# Source: HANDBOOK OF MACHINING AND METALWORKING CALCULATIONS

CHAPTER 2

MENSURATION OF PLANE AND SOLID FIGURES

2.1 MENSURATION

Mensuration is the mathematical name for calculating the areas, volumes, length of sides, and other geometric parts of standard geometric shapes such as circles, spheres, polygons, prisms, cylinders, cones, etc., through the use of mathematical equations or formulas. Included here are the most frequently used and important mensuration formulas for the common geometric figures, both plane and solid. (See Figs. 2.1 through 2.36.) Symbols A a, b, etc. A, B, C h L r n C V S

area sides angles height perpendicular to base b length of side or edge radius number of sides circumference volume surface area

A=

1 bh 2

FIGURE 2.1 Oblique triangle.

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digitalengineeringlibrary.MENSURATION OF PLANE AND SOLID FIGURES 2.
A = bh
FIGURE 2.6 Trapezoid. All rights reserved.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.
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.2
CHAPTER TWO
A= A=
1 ab sin C 2
s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c)
1 (a + b + c) 2
where s =
FIGURE 2. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
A=
1 (a + b)h 2
FIGURE 2.5 Rhombus.3 Rectangle.
A = ab
FIGURE 2.4 Parallelogram.2 Oblique triangle.
A=
1 cd 2
FIGURE 2.

MENSURATION OF PLANE AND SOLID FIGURES
MENSURATION OF PLANE AND SOLID FIGURES
2.
.73205L2 0.7 Polyhedra.
A=
(H + h)a + bh + cH 2
FIGURE 2.46410L2 0.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.9 Regular polygon.
In any triangle. the radius of the circumscribed circle is: abc r= 4 s (s − a)(s − b)(s − c) where s = 1 (a + b + c) 2
FIGURE 2.
The radius of a circle inscribed in any triangle whose sides are a. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.3
Surfaces and Volumes of Polyhedra: (Where L = leg or edge) Polyhedron Surface Volume Tetrahedron 1. c is: s (s − a)(s − b)(s − c) s 1 where s = (a + b + c) 2 r=
FIGURE 2. 2 n L 180 csc 2 n
The radius of the circumscribed circle is: r1 =
FIGURE 2.11785L3 Hexahedron 6L2 1L3 Octahedron 3.
In a polygon of n sides of L.digitalengineeringlibrary.8 Trapezium.10 Inscribed circle. the radius of the inscribed circle is: r= L 180 cot .11 Circumscribed circle.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.47140L3
FIGURE 2. b. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.
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.15 Circle—area.14 Circle—circumference.
A = πr 2 =
1 2 πd 4
FIGURE 2.
C = 2πr = πd
FIGURE 2.digitalengineeringlibrary.MENSURATION OF PLANE AND SOLID FIGURES 2.4
CHAPTER TWO
Area of an inscribed polygon is: A= 2π 1 2 nr sin 2 n
where r = radius of circumscribed circle n = number of sides
FIGURE 2. All rights reserved.12 Inscribed polygon.13 Circumscribed polygon.
Area of a circumscribed polygon is: A = nr 2 tan π n
where r = radius of inscribed circle n = number of sides
FIGURE 2.

16 Length of arc.5
Length of arc L: L= πrφ 180 (when φ is in degrees)
L = πφ (when φ is in radians)
FIGURE 2.
.
x r
Area of the ring between circles.
Area of segment of a circle: πr 2φ r2 sinφ A= − 360 2 where: φ = 180° − 2 arcsin If φ is in radians: 1 A = r 2 (φ − sinφ) 2
FIGURE 2.18 Segment of a circle.
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Length of chord: 1 AB = 2r sin φ 2 Area of the sector: πr 2φ rL A= = 360 2 where L = length of the arc
FIGURE 2.MENSURATION OF PLANE AND SOLID FIGURES
MENSURATION OF PLANE AND SOLID FIGURES
2.19 Ring.17 Chord and sector.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Circles need not be concentric: A = π(R + r)(R − r)
FIGURE 2. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

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Surface and volume of a cylinder: S = 2πrh V = πr 2h
FIGURE 2.
Surface and volume of a cone: S = πr r2 + h2 V= π 2 rh 3
FIGURE 2.6
CHAPTER TWO
Circumference and area of an ellipse (approximate): C = 2π Area: A = πab
FIGURE 2.
a2 + b2 2
Volume of a pyramid: V= 1 × area of base × h 3
where h = altitude
FIGURE 2.23 Cylinder.22 Sphere.MENSURATION OF PLANE AND SOLID FIGURES 2.21 Pyramid.
.24 Cone.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.digitalengineeringlibrary.20 Ellipse.
Surface and volume of a sphere: S = 4πr2 = πd2 V= 4 3 1 πr = πd 3 3 6
FIGURE 2.

Area and volume of a truncated cylinder: A = πr (h1 + h2) V= π 2 r (h1 + h2) 2
FIGURE 2. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
Area and volume of a spherical wedge: A= V=
FIGURE 2.
Area and volume of a curved surface of a spherical segment: π h2 A = 2πrh V = (3r − h)
Surface area and volume of a frustum of a cone: S = π (r1 + r2) V= h 2 + (r1 − r2)2
h 2 (r1 + r1r2 + r 2)π 2 3
FIGURE 2. All rights reserved.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.7
3 When a is radius of base of segment: πh 2 V= (h + 3a 2) 4
FIGURE 2.26 Frustum of a cone.MENSURATION OF PLANE AND SOLID FIGURES
MENSURATION OF PLANE AND SOLID FIGURES
2.
φ 4πr 2 360 4πr 3 φ ⋅ 3 360
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.27 Truncated cylinder.28 Spherical zone.
.
Area and volume of a spherical zone: A = 2πrh V= π 3c 2 3c 2 1 2 h + + h2 4 4 6
FIGURE 2.29 Spherical wedge.25 Spherical segment.

Area and volume of a torus: A = 4π 2cr (total surface) V = 2π 2cr2 (total volume)
FIGURE 2.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.31 Spherical sector.MENSURATION OF PLANE AND SOLID FIGURES 2.
. All rights reserved.32 Spherical segment.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.30 Paraboloid.33 Torus.8
CHAPTER TWO
Volume of a paraboloid: V= πr 2h 2
FIGURE 2.
Area and volume of a spherical sector (yields total area): c A = πr 2h + 2 2πr 2h V= c = 2 h(2r − h) 3
FIGURE 2.
Area and volume of a spherical segment: A = 2πrh c2 Spherical surface = π + h2 4 c 2 + 4h2 c = 2 h(2r − h) r = 8h h V = πh2 r − 3
FIGURE 2.

36 Wedge.digitalengineeringlibrary.34 Portion of a cylinder.
Area and volume of a portion of a cylinder (special cases): A= h(ad ± c × perimeter of base) r±c h V= 2 3 a ± cA 3 r±c
where d = diameter of base circle
FIGURE 2.MENSURATION OF PLANE AND SOLID FIGURES
MENSURATION OF PLANE AND SOLID FIGURES
2. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
Volume of a wedge V= (2b + c)ah 6
FIGURE 2.9
Area and volume of a portion of a cylinder (base edge = diameter): A = 2rh V = 2 2 rh 3
FIGURE 2. Use +c when base area is larger than half the base circle.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. use −c when base area is smaller than half the base circle. Note.
.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.35 Special case of a cylinder.

digitalengineeringlibrary. 2.2 PROPERTIES OF THE CIRCLE
See Fig. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.
FIGURE 2.37.10
CHAPTER TWO
2.
. All rights reserved.MENSURATION OF PLANE AND SOLID FIGURES 2.37 Properties of the circle
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