census. celeber certus. of heating. sacred show. Cot.

difficulty . chalanger. keffen. swelling with anger. to institute anforensic action. baras of ants.' Rayn. From Port. chaise. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. from of the G. to dispute. To buy and sell. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. ^Altieri. lime . fume. often puffing. tattle cheep. &c. From the To Chaff. crooked. with a:n arched roof. Pers. charge with. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. signal by drum or P. Fr. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. Fr. ing a hard case to their wings. Fr. De Ir4. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. refuse. — . Fr. chawe. to move the jaws. Fr. cadena gives chain. leviter crepo Then. to chatter or talk lightly. Fin. kahista. hght Chalk. ckapfare. From to go to law. chaene. Wall. Adelung. to buzz. a goba rustling .. kuhina. chambre. a prattling woaction. Chair.. Probably from According to Diez. dispute. limare. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. vis. Ayenbite. OFr. to ner It. thick and short. kiaftr. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. Lat. KoBiSpa. much more Genoese sagrind. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. clamare. rally one. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. a vault or arched roof. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. far lima-lima.sure carriage. a rustling noise. Prov. calice. . chamar. to babble. calonjar. grief. kiamta. rustling corn. calumnia. chaffare. puffed or ruffled with ly. Fr. kever. puff. sagri. kaff. chagrin. to a seat. Lat. Pr.— — . yap. cadena. matter by combat. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. kauchen. a pulpit. fern-chafer. kdfelen. rustling motion challenge. have a mind to parley. In like manto huff. to file. cauvette. Came. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. P. in a cana. Lat. chicane. Lat. hiss. catena. cathedra. green sagrin. snort. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. kdfer. calonja. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. to gnaw. to Latin calumniare. to puff and blow. a double operation * Chafer. to claim. call in question for an ley). breathe KaOa^oiiat. to calumpnjamen. Chalice. kaff. ON. G. chaulx.nium. great chafe. breathe hard. kahu. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. Kuttn. muzzle. chaire. chaps Chamber. dongio. cup. now a chair. false accusation. ple^. cam. Gr. taubes korn oder hafer. — — — — — — . to gnaw. The jaw chafty. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. khah. to bark. B. . . to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . 35. Piedm. Pat. idle words. Halma. a jackdaw. ing rapidly repeated cries. Chayire. talkative. to fret inwardtronfo. calix. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. . a pulpit Cot. that leneth e per I'autra. care. Prov. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. Due. kahuja. Perhaps Pm. and as this was the beginning of man. fa sagramen de calompnia. kuhuja. bargain. and signifies to consume with anger. also to prattle. sagrindse. refuse barley . Fr. Gr. Bav. or puff with snorting. a chough. kedja. Kaiiapa. to pant. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. Cheffern. chaine. Chagrin. lime. in a monstrous fume. havOFr. any insect of the beetle kind. keuchen. rustle Challenge. to call. sborfare. calx. Lat. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). as a carriage is a moveable seat. Lat.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. chafing. Fr. ceaf. camera. cadieira. care. Hal. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. kuhista. shaIt. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. G. songe. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. jaw. from Swiss kafeln. Du. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. Chain. place See Cheek. 11. ceafer. gewolb. Bouffard. to sit. Lat. Fl. much blowing. to action arose. on. snuff. hordeum vel let. a chain. — — ' — — — A . . In vulgar language. tattle. vel susurro. from the shark-skin. Fr. of. cadera. — — — . chatter. haggle. tronfio. — — — . kuhata. Du. Fr. Cot. Prov. kiqfta. p. Cot. as. to tattle. Camera. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. without chap/are makiinde. chayire. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. (ca'e'ra) to chair. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. contestation. E. grief. quisquilise offence. cathedra. chafeter. avena vilior. preise. to caw chawer. de Brai. So from dominio.

a warrior. kibti. CHANCEL It. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. kanip. kablys. Partnership. to flute as a column. to paw the ground E. Chancel. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. cancelli. prize-fighter. to Hal. —Chamfrain. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. excellent. kimpUma. Dief. kampeln. athlete. campear. schmatzen s. pinch. Champarty. and acted as inofficers of . kabMe. is explained by serrarsi. chajnbellan . chanfreindre. reusement — fight in single combat. fighting place. kapp. boys speak of capping verses. . to fasten on. — ^Tusser.—Charfron E. accidere. to happen {ad and cadere. cahir. contend or argue G. campus. kampa. at the railings. or player at football. to fall. which seems another form of the root. surpassing. to chew. Sp. a jaw kianisa. tsamtsogni. to move the jaws kiamt. dial. or less ignorant. difficulty . divided game.Lat. campar. kiinp. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. calida et sans aguet. champ. Sup. the chafldn.' ' Pr. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. dial. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . champion Du. to strive at games . Fr. accident. cempa. fight. game campio. wood. Fr. Hence (with the nasal) w. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. therewithal. to fasten oneself to another . to quarrel (comp. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . contention kappi. To hollow out in chanPtg. . M. Champion. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. Champaign. slope of a bevelled angle. to bevel. zs jeopardy. broil. to — — champ. escazenza. termediaries between them and the judge. chanfrar. a field of battle. . So in e. camp. contest. Prov. See Camp. ing. fray. The E. camp. Chancery. kriimmen gebogen. — masterly Sp. — Hal. i. Lith. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. rare. kimpustella. sukibti. campus partitus . kimbu. Fin. to smack the lips in eating. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). Commonly derived from campus. Magy. . and mesUe. kimppu (Lap. Lat. Carpentier. gekrUmmt. . To cope or contend with. The G. chamble. from Fr. chain. pedilusor. kabinti. to to chew champ. champ. dial. dial. a feat. chaude mesUe. to hold . calidameya. bundle. to hollow out. camerlengo. chamfrain.edley. nels. Chance-n3. to talk. an athlete. from chaud. E. hamper. Pm. e. mesleiare. keiiipe. chance. a game at football. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. s. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. The word is preserved in E. Campar. jeu parti. Lat. Du. To Chamfer. Meleare. to debate. kempa. G. hng. dispute Hal. dial. act of falling. ciambellano. kabe. ON. Champ. a hollow chanfreiner. received the petitions of the suitors. to groove bevel off a right angle. hero Sw. certare. Fr. gewolbt. cample). . as swine. . jocus partitus. from cheoir. . kempen. dricka i kapp. Lat. to stick to. zampettare. to hang. champ. Chancellor. — KiL . When the to quarrel. to cample. kappd). to be eminent. to slope. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. who stood ad cancellos.' SherI'altro ' ' . compound. ON. kampen. kabintis. cadere. E. top of a borehole. Ptg. chance. to wrestle. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. fight. to wrestle. — Ch-amberlain. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. head armour. a hook .140 CHAMBERLAIN . kippo. move the jaws. Gall. Prov. camp. Sp. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . to fall).' melleia. Lat. bickering. cazer. chanfrein. champ. cameratus. giving rise to the as. ciamberlano. to fasten oneself on to another . kiammi. Fr. a horse-race. a court of justice. hot. The happening of things Chance. as in It.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. Fr. chdance. tsammogni. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. Fr.—Tutschek. chanfrein. caer. Get campers a ball To camf . champ parti. to excel. to . to tread The sound heavily. ON. kampeln. a scufSe. luctare. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. combat. It will. kinipen. to slope out the . Chamfron. a bundle.

waterconduit. Fr. . and also to chap or crack. It is also used in the sense of the E. A fellow. Lat. Chaps or chops. Probably from chap. ceaplas. to cut up into small pieces. See Chop. Prov. Channel. exchange. from chandler. wood. Hence chantry. a chap is a crack or fissure. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. Chapel. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. cheek. as to chap hands. camjar. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. to spht a chip. E. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. cangiare. or the like chapar. jaw. properly in a hard body. Chop. cambiare. Chape. . gab. changer. to cut off . to chap at a door. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. to peck. Hal. is used in the same sense . to deal. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. ceaflas. kvar kjceften. and the modern canal. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. shift. to strike. muzzle. chop. — — —Marculfus in Due. cambium. to sing. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. from canna. exchange. as It. Sp. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. the loose flesh of the cheeks. Russ. 140. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. the mouth. leather. to change. kjaakaa. to paw like a horse . to truck. Molbech. kappen. Fr. to creak. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. the clappers of the scupper holes. to put on fresh clothes. chapelete de una bomba. cobio. To Change. to swap. to break . while the broader vowels a. jaw. — . These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. to peck. Sc. chapear. chaps. kaupa. Du. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. And N. hack . to plate. . Lang. ON. a dealer in candles then. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. Commonly derived from capella. a reed. Sp. the gutter that runs along a street. Da. may be compared with ON. ^Jam. Fr. AS. extended to other trades. a strip of metal plate. a money-changer. chiappa. as chancery . Da. I. as corn-chandChandry. chancery. to cut. throat of an animal. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. chapilla. exchange schimbatoriu. kemma. Man of Law's Tale. chapa. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. —Ordericus Vitalis. kennel. to — cut. to hack. a small metal plate Port. chapeletas de imbornales. Hence It. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. not a soul. schimbd. . a small plate of flat metal. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. as those on a trunk. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. cambiar. to coat. from clap. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. Walach. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. kiceft. hard bodies. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. Cheek. a jaw. skipta. . the place where candles ler. In like manner Walach.^. Aasen. chancellerie. Lith. See Chant. are kept. flat . like the knocking of hard things together. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. lips of an animal. chap. Chip. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. the chaps . That wide were sentin their spicery. chanter. Fr. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. Chandler. kapoti. prune. clapet. Bret. Chap. klepan. chandelier. to strike. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. Hal. surfaces striking together. canalis. a pipe. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. chapeta. to plate. also a clap. schimbu. chop. to apply one flat thing to another. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. 2. Chap. —Chantry. cantare. — : Lat. debeant conjurare. to strike with a sharp edge. Chap.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. esclapo. or the cracking of one. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . kiceft as well as kjakje. chap. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. Compare chark. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. esclapa. W. any hollow for conveying water. as skin chapped hands.

The crash. (eucharistie. Chapman. to load . Character. gaggle . . carus. charlatan. Lay on. Boh. as a beetle. From Norm. cedeleac. chapel. corona. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. es ist mi cheer. chirlar. chat. Charlatan. capellare. to prattle. from Charade. A weed among com AS. carmen. Lat. turn. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. babdistinction. a cricket karkti (schnarren. twist. w. It. caritas. to sing or chirp as birds. Chark. a merchant. return. carmo. it is my turn. Chapter. to turn Gael. properly to place — . beloved. twitter. kirkti. Yx. — a car. car. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. a head or division of a book. ceap-man. kurkelis. Sup.' Boccaccio in Diez. decken. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. called kedlock. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. a rhyme. — spell. Deutsch. Chare. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman .czirksti. to chirp. surris seu Lat. chatter. to turn. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. And damned be he who first cries Hold. dim. to of the governing body. a verse. clack.charme. talking.Lat. chirriar. eapitulo. from gadai. Gr. charitas. a The OFr. — — — turned to coal. Sp. condo il volgar francese. It. chatter. from capitulum. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. . came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. from carrus. to prattle. Du. Bret. See Charlatan. czurksti. czurliwoti. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. Fr. which was incantation. . tegere. chirk. * Charcoal. creak. The G. to creak. to tattle. the nature of a thing. used in the sense of magic Fl. Charlock. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. prattling quacksalver. creak. a charm. Fr. Lang. cluck kirklys. to charcoal.. It. capitolo. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. Sp. cha. canne. Chirk. as Pol. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. a garland of roses. schreien. chapitre. keeren. in To ness Charity. to croak as a frog . a turn cerran. as. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. babbling. Chaplet. Sp. charlar. cluck. Mid. Charade. char. go. to chirp. chara. charge an enemy is to lay on. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. a mark of a mountebank. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. the turtle pitre. jabber.whirr. Swiss. It. Lat. Lat. An enchantment. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. Charcoal was ciarlare. a mark made on a thing. bler. Mundart. charade. In that work the verb is written caire. wreath for the head. and in It. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. kurkti. cabildo. from capa. seems to be derived charade. colliers that charred coal. a riddle. Macduff. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. karout. pohadka. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. Fr. to . capital. cearcian. hadka. affection. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. Inst. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. w. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. a hood. gnash. cerran. Ptg. eyre. ject). Fr. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. that turned decken . 2. called in Sp. charer. ghirlanda seor garland. a riddle. for the same reason rosario. siarad (pronounced — sharad). charger. from cape or cope. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. AS. carregar. tattler. To Char. of chapel. ciarlatore. Lith. dear. capella. See Cheap. caricare. hiss Lith. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. be- e. a dispute . charcoal burners. Prov. . cher um cher. enough. turn about. czirbti. to talk . in turns. Cot. . carricare. krachzen). to converse. Hence carminare. &c. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . to chirp as sparrows. to dove .). to love. —— . dear(in both senses). grave or make incised marks on an ob. burning without consuming the substance. Fr. wood to coal. Charge. gadka. cam. AS. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. OE. chapelet. occasional turn. Justin. 370.

nome and . To Chase. the bird is iiown. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. chisf. or the cry of a bird or the like. Chasm. a chatter-box. Chat. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. gallan or ogan. shout OE. to baptize.— Chit. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. caro. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. The egg is chipped.— Chatter. chip. blackthorn-chats. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. flesh. csaterdzni. be wide open. karigh. To work plate as silversmiths do. as turnip-chaits. knatiern. It. sordidus. to chirp. chikat'. warble. Pm. to crack. the noise of birds. czysty. whence a charm of goldfinches. . g. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. See Cistern. a branch. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. enchasser. also a youth. castus. csacsogany. geug. Malay. Lat castigare. cs E. —Chastise. chair. To Chase. Kil. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. crackle. tittle-tattle.). Kil. discourse. — Fr. jackdaw . It. a yawning. cyrm. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. clear. chary. a crack or a flaw . charmer. charm. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. the young shoots . Russ. Fr. chit. snap.). or pop. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. Du. a churchyard or charnel-house. fragments or leavings of food. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. nommer. — The . from xoAn. Cot. carme and Fr. gazzettare. CHATS fit 143 to name. ferire. V. kna. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. i. to clap. carmen is presented in AS. to burst open. to enchase it . a young man .house. Chary. pure. or a bird out of the egg. —Bailey. to care). Parallel with E. chip. To chitter or chipper. knacken. Fr. —Charter. or equivalent forms. chit-chat. So in Gael. niggardly. a gap. to chatter or prattle . It. splinters. as purgare Fr. To Chasten. as in the E. to chirp as a bird to cheep. — — . to set a jewel. schioppare. OE. D. gazeuiller. %aafi. to wet. to crack. cassa s. chatter. prattle. pure. kata-kata. warble. fragments. xi'i-'^vui. a shrine for a relic. as we speak of olive branches. ch&tier. . also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. little sticks cudere. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . See Catch. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. from pure.a. It t. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. Fl. a twig Suffolk chaits. chits. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. talk.ppen. clean. noise. gaddc. chick. to chirp. is to represent the chamier. Cot. karg. Chaste. An imitative word. also to hatch. G. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. — Yorkshire chat. Diez. to make a noise. a plate of metal. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. Pol. clatter. chick. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. Lat. letters p. tenax. talk much . then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. ch). cearig (from cearian. It. a word. incassare. parcus. racket . chasse (another form of caissej see Case). to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. csacsogni. chykkyn (Pr. —Jam. pure. Fl. noise. Fr. — = Chats. occasionally Forby. See Card. as. kippen. Hal. chit in the latter sense Du. the calix of a rose. — sharp sound of a crack. clap. From carinen was formed It. B. clack. castus. to talk. to which it bears the same relation as chape. as from nomen It. Fr. carnisj bones kept. in Jam. kata. clean. gazzogliare. shivers. chip. germinate . — We ornamental work the to signify E. To chip is then to crack. la chasse d'une rose. to gape. to cut and faggoted. Chat-wood. gadu-gadu. to cry as a chicken . make a noise as birds do. — Hal. from purus. Pol. a branch and a young female. gazzolare. careful.. clean. whistle. chaste. prate. speak . chat. used to represent a sharp note. also to germinate or spring forth. To chit. limpid. eclats. Magy. To talk. Gr. Chart. to separate in morsels. magpie. or suckers on rough borders. an enchantress. the cry of the bat. the handle of a razor . — Palsgrave. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. gazzerare. converse. chaste. a flock of those birds. root of the Lat. csatora (Magy. scraps of for fuel. s. In like manner Russ. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. Chamel. kastaa.

where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. OFr.. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. kek. sense of bargaining. cachinnari. kik. — To check an account. are represented piti. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. choule. ceaflas. cera. cattle. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. a willing look and unwilling heart. a dealer in horses. s. Hence to cheat. Chew. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. &c. kak. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse.—Choke. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. and. price. from AS. kakaista.ing. Cam. chapman. whence captale. welcome heartily.— Chaps. Fr. Ek dry and hard. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. jaws. sale. to vomit. cozener. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. goods. to buy. syllables ^ag-. lead to OE. e. Sc. Chear. . Fl. Cheek. kichen. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. to chop and change. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. entertain kindly. to act as a rogue. stuttering. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. ceahhetan. to nauseate (to retch). bon marche. Soc. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . . aspect of a man. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du.. and hence the E. chavylbone or chawlbone. to coup s. frown. to make inarticulate sounds in . to buy. . to stutter gigken. kakkaset. Fr. cara.— Chole. sob E. chatal. ceafl.' kezen.— . catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. stuttering. the face. G. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. a cheater. . Faire bonne chire. teeth . — We ' . retching. ku. kaufen. chuckle. countenance. Pr.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. to negotiate. the Lat. gagkern. ceap. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. kikottaa. OFr. Lat. us. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. kaupiti. to cough and hence either buying or selling. Chattels. the principal ' colloquial E. giggling. force of the word. prattlingchete. to cluck like a hen.of the throat in coughing. caupo. to — . in Fr. Cheat. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. It. the tongue. a tavern-keeper. to fetch the breath with difficulty. Fin. Du. to laugh. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. entertainment. society. Ingulphus. chiere. Then. which is used in the to stutter. to deal ON. visage. upon a checked cloth. to coff—Yisi. gagkezen. The gutGoth. with Dief. 'li^'opa jord i jord. to swap goods . Check. keck. kaupa. cattle. See Cheek. agreeing upon. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. cattle. Cot. koopen. It — Brompton in Due. chop. kok. chatel. snout. goods. a canting knave. a dealer. Slav. changing. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. sum in a loan. It. horse-couper. Modern Slang. tradesman. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. kaupon. equiva. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. from Lat. — — —Chowl. cheeks. a repulse. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. chire. mandibula. Bohem. citello.' to exchange to gasp. Pm. any cheating. a piece of moveable property. dchec. NE. chear in the sense of victuals. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. chaptel. lower. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. Pro v. Sp. with the exception of land. cita. to clear the throat . giving or taking in exchange. hawkmann.. favour. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. the Confessor.kakot. truffa. 144 the It. capitale. kauf. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. CHEEK zitella. thers. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. KaviiXog. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. gig. look. catalliim. jaw. to . Gr. laughing. exAS. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. Hal. Bav. a young boy or girl. a rogue or person who used the canting language. in widely separated languages by the Lat. the countenance Fr.— Cattle. et juxta catalla sua. which is the word in ceap. while it Bret. farm for farm. CHATTELS has ciio. See Chess.-^. .

EP CHEVRON 145 on. OHG. prevail with. cyse. caseus. cheek. cegio. Chevisance.G. cough. rennet. giffle. nish source. Fr. Lat. kastanie. to kep. G.peep in the same sense. kopen.). e. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. equal squares of opposite colours. kasa. accomplishment cayed. gaghel. veluti piscium. — — . achever. takes place in the formation of cheese. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. things Da. as. throat. kirsche. quok. Sc. dear. . whence kasa-leipa. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. chesten.Xo belch. Chef. the The use of the word kcesir. to love. Tutschek. make an end. (Kil. rafters in heraldry. &c. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. to geahl. Analo. to hold dear. chests in OE. Sp. practice seems to have been communiChevron. caru. mollium congeries.pose of acidifying them kasadr. by laying it in come to an agreement with. old bread. czypti. cheek. geagl. Lith. kces. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. Sc. AS. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. then end. kasiiUPr. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. AS. chiffe. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. throat. E. kjceve. ca' — .. geafl. Kil. frame by which the exertion is made. See Case. jaws.perly head. kastr. to swallow. Fr. Fin. jouffle. Chevaux de frise. Prothroat of an animal . the final guttural is retained in writing. N. Jam. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. ceocian. to choke with laughter. castaneusj Fr. — — . ceg. It would Cheese. cista. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. kikna. Sp. suffo. chasi. gill of fish AS. Du. chops. cheken. cherir. ceaflas. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. subacidus. chevir. Cherish. subjected to this process with that which the throat . like a young chicken. Lith. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. whence czypulas. incaseatus. Lat. to gape gab. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. xaque. to bring to an end. kjakje. ceaplas. AS. Lat. kjcebe. cireggia. kdke. acquisition. kistej Lat. rupted into chess. to heap up such things for the purchoke. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. chAtaigne. E. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. — — . caws. kaecke. kapen. chops. Hence kikna is identical with OE. Sw. Fris. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. a heap. hasten. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. The Sw. rattle in the throat. ceac. /Ji2^/(W. gullet. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse.cirieggia. Fr. w. CHE. See Chess. chaps.koppen. cese. carnium. ichec. Pm. cerasus. for cheese itself. ation. to accomThis they call hdrsk. Pl.D. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. Chess.D. jaw. dersen . In these latter forms we see the transIt. jowl. To make a shrill noise Chest. cerise j G. a rafter . the mouth. cheek. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. Lat. Sw. Chekenyd or querkenyd. cams. G. mouth kek.their struggle for independence. Prov. kdkel. king). kikna of dorum coacervatio. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . Cher. kesten. squeak as a mouse. to prevent the attack of cavalry. . cheeks. F*-. As the board to gasp i. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. as meat and butter. The name of creak as shoes. schach. X'C&s. cabiron. From them the plish. cabrio. cisty G. Da. It. Du. the hke. to belch. . Fr. treat with affection. to make a noise different word. to gasp. ON. cufd. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. gap. made rancid koka. to choke. a cricket. skratt. . ost.. a chicken. Achievement. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. An imitative word. . clear the throat. scacco. gapen. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. the loose the game of checks. jaws Sw. See Alchemy. jaw. chevron. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. Cherry. schach. to year. jaw . who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. food. Thus "we are brought din. the palate Chequer. — 10 . by laying up in a covered heap. the neck. to boken. gous forms are G.' to w. the throat. E. gabe. kok. To Cheep. quoka. Chemistry. w. to kasa. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. Hence chesten-nut. w. Fr. E. condition of being taken. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de.

pip. 146 brial. to contest about trifles. zitterti. to contest. ]). a jaw. caput. creak. To Chide. ultimate origin of the Mite. cheek. Du. It. kauchen. ach. then cold. kilderkin. jaw. queror. from the first of which is Lith. Gattel. a hen. caprioru. to chirp or peep like a chicken. antler. the rim or edge of a vase. . tiukkata. killen. to raise the rim. kitista. Fin. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. Pm. chimb. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. mouth. chicken. has probably the same origin. or the broken noise of birds. also the horizon. the head. Lat. quivering sound which passes.— Gattel. Tintillo. The Pl. chill. CHEW . by driblets. horn wood. greloter is to shiver for cold. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. rafter . CHJME the radical form is unusual. Chime.^ to resound as a bell. E. k'imm s. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. chiler.). a chicken. or as E. tiuk. chillrar. Fin. choule. A To Chew. a little bit. to chime. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. gills of a fish. twitter. tiukkua. kimista^ . Now gan some courage unto him to take. De chic en chic. Du. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. De finger killet mi for kalte. Russ. Kil. Imitative of a loud clear sound. Chigue. kimia. pi. kauen. and not vice versd. cabar beinne. sonorous. tintelen van koude. chikat'. Halm. — . knirschen. kippa. cabar. head. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. capete. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. to crackle. Chief.^ Hal. keichen. kouwe. Chaw. grelot). chicaner. 'Among these the G. kaw. kop. — It. chic. chef. kopf Du. the throat. to chew. hiss as meat on the gridiron. Fr. alter.. To chitter. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. to twitter. to Du.. — Fin. chiquei. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. to go. a cup. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. captain. pole. Payer chiguet A chiguet. W. jaws . Sp. jaw. kauwe. term is ssaru fu. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. the least imaginable jot. Fl. to scold. kibr.D. kindeken. deer's horn. or chick. chieftain. chillness or shivering. chaps. stake. kieken.— . a cup. gosling. to the brim. capo. — — Mother Hubbard. Chimb. machouere. czypulas. G. a finch. Child. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib.D. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. pipe. knit the brow cib-led. capu. into a continuous shriU sound. Palsgr.. — Du. chavel. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. the young of animals in general. from little to little. kuwe. Brezza.' my finger tingles with cold. branchy. signifying properly shivering. a small cask OFr. in Walach. are formed Du. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. a chicken. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. as. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. or qf people talking rapidly. a quid of tobacco. chew or chaw. Probably from Fr. pipio. cica cica. tyuk. pululo. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. to titter is Du. : — a lump. E. Fr. killen. Da. Pr. the cry of young .peep. chawbone. Pm.-ill. strideo. chavel. cabriones. AS. tremble. Pr. horns of the house. Fr. Fl. klagend tonen. chol. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. Pl. a head. when the vibrations become very rapid. knarren. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. to use the jaws. ' . G. And hence. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. chillar. Fin. Chill. cib. to smart. kind. Walach. to pettifog. while the Magy. kinderen. .— Cot. Magy. cild. while didder is to shiver or citteren. Chitter. For the see word Doit. w. the jole. kimme. pipio. from the second Lat. a chicken. acute. See Chimmer. kidata. Prov. Gael. kaau•wen. cap. The loss of the syllable it in Du. Chick. Bret. and from the third E. tiukka. kime. cidan. cabarach. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. rafter . then as G.. crepo. the same principle I regard On birds. chicoter. cebr. s. chin. to gasp for breath (Hal. as pointing out the origin of the E. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. mountain top . rafter. lead through the synonymous E. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . caferu. beam. E. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. aner. the Ptg. a young bird. tremble with cold. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. . The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. a cup cibaw. Swiss kiden.

also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. stridere. genou (pi. bx-eak the back of schena. Gascoigne in Todd. to gape. sound. and chim-mer. eschiner. cisaille. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. Chit. which differ from each other only as Chirk. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . Huloet. to chirp . We make of a French niff an English chitterling. cisello. Chat. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. See Chap. fyr. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. to creak. gena. ykvvQ. It. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate.. Chitterling. caperd.czirbti. sonants. schetteren. simmer. — . killed by Bellerophon. a Kuttn. spina. Magy. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. See Chats. the whooping cough. to murmur. To Chitter. — . Sp. backe. Diez de. Chink. eschin^e (de pore). cheminde. a thorn. the cheek (jaw) . schetteringe. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. Prov. the jaw. cinan. yivtiov. Chimney. then to any narrow crack or AS. vincially used in the sense of a crack. hiss chirlar. Fr. chits. hus. as the chink of money. Ptg. pork) . Hindost. to chirre. . — . a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. Fr. Gower in Hal. in Hal. G.sharp. clashing of weapons. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. and bodily movement in shimm. chatter . kinne.to divide or Du. do. hiss Pm. It. tremulous motion. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. rustle. quavering of the voice. plodere. and the Du. a surkik hosta. See Bright. kink hoest. applied to tremulous motion. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. It. — . caminata. to sound. gen. cleft. a fire-place. In the same sense. to creak. squittire. but or cry as a parrot. i. and from a similar sound to boil gently. twinkling light. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. to chink with laugh2. Du. to sizel. kumina. chhint. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. resonance . 147 kimina. representing connected together. The change from the sound ter \s. companied. from Lat. tsengeni. E. kieck hoest. The small entrails of a hog. Lat. Kil. j^lf. Pm. to sound deep or the Gr. bone . a chink or fissure. zirken. crepare. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. Chine.). from 10 * ' Chia. shiver and the chyver of Pr. Chintz. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . Bav. clipping of coin.iron. clangor tinniens kummata. To chink with laughter. Pr. up and down.' Phaer's Virg. dial. — — — — — . originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. cheek. esquina.to chirp. epine. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. E. A .er. all these imitative terms being minata. Fr. . Chyrme or chur. a hall Mid. Cot. sonus the backbone Lat. See Chark. chirp. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. . Chymerynge. ciseau (for cisel). in the same crack. Sp. tinnire. Chink-cough. and light. as the/ is preserved tering. . eschine. to prattle czirpti. Sp. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. To Chimmer. then of a fabulous monster part goat. kumista. or chyFrigutus. G. Primarily a shrill sound. the cheek. the mouth (jaws) . Chisel. the chin . pare also Walach. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. Du. Caminatum. tsongeni. a thorn. Fr. to simmer. The desig. backBut she withal no worde may soune. Chimera. To chirp or twitter. as a bell kommata.schricken. schiena. Sw. schrick. to squeak in It. caminsects. chink. cincel. name Then. Chitter. chick. from the geon's lancet. to tremble. to tattle. as birds the mouth. disCot. as a large bell . to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. have been used to designate the spine. twitter caminus. Chip. sparkle. AS. zirpen. KinneGr.Huloet in Hal. sounding deep. Gloss. czirszkti. ter. klincken. keich husten. Chin-coug^h. fissure. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. hollow.. spina. the jaw. Bret. schina. genawi. also vibrans. . sound on beginning to boil. verynge or dyderinge. skina. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. cinne. It. to chine. are In like manner E. quivering or shakyng for colde. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. et garrire . It. the chine. to open chirriar. Lith. chin . flaw Hal. a szemrcU. tschirpen. to chink. ciarlare. komista. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. Fr. a crowing sound in recovering breath. Sp. part lion.Lat. komia. to prattle . to chirp. esquena. a chap.

to taste. and N. try. xiv. ent quarter. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. taste.' At last he dwelt . —Chorus. propagated. gdnse gekrose. cepa. the small parts of the roots of plants. Prov. friller. cke.. g'schochet voll. — Chock-full. Gr. in the same language. Swiss kust. to ^cleave . full. keuren. schiefer. a wine taster. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. . kiesen. gekrose. chawdron. cut up into — See Chats. Choleric. as green as leeks.yEuffM. . 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. chorus. cape. from kraus. pluck. and It. As kushnuti. or original meaning is preserved in G. curly . ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. then to try. kaup. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. to try . chceur. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. chaup. causir. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. &c. Yr. Gr. a calf's pluck or chaldron . to break off in small shive. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. seallion or unset leek. The . — — — . kushevati. a chive. ^euw. Swab. coro. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. bile. of E. shiver. a ruff or frill. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. from %u\i). and Vf. to try. to hack.' Verie coinme Cot. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. kiezen. kiusan.. to experience. The I go to prove them. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. approve. as with a blow. okusyti.D. chock full. kustigen. to choose. to stop geschoppt voll. ments of the knightly class. to chap at a door . &c. to taste. a fragment. to prove. ruffs. it is probable that the root kus. CHOP kros. a calf's chaldern of E. x^poc. taste. Chuck-full. to tempt. kieser.gust. G.ceosan. . to strike hands . arkiusan. kruszki. Serv. by the vibrations of sound or motion. to try. whence choleric. developments of the same radical image. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. %o\ifa. and in this sense the * small pieces. Fr. wein didder for cold. koren. gusten. to ing is doubtless to taste. the inwards of an animal. 2. called cMtters in the N. Gr. skifa. then to shiver. word is more likely to be from Lat. krussyi. all seem slate . to chap. specially with an application to theatrical performances. to exchange horses. Schmid. to Compare also Pol.' who shall not taste death. an onion. The manners and senti. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. Chivalry. a company of singers or dancers. . kbhren. and in kosten. * To Choose. To Chop. to turn. signify to kiss. Lat. heaped measure. from chevalier. See try. are used in the same sense. chattering. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . of an angry — — — ' ' — . a goose's giblets. 19. kalbs gekrose. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. to taste . a twittering. to try. chife. . chippe. chimp. a rag. anger.— B jag E. . to taste. Cavalry. kusid. Choice. G. experience valerie. a scale or fragment P1. to clap up Hal. coup. To Choke. — See Cheek.V)^x. civette. to taste. the ridges prove. Fr. kushati. kiusan. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . Jam. by which they are Fr. Walach. kausjan. rare. scheve. ^S. Warwickshire coff. keypa. . wrath. a ruff. wkusit' prikushat. a knight. haslets. select. The Sc. to shiver. a heap.vonic languages are Pol.freze. a small slice or slip of anything . Choice is probably direct from Fr. schoch. Body and Soul. •- Russ. to taste. Fr. chiffe. prove. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. Goth. kor6n. Enn Sigridur sem ' . whence Lat. lead us on to Lat. a blow. try. ON.ffrill. full to overflowing. G. fine threads of flowers. also calPs. to wrinkle. — Cholera. choix. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. gustare. crammed Choir. pieces . Chap. caperd. ON. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. i. shoot . Chives. Boh. chap hands. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. chibble. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. cive. a young . fresure. Luc. OHG. I. chatter. disposition. to palpitate . Chives are also a kind of small onion. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. Equivalents in the SlaFr. choppe. chives. schevel-steen.

kaufen. cob. soul-couper. capito. xop5>}. clat.' Jam. to strike in the hand. Fr. the string of a musical instrument originally. kauwe. syllables chat.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. -chron-. Fr. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. in i6io. Fr. connected with G. thick-set. In Sc. kaulhaupt (club-head. Fr. Borgoens happen. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. high clog. as Du. overset. ley in Giiford. capitanus. short piece kubbug. I bring you the Cloughs. capita. a trafficker in souls. time ra . copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. kowej Sax. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. i. chack. XpvaaXic. of which such strings are made. we find the following passage Dap. . See Change. Chord. Nominale in Nat. Chrysalis. chevane. E. Kil. a messenger or envoy. — Quabbe. clogs. to speak thieves' slang. and we actually find champman for chapman. whence — E. to overturn. . 4. — Chrisom. ceo. to clack. monedula. cambiare. chevane. ON. E. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. caphatenus. chouette. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. dealing. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. Cot. xftovoq. To Chouse. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. Peace. applied to an owl in that language. traffic. Marin. cavena. cangiare. kowe. Wall.. chuet. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. for to defraud. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. gull. chrysalis (Plin. chronicles. by the Robert Shirley. forms are Chrism. one who buys and sells horses or cows.— Chevin. Gr. thumb Fl. kubbr. e. Chopino. choucas. Anachronism. Madam. gull. plump. sent before him a Chiaus.— Landnamabok.X. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. gobio capitatus. See Chaff. chub. Gr. to cant. dial. xpi'^lia. OE. chatter . that will thank chiaus — you richly. whence apparently the Sup. That Face. — .' They are forebuyers of quheit. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. the intestine of an animal. cow-couper. noble Doctor. cauvette j Fr. Chronicle. Du. Jam. cresmeau. chop. which was written 27. prattle . a bullhead. 49. Lat. To coup. merchant. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. to knock. cheviniau. Alchemist. the teeth to chatter . the same word with the It. — — — . The Turk was here As one should say. chouquette. chapineria. kobe.sohola. kaw. &c. chroniques. fat. dial.—Chuokstone. equivalent to the E. a small fish with a large head. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. caqueter. peace. or miller's kaycke . caker. G. quappe. Picard. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman.. capitone. civetta. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. a stump. Confounded with the bullhead. ' ' What's that? Dap. to chatter. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. Gr. From the Turkish Chiaus.povucd. because she would not endure this husband chopping. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. a The What dhy ^. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. who took in the Turk- clack. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. e.). chapma?i. klopper. If I discover. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. Sp. a lump or piece chump. — Dief. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. from kloppen. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. slipper . pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. Chough. bearand aits. cauc. kaej Lith. AS. To Chop logick. —Shakespeare. to turn over. A fish with a thick snout and head.\^s. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . yiSA. an offence against the fitness of times.). A jackdaw. klompe.(. koppe. p. whence e. cheap. What do you think of me.• — . chrisme. claquer. kubb. kolbe (club). P. Chuck. Du. a thick piece. Gr. Sw. whence the Fr. in Chaucer. E. Fr. chapin. In the Alchemist. Chub. chevin. Come. Ant. gold. E. as in Fr.

chuffy.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. .V//a'6'?. ceorl. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. In Sc. x^^i?. then the on oh StX iv roXt. to sparkle. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. to Newsp. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. to strike clatter. a lump. but by way of explan. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. surly. Du. Jennings. ON. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. a rustic . a fellow. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . cinders used disjunctively. Du.' he adds. &c. The spelling of chider has Chump. to separate the kernel of the milk. AS. accido. Aasen. whence ON. comp. The origin ation. It is certain. dust. sive piratiam facere sciant. cidre. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. kiorne. has been impugned which it has really no connection. e. whence church. ChurL husbandman. sicera. ciuffo. . but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. to determine incision. the snout of an animal. — — A — ' ' — .' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. Lat. to fall upon decide. tindra. to To Chuckle. ON. gffe. a pebble . domhnach. the kernel.rendered by Kil. giffle. Wall. to turn from blossom to fruit. kirna. from Lat. Churn. Sw. Cleland in Jam. kernjen. G. geaflas. so as to make the happen . -eris. Lat. male person. klakka. to cause the milk to grain. — of the two words. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description).' And cold. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. &c. thence a belt. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. to form grains of butter. Fr. that the word is an adoption of Fr. cinis. . i. Probably from It. swollen or puffed up Cot. i. AS. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. jaws. Fr. chaps. Lat. to make a aiKipa. kjami. ceaflas. Diss.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. sinter. a miser. joffu. KvptaKolg. cinctus. log of wood. dial. Cider. -cis-. Ir. Lat. Cieling. chofe (Grandgagnage). as Fr. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. blow on the I io6 in Mur. -cise. to gird. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. pith. chife. tie about). to make a rippling noise. chakil. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. whence deciduous (of trees).with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder.— Chu%. in the face. from Lat. marrow. chofu. as Epkema explains it. -cide-. ccedo. cinctura {cingo.— . . that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. as a board. G. countryman. Da. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. The derivation from Kvpiasov. -cido. kerl. cado. to him a sudden blow. sindel. Hence -cid-. flower. calculus. incido.^. Fris. as in E. Gr. to fall. KaxXij?. chops. a cutting an old chuff.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. sindra. to fall at or on. . See Ceiling. As AS. in Sc. an old man. — . ceffore. set kerti. to throw out sparks. cut off. casum (in comp. with It the Lord's house. as water running over rocks or stones. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. sintel. have given rise. 24. however. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. in circumcision. Sc. lamak. a cutting round.. or. e. cheek. calx. to churn. Du. or choice part of a thing . Chunk. Cob. cheeks Cincture. ceaplas. cendre. ashes. a resounding object. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. sindr. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). fat-cheeked. Wall.D. joufflu. scoria. ceffo. . a man. Gr. -cisuiri). See Cheek. a pebble. * Cinder. spuma metalli. a girding on.for the residue of stone coal. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. To chuck in the fall from. kern. a man. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. Sicerawry face ceffata. C^z^j^ churHsh. to cut decide. to jaw chack or snap. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . a douse on the tores. a man. pp. we have to chack. Gothic nations. OFr. residue of burnt coals. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. Chuff. a husband. chack or stane-chacker. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. See Cheek. Church. kakka. ladre from Lazare. chack-stone. karl. ON. Ka-^aiva. kaerle.

Comp. a loud uksa slamketi. creak les dents. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). to gnash the teeth. a ball. a citizen . to bawl. ern. clamp. domern. Excite. cit^. a cistern. a lemon tree. klqb. crack. as. G. We . circum. dob. Hence Incite. tinnitus . a young and tender plant. Dan. rattle. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. a hiding-place. as caverna from cavus. a block. . clamras. circle. to call by name. to make to go. civitas. civis. twig. to chatter. log. crack. the door was slammed J slamem. cion. chatter . lump. cisterna. . cifra. a circle. chijfre. claquer. a pop-gun. KpiKoe. a circle. —Civil. a circle. sip. cista. . . to cleanse. klateren. Circle. So a light. Cite. Dan. a for water. . To Clack. uproar. Sw. ON. Fr. chupon. clot ON. to call. with an initial s instead of c. glamm. Fr. Chaste. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. claquer. clapping of klacke. slam. The notion of a lump. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. lump. sound- — hands figures. scion. Citadel. klater-busse. Lat. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. It. klemte. circum. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. is traced by Gr. a lump Lat. belonging to cities or social life .. ball kloben. Circum-. sound. Gael. Lat. klak. chupon. a lump Du. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. Sp. or clap-dish. ON. a ring. to cluck. ter. clack. rattle . From Arab. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. accordingly find the roots dab. circ2tlus. to strike. gutter. circa. to knock. clamp. Lat. may cite w. a clod Russ. compared with It. Mack. lump. to set in motion by means of the voice. ruin. biw. cieo. cittade. It. stimulate. a city. . to go. Arab. klappe. a kind of pipe. klap. clap. sprig. klepati. wasserkasten (water chest). a reservoir Probably from Lat. klabb. Citron. a place See place hiddern. kringr. W. a whip. ring. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. and Sp. clambar. Fr. to summon or call on. prattle. Sw. civilis. See Crankle. in the frequentative form. clack-box. Clump. city. . In Fr. vociferation. dim. babble . Tlie proper sense is a sucker. lucerna. cittd. ON. noise. a clod. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. clobyn. KipKog. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. to call. claquer crash. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. Lat. clamer. citujn. Gael. prattle. City. The Gr. a whirlwind. Lap. globus. a rattle . claim. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . sound of blow. a cleansing place. trunk. clack. castus). as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. a judgment cern. bunch . and. and clash. klacken. scion or sucker. glambar. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. fall. Scion. klekotati. cry out . around. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. sindri. and E. Lat. Hal. a city. Gr. clatCot. lump. to mention. kringla. a knob. . a boss . the place of . clack-dish. &c. whence cistiti. from chupar. to chatter . -cite. lump of wood or with the nasal. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. to chatter. a block. mass .— . a kind of rattle. hringr. klumbr. kluV. to cry out. a mass. excite. We . lash . E. radical identity of the Fr. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. Gr.to suck. — (Dozy) ing blow. a rattle Fr. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. cry. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. Clamp. Clam. suck). klump. sajira. empty Golius. To Claim. as in Sp. a ball. around. klompe. a'upiav. clap. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. See -cid-.' sione. to appeal. 'mass. crack. Du. klappen. . area. See Circle. or split with noise. klopati. . a Pol. Cot. The syllables clap. of citta. citrus. noise — — a cistern. * Ciplier. Alt. clamare. to be empty. Bohem. bunch. to clap at a theatre. clasp. about. sifr. Lat. -cis-. klambr. claquet de moulin. to clack. clog. Du. chest. Lat. a split. ciste. clangor avium . G. a Lat. klubb. . cittadella. to toll . Fr. outcry. cion. cluster. glam. clapper. clat. parallel root is slam. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . cisterna. a. klamp. It. a shoot. lump . klacke-busse. * Cistern. the tongue. —Circuit. Du. E. sphere gleba. forms — — — parent plant. clump. to clatter. or quill to draw waier through Fl. for Cion. Recite. klimp. klammer. cito. CION See Tinder. smack.

cling. for tame conies. klepel. E. closely analogous to that of the fast. — with hunger. G. of the children. dam immediate modifications — . klepati. and that from celo. a heap of stones or other things piled up . To sticky. dapi^. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. to Sw^. G. dia. to beat. a hawk. kluppel. cluster. klemmen. to clap on. Clank. rumour. a sound made by a lighter clink. a bird of prey. klebern. in a hidSen place. gripe. substances of a stickydam. viscous. The Fr. seize. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. and hence to pinch . G. to daub pinch. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. dank. Du. a whip. to hook things together. hands or claws to grasp. ancestor. a stick. from the w. as the Lat. tattle. a burr. originally a heap of large stones. See Clam. nature . klemmen. clangor. a heap of stones. strait. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . G. a claw . dren. buckle klamp. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. accent. klappen. Clink. Russ. E. adopted Lat. B. hold. klynge. — Climb. Dan. A i. kleppe. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. dem. sound of the trumpet . Clan. glambar. dap up. salaan. to climb. the in many languages. Bohem. a noose . privately. run to lumps Clandestine. c). to climb. klang. bandage. uproar. crowd . klynge sig op. to hold fast with the . to clutch or cling oneself up. to hold to pinch. gliong.p correspond- ' without order. anything hidden. klavre. Swiss kldbem. to do anything with a clap. to glue. dam. Halma. to stick conceal. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. klamme. to dame. These words To are closely connected with damp. Salainen.' klibba. To Clamber. cleave. G. pressed close or hard together. clamber. klette. yf. to cleave or stick. G. Sw. clear sound. klank. to stick or glue. clajnmy. to claw oneself up. The equivalent of Lat. to knock. kloben.1. children. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. chatter. children. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. diver. to pinch. klappre. to starve. to hide. Clapper. klamre. clibby. . klemmen. but perhaps not directly from it. viscosity . damras. sound . of money Gael. clann. Fr. dandestinus. klimmeii. holdfast. cramp-iron. dang. The root which gives rise to klibb. klatten.. dee. dapier. OE. clandestine. to clamp. or klamp-vogel. to patronus. massy. Hence the Fr. to climb. as the clapping of hands. dink Du. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. to climb. The E. Dan. to knock. clapas. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. a place underground where rabbits breed. kleppen. E. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . klampen. rattle. chief. take hold of. klammern. knocking. — Lat. is used in the sense of secretly. and hence moist. In like manner Du. to seize. to cling. brawl. clammy brace. dam. Swiss kletten. clasp. clav\f. a loud tingle. B. klippe. — Cot. tight. to glue.' to take coals to Newcastle. contraction. Du. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. Clap. grimper. sound. descendants . solid. sound object . then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. with cramp-irons. tone. clap. narrow. a craCmp. to climb . clapper of conies. klepanie. Du. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. cramp. salafa. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. celo produces Fin. dientes. klammer. where- A — unto they retire themselves. Dan. pinching. a stone See Claim. grasp. beating. klobber-saen. Clamp. a trap. clink. damor. klubber. Mampe. klem-vogel. tremble . a sound made by a still . to clap. dapier. who occuG. club . Clang. kleben. G. Gael. klettern. beat. from birdlime. klamm. ring as metal. tinkle. clap. compression. &c. E. dambar. offspring. — . tingle. Clamour. sound. to. also to clog up. Bav. Lang. . These are imitations of a loud. cream Manx doan. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. — — . AS.er. a claw. dial. Dan. ney. gum. scendants. prison. Du. klopfen. daver. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. To clap in E. . bond. compress. of which the locative case. a sound. klam7n. klam. tenacious. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. to gingle. .152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. chatter. resonance klingen. klibber. a rattle . is a nasalised form of gripper. klappen. whence sala. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. coagulated cream. apprehend . hook. dam. kleppe. dial. to Hal. . sticky Hal. strain . dienklebber. Lat. stick. . clang. conceal. to climb.

Clavicle. From claudo. Claret. clarinado. Du. Rayn. Pol. stop of an organ. klaequivalent to clack or clap. Wyutoun in Jam. we pass to the E. to fasten together . ghespe. mass. the cracking of a whip. a lash. klampe. biichse. syrtium junctura. klampvoghel. a nail. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. under three modifications dava. klouwe (Kil. rubellum. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. nail. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. to fasten. vin claret. puUs. applied in their harness. the primary origin clapa. klatschen. klatschen. ictus resonans. chiaro clear. klouwe. a heap. a ball. Clash. Lat. — Kiittner. to cleave. Fr. a buckle. In the same way is formed the OE. a little hook . to animals Sp. chasguear. classis. a complete sentence. in the sense of a mass or lump. compression. E. a claw. a distribution of things into groups. as G. Du. From clairet. and old red rose-water. to patter. whence kleuer. a claFr. a lump . and clavis. schnalle. —Kil. sound of the foregoing description. Commonly made. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. teren. from clinging to the tree which supports it. climp. Owl and that by which cleave to. clair. . buckle. Sw. contraction. as Mod.Z. Du. he of white and red grapes mingled together. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. — Clarinet. klijven.to cra. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. klase. Prov. Du.. an ending. chatter. chiizjj-o. Russ. claret win e. kiosk bicza. to rattle . klaeret. which signifies a ball in E. dap. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. flap.It. a clasp. Claw. in the sense of a claw. subrubidum. and shrill-sounding trumpet. an on the one hand. cloi. a bird with powerful talons. KXeiSi. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. — tells us. gaspe. as it is written by Chaucer. clas. to end. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. to draw it up into a bunch. seizes) . crying. a. to knock. 269. Gr. clopa. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. cinnamon. clatter. e. Lat. clairon. klot. clamp. a key. row aii/iaTos. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. a key origmally a crooked nail.w or u on the other. clew or fasten upon a thing. kleeven. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . klauwe. klatscha pop-gun. chiarino. — Clarion. mass. from its use in fastening things together. Lat. Dan. The b readily passes into gleba. clausum. Eya-klasi.). noise. The collar-bone. fibula. bawling.\x\xvn. Thus from clamp. a club or massy stick. straight-mouthed. to clash as arms. Class. it is called clamming. kleuen. glcis. from scknallen. sauna de classes. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up.ck a whip. hook. a key KKtitid. a sphere . It. Fr. It. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. clausula. Analogous Jam. K\a. forms are the Du. &c. Klatsch- a pop-gun . kluczka. Identical with ON. thence a definite head of an edict or law. skeria-klasi. Fr. cluster. to snap. But clasp or elapse. waU. clarin. In E. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. to shut. assembly. vinum helvolum. chiarello. clump. Lat. pet.oi. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. globus. &c. nawith stanis. a. . clavus. Clause. sphaera. klucz. a water made of aquavitse. vin clairet. Lang. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. klaskad. a clod. the collar-bone. to do anything with a . Serv . To clew. pellet . globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. klaterbusse. clairon of a trumpet— It. klamme. The form clew. clavis. hawk. thwack . and through v into a. globus. is used in Sc. a bunch. Eau clairette.Gr. Sp. fracas. Cot. to clap . klc^i. ansa. biichse. Du. diver. kletse. Clasp. klos. clew. Thus from Lat. Nightingale. same class with w. Nawith stavis. blab. locket of a door. Clew. So Pol. ivy. fragor . klatsche. Du. with a reddish tint. insularum nexus . G. from the resemblance to a key. claw (what fastens together. Originally clasis. to ring in such a manner for the dead. uproar.— CLARET clamp. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. somewhat clear. is preserved in Lang. also a knell for the dead. or as G. Kil. rion. a lump. Clatter. i. a kind of small. klauw. Mask ! plask ! thwick.

pure. glor-mhor. Clay. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. diquetcr. a flash. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. to glitter. gleit. and Dan. that was Torriano. to chink. and Celtic glan. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. to clench. as ON. glitnir. sticky earth. To Clench. from the clinking of the latch. rive. pretty. kleg. . to dag ox dog. ON. viz. 2. a cleft. klinke. klafwa. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. dut. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. pure . seem formed dial. a claw or talon. . klijveii. radiant. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. to tear or cleave asunder. AS. to shine . This word is used in two business is finished off. To call. kloben. Halma. a cleft. and. glan. as Lat.). to fasten. words applicable sight. klank. clean. conserere antklankjan. loam. klieuen. clear. dinquet kleeven. glan. B. a mass. tongs. clean. E. a bunch of When flax). is fast and sure. klirre.— Clag. kloben. kluftholz. klouen. the To Cleave. kloben. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . mud. A — A Clement. to shine. glitta. G. Probably a modification of the word doitt.— . chaps in the skin. kla:g. a — — . smooth. klinka. to stick or adhere . E. klove The Dan. rivet. clean. glbr. klinken. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. klutsch. kleben. from diquer. shine. an object is simply cleft. split. a noise. G. Da. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . klov. viz. splendid pohshed. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. a fissure. The word may be — . Clean. from nitere. clibby. to fasten E. to clink or sound. klincke. either by the coherence To Clepe. Clear. From clap. klinken. clink. glan. to 2. klink. klinke. the two parts of Du. glance . . kleevig. kluit. opposite senses. bogs cous. as explained under G. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . G. glatt. to be composed. pure. dams. doggy. cliquet. sleek. Lat. G. — : A rivet. The Dan. kleg. klag. Du. pellet. famous. neat. Du. or from being divided into two parts. clemens. Thus from G. kluft. Bav. daggy. Die zaak is zS. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. a clincher. voice. together . kluyte. holding together. kloue. E. or of a tree. The proper meaning of the word is shining. it cleave together. clear. a in that of sphtting. Fr. a noose. a lump. a fissure or division See Cleave. speech . dedgy. a latch. G. as Fr. gaklankjan. Omklinken. sticky. dags. dial. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. Da. Du. kldnkelein. danche. a one end. Lat. the fork of the body. klceg. the original . klyft. give a shrill sound Jr. Da.Q. Clinch. Kil. . vice. (Cot. Axletree clouts. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. i. bright. clay . Du. This is probably one of the clean. to sound or make a noise . polished. provinciaUy termed dout. klieben. nitidus. door-latch. See Clam. to clinch GB. klouen. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. neat. Cleft. and E. polish . also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. Clemency. ON. clean. to Brilliant. glorious. . deot. a lump. celebrated . gingle. to clinch a nail. hook. The word is . a key. a cleft or fissure. to cleave. From dob. clout. to separate into parts. glindse. found in other cases. the latch of a door. Sc. gentle. glbram. doff. Cleat. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. lump. a mass. glint. Mar. glandse. Sw. in two ways. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal.— Claggy. dag. river. to stick to. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. a plate. vissticky . cloven wood. cleave. glent. Sw. dench. as the Du. . W. Du. geklonken. Du. clash. that was a striking proof. klinke.' was nailed to a rock. of iron worn on shoes by country people. Wilbraham. rift. merciful. explained from the klinken. bend in a stream. date is AS. ON. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. sticky . Sc. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. See Clog. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. kleverig. calm. to fasten. klirren. clear. 154 CLAY dutch. Gael. klinken. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. Dan. klor. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. Sw.

a latch. kleppe. to tattle. Da. to talk as a parrot. Gr. nimble. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. to cleave. to rattle. klinge. highest is attained. declivity. to catch. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. say. corresponding to the Sc. klippe. Clever. Climate. to teU tales.) Brai. a lump. verge). to bend. in rhetoric. as Lat. or an object character- Clerical. AS. in the sense of active. claw or talon to dek or deik. dever. dek. ravine. We movement catch. stein- kluppen. chat. whence Fr. Sc. globus. a trigger. as from derido. Du. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. klif. klever. to cry. Cliff. a lot. speak. See Clamber. The Sc. it must be observed. klinke. Fr. klaffen. a tumbril. babble. the knocker of a door. corresponding to Fr. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. a child's or clack . Commonly derived from deliver. to seize. Rouchi cliche. neither as having lordship in the. cleft in a rock. cleft. In I Peter v. Bav. cart that tilts over. deuch. which in Mid. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. is NE. kliv. Cot. chatter. G. a clew. clypian. crack. click it. deik. clif. cleugh. klinket. diver. on.' ii. ginally from dob (extant in W.dergie! Wiclif in R. pen. clap. click. light-fingered. or Sc. Dunbar in Jam. Climb. clatter. a baU of yarn. to clack. score7i clif. chatter. clever. a latch . Clerk. abrupta rupes . klikklakken. sink. a precipice. agile. name. kliket. klouwe. has also deik. Du. that is a clever feUow. to tattle. call. — — A . a mill-clack . cliof. temperature. clep. what so men clappe or crie. The origin is the Gr. IS5 Du. has kl'dver. to catch. pulsare. cleft of a hill. to move. Boh. dough. G. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . kloof. cliquet. clerus. click. de ripa. /cXi'fia. Clew. ized . dob. rapidus from rapio. deudi. littus. duik. a figure mentioned. derigo. would have been derida. Hence Lat. catching. chatter. klika. See Clench. glomus. clever. dial. diofian.Lat. a ladder. KkrifoQ. See AS. to wink. in precisely the same sense as the E. click. the dick of a latch or a trigger. rugged ascent. cleopian. expeditious. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. derecia. Sp. region not observe it. sonare. . 3. climate. Jam. — have the notion of a short quick in E. from clifian. ready of speech. crackle. . in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. —Vocab. Du. scar. dergi.— Clicket.). Climax. cligner. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. to confess . Chaucer. had a form. derjon. a sphere. Clam. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. CLINCH De . on. clif- stanas. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. CLERK sound of a blow. Det er en Mover kerl. rock. and hence climate. Claw. Sw. cave . an inclination. cautes. a lazar's clicket or clapper. exactly Gr. as a click with the tongue. But the Dan. a clerk . clima. quick in motion. frap- per rudement une personne.. from Gael glac. to prate. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. slope . seize (Hal. with hamarskard. dicher. Lat. dink. above the pole. deik. a cliff. Norm. to snatch. crepare. e. cliff. Happen. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. dexterous. Klover i munden. d See Clan. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. skard. klaiv. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). deuck. precipices. kleppen. and (with the nasal) — clincher. snatch. a cleft in a rock . as Sc.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. 3. Lat. klippe. diquette. gleg. . a hold. dial. duke. clyf. lively. a clicket or clapper. Somner. to stir. klok klep- crepitare. . and hence deik. &c. cliquer. a latch. -Toe (from KXivm. a hook. dichet. Clergy. a claw or clutch. icXi/ja?. rock. derigon. quick of perception. syn. klikker. cleke. prattle. dial. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. Lat. a hump. hamraklif. a ball of twine. precipice.— Clue. the clergy clericus. Now the OE. call. Client. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. which is used in Scotch and N. clack. to sound an alarm to clap. OE. klev. dutch). rupes . a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . one admitted to the tonsure. Click. one of the clergy. dook (identical with E. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. the clergy.

. . Sw. hlinen. toga muliebris. klunge. knippen. difficulty. to resound. hill . w. iissura. to slope or bend . klik. G. kima. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. dial. speaks of a ' clung bat. kliks. a lump.und zuk-lippen. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . gUong. to ring. to pinch. and so' to contract. recline. sticky. to beat on the board. Flem. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. to crowd together klynge sig ved. as to snip in the same sense from snap. 'Till famine cling thee. related to clock. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. To Clip. Ang. Bohem. disposed to a thing. knippe. dial. — a mantle. klippa. to shrink up. to clap or clack. a beU. . outcry. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. met. especially of something soft or clammy. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. a bell. or bagging clothes.— Clot. as G. to . In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. slant.D. klocke. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. kldpp. Bi klik uti klak. Du. a hood. Cliofue. Lat. a tinman. club). whence the hour of the day was designated as three. a rising ground. also to wink . To Cling.. -CLINE make pinch. See Clang. Du. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. The notion of a loose moveable substance. Swiss klungele. klo^gen. gang. clips. E. . G. a clock. Een kliks bolter. Clink. -atum. kolki-laud. kukla. clingan. kolbe to E. G. hluk.'— Shaks. clog. Du. sloping upwards procUvis. to crowd or squeeze chingy. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. G. klaka. . as we now say three or four o'clock. Gr. dial. incline. clivus. a lump of butter. a cluster. klipa. klinka. Sw. clinker. kluppe. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. Ir. ring clag. Swiss klokken. cloak. . Gael.. . to lean. to knock. and 'E. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. Sussex peasant AS. klocka. klippa. klicke. chcng. a woman's mantle . 156 -cline. cochl.— KSS. four of the bell. a lump G. Du. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. &c. to bend downwards . globulus' (Gl. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. clino. ON. clinke. whence E. Da. G. a bell. to wither. hlinian. rima. Walach. kol- The word . fetter. shears. schnippen. Cloak. klippur. Lat. to beat. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. Hal.. pinch. N orman clincailler. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. dial. cloche. klok. ON. clangere. hluccti. E. to sound sharp. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. sloping forwards. glungelin. straits. tuft. quincailler. To cut with shears. Decline. ' . by bits. acclivis. klynge. to shrink up. brett-glocke. g. S w. to clunge. Sw. pinch. Serv. clock is a variation of clack. like cling. knot klynge. nip. kXiVu. Clock. I. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. klinken. toga. clutch. a faction. Pl. a separate portion. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail.' From Pl. . a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. klincke. in Schmeller) klunk. at first probably on a wooden board. to strike. klungeln. difficulty . noise. The E. klak. to cluster. 2. Kil.' for a dry stick. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. to snip. OHG. from klepati. clato make a noise. * Clod. klepalo. kleppe. to snap kneipen. See Cowl. Fr. to form one mass with. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. pallium. also to form a compact mass. dag. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries.D. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. a ball of thread . kluben. bow. Esthon. to clip. klungelin. verklungeln. clique. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. G. klippen. Fr. klingen. . knippchen. sloping downwards . to lean backwards. glocke. klippe. parva ruptura. compress . hooded . Sw. to snap tongs. to make a loud noise. declivis. to cling to a thing. a snare. klocke. ON. to pinch klupe. ten. to clink auf. incline. claw. klunker. to snap or fillip schnippen. klupen. . to wither. -cliv-. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. a clog or fetter for a beast . Sw. — clot. and a similar syllable without the /. as thick or curdled liquids. To stick to. Bohem. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty.ginglej Fr. to AS.

! . . kl'dnken. lump of something soft . a babbler. clotted milk klotte. to spill liquids. clos. a clod Swab. E. klokotat. clammy loam. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. Fr. boil. Sc. splash. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. a trowelful of mortar.. Russ. of something clammy or heavy. motte. to rattle.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. klac. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water.rge lump. I doda clod. paddle. be&c. A — — A Thus from Bav. a clod. lobbig. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. kloden. is connected with pludder. motzen. enOE. aspersion. paludosus. klateren. slab. pattens G. clorre. whence klack. from Fr. wide bagging clothes. klakken. lump of mud on the clothes . klos. truncus. G. forbidden by 17 Ed. kloster. foreclose. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. a field inclosed clos. the radical sylla. slobberen. . dirt. log. Closhe. klottern. Yule-clog. mud. The origin of clod and clot is to . kloteispaen. fat. . slops slodderen. or E. compared with clump. dunch). . loose. paddle or dabble in the wet. It. zocco. a log. cloth.' end. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. MHG. claggy. lob. a dirty wench claggy. slobber. slabberen. schlettern. pludre. clogs. loose trowsers. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. lunch. kleck or lack. analogous plan to clod or club. Swiss schlott. dab. to wabble. Clog. TZoxapov. claudo. to paddle in the wet. . dangle. or loppern. bowl . fors. . then liquid or loose substance. close. spatter. To Clog. dag. . He was a man without a dag. Pm. a bal!. AS. in accordance with It. -clus-. to dabble. to a. In the same way Dan. a monastery. Idppern. closed. Klottermelck.. figer. miry laggerit. unctuous. in forms like Du. laggery. to bedaub. and E. schlottern. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. curdled. g. schlotter. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. a blot. to shut in. . doitre. bloutre. Gr. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. shut up. clotted locks Dan. in comp. tuditare. neither spot nor hang loose. His heart was franlc without a flaw. slops). and Du. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. to rattle. . a block. chiuso.'^ Palsgr. Fr. spot of dirt. klotz. a Christmas log. from Du.1a. tJokok. wabbling from Du. a lump from Du. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. to shut. klotzschuh. daggerey. loblolly. kladde. to dabble. -cludo. Pr. shut up. kleck. from claudo. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm.dial. -close. . Pr. finish . terminate. • lump. zoccoli.). klod. -clusum. . Fr. hanging loose and full. loppe. laggyn. klakk. je amoncele. thick sour milk. rattle. clot. to slop or spill liquids. daustrum. Close. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. Du. Hence inclose. slob. separate part. clausum. meat from Du. 3. lobberen. . Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. gelatinous. watery. like G. loppered (of milk). a skittle-ground klos- sen. IV. Du. lumps of butter. bespotted with mire E. clogs for the feet klakk. an imputation. to shut. kloten. a blot. Klak also. clog or overshoe. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. tramp in wet or mire. chiudere. lag. clausum. Cloister. loose mud. to close against one. Pl. bemired. we pass to Schlatter. thick spoon .D. Bav. kloteren. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. . slop. to claggock. to bodies. in accordance with Pl. lopin. a log. G. schlattern. I clodde. or Sc. to shut up. geschlotter (as E. m&se noch stain. a spot. to dash like heavy rain. . a clog. to sup up liquid food. inclose. Lat. clos. without. we pass to E. mire. . I clodde. klos-bane. to rattle or shake to and fro. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. congeler. Mat. Fr. dirt. of a body of any kind. clatk. to cling locks. to flounder in the wet. klunkern. lopperig. slobbe.— Clothe. beklakken. Dan. to lobberig. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. and Gael. be found rattle. dial. lump of butter. The game called ninepins. klag. da- . with Fr. to play at bowls. blot. Lat. to bubble. or drablyn with separate existence. schlott. is a blot on one's character. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. shaky. a portion of something soft and adhesive. A . klot. mud klcEg. E. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. to flap as loose clothes. plod. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. and thus seem endowed .D. claque. lobberen.

and clout d eudaich. . ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. dump. clog. formed lump or thick mass. clammy earth. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. . a nail. a cover or coverture . a sticky. to cleave or the splashing of water. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. klotz. del mattond. to cherish. cobble. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. group of people Sw. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. from kloven. a .Fris. eine to slop. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . klotzig. dial. to cleave. the air. klumba. w. and tapp. mud (Pat.ft. AS. Sw. Clown. 2. ball of thread Russ. klcBdi. to stop. kluV. nourish . a log. log. of thumping clumsy action. lie clyd. dob. . to splash. clydion. strike. klunds. kluppe. cob. dillad bumkin. are also used in the sense of a stopper. . dial. dut. a clove of garlick. klaven. E. zolla dell' . dys. a boss. Sp. lunch). a thick mass. Fr. cluster. ser. spice) G. Cloud. ON. a nail) Fr. mary sense is a blow. wisp. CLUCK rustic. clumhar. klotsen. de Champ. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. to a lump. duthaich. loggish. from OFr. clods. the terms expresssplit. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . kUid. clump. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). It. tuft. a lump. hebes (Kil. To Cluck. Met. to tramp in the kluyve. klonte. to lump mend clumsily. The radical sense seems to be an unE. warm clothes {dillad. w. In the same way E. warm. to cover Bret. clyd. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. knob. a garthas. to beFr. puddle. G. blockish. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. Imitative of the note of a society. A kind of spice resembling Du. Du. a clubfoot klabb. A division of a root of garlick. een klaven kruflook. a. clue. clunch. a ball of twine . a clod or clot. clod. Du. G. to curdle. with lout. — — — . Ir. a clod. dabosser. motte. dabaire.D. Clowfull of small curdled clouds.bar. kldverj P1.158 . . Gael. kloven. Cld. as Fr. daggy. a blabber. also homo obtusus. a ball. clump of a clout on the head. CLOUD an awkward clod . knob. lumps of curd. Gael.D. a knot of people. a lump. botch. .' Sanders. nagelein. klumpfot. E. from W. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. choke or stop up. Then applied to a lump of mate. G. and -the word Clove. cobio. rustic. mire. clothes). and closely do conspire. Du. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. a bousche. cloud Delfortrie. cluth mhor. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. to strike. Clump. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. The priClout. zolla. eene ODu. clothes ment. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. davus. AS. make warm. a ball. piece Cot. shel- kloen. in the same sense. klobbersaen. to cloy. Mabousfrom Lat. klubb. Kiittner. matte.). Sw. klump.). unpolished. clunch. Clover. mass. coarse. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. little nails. I. aglio. warm. klever.). Dan. Properly that which covers and Du. Das volk hat sich in splitten. Du. boucher. block. nelke (dim. clot . sticky. probably from daboter. To Cloy. of nagel. From dog. clobyn. of sloppy materials. from cates the application of the root dab to Du.clod. a bunch. Du. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. clou de girofle. from Du. a ball. when something has got into the touch-hole. cludadh. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. indispalte knoblauch. Clumpered in balls of clouds. Club. N.). This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. Rouchi dapoter. botsen. and of a rustic unpolished person. clothe. a bunch. naegel. klqb. a clown. — . tered . The significations of a clod or lump. sheltered . a patch. E. clavo di especias. ON. but confounded with cailler. Pl. clotted milk or cream. clot. klebek. klieven. dirt. klu77ip. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. a bunch. clot. lump. cludaim. kl'dnne. chiodo di girofano. to strike . warm place . milk run to lumps. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. kloete. a sky Cot. Move. of a lump of earth and that figure. lump. a clot or keeps one warm. More in R. sheltered up warm. and clay. diboter. klubba. a bobbin. clod is used in both senses . caillebottes. Du. dial. a fissure. bunch. lump of earth aria. klubbe. stock. a log. So Fr. (kruyd =. a breach. klove. a curdled sky. dote.D. esdaboter (Roquef. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. G. klubb. lump. dash (Cot. are often connected.

obstructum. ball as snow. Gr. to squeeze. lump of soft mate. and klonteren. to shut. an instrument for nasal form e.. the word is more probably connected with OE. klods. fingers (familiar). dial.D. klontet. Muster. dial. in comp. cluster. MHG. beklommen. gelidus. claudo. also a cluster. ill-made . dumps. clabosser. to klotz. may recline. cleuk. COAL dumpish. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. to grip. conclude. to wash. * Clumsy.Ancr. doquear.'— animal. coccolare. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. kohle. Pm. eviratus. wooden sole. to syllable click. klocken. — ' — — tonista. or from Sw. exclude. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. and klotteren. a couch. esclaboter. through the senses of lumpish. wagen. bunch. Clutter. Cluster. unhandy. a clod or lump.' Benecke. hondis. dystere. Clump. OE. to benumb with cold. klemmen. cliboter. heavily. &c. Lat. are the nasalised forms of klotte. strum on an instrument. to tramp. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . The sense of awkward. to to snatch. seize. Lat. might be reached from clump. From the notion of sticking together. lay hold of. Beklummen van kelde. klette. a nasalised form of club. G. -olus-. Sw. er. Sp. enervatus. See -elude. klomje. Hence cleik. Du. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. klos. — sen. limp. plad or plod. Ray.— — . whence koetse. of Du. and koetse. Fris. to rinse. carriage in which you klodset.D. klcise. dek. clutch. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. as clumper. Hence snatching. klont. klister. smart motion. awkward. Com.' Comfort ye dumsid. from ON. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. -elude. Analogous forms with a tongs. glousser. klemma. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. klikaty. claws. pladdern. acomelydfor could Pr. klamen. or aclommyde. G. of garlick. algidus. verklomen. Clutch. clotted cream. lavesen. hooknosed. kichlemmit. inclusive. klumpig. as from seken.forklomme (Outzen). to lie. klump. having the Pl. splash. Pl.pare P1. dumpers. See reclusion. from klupen. a ball . A group. a clod or The noclot. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. —More. It. clip or pinch. — Cot. Boh. Fr. In the same way Du. Variation of clatter. ment. verkommelen. hand to cleuk. to paddle or dabble. ' . ball of snow on horse's foot . from laver. koetsDa. rial. clump. dial. wooden shoes. to curdle. viscous material. as Fr. a clove Sw. clook. klumpern. to pinch. to curdle. kluntfrom KKvKdi. tight — — . clointer. a clod clunter. . Hesse. Compare Swiss klupe. Riwle. thick and clumsy. log. Isaiah. with E.D. properly to do anything Fr.D. cleche. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. eene beklum. clopiner. idle. a lump or compact mass. . Hindust. crooked inwards . klikonosy. coucher became in unhandy. -CLUDE hen Du. G. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. in v. Cheshire. ' Clumper. dek. paste. * Clump. ' Thou clontsest for cold. clumsy. close. clutch. klunsen. to tramp. to curdle. klamp. OHG. a bunch. duke. ON. claw. klisse. klonte. klobber in klobbersaen. calling her chickens. klummerhdndt. Sw. klimpern. awkward. Coach. ' Uorte (for clogs. a clod or lump. Champ. a clot klissen.D. benumbed with cold. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. havi. differing only in the absence of the duik. a coach. klomen. to gingle. unhandy. xXvariip.P. dial.mene tied. Du. unfashioned. hands stiff with cold. cleik. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. with a quick. klunt. Fr. — . G. a lump. Du. klonte. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. E. conclusion. -close. kol. klampa. a block. klummklummshandt. koetblockish. -clusum. to wash. eviratus. unwieldy Hal. a pinching time. a lump. clausum. glocire. koetsie. But clunchy. Teulazy. Du. —To Clumsyd.e. beklummen. and make ye strong feeble knees.E. 159 E. Ang. The Fr. Fr. 130. Cath. MHG. Graff in Klamjan. a noise. a claw. Coal. koetsen. to collect in lumps. Pl. to tramp or tread heavily. — Hence include. Sc. . n. dumpse. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. a ball. -cludo. ether comelia P. . Du. finish. cluntClyster. a litter. E. dussomed (Wilbrabam). klompen. to stick together . -clus-. pinched. Lincolns.' Vegecius in Way.' Wycliff.

broddelen. pock. probably from the Fr. cobcoals. kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. viz. unfledged bird. top cobio. The contrast between the bee • Cob. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. In the E. bredouiller. Flem. or upper . and E.— Cobble. Fr. throw a blow. sweets and the other of poisons. to glow . things. coste. koljarn.inflated with air or liquid. s. is one of thump.. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. quilet. to wheedle or gull vermin). klabbare. dial. to speak or act confusedly. — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. klabbsmed. dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . Coat. meaning that she is plain and coarse. a large round nut cobstones. koppe. cacd). cokes was a simpleton. — Cleveland Gl. The primary sense is doubtless koelA. Fr. Colina' the place where a fire is made. a thumper. a kitchen. — Pr. to Lett. to knock. blaze. Sanscr. and jval. cock or nescock. or cobble. to bungle Sc. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. of E. any kind of coat. It. Du. gull. says Varro. to pdt with We may cite Fr. — Cobbler. a sow. to stutter. a spider. give the full meaning of the word. Lat. large stones . It. woman is said to be very ordinary. that is. a knock. of E. to cob.a spider. koppen-gespin. the one of thump. a bubble. . The wood-louse is still called sow in parts of England . a spider (/r)^=grub. When the . The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. The Fris. . large coals. of poison. to beCoax. cobble. haggle. imbecille. niais. boil. are round stones or round coals of small size. the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes. long standing. and fig. cluster. a crea. — — . cob. glow jvalaya. kuppa. glowing embers. Pm. to . a bunch. flame. v. are often connected. small pox (pocks) . to cobble shoes. to kindle jvAla. from bearing a bag. a tuft. kolna. pustule. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. Coalition. * To Cobble. T' waerkopet. pustule. Formerly written course. e. also a coast. to burn. . of cochina. . hakkelen. dial. a bungler. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. itself is Nescock . atter-kop. united. kop-ar.). coalesce. dial.the water boils. a darling. acomelyd or aclommyd. a nest. one Pr. to kindle or cause to burn . to be hot. from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . then to work unskilfully . to form an union with another coalitus.. COCHINEAL Cobber. and hobble. to stutter. however. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. . Trevoux. to grow together. Pm. in Essex Jow*2c^. bijamie. Lat. kylla. dial. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. CooMneal. cule cocosse.). Sp.. A spider's web. probably left his home. to worship. used in — . — — — E. and imperfect or unskilful action. inflammation. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering. to be inflamed . verklomen.). an egg. kop. dim. and the spider as collectors. and thence a lump cobnut. Dan. or E.. rivation are found in Sw. walk clumsily. tempered clay for building. Cobbles in the N. niais. s. a coat or frock. A plausible orig