C P RG TID S RE O Y IH N U T IS i teUSEo o n h ..

cn my

T e2 1 R p r h 0 1 e ot

B Se h nESwe y tp e .i k Eo o ssnop rtd cn mi Icroae t

Pe ae frh rp rd o te Itrain lnelcu l rp ry la c® nen t aItl taPo et Al ne o e i

COPYRIGHT INDUSTRIES in the U.S. Economy

The 2011 Report
By Stephen E. Siwek Economists Incorporated Prepared for the International Intellectual Property Alliance®

S. NW.S. Material in this report is protected by copyright. Siwek and Gale Mosteller. be reproduced for non-commercial purposes or quoted with appropriate attribution to Stephen E.S.S. Siwek.S. Copyright Industries in the U. Washington.S.355. prepared for the International Intellectual Property Alliance (IIPA). Copyright Industries in the U.7899 Web: www. 8th Floor. DC 20036 U.355.Copyright Industries in the U. Siwek of Economists Incorporated and the International Intellectual Property Alliance.com. Economy: The 2003-2007 Report (released in July 2009) © 2011 Economists Incorporated All rights reserved. WaShiNgtoN. Siwek. Siwek and Harold Furchgott-Roth.7899 Web: WWW. Economy: The 2004 Report (released in October 2004) • Stephen E. NW. Economy: The 1999 Report (released in December 1999) • Stephen E. IIPA® is a registered service mark of the International Intellectual Property Alliance. Berkeley. Copyright Industries in the U. Economy: 1977-1993 (released in January 1995) • Stephen E. Economy: The 2002 Report (released in April 2002) • Stephen E. copyright industries prepared for the International Intellectual Property Alliance (IIPA) since 1990. It may. DC 20036 U. 8th Floor.S.@iipa.S. Economy: The 2011 Report is the thirteenth report on the U. Copyright Industries in the U. Siwek. The logo (three circles with a ‘c’ in the center and the globe design) is also a service mark of the International Intellectual Property Alliance.a. Citation format: Copyright Industries in the U.Com Ut the aUthor .iipa. Economy: 1993 Perspective (released in October 1993) • Stephen E. Tel: 202. Copyright Industries in the U. November 2011.S.S. Copyright Industries in the U. Siwek.S. Copyright Industries in the U. International Intellectual Property Alliance® is a registered service mark of the International Intellectual Property Alliance. Economy: The 2000 Report (released in December 2000) • Stephen E.355.355. Siwek.7900 Fax: 202. Siwek. Economy: The 2006 Report (released in January 2007) • Stephen E.com 1818 N Street. Copyright Industries in the U. Copyright Industries in the U. Copyright Industries in the U.S. Economy: The 2011 Report. Copyright Industries in the U.S.S.7900 Fax: 202. by Stephen E.S. This latest report updates and supplements twelve previous reports produced by Economists Incorporated for the IIPA: • Stephen E. available at www. Siwek and Gale Mosteller. Siwek of Economists Incorporated. tel: 202. Cover design and graphic layout by Liz Holland. Siwek and Harold Furchgott-Roth. Economy: 1977-1990 (released in September 1992) • Stephen E. Economy: The 1996 Report (released in October 1996) • Stephen E. Copyright Industries in the U.A. Siwek and Harold Furchgott-Roth. Economy (released in November 1990) • Stephen E. Economy: The 1998 Report (released in May 1998) • Stephen E.S. California ISBN 978-0-615-56025-0 Printed in the United States of America International Intellectual Property Alliance (IIPA) 1818 N Street. Siwek and Harold Furchgott-Roth.iipa.S. however.

S. U. Employment in the Copyright Industries 11 V. Economy: 2007-2010 18 Appendix C: List of References 19 .table oF CoNteNtS Preface 1 Executive Summary 3 I. The Copyright Industries 8 III. Value Added by the Copyright Industries 9 IV. Copyright Materials in World Markets 13 VI. Conclusion 15 Appendix A: Tables of Statistics 16 Appendix B: Value Added and Employment Trends in the U.S. Introduction 7 II.

.

economic growth overall. the Business Software Alliance (BSA). records.S. we would like to thank Michael Schlesinger of the IIPA for his guidance throughout this process. Mr. performed much of the computer work that was used throughout this report. Suite 1100. and textbooks. the Independent Film & Television Alliance (IFTA). DVDs and home video and digital representations of audiovisual works.aboUt the aUthor Stephen E. He is co-author of International Trade in Computer Software (Quorum Books. and audiocassettes. 1988) and has written and lectured on trade in media services in the United States and Europe. including business applications software and entertainment software (such as videogame discs and cartridges. theatrical films. and in the lowering of other market access barriers. In particular. The IIPA is a private sector coalition formed in 1984 to represent the U. and address market access barriers for the creative industries. NW. He is the principal author of twelve prior reports on the economic contributions of the U.S.com. Siwek has served as an economic and financial consultant to numerous communications and media corporations and trade associations.S. These efforts have resulted in very significant improvements in copyright laws in these countries. aCKNoWleDgemeNtS Economists Incorporated is grateful to the International Intellectual Property Alliance (IIPA) and its member associations for their support and assistance in the drafting of this report.ei. Carolyn Hanson. We would also like to thank Pamela Burchette for her assistance in preparing this report. in the enforcement of those laws. These improvements have also benefitted millions of creative individuals and enterprises in these foreign countries. creative industries. and in boosting U. government to improve the ability of companies dependent on copyright to do business successfully in foreign markets. in helping these industries become one of the nation’s largest contributors to exports and foreign trade. personal computer CD-ROMs. Washington. Our research associate. Siwek is Principal. economy. Mr. copyright industries to the U. companies producing and distributing materials protected by copyright laws throughout the world—all types of computer software. CDs. music. These seven member associations – the Association of American Publishers (AAP). the National Music Publishers’ Association (NMPA) and the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) – in turn represent over 1.S. 1993) and International Trade in Films and Television Programs (American Enterprise Institute/Ballinger Publishing Company. DC 20037. and multimedia products). Metalitz International Intellectual Property Alliance For the last 27 years.900 U. trade books. These improvements have had a substantial positive impact on As international trade has increased and globalized. the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA). copyright-based industries in bilateral and multilateral efforts to improve international protection and enforcement of copyrighted materials. 2121 K Street. governments have become acutely aware of the significant revenue and employment in the U. reference and professional publications and journals (in both electronic and print media). the Entertainment Software Association (ESA). Economists Incorporated.S. preFaCe Michael Schlesinger and Steven J. television programs.S. www. Siwek has also served as an advisor to foreign governments seeking to develop economic measures of their own copyright industries. 1 .S. the International Intellectual Property Alliance® (IIPA®) and its association members have worked in partnership with the U.

In 2003. The series of reports that began in 1990 demonstrated that the creation and dissemination of knowledge-intensive intellectual property-based goods and services have become more and more critical to the continued economic growth of this country. China. jobs. recession of 2008-2009. Piracy inhibits this growth in the U. in particular. underscores once again that the copyright industries are one of the most important contributors to U. Netherlands. copyright industries – • • • continue to outpace the rest of the economy in real growth. and the Ukraine. They provide a compelling argument for more effective legal. Panama. Brunei. jobs in the copyright sector. technological innovation and cultural diversity. and in national economies around the world. economy. investment. Korea. and our economy as a whole. and contribute significantly to U. building upon the methodologies developed by Steve Siwek of Economists Incorporated. the U.S. their employment levels. leading to new and higher paying U.S. Malaysia. Jamaica. Widespread online and physical piracy of copyright materials undermines the vitality and vibrancy of creative industries. workforce.S. economic growth. be adapted to developing countries. exceeding those for many major U. In many of these countries. the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). No previous report in this series has ever documented a period of such damaging impacts on the U. Since 2004.S.. The period covered by this report (2007-2010) includes the financial crisis and the U.S.S. Canada. This 2011 Report. issued its Guide on Surveying the Economic Contribution of the Copyright-Based Industries. enforcement. GDP overall did not. Slovenia. Other countries have discovered the value of preparing their own national studies.S. employees. innovation.S. employ over five million workers. During the same period. even though U. A growing percentage of revenue is being generated by sales outside the United States. Romania. 28 more countries have completed their own national reports. Economic reports such as this one underscore what is at stake. GDP continued to grow in real terms over the period as a whole. and around the world. Lebanon. our fourth report that follows the WIPO methodology. Kenya. Croatia. Latvia. and cultural benefits that the copyright-based industries supply to national economies and societies can no longer be denied. Studies employing the WIPO methodology have now been done in: Australia. the value added by the copyright industries to U. economy. when the IIPA’s report was the first to use this new WIPO methodology. In 1990 IIPA commissioned one of the first reports of its kind to measure the role of the copyright industries as a distinct economic sector and to assess its revenue.S. the average compensation for workers in the copyright sectors in comparison to other sectors. industry sectors. South Africa.contributions that their copyright-based industries make to their own economic growth.S. the creative and knowledge-based industries. Mexico. and market access regimes to promote and foster the growth of the contentbased industries in the U. Other countries are expected to join this effort as well. Finland. Philippines. While the copyright industries were not immune to these impacts.S. Colombia. foreign sales and exports.S. and growth impact on the U. jobs. and foreign sales and exports reached their highest levels ever in 2010. face a significant challenge from global copyright piracy.S. employment.S. presents data on the value added contributions of the copyright sectors to the U. The creativity. prepared for the IIPA by Steve Siwek of Economists Incorporated. Singapore. Bulgaria. was the first to quantify the economic impact of these industries.S. Russia. The Guide describes methodologies for measuring the role of copyright industries in domestic economies that can.S. Peru. Pakistan. the studies provide the economic underpinnings for efforts to reform copyright law and enforcement and to lower rates of copyright piracy. With the strongest copyright industries in the world. economy. the percentage contribution of the copyright sectors to the overall U. Despite these robust achievements.S. economy and on U. the copyright industries also maintained their share of the overall U. 2 . who on average are paid significantly more than other U. Bhutan. and the contributions of selected copyright industries to exports and foreign sales. The U. Hungary.S. This 2011 report.

economy for the years 2007-2010. Finland. GDP and employment since 2007.S.S. both core and total. achieved average real annual growth rates in excess of 1. the U. GDP continued to grow in real terms while U. These growth rates were realized even though the study period included the 20082009 recession.S.S. despite the recession of 2008-2009. 2 See Appendix A. The copyright industries were not immune to these impacts. gross domestic product and to employ millions of U. 3 As will be explained herein. The updates result from data revisions published by the U. Siwek. the U. this report concludes that the U.S. Consistent with the declines experienced in total U. As set forth below.S. recession of 2008-2009. updates and supplements twelve earlier reports prepared on behalf of the International Intellectual Property Alliance (“IIPA”). copyright industries also continue to contribute significantly to U.S. Compensation paid to U. GDP as a whole did not. the U. Stephen E. participated as an expert at the meeting of the “Working Group of Experts of the Preparation of a WIPO Handbook on Survey Guidelines for Assessing the Economic Impact of Copyright and Related Rights” which was co-sponsored by WIPO and held in Helsinki. The U.S.S. economy and on U. economy. the U.S.exeCUtiVe SUmmarY This report. economy: compensation per employee. Copyright Industries in the U. foreign sales and exports. economy experienced a nearly unprecedented decline in GDP and employment. During the same period. Finally. the values presented for 2007 have been updated from the 2007 results presented in Copyright Industries in the U. generally using the most current data available.S.S.S. No previous report in this series has ever documented a period of such damaging impacts on the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis and by other government agencies since the last report was completed. industry employment and share of national employment. industry sectors. the copyright industries. That meeting launched the process which resulted in WIPO’s 2003 publication of its Guide on Surveying the Economic Contribution of the Copyright-Based Industries which describes many of the recommendations and standards used in this report. the value added by the copyright industries to U.S. Economy .0%.S. the recent performance of the U. 3 . and real annual growth.S. copyright industries did not match the copyright industries’ achievements in years past and as documented in previous reports. gross domestic product (“GDP”) in current dollars. in July 2002. By contrast.S. copyright industries’ contribution to the U. workers. the U.S. which reflects the most recent full year data (2010) at the time of the publication. However.S. Economy: The 2011 Report. economy is measured by three economic indicators: value added to the U. The report also continues to follow the international standards and recommendations propounded by the World Intellectual Property Organization (“WIPO”) in 2003 regarding the development of economic and statistical standards to measure the impact of domestic copyright industries on domestic economies. As in past studies.S. employment market remained largely unchanged.S. a time when the copyright industries’ real annual growth rates were negative.S. economy as a whole. The period covered by this report includes the U. 1 Industry Classification System (“NAICS”) which has been widely implemented by U. This thirteenth report presents estimates of the copyright industries’ contributions to the U.S. economy’s real growth was essentially flat. the copyright industries’ share of the overall U. economy as a whole during the period 2007-2010. This study includes two additional indicators of the importance of the copyright industries to the U. and revenues generated from foreign sales and exports. GDP and were able to outperform the U.The 2003-2007 Report. statistical agencies. workers.S. During the years 2008-2010 and continuing into 2011. 3 The author of this report. copyright industries continued to contribute mightily to the overall U. This 2011 report continues to reflect the use of industry data classifications adopted under the North American 2 The data in this study quantify the size and critical importance of the copyright industries to the U. 1 In this study. exceeding those for many major U. characterized in large part by the 2008-2009 recession.S. jobs.S. for the period 2007-2010. for the same multi-year period.S. workers in the copyright industries substantially exceeds the average compensation paid to U.S. copyright industries outperformed the rest of the U. copyright industries continue to contribute a large share of the U. even during this period. and the continuing harmful effects of copyright piracy.S.S.S. completed by Economists Incorporated.S. But even through this difficult period.

Value Added Total Copyright .369.S. T. Table 1: As reported in Table 2. the U.119.S.1 billion.8 $1.171.3 Total U.9 $14.Value Added Federal Government .S. economy by the entire federal government in 2010 was $637.10% of U. GDP. GDP Total Share of U.8 billion in 2010. U.S. economy are also provided in Table 2. the U.8 $14.S.061.66 trillion.S.S. 4 .4 6. economy began to improve somewhat from its low point in 2009. (Here- inafter – U. GDP To put these figures in perspective.562. it is useful to compare the economic contributions of the U.S.626.09% 2009 $901.Value Added $900.S. the current dollar “value added” to U.S. the harmful effects of the recession of 2008-2009 were widespread and most U. industries experienced declining sales and employment during those years.6 2010 $931. This value is approximately 18% lower than the value added by the total copyright industries in 2010. However.660.Value Added Health Care and Social Assistance .5 $1.369. In particular.S. BEA.36% 2008 $1..0 $14. BEA. GDP $14. GDP Core Share of U.119. As reported in Table 1. economy by state and local governments was $1. copyright industries to the contributions made by other U. the total value added to the U.660.111.9 $1.1 6. the value added to U.7 $1. the core copyright industries maintained a 6.43% 2007 Total Copyright Industries $1.S.8 11. industries in the same time period.36% 2010 $1.7 $611.S. GDP. Within this context. to other sectors of the U. Table 1.S. As shown in Table 1.326. copyright industry are shown in Table 2. The value added by the total copyright industries in the same period is also shown in Table 1. Thus. Survey of Current Business.S.5 $1. Bureau of Economic Analysis (“BEA”).S.7 billion.. E.S. by 2010.38% 2009 $1.626.S.235.057.593. In the same year. In 2010.S.CopYright iNDUStrY ValUe aDDeD to gDp – 2007-2010 As noted above.627 trillion.061.0 $14.7 $14.S.583.9 $637. These industry-specific estimates (in both current dollar and real terms) are used as starting points to derive the contributions made by the core and total copyright industries to U. These comparisons clearly document the size and importance of the copyright industries today. GDP by the “core” copyright industries reached $931. Morgan.26% 2008 $913.326.311.2 2007-2010 ValUe aDDeD (billioNS oF U. DollarS) 2007 Core Copyright Industries $904.9 $1. and Osborne.S. the total value added to the U.0 6.07% 2010 $931. Comparisons of the copyright industry’s value added in 2009 and 2010. Table 2: 4 2009 aND 2010 ValUe aDDeD CompariSoNS to other SeCtorS (billioNS oF U. DollarS) 2009 Core Copyright . GDP. or 11.8 6.0 11. 4 U.Value Added State and Local Government .S. GDP by the “total” copyright industries in 2010 was $1.S. GDP figures from Gilmore.Value Added Construction . S. Inter-industry comparisons to the U.S. GDP $14.1 $505.S.562. the estimates of copyright industry value added make direct use of the industry-specific estimates of U.1 11. May 2011. Census Bureau and other government statistical agencies.10% The value added estimates for the copyright industries that are contained in this report reflect underlying data that was obtained from the U. GDP reached $14.6 Total U. the copyright industries remained an important contributor to U.Value Added Finance and Insurance . value added that are regularly published by the U.4 11.7 $1. Annual Industry Accounts).S.0 $537. Annual Industry Accounts – Advanced Statistics on GDP by Industry.S.6 $1. This amount is approximately 60% lower than the value added by the total copyright industries in the same year.4% share of U.9 $14.

S. economy experienced dramatic ups and downs in real annual growth.S.S.S. The total copyright industries experienced a comparable pattern during the years 2007-2010.44% 4. the copyright industries experienced real growth of 3. As these data suggest.39% 0. in 2008-2009. However. Finally.99% of the total U. 2009. in the years 2007-2010.S.10%. core copyright industries experienced positive real growth in excess of 3% annually. However.S. economy grew at just under 3%. This mixed pattern of growth and decline can also be observed for the U.S.52 trillion in 2010 and $11. copyright industries and the U.07% -2. private industry. GDP 3.4-4. As shown in Table 3.0% (and the total copyright industries grew at a rate in excess of 3.05%. for the periods 2007-2008 and 2009-2010.47% 0. workforce in 2007.20% 2. However. By 2010. In these estimates.S.20% (2009-2010). current dollar value added figures are converted to “chained” dollars for the year 2000. in 2009-2010.07% -2.02% in 2009.S. GDP.S. CopYright iNDUStrY emploYmeNt aND CompeNSatioN — 2007-2010 Employment figures for the core and total copyright industries for the years 2007. the U. These workers represented 3. the U. in 2009-2010.CopYright iNDUStrY real groWth The real growth rates in value added experienced by the U. For U. the total U.S.85% 1. GDP grew by 2.00% 2008-2009 -3. 2008.05% 2.S. the total copyright industries also reported a reduction of 2.S. 5 . Subsequently. For the entire period 2007-2010.097.63%. the copyright industries. real U. the number of core copyright employees in the United States had declined by 398. the compound annual growth rate achieved by the U.05% 5 Real growth rates measure changes in constant dollar value added over time. By contrast. grew at a compound annual growth rate of 1. Real private industry GDP fell by 0.07% in real value added for 2008-2009. copyright industries significantly exceeded the compound annual growth rate achieved by the U. GDP fell by 2.47%. economy did not grow at all. This number is significant. the U. U.67% in 2008 and by another 3. and 2010 are pro- real aNNUal groWth rateS ValUe aDDeD to U. the core copyright industries’ real value added declined by 3. economy during the period 2007-2010 are shown in Table 3.S. As shown in Table 3. Subsequently. for 2008-2009.S. copyright industries grew at a compound annual growth rate of 1. in real terms. As shown in Table 4.600. In order to provide a longer term assessment of these growth patterns. the core copyright industries grew at a rate in excess of 2. was flat in 2007-2008.85%. Table 3: 5 As Table 3 makes clear. economy’s compound annual growth rate over the period 2007 through 2010 was only 0. During the same period. in 2008-2009.62 trillion in 2007). private industry GDP in real terms remained lower than it had been in 2007 ($11. declined at an annual rate of 2-3%. the average annual growth rates for the entire period 2007-2010 are also provided in Table 3. economy as a whole. in 2007-2008.S. copyright industries and by the U. the trends in real GDP were even worse than for the economy as a whole. economy as a whole. the total copyright industries grew at annual rates of 2.07%. like the rest of the economy.S. For the periods 2007-2008 and 2009-2010.S.S.2% while the U. real U.S. the core copyright industries employed 5. core copyright industries.496. Even by 2010.0%) while the U. in real terms. but must be 2009-2010 2007-2010 3.10% 1. For the whole period of 2007-2010.63% Annual Growth Rate vided in Table 4.S. U.500 workers to 5. both the U.39% (2007-2008) and 4. gDp 2007-2008 Core Copyright Industries Total Copyright Industries U.100 workers in 2007.

093.852.30 2007 2008 $75. U.6 107.337.598.790 4.598 3.621. books and periodicals.S.6 129.02% to 9.176.20 1.252 9. Private Industry 4.02% 6 U.15 2007-2010 total priVate emploYmeNt (iN thoUSaNDS) 2007 Core Copyright Industries Total U.S.20 1.99% 2010 5.10 1.04% 2009 5.814. employees in 2010. 7 The definition of compensation used in this report tracks that used by the U.000 in 2007 to 129.S. For U.598.404.S. As shown in Table 5. Private Industry 10.097. average compensation earned by core copyright employees stood at $78. Tables & Calculators by Subject. average compensation in 2010 was $70.S. as in the past.8 Total Share of U.60 1.818 3.380 2008 5.127.093.S.320. This value was 27% higher than the average compensation paid to all U.10 1.30 $58.513.000 in 2007 to 107.41 Total U.18 ForeigN SaleS aND exportS — 2007-2010 In terms of foreign sales and exports.404.S.S.473.bls.000 from 137.2 107. total U. $57.S.89 $58. As shown in Table 6. 7 2007-2010 total emploYmeNt (iN thoUSaNDS) 2007 Core Copyright Industries 5.99% 2007 Total Copyright Industries 11.S.814.818.000 in 2010. about 15% higher than the U. Private Employment 11.79% 2008 114.337 9. the employ- ment declines were even greater.380.0 8.40% 2008 5.60 1.496.0 8.780.93% 2010 10.404.33 $59.678.S.000 in 2010.8 130.473.000.8 136. These core copyright industry Core Share of U.27 2009 $68.0 8.000 from 115.S.S.176. For all copyright industry workers.983.818. worker compensation includes both wage and salary accruals and supplements to wage and salary payments.097. Table 4: 6 In this report. Employment. economy as a whole.474.2 129.91% 11.96% 2009 10.1 115. 6 .1 Total U.474. Employment Core Share of U. DollarS) 2007 Core Copyright Industries $74.557.84 $61.807.29 2008 $68.8 114.S. employment.632.2 115. private industry.0 8. In these calculations. Table 6: For U.00% 2008 11.534.gov/data/#employment.678.91%.S. private industry employment fell by almost 7. average compensation per employee in both the core and total copyright industries increased.0%.807 3. Employment Total Share of U.20 1.000 in 2010. the motion picture and television industry.450.15 2010 $78. this Report examines four selected core copyright industry sectors – the sound recording industry.2 Total U.281 10. average. These data are shown in Table 6. 137.8 10. For the years 2007 through 2010. Bureau of Economic Analysis.27 2010 $70.000 in 2007 to 107.281 4.20 1.337.S. private employment fell by more than 8.015. Private employment in the United States fell from 115.39% 2009 5.1 130.252 4.18 Total U.8 136.632. Compensation Ratio: Total to U.8% share of all private employment while the total copyright industries’ share of private employment declined slightly from 10.512. the computer software industry and the nonsoftware publishing industries which include newspapers.S. Compensation Ratio: Core to U.S.16 2009 $76. 137.understood in the context of overall U.790.128 in 2010. private industry. During these years.380 2010 10.1 108. employment declines in the years 2007 through 2010 were even greater than for the U. available at http://www. Bureau of Labor Statistics. which declined by 7. Table 5: 2007-2010 CompeNSatioN per emploYee (U.27% 2010 5. we also present estimates of the total compensation paid to workers in the core and total copyright industries for the years 2007-2010.S.557.S.78% 2009 108. Private Employment 5. Databases.380.19% During the period 2007-2010.60 $59. which stood at $61.76% 2007 Total Copyright Industries Total U.496.S.337 4. the core copyright industries maintained a 4. $57.75% Total Copyright Industries $67.983.81 $61.S.S.

S.0 billion.4 Selected Copyright Industries In Table 8. power trains and engines were nearly $50 billion. In 2010. agricultural exports were approximately $60 billion. These sales figures compare favorably to Chemicals (excluding Pharmaceuticals & Medicines) Aircraft. By 2010.3%. while U.sectors continued to grow during the 2007-2010 time period.S.S. Economy: The 2011 Report.S. transmissions. Table 7: many industry sectors.4% 2009 -3.S. Annual growth rates for foreign sales and exports of these selected core copyright industries are provided in Table 7.S.S. foreign sales of pharmaceuticals and medicines were $36. iNtroDUCtioN This report. aircraft. Copyright Industries in the U. are compared with sales and/or exports of other U. in 2010. exceeding those for many major U. these selected copyright industry sectors alone generated non-U.4 billion. economy Employment in the copyright industries in the U. In 2010.S. As in previous years.S. workers. the U.0 $143.2 $51. For example. the foreign sales of these selected copyright industry sectors. Table 8 aNNUal groWth rate oF ForeigN SaleS aND exportS 2008 Growth Rate 4. As shown in Table 7. this study is presented in five sections: • • • • • The copyright industries Value added by the copyright industries to the U. copyright materials in world markets Conclusion 7 . and once again increased in 2010 by 3. sales of $134.4%. economy U. industries.8% Industry 2010 ForeigN SaleS aND exportS For SeleCteD iNDUStrieS (billioNS oF U.5 $49. is the thirteenth in a series issued over the last twenty-one years by Economists Incorporated on behalf of the International Intellectual Property Alliance (IIPA). automobiles.S. foreign sales and exports.S. foreign sales increased in 2008 by 4. industry sectors.S. representing only a portion of the core copyright industries. Finally. copyright industries have outpaced the rest of the economy in real growth.8%.1 billion.S. decreased in 2009 by 3. Auto Engines Agricultural Products Food and Kindred Products Pharmaceuticals & Medicines i.5 billion. and U.0%.S.S.3% 2010 3. foreign sales for these core copyright groups increased by nearly 4. This latest report confirms once again that the U. The copyright industries also continue to employ millions of workers whose compensation levels substantially exceed the average level of compensation paid to all U. DollarS) 2010 $134. copyright industries continue to contribute significantly to U. the U.8 $60. chemical industry (excluding pharmaceuticals and medicines) achieved somewhat higher foreign sales of $143.S. aircraft engines and parts were $77. Auto Trans & Power. reported exports of U. In the same year. Aircraft Engines and Parts Autos.9 $36.1 $77.

non-dedicated support industries. These industries include manufacturers. distribution. radio and television broadcasting. includes industries that distribute both copyright and noncopyright protected materials to business and consumers. Partial copyright industries are industries in which only some aspect or portion of the products that they create can qualify for copyright protection. manufacture. Examples here include transportation services. telecommunications. and copyright related. The fourth group involves the interdependent industries – those that produce. motion pictures. the CopYright iNDUStrieS In nine of our twelve prior economic reports on the copyright industries. production. ECONOMY 2010 (VALUE ADDED IN BILLIONS OF DOLLARS) Non-Dedicated Support $332. we divided the copyright industries into four groups: core. we relied upon the four copyright categories defined by WIPO: core. whose function is primarily to facilitate the creation. and sell equipment.82 Inter-Dependent $329. COPYRIGHT INDUSTRIES IN THE U.ii. but in order to conform to the international standard.” and “20032007” reports. non-dedicated support. We refer to the four groups together – core. These industries range from fabric to jewelry to furniture to toys and games. The core industries are those industries whose primary purpose is to create. and wholesale and retail trade. only a portion of the total value added by these industries is considered to be part of the copyright industries. distribute or exhibit copyright materials. and interdependent – as the “total” copyright industries.86 BILLION OR $1.626. In the “2004.627 TRILLION 8 . personal computers and usage dependent products including blank recording material and certain categories of paper. TV sets. we still used four categories. These industries include newspapers and periodicals. partial. and interdependent. The third group. produce. partial. partial. recorded music. and computer software. or use of works of copyrighted matter.42 TOTAL: $1. VCRs. these are the sectors we developed and defined in our first report issued in 1990. nondedicated support.73 Partial $32.89 Core $931. wholesalers and retailers of CD players.” “2006.S. As in past studies.

our current estimates of the value added for the core copyright industries in 2007.00 $1.600. we noted that timely estimates of the value added by individual industries were not generally available from government sources for many of the industries considered in these studies.04 billion in 2010.00 2007 2008 2009 2010 $904.00 $200. in the most recent studies.82 billion in 2010. For this reason.00 $600.72 $695.87 $900.34 $913.S.00 $0.00 $400. As a result. The sum of the value added of all industries in the United States is equal to gross domestic product (GDP).S. As shown in Chart 1.400. our prior estimates of copyright industry value added were derived by applying historical input-output factors to more current data on industry sales from both government and nongovernment sources. economy. 2008.95 $931. An additional benefit of using these data is that the BEA calculates both current dollar and constant dollar value added for the industry classifications that it analyzes.04 9 . Chart 1: COPYRIGHT INDUSTRIES VALUE ADDED (IN BILLIONS OF CURRENT DOLLARS) Core Copyright Industries Other Copyright Industries $1. value added calculations can be used to draw comparisons of the relative size and growth rates of different industries in a way that is consistent with the federal government’s national income and product accounting data. 2009.S.30 $679. By contrast. These data are also used to measure the contribution made by the copyright industries to the real annual growth achieved by the U. ValUe aDDeD bY the CopYright iNDUStrieS The most appropriate way to measure an industry’s contribution to the national economy is to measure the industry’s value added.82 $679. In this report.iii. Bureau of Economic Analysis (“BEA”) to derive the contributions made by the core and total copyright industries to the U.S.000. and 2010 increased from $904.200. a standard measure of the size of the U.00 $1.14 $661. economy as a whole.00 $1. Value added reflects the economic contribution of labor and capital of a particular industry. The estimated value added for the other (non-core) copyright industries rose from $679. economy. In our past reports.00 $800. we make direct use of the industry-specific value added estimates produced by the U. the constant dollar value added figures are used to derive estimates of the real growth rates achieved by the core and total copyright industries on a year by year basis.34 billion in 2007 to $931.30 billion in 2007 to $695.

GDP 12. since 2007 the core and the total copyright industries have tended to grow moderately faster than the real annual rate of growth experienced for the U. and 2009-2010.S. economy for the years 2007 through 2010. Chart 2: COPYRIGHT INDUSTRIES SHARE OF CURRENT DOLLAR GDP Core Share of U.00% 4. As Chart 3 demonstrates. the total copyright industries current dollar share of U.S.00% 2.26% 11. Similarly.63% Core Copyright Industries Total Copyright Industries U.S. retracted at rates of -2.43% 6.00% 2007 2008 2009 2010 6. The core copyright industries’ current dollar share of the U. Chart 3: REAL ANNUAL GROWTH RATES COPYRIGHT INDUSTRIES AND U. total copyright. and the U.00% -2. GDP as a whole.S.36% 11.07% -2.07%.00% -4.07% -3. respectively.39% in 2007-2008 and 4.S. the real growth rates achieved by the U.00% 1.00% 0.85% in 2009-2010.43% in 2007.0% in 2007-2008 and 2. economy as a whole were 0. -3.26% in 2007. 2008-2009.00% 6. GDP Total Share of U.20% 2.00% 3.S.00% 2.S.00% 3. we now estimate that the core copyright industries’ current dollar share of the U.00% -1.07% 11.85% 2009-2010 5.The copyright industries’ current dollar share of the U.00% -2.38% 6. core copyright.63%.00% 4.00% 10.S. economy has remained at approximately 6. the total copyright industries grew at a rate of 2.S.00% -3. economy reached 6.S. On the basis of the methodology described above. As shown in Chart 3. GDP 2007-2008 2008-2009 4.00% 8. We also report the real growth rate achieved by the U. GDP 10 . economy is provided in Chart 2.36% 6.4% of the U. and -2. peaking at 11.1%. economy as a whole.00% 0. we report the real (constant dollar) annual growth rates experienced by the copyright industries during the periods 2007-2008.10% In Chart 3. By contrast.44% 0.09% 11.S. During the same years.20% in 2009-2010. GDP remained at about 11.07%.39% 2. the core copyright industries grew in excess of 3% in 2007-2008 and 2009-2010.S.S.05% 3. economy as a whole. In 2009.

the average annual compensation per worker was $78.S. as a whole.320 in the total copyright industries. As in the past. In the same year. workers was only $57. economy.000 10. 11 5.496. particularly in the printing sector. In 2010. a decrease of 924. COPYRIGHT INDUSTRY EMPLOYMENT (IN THOUSANDS) Core Copyright Industries Total Copyright Industries 14. The total number of workers in the core copyright industries consistently decreased from 2007 to 2010. “compensation” means “wages and salary accruals and supplements to wages and salary accruals.000 12.093.473. the total copyright industries employed 10. In these calculations. a year-on-year decrease of 78. because U. and 2010.S.632. certain component industries. Chart 4: U. we estimate the number of workers employed in the core and total copyright industries for the years 2007-2010. 9 See U. Total employment in the total copyright industries decreased in 2008 and in all subsequent years through 2010.632 million workers. 8 In 2010.S. However. By 2010.htm. in 2007.097. in 2010. In 2007.2 8. By contrast. while the total copyright share of employment slightly decreased from 8.bea. Glossary Index.000 5.404.1 2007 2008 2009 As shown in Chart 4.8 6.513 in the total copyright industries. workers was only $61. the actual employee counts by NAICS code were extracted from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (“BLS”) data base.450 in the core copyright industries and $67.474. total employment also fell.000 0 10. emploYmeNt iN the CopYright iNDUStrieS In this report. however.6 2010 .000 2.2%. the average annual compensation per worker was $74. the total number of workers employed in the core copyright industries was 5. Within the core.” As reported in Chart 5. the average annual compensation for all U.176. the core copyright industries have consistently been able to add jobs to the U.2 11. 2009.8 10.S. The procedures used to derive our estimates of employment in this report were largely based on the formulas derived in the earlier reports. the total copyright industries employed 11. the average annual compensation for all U.S.128 in the core copyright industries and $70.1 4.000 5. In this report. Bureau of Economic Analysis.S.4% to 8.000 11. employee counts were derived so that the counts would be consistent in both the NAICS and ISIC classification systems.814. the core copyright share of employment stayed right under 4%. available at http://www. as in the past. In those reports.8 5.5 thousand and a decrease of 398.5 thousand from 2007. the core copyright industries employed 5.557 million workers. we also quantify the average compensation per employee received by workers in the copyright industries and in the U.557. The compensation “premium” paid to workers in the copyright industries continued through 2008.iV.496 million workers in 2007.” These supplements include “employer contributions for employee pensions and insurance funds and employer contributions for government social insurance. 9 8 As a whole.S.9 thousand employees over the 2007 totals.098 million. have experienced declines in employment since the late 1990s.gov/glossary/glossary_c.

20 1.20 $78.81 2010 $40.000 $20. Compensation Core Copyright Industries Total Copyright Industries $100.S.093.18 $67.S.30 1.60 $61. In other words.27 1.05 1. For total copyright employees.35 1. (All Employees) 1.33 $68. the average compensation paid to employees in the core and total copyright industries is compared to the average compensation paid to all workers in the United States.621.000 $57.983.S.404. core copyright employees on average received 27% more compensation than the average U.30 $59. COPYRIGHT INDUSTRY COMPENSATION PER EMPLOYEE Total U.20 $75.320.16 1.S. the compensation premium has generally been in the range of 25-30%.84 The compensation premium paid to copyright industry employees can also be illustrated by ratio.450.10 1.512. EMPLOYEES Ratio: Core Copyright Compensation to U.Chart 5: U. Chart 6a: U.15 1.89 $68.15 2007 2008 2009 2010 12 .000 $80.60 $76.25 1. the compensation premium was right at 27%.S.000 $0 2007 2008 2009 $70.534.10 $74. in 2010.27 1.000 $60.678.29 1.852.18 1.015.127.S. (All Employees) Ratio: Total Copyright Compensation to U.30 1. COPYRIGHT INDUSTRY RATIOS COMPARED TO ALL U.41 $58.S. For core copyright employees.15 1. worker while total copyright industry employees received about 15% more compensation. In Chart 6a. the compensation premium in 2010 was 15%. and in 2010.

efforts have been undertaken to improve the scope of the copyright product export statistics that are gathered in government surveys.10 1.33 1. However.Copyright industry workers are also paid more than the average U. Census Bureau.0. and in 2010.20 2007 2008 2009 2010 V. (Private Employees) 1. As shown in Chart 6b.S. Similarly. Estimated Export Revenue for Employer Firms: 1998 through 2004. this “compensation premium” was right at 33%.S. in either case. (Private Employees) Ratio: Total Copyright Compensation to U.S.3. markets continue to demand products that embody American creativity.S.S. we believe that the U.15 1. As noted in prior reports on these industries.S. laws.35 1. We recognize that.33 1.33 1.S. U.S. private industry employees.25 1. the U. the creative components of those products are nurtured by the protection afforded under U.40 1.30 1. the compensation paid to workers in the core copyright industries has generally been about 33-35% higher than the average compensation paid to U.S. worker in private industry. Information Sector Services (NAICS 51). private industry employees as a whole.22 1. or in foreign markets but.” for a number of the copyright industries including the motion picture industry and the sound recording industry.35 1. CopYright materialS iN WorlD marKetS Consumers in non-U. Chart 6b: U.S.20 1.S. 13 .S. Census Bureau now reports “Estimated Export Revenue for Employer Firms. government’s statistics on “exports” of copyright products generally fail to accurately measure the true value of American copyright works sold abroad. this “compensation premium” was at 20%.S. and in 2010. For example.20 1. in recent years. EMPLOYEES Ratio: Core Copyright Compensation to U.S. COPYRIGHT INDUSTRY RATIOS COMPARED TO PRIVATE U. the compensation paid to workers in the total copyright industries has generally been about 21% higher than the average compensation paid to U. Table 3.21 1. these statistics are dwarfed by the actual foreign market sales figures collected by the industries themselves. 10 10 See U. Copyright products that are sold abroad may be manufactured in the U.

Periodicals Pre-Recorded Records.S.00 2007 2008 2009 2010 11 In this report. Books. As reported in Table 8.S. Census Bureau. we report total foreign sales for the “selected” core copyright industries of $127. and the non-software publishing industries which include newspapers. we again provide estimates of foreign sales and exports for four selected core copyright industries during the years 2007 through 2010. etc. copyright industry sales in foreign markets significantly exceed foreign exports of the following U. U. the computer software industry. For these years.00 $40.00 $0.00 $20. CDs.00 $120. These core industries are: the sound recording industry. Video Newspapers.00 $100. these estimates are disaggregated as among the four copyright industries studied. and pharmaceuticals and medicines.00 $60. 14 .9 billion in 2007. industries: aircraft including aircraft engines and parts. books and periodicals. Export statistics by industry were identified by NAICS code. Table A.00 $80.1 billion in 2009. The underlying figures by industry are also provided in Appendix A. Computer Software $140.S. $133. Tapes.As in past reports. 11 Chart 7: ESTIMATED REVENUES GENERATED BY FOREIGN SALES/EXPORTS OF SELECTED U. the motion picture and television industry.5 billion in 2008. the foreign sales/exports of the core copyright industries remain significantly larger than the exports of other major industry sectors. In Chart 7. As noted earlier in this report. CORE COPYRIGHT INDUSTRIES (BILLIONS OF DOLLARS) Motion Pictures. agricultural products.5.S. automobiles including gasoline engines and parts. transmissions and power trains. TV. and $134. $129. food and kindred products. exports by industry were taken from the International Trade Statistics “Censtats” data base at the U.0 billion in 2010.

CoNClUSioN The U. the copyright industries continue to play an increasingly prominent role in the growth of U. agricultural products.S.36% of U.8 billion.626. Sales of U. These consistently positive trends solidify the status of the copyright industries as a key engine of growth for the U. and global markets. As new technologies support the development of new distribution methods for legitimate copyrighted products. In 2007.S. 15 . the U.S. workers by 27%.S. copyright products continue to expand in overseas markets. We estimate that total core copyright sales in foreign markets were nearly $128 billion in 2007 and amounted to $134 billion in 2010. will continue to pave the way for economic growth in both the U.S. the compensation paid to U. the value added by the core copyright industries was $931. the real annual growth rates achieved by both the core and total copyright industries tended to be higher than the growth rates exhibited by the U. GDP.S. copyright-based industries represented in the IIPA remain optimistic that economic growth.S.S. in terms of their real annual growth rates and their contributions to the growth of the U.S.S. As of 2010. core copyright industries now employ nearly 5.Vi.S.S. combined with strong laws and effective enforcement. Value added in the copyright industries continues to grow. and pharmaceuticals.10% of GDP. 2008. Finally. copyright industries have consistently outperformed the rest of the U. exports. These industries also constitute a large share of the U.1 million workers while some 10. economy as a whole. workers as a whole. The U. workers. In the same years. The annual compensation paid to core copyright workers exceeds the average annual compensation paid to all U. workers in the copyright industries consistently and substantially exceeds the average compensation level paid to U. economy. approximately 6. economy as a whole.S. food. value added for the total copyright industries stood at $1. In addition.6 million people are employed by the total copyright industries. automobiles. industries including aircraft. 2009.S. gross domestic product and they employ millions of U. The foreign sales of the copyright industries significantly exceed foreign sales of other U.S.S. average by 15%.S.9 billion or 11. The average compensation paid to employees of the total copyright industries exceeds the U. as a whole. and 2010.S.

20 2009-2010 3.86 $14.46 $13.05% 2008 $913.60 2008-2009 -3.43% 2007 rev.80 6.44% 2.660.10 6. $1. GDP (BILLIONS OF DOLLARS) Nominal Value added Core U.00 11.119.38% 2009 $897.666.562.S.228.05% 0.S.00% 2009 $900.07% -2. $931.39% 0.1 CORE COPYRIGHT VALUE ADDED AND CONTRIBUTION TO GROWTH IN U.80 2007-2008 2.S.S. gDp Compound annual growth rates Core U.36% 2008 $925.01 $14.21 $12. gDp 2007 rev. gDp Share real Value added (billions of 2005 dollars) Core U.09 $13.2 TOTAL COPYRIGHT VALUE ADDED AND CONTRIBUTION TO GROWTH IN U.96 $13. $1.34 $14.248. gDp Compound annual growth rates total Copyright U.S.10% 2010 est. gDp annual growth in real Va total Copyright U.228.061.369.660.07% 2009 $1.57 $12.appeNDix a: tableS oF StatiStiCS Table A.10 11.S.36% 2010 est. $898.228.26% 2007 rev.880.63% 2010 est. gDp Share real Value added (billions of 2005 dollars) total Copyright U.583.58 $13.47% 0.10% 0. $928.599.67 $14.05% 2008 $1.061.09% 2008 $1.82 $14.80 2007-2008 3.20% 2.07% -2.80 11.S.119.S.20 2009-2010 4. $1. gDp 2007 rev.40 11.594.248.85% 16 .64 $14.63% 2010 est.626. gDp annual growth in real Va Core U. GDP (BILLIONS OF DOLLARS) Nominal Value added total Copyright U.42 $13.40 6.S.880.S.633.87 $14.369.60 2008-2009 -2.96 $13.00% 2009 $1.85% Table A.95 $14.90 2006-2007 N/A N/A 2007-2010 1.90 2006-2007 N/A N/A 2007-2010 1. $904.00 6.593.228. $1.

20 1.52 $23.852.678.10 $55.57 $6.20 $58.127.60 $57.S. employment (in thousands) total Copyright Share of U. Compensation (per employee) average private U.337.983.60 $5.404.18 $57. Video Computer Software Newspapers.21 2009 $76.86 $5.60 $57.05 $134.15 1.Table A.474.S. Compensation (per employee) ratio: Core Copyright Compensation to U.S. motion pictures. tV.1 2010 $6.48 $23.27 1.0 3.81 $61.S.18 1.097.0 107.11 $4.0 107.33 2008 $68.0 3.30 1.512.598.24 $96. $74.8 130.S.35 2007 rev.093. $67.0 8.91% Table A.20 Table A. 11.62 $22. 2007 rev. ratio: total Copyright Compensation to private U.176.678.4 U. tapes.873.450.25 $94.99% 4. employment (in thousands) total private U.39% 10.0 108.S.78 $127.14 $133.20 $58.90 1.9 2008 $7. CORE COPYRIGHT INDUSTRIES (BILLIONS OF DOLLARS) industry pre-recorded records. 2007 rev.S.60 $59.632.04% 2009 5. employment (in thousands) Core Copyright Share of U.19% 9.20 1.252.40% 10. Compensation (per employee) average private U.2 137.10 $55.89 $98.156.30 $58.S.790.16 1.S. etc.20 2010 $78.89 $58.598.983.29 1.380.90 1.814.0 3.0 115.0 4.281. total Copyright total Copyright employment (in thousands) total U.2 129.496.50 1.75% 2010 10.8 136.320.93% 4.0 17 .473. total Copyright total Copyright Compensation (per employee) average U.00% 4.098.5 2009 $6.33 2010 $70. 5.S.15 1.S. ratio: Core Copyright Compensation to private U.97 $23.093.76% 2007 rev.0 8.0 115.41 $57.62 $91. books.3 U.782. total Copyright Share of private U.22 2008 $75.015.1 137.20 $56.380.02% 2008 5.782. Compensation (per employee) ratio: total Copyright Compensation to U.252.0 114.6 129.098. Core Copyright Share of private U.807.557.79 $129.79% 2008 11.30 1.S.84 $61.534.78% 2009 10.5 2007-2010 REVENUE GENERATED BY FOREIGN SALES/EXPORTS OF SELECTED U.8 136.S.S. employment (in thousands) total private U.S.337.33 2009 $68.790.33 $59.0 114.281.818. periodicals total for Selected industries 2007 $7. CDs. COPYRIGHT INDUSTRY EMPLOYMENT Core Copyright Core Copyright employment (in thousands) total U.156.27% 9.873.0 108.50 1.99% 2010 5.621.818.404.1 130.S.30 1.27 1.S.0 8.0 8.S.96% 4.S.807.20 $56. COPYRIGHT INDUSTRY COMPENSATION PER EMPLOYEE Core Copyright Core Copyright Compensation (per employee) average U.

62 trillion in 2007).380.S.369. The declines in U.S.807.0%.2 2. and employment. 18 . private industry employment annual % Change 137. industries experienced flat or declining sales and employment during these years. the U.Current U.228. Subject Areas: Overview of BLS Statistics on Employment. in 2010.bls. value added.S.520. 13 U.6 -2.790. available at http://data.598. Bureau of Labor Statistics. real GDP declined by 2.6 -3.59% 114.76% 107. the U. However.061.197.660.67% in 2008 and by another 3.337. In 2009.880. private industry.S. eCoNomY: 2007-2010 During the period 2008 through 2010 and continuing into 2011.88% As shown in Table B.S.67% 2009 $14.52 trillion in 2010 and $11.119.63% 2009 $12.85%.2. gDp – real (2005) Dollars annual % Change in real gDp U. Table B.8 -0. the performance of the U. Private employment in the United States fell from 115.28% 2010 129. private industry employment fell by almost 7.S.380.S.gov/bls/employment. However.228. U.0 N/A 2008 136.0 -4.02% in 2009.248.2 2007-2010 UNITED STATES TOTAL AND PRIVATE INDUSTRY EMPLOYMENT (THOUSANDS) 2007 U.37% 108. copyright industries during the same period. economy experienced a nearly unprecedented decline in output.196. private industry gDp – real annual % Change in real gDp $14.85% 2010 $12.7%.0 -0.696. The harmful effects of the recession in 2008-2009 were widespread and most U. Real private industry GDP fell by 0.95% 2009 130.0 -0. the U.S. 337. GDP increased by For U. Table B. copyright industries during these troubled years did not match the copyright industries’ achievements in years past.000 to 129.4 $13.5 $11.0 -5.S. private industry GDP in real terms remained lower than it had been in 2007 ($11. BEA. the U.S.S.85% Employment trends for the U.1 $13. employment declined from 137.514. Even by 2010. gDp – Current Dollars U.S. the employment declines were even greater.281.1 2007-2010 UNITED STATES TOTAL AND PRIVATE INDUSTRY GDP 2007 U.3 -0. By 2010.623.appeNDix b: ValUe aDDeD aND emploYmeNt treNDS iN the U.htm.5 $11. total U.301.0 -0.01% 2008 $12. copyright industries were able to outperform the U.1. GDP and employment since 2007 provide a useful context for assessing the economic contributions made by the U. For the years 2007 through 2010.000 in 2007 to 107.818. Department of Labor. 12 Real GDP in 2008 was virtually identical to real GDP in 2007.S.S. Annual Industry Accounts.S. supra note 4.598. private industry gDp .S.S. As shown in the body of this report.252.S. 13 12 See U. real U.5 2.000 in 2010.0 $11.63%.818.0 $12.S. For the period 2007-2010.0 -0. private industry. a drop of nearly 5. Non-Farm employment annual % Change U.6 N/A 2008 $14.546. gross domestic product has been essentially flat (in real terms) since 2007. economy had begun to improve somewhat from its low point in 2009.S.S. the trends in real GDP were even worse than for the economy as a whole.8 $13.0 N/A 115. 2.S.S. even during this recession. economy as measured by a subset of the metrics developed in this report.S.S. U. economy as a whole are shown in Table B.000.02% 2010 $14.9 $11.9 N/A 2007 $12. For U.

S.com/media/archives/5727.S. WIPO Publication No. U.pdf. Datamonitor. June 23. Subject Areas: Overview of BLS Statistics on Employment. Glossary Index.gov/glossary/glossary.S. available at http://www. available at http://www2. Eighth Annual BSA and IDC Global Software Piracy Study. 893(E).bls.bea. Information Sector Services (NAICS 51). 2009.thtml.gov/bls/employment. Information Age. Global Software Market Will Grow by 8.S. ISBN 92-805-1225-7. available at http://data. U. Business Software Alliance and IDC Global Software. Guide on Surveying the Economic Contribution of the Copyright-Based Industries. and Osborne. January 2010.census. July 5. Bureau of Labor Statisticsw. Gilmore.S. available at http://www2. Department of Labor. U. Census Bureau. U.S.org/globalpiracy2010/. International Trade Statistics. February 2011. Recording Industry in Numbers – 2011. GDPbyInd VA NAICS. 2011. and 2010.S.gov/services/sas/data/Historical/sas-09. Department of Commerce.informationage. Survey of Current Business.bsa. T. gov/services/sas/data/Historical/sas-08.census.. U. U. Census Bureau. International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI). Department of Commerce. Department of Commerce. available at http://www2.S. March 2008. U. S. E. May 2011.S.S.S. Department of Commerce. 2008 Service Annual Survey. U. 2007.pdf. U. available at http://about.. U. Aerospace Industries Association (AIA). Census Bureau.htm. 2010. 19 .pdf.2% in 2011 to Hit $267 Billion. Department of Commerce. available at http://www.com/channels/information-management/perspectives-and-trends/1635088/information-management-driving-globalsoftware-market.S.appeNDix C: liSt oF reFereNCeS U. Annual Industry Accounts – Advanced Statistics on GDP by Industry. gov/services/sas/data/Historical/sas-07. Bureau of Economic Analysis. 2011. 2009 Service Annual Survey.S. World Intellectual Property Organization. 2007 Service Annual Survey. “Censtats” Data Base. U. Morgan. Bureau of Economic Analysis. 2008. available at http://portal. Information Management Driving Global Software Market.S. Census Bureau. U. Gross Domestic Product-by-Industry Accounts. Department of Commerce. U. datamonitor.cfm. Aerospace Foreign Trade – Export Activity. Census Bureau.census.

.

T F O R 8 8 T E T N 8H L O WA HN T N D 2 0 6 S IG O ..i g o yi tn ute i h USEo o : h 2 1 R p r C p r h Id sr snte .5 . W.9 0 A : 0 .cn my T e 0 1 e ot ® Itrain l tlcu lrp r Alne (P ® nen t aI el taPo et la c® IA) o n e y i I 1 1 NS R E .O I AC M I I N9 806 55 0 50 S B 7 --1 -6 2 - .P .8 9 WE : B WWW. C 0 3 U IE S A E O A RC N T D T T S F ME IA T L 2 23 57 0 F X 2 23 57 9 E : 0 .5 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful